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Sw Su McGraw Hill Education RYT) COMPLETE male s(en eC: we Lea For details log on to MeGraw Hill Education (india) Private Limited Published by MoGraw Hil Education (India) Private Limite, -24, Green Park Extension, New Delhi 110 016 Complete Physies—JEE, Main Copyright © 2013, MeGraw Hill Edueation (India) Private Limited, No par of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any recording, or otherwise a stored in database or retrieval system without the prior writen permission ofthe publishers. The program listings ifany) may be entered, stored and executed ina computer system, but hey may not be reproduced for publication. 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However, neither McGraw Hill Education India) nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither MeGraw Hill Edueation (Inia) nor its authors shal be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published withthe understanding tht McGraw Hill Education (india) and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or ater professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought “Typeset at Script Makers, 19, AI-B, DDA Masket, Paschim Viat, New Delhi 110.063, and text and cover priatedat Rajkamal Eletic ross, Plat No 2, Phase TV, HSHIDC, Kundli Sonepat, Haryana - 131028 Cover Designer: K Anoop DCALCRCODZOAC Contents re 13 uM 15, 16. 17. 18, 1. 20, 24 A Word to the Reader About JEE Main Syllabus Physics and Measurement . Kinematies - Laws of Motion Work, Energy and Power Rotational Motion 5. Gravitation . Solids and Fluids 3. Heat and Thermodynamics . Kinetic Theory of Gases 10. Oscillations and Waves Blectrostaties Current Electricity Magnetic Effeets of Current and Magn Electromagnetic Induction and Altemating Currents Blectromagnetie Waves Ray Opties Wave Optics Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation ‘Atoms and Nuclei Electronic Deviees ‘Communication Systems Practice Test Paper-t Practice Test Paper- Practice Test Paper-I1 Practice Test Paper-IV Practice Test Paper-V 212.54 3.13.66 41-442 51-552 66M 7.4-7.60 8.18.52 9.9.12 1o.1-10.74 M111 58 ss 131-1342 14.1-14.46 5.8 16.1-16.42 15. 17.1-17.26 181-1822 19.1-19.28 20.1-20.30 Pips P10-PA8 P19-P29 P30-P4l PAD-P52 i yee Mau @ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 1. The Si system of Units ‘The internationally accepted standard units of the funds ‘mental physical quantities are given in Table 1.1 Table 1.1. Fundamenal S1niss Physical Quantity ‘Symnbor Length m Mass kilogram ke Time second ‘ hectic euerent ampere a ‘Temperature kelvin K Luminous intensity candela od ‘Amount of substance mole mol Angle in «plane radian rad Solid angle steradian s 2. Dimensions of Physical Quantities The dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to which the fundamental units of mass (M), length (L) and time (T) must he raised to represent the unit of that quan- tity. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity is an expression that tells us how and which of the fundamental quantities enter into the unit of that quantity. In mechanics, the dimensional formula is writen in terms of the dimensions of mass, length and time (M, L tnd 7). In heat and thermodynamics, in addition to M, L. and T, we need to mention the dimension of temperature in kelvin (K), In electricity and magnetism, in addition 10 M, Land T, we need to mention the dimension of eurrent or charge per unit time (A or QT") Example 1 Find the dimensional formula of (a) veloe- ity, (b) acceleration, (¢) foree, (A) work, (e) energy and (D pressure. Solution distance _ dx (2) Velocity (¢)= Ssanee = & - ILI time dt =(LT = LT} eration (@) = 22 = MOLT (6) Acceleration (a)= FF = NS (©) Fores (F) = ma=[M] x [M°LT (@) Work (1) = Fx= [MLT?] x{L]=[MLT?] (6) Enerey = work = [M L217] [uur ita ‘Table 1.2 gives the dimensional formulae of some im- portant physical quantities. (8 Pressure IMT?) 3. Princi ‘of Homogeneity of Dimensions Consider a simple equation, A+B=C, I-this is an equation of Physies, i. if 4, B and C are physical quantities, then this equation says that one physi- cal quantity A, when added to another physical quantity B, gives a third physical quamtity C, This equation will have rao meaning in Physics if the nature (ie. the dimensions) of the quantities on the left-hand side of the equation is not the same as the nature of the quantity on the right-hand side. For example, if 4 isa length, B must also be a length and the result of addition of 4 and B must express length, In other words, the dimensions of both sides of a physical equation must be identical. Ths is called the principle of homogeneity of dimensions 12 Complete Physics JEE Mam Table 1.2 Dimensional Formulae of some Physical Qua Physical Qvantny Diinensonal Forma Physical Quantity ‘Arca Met? eat eneray Volume Mit’ Eniropy Density ML Specific heat Velocity mer! Latent heat Aveeeration| weir? ‘Molar specific heat ‘Momentum ur! “Thermal conductivity Angular momentum MT Wien's constant Force ur? Stan's constant Eneray, work MET? Boltamann’s constant MET?K! Power MutT “Molar gas constant MUTA mot! “Torque, couple MET? lecre charge Tord Impulse Mur! lect curren ‘AorQr! Frequency Mur! lesre potential, MIT 7071 orMLT A Angular Fequeney wer! lect feld Mur?! orMET A Angular acceleration wr? Capacitance MeL rtas orML?T°Q* Pressure Inductance MeTQ? orMLT#A* laste moduli Mitr? Resistance MT! orMLT Suess Magnetic ux MET IQ" orML?T2A" ‘Moment of inertia utr" Magnetic fax density or METIg! Magnetic induction fed orMLOT 2A Surface tension Permeabiity MLQ™ or MLT-7A* Viscosity Permitivity ML Tg? orm TA? Gravitational constant Planck's constant Mert Example2 The distance v traveled by a body varies with time fas x =at+bP, whore a and b are constants, Find the dimensions of a and &, Solution The dimensions of each term on the right hand of the given equation must be the same as those of the left hand side, Hence Dimensions of a= dimensions of x fd) am Dimensions of he? = dimensions of x or la LT =—MPLT or (LT 7] =[M°LT 7) Example 3 The pressure P, volume V’and temperature Tof a gas are related us (r+ where a, b, and ¢ are constants. Find the dimensions of = 5 Jw) =er Solution Dimensions of 4 = dimensions of P v Dimensions of « = dimensions of PY Also. dimensions of b = dimensions of F Physics and Measiroment 1.3 + Dimensions of & [Pry = [MET] x(L4] =(IMLT 1, Trigonomettie funetion (sin, 60s, tan, cot ete) are dimensionless. The arguments ofthese functions are als dimensionless 2. Exponential functions are dimensionless. Their expo- nents are also dimensionless Example 4 When a plane wave travels in a medium, the displacement y ofa particle located at xa ime ris given by y= asin(br+ ex) where a, band ¢ are constant. Find the dimensions of © Solution Terms brand ex must he dimensionless, Hence Ie ay Oe Gq ia ll AP a [F]=wraewrery and wy ‘Note thatthe dimensions of «are the same as those of Example In the expression P P is pressure, x isa distance and a and b are constants, Find the dimensional formula for souion [2] 10 Also ax is dimensionless. Hence fa] = [L~' TL yt iy pat ET ‘The principle of homogeneity of dimensions ean also be used to find the dependence of a physical quantity on other physical quantities Example 6 The time period (1) of a simple pendulum may depend upon m the mass of the bob, / the length of the string and g the acceleration due to gravity. Find the dependence of ron m,/ and g. solution Let te mhe or to km's, where bisa dimensiontess constant. Writing the dimensions ofeach quantity, we have Try = ony (ey ery or OMT] = (Lr) -Accosding tothe principle of homogeneity of dimen- sions, the dimensions of ll the terms on either side ofthis equation must be the same. Equating the powers of M, L and T, we have a= 0,b+0=0and-20=1, 1 1 which give b= + and e= anebey 2 Hence f= ki #2 go> i aft Ve ‘Thus risindependent ofthe mass ofthe bob ands directly proportional to 7 and inversely proportional to y/¢ 4. Significant Figures ‘The number significant figure in any measurement indi- cates the degree of precision of that measurement. The degree of precision is determined by the least count of the measuring instrument. Suppose a length measured by a ict seale (of least count = 0.1 em) is 1.5 em, then it has two significant figures, namely 1 and 5. Measured with a vvernier callipers (of least count = 0,01 em) the same length is 1.53 cm and it then has three significant figures. Meas- tured with a serew gauge (of least count = 0.001 em) the same length may be 1.536 cm which has four significant figures I must be clearly understood that we cannot increase the accuracy of a measurement of changing the unit. For example, suppose a measurement of mass yields a value 39.4 kg, Itis understood thatthe measuring instrument has a least count of 0.1 kg. In this measurement, three figures 3,9 and dare significant, If we change 39.4 kg to 39400 g ‘9 39400000 mg, we cannot change the accuracy of meas- urement. Hence 39400 g or 39400000 me still have three significant figures; the zeros only serve to indicate only the ‘magnitude of measurement, Estimation of Appropriate Significant Figures in Cateulations. ‘The importance of significant figures lies in calculation to find the result of addition or multiplication of measured {quantities having a different number of significant figures. The least accurate quantity determines the accuracy of the sum or product. The result must be rounded off to the appropriate digit 1A Complete Physes JEE Main Rules for Rounding off ‘The following rules are used for dropping figures that are not significant 1. If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, the next (preceding) digit to be retained is left unchanged, For example, if a number 5.34 is to be rounded off to two significant figures, the digit tobe dropped is 4 which is less than 5. Hence the next digit, namely 3, isnot changed. The result ofthe indicated rounding- offs therefore, 5.3. 2. [the digit to be dropped is more than 5, the preceding Aigit to be retained is inereased by 1, For examples 7,536 is rounded off as 7.54 to three significant figures. 3. Ifthe digitto be dropped happens tobe 5, then (a) the preceding digit to be retained is inereased by 1 ifitis odd, or (b) the preceding digit is retained unchanged i For example, 6.75 is rounded off 10 6.8 1 wo significant figures and 4.95 is rounded off to 5.0 but 3.45 is rounded off to 3.4 Rute for Finding Significant Figures 1. For addition and subtraction, we use the following rile Find the sum or difference of the given measured quantities and then round off the final result such that it has the same number of digits after the dect ‘mal place as in the least accurate quanuity (he. the quantity whick has the least number of significant figures) Example 7 Four objects have masses 2.5 kg, 1.54 kg, 3.668 kg and 5.1278 kg. Find the total mass up to appropri- ate significant figures, Solution M=2.5-+ 1.54 + 3.668 + 5.1278 ~ 12.8358 kg In this example, the Ieast accurate quantity is 2.5 kg. This sass is accurate only up to the first decimal place in kg. Hence the final result much be rounded off to the first decimal place in kg, The correct result up to appropriate significant figures is M= 12.8 kg, 2, We use the following rule to determine the number ‘of significant figures inthe result of multiplication and division of various physical quantities Do not worry about the member of digits afer the decimal place. Round off the result so that it has the same number of significant figures as in the least ‘accurate quantity Example® Aman runs 100.2 min 10.3 s, Find his aver age speed up to appropriate significant figure. 0.2m 1038 ‘The distance 100.2 m has four significant figures but the time 10.3 s has only thee. Hence the value of the result ‘must be round off to three significant figures. The correct result is 9= 9.73 ms" 28155 ms! Solution Average speed (0 5. Least Counts of Some Measuring Instruments 1, Least count of metre scale = 1 mm 2. Vernier constant (or least count) of verniereallipers value of | main seale division - value of I vernier scale division = 1 M.$.D.~1V.8.D Let the value of 1 M.S.D = a uni I'm verier scale divisions coincide with m main seale divisions, then value of Lvs. =" of Ms.D= ™ uni Least count = a ~ ™* 3, Least count of a micrometer screw is found by the formula Least count = ——_PitchoFserew _ Totalnumberof divisions ‘oncircularseale ‘where pitch = lateral distance moved in one com- plete rotation of the serew, Example 9 In a vernicr eallipers, 19 divisions of the main seale exactly coincide with 20 divisions of the ver- nicr seale. IF the smallest division of the main scale is 1.0 ‘mm, find the vernier constant of the calipers, Value of 1 M.S.D.~ 1.0 mm OMSD, Solution 20 divisions of the vernicr seal =19x1.0mm= 19mm Vaiue of V5.0. = 12 mm 20 Least count or vernier constant = 1 M.D. 1V.S.D 10mm 9 1 a Fp t= 0.08 mm 0,005 em Physics and Measiroment 1S 6. Order of Accuracy: Proportionate Error ‘The order of accuracy of the result of measurements is de termined by the least counts of the measuring instruments used to make those measurements. Suppose a length x is measured with a metre seale, then the error in x 8 + Ax, where Ax= least count of metre sale= 0.1 em. IFthe same length is measured with vernier eallipers of least count 0.01 em, then Ax= 0.01 em. Fractional or proportionate errors defined as “ Maximum percentage error =“ x 100, 1 Error in Sum: Suppose a quantity is given by aaxty Then Aa = Ax + Ay is the maximum error and Aa _ Atay a (ry) 2. Errorin Difference: [fa =. y, then the maximum a= Ax+ Ay We take the worst case in which errors add up. Aa _ Avtay a ey) 3. Error in Product and Suppose we deter- ‘mine the value of a physical quantity w by measur- ing three quantities x,y and 2 whose true values are related to 1 by the equation yer Lette expected small eosin the measurement of tuuniea,y and: be respectively, dy and Fe ota the cmorin oy oning eos obseved Guanes 2 fur The mureical values of Be, ) thd ae given bythe Test count ofthe isc tases sed tocar om Taking logarithm ofboth sides we have Jog w= @logx + Blog y~ ylogz Partial ferentiation ofthe above eauation gives ae gts gle ‘The proportional or relative error in w is Aul The values of Ax, Ay and Az may be positive or negative nd in some cases the terms on the right hand side ‘may counteract each other. This effect cannot be relied upon and it is necessary to consider the worst, cease which is the case when all errors add up giving an error Au given by the equation: pay Tso find he maximum proportonal ero i Tul do prveioal are ih ho 9 cat ox bebreatant od pereio a fact bees cdr hc sta conned The sum obi gv te maximum po porio! erin the aa hen he pope ona sr nts mit 100 we fee pcongs erro a quay Example 10. ivan eerie fr dering ey (vote reunguarel Dees» soda mart tatovng mestemcats Masse ck (m)=393¢ Lenght losk 5.126 Brea ook) 236m "ike of ek) 0.37 em Ti tr we tant of 201 Fd iineanomestofs yands 001 om find he ale of p (in g em *) up to appropriate significant figures, stat- inte econ ne an of ii 303 , Solution p= =) __ sg. s037 gem Pp xyz 5.12x2.56*037 8 an ae ae = 21, 001, 001 , 001 93"s12 "236" 037 =00353 8p = 0.0853 xp = 0.0353 «8.1037 = 0.286 gem~* Round offeror Ap tothe fs significant gue as Ap - 03 gem? . Hen p= 61037 gms not acerte tothe fourth decimal place. In fact, itis accurate only up to the first SECTION! Multiple Choice Questions with One Correct Choice Which one ofthe following is not a unit of length? (@) MET? K! — () MLT 2K? (a) angstrom, (b) light year (©) MLTK (a) MET? (6) fermi (a) radian {8 The SI unit of Stefan’s constant is ‘The unit of impulse isthe same as that of (@) Ws'm?K* () Jsm2K4 (a) moment of force (stmt (dy Wm 2K () linear momentum 9, The SI unit of magnetic permesbilty is (6) rate of change of linear momentum @ar (@ force aa 3. Which pair of quantities has dimensions different (©) Hm feom the other thece pairs? (@) No unit; it isa dimensionless number (@) Impulse and linear momentum 10, The quantities L/R and RC (where £, Cand R stand (b) Planck's constant and angular momentum for inductance, capacitance and resistance respec- (6) Moment of inertia and moment of force tively) have the same dimensions as those of (@) Young's modulus and pressure (@) velocity () acceleration 4. The dimensions of the coeficient of viscosity are (©) time (@) force @ Mur? (®) MT? 11, The dimensions of entropy are (© MET! (@) ML"T? @) MLK () MLE 5S. The dimensions of surface tension are © MUT"k (@) MLT?K! wat? @ mar? 12, What isthe physical quantity whose dimensions are (©) MET? (@ MET? MLT® ‘The SI unit of the universal gravitational constant G (a) kinetic energy (b)_ pressure is (©) momentum (4) power (a) Ning wndig 13, Which one of the following has the dimensions of (©) Nm? kg”! (@) Nmkg MET? 7. The dimensions of the coefficient of thermal con- {(@) torue (ep setacattenatat ductivity sre (6) viscosity (a) stress Physics and Measurement 1.7 4 16. vw. 20. a. 2, ms of angular momentum are ) MT" (@ MULT? ‘The gravitational foree F between two masses m, and m; separated by a distance r is given by F Gms where G isthe universal gravitational con- (©) MLD stant. What are the dimensions of G? @ MT? ) MLIT? (©) MET @ Miers ‘The equation of state of areal gas can be expressed as(r+s )o-tyseratoe miss v the volume, T the absolute temperature and a, band are constants, What are the dimensions of a? (a) MILT? © MULT &) MLUT? (@ ML*T* 7. The equation of state for » moles ofan ideal gas is PY = nT where Ris the universal gos constant and P, Vand 7 have the usual meanings. What are the dimensions of RY (@) M'LT 7K! mot! (b) ML? T? K* mor" (MET? mot! (@ ML? T?K! mot! ‘The SI unit ofthe universsl gas constant is (@) erg ' mot" (b) watt K"' mot! (6) newton K mol"! (a) joule K mot According to the quantum theory, the energy £ ofa photon of frequency vis given by E=hW here fis Planck’s constant. What is the dimen- sional formula for h? @ MULT? @) MULT MET @Mer ‘What is the SI unit of Planck's constant? (a) watt second (b) watt per second (6) joule second (a) joule per second ‘The dimensions of Planck's constantare the sameas those of (@) encrey (6) power (6) angular frequency (d) angular momentum Time period Tofa simple pendulum may depend on ‘m, te mass of the bob the length of the string.and 4, the acceleration due to gravity i. To mt Pg 23. 4, 28, 26. 2. 28, ‘What are the values of, b and c? (a) 0, (b) 0,- Z tt © 50-5, ‘The volume of water passing any point of uni- form tube during 1 seconds is related to the eross- sectional area ofthe tube and velocity w of water by the relation Vocatubst Which one of the following will be tue? (a) a=B=y tb) 2B. (©) a=Bey (a) aeBey Which one of the following relations is dimension ally consistent where his height to whieh a liquid of density prises in capillary tube of radius, Tis the surface tension of the liquid, 6 the angle of contact and g the acceleration duc to gravity?” fw pe 270088 yy 2 pe cose 2px 0088 arpg ce) = PEC (gy y= MP © ar o cos ‘The frequency n of vibrations of uniform string of length f and stretched witha force F is given by where p isthe number of segments of the vibrating string and m is @ constant of the string. What are the dimensions of m? @ MLtT! () ML?Tt (©) ML*T" (@ ML*T ‘When a wave traverses a medium, the displacement ofa particle located at x at time ¢is given by y=asin (b1—ex) where a, b and ¢ are constants of the wave, The dimensions of # are the same as those of (a) wave velocity (b) amplitude (©) wavelength (d) wave frequeney In.Q.26, the dimensions of © are the same as those of « (a) wave velocity (©) wave amplitude ‘The van der Waal equation for moles ofa real gas (b) wavelength (@) wave frequency 18 Complete Physics JEE Main (Post) om amr where P is the pressure, V is the volume, Tis the absolute temperature, is the molar gas constant and a,b are van der Waal constants, The dimensions ‘ofa are the same as those of (a) PY @) PF oPv (a Pv 29, In Q.28, the dimensions of b are the same as those of @ P wm (© Py (@) nar 30, In Q.28, the dimensions of Tare the same as those of (a) enerey (8) force (©) pressure (@) specific heat 31, In Q. 28, the dimensional formula for ab is (@) MT? () MutT? (©) MUT* (@) MT? 32, If velocity (F), acceleration (4) and foree (F) are taken as fundamental quantities instead of mass (M), length (L) and time (T), the dimensions of Young's ‘modulus would be (@ eer? (©) rer ©) ee? @ rers TThe dimensions of permittivity (fof vacuum are @ ME TAT ) MUTA? (METAR @) MT? 34, What are the dimensions of permeability (4) of (o) MIT? A’ () MUTA ()ML'T#A? — (@d) MET? 4? 38, The dimensions of 1/ Yb) are the same as those of (@) veloc (b) acceleration (c) force (@) energy 136, The dimensions of specific heat are (@) MET? @ MT?" MLTR — @ MLT?KT 37, What are the dimensions of latent heat? (@) MET? () ML 27? (©) MULT? @ MET? 38, What are the dimensions of Boltamann’s constan (@) MUT?K" @) MT 2K (MT? kK" @) MET? K* 39. a 2. 45, 46. 4, 49, The dimensions of ‘The dimensions of potential difference are (@ META!) MUTZAt (MET ?A (ad) MLD? 1. What ate the dimensions of electrical resistance? (@) MET2A? (MUTA? () METOA? (MEET PA? ‘The dimensions of electric field are (@) MUTA" () MT? At (©) MLTTAt (@) MET? At ‘The dimensions of magnetic induction field are (@ METI AT (by MOLT AT (©) MUTA @ MUTA! 3. What are the dimensions of magnetic flux? @ MUT?At (b) ML?T7 A? (©) ML*T?At (a) ML a The dimensions of self inductance are @ MUT?At (b) ML?T?7 (ce) ML? T? a (a) ML?T FA The dimensions of eapacitance are (@) MLS TA? db) MILE TEA OMera go Mtceta If velocity (), foree (F) and energy (E) are taken as fundamental units, then dimensional formula for ‘mass will be @) Vr" () MRE © rere @ RE Frequency (n) of a tuning fork depends upon length (of its prongs, density (p) and Young's modulus (0) of its material. Then frequency and Young's ‘modulus willbe related as (a) na VF © n= () ney 1 @ net vr yay 6) E? (6) = permittivity of free space and £ = electric field) are (@) MLT () MLT? (©) ML'T* @ MOT Of the following quantities, which one has dimen- sions different from the remaining three (@) Energy per unit volume (b) Force per unit area (c) Product of voltage and charge per unit volume (@) Angular momentum |. If the time period 1 of a drop of liquid of density d, radius r, vibrating under surface tension s is given Physics and Measiroment 1.9 boy the formula r= Yar? © and if then bis @ 1 (b) 2 ©3 4 a1 A pair of physical quantities having the same dimen- sional formula is (a) angular momentum and torque (b) torque and energy (6) entropy and power (@) power and angular momentum In the measurement of « physical quantity ae op ‘The percentage errors introduced in the ‘measurements of the quantities 4, 8, Cand D are 2%, 2%, 4% and 5% respectively. Then the mi ‘mum amount of percentage of ervor in the measute~ ‘ment of Xs contributed by: (4 8 wc @o Which of the following has the dimensions ML'T "2 (a) Surface tension (b) Coefficient of viscosity (6) Bulk modulus (@) Angular momentum sa Pressure gradient did isthe rate of change of pressure with distance, What are the dimensions of abla? @) MLIT? Qo) MEST? (©) ML'T* (@) ML? Tt ICE, M, J and G respectively denote energy, mas, angular momentum and gravitational constant, then EL hs the dimensions of @ (a) length (c) mass (b) angle (a) time Ie, fy h and ¢ respectively represent electronic charge, permittivity of free space, Planck's constant 36. and speed of light, then -— has the dimensions of Efe (2) current (b) pressure (©) angular momentum (@) angle IL, R, C and V respectively represent inductance, resistance, capacitance and potential difference, then 3. the dimensions of —*— are the same as those of L RCH a a, 1 ‘current 1 ‘charge (a) current cy (6) charge @ If E and B respectively represent electri field and magnetic induction field, then the dimensions of (@) displacement (b) velocity (6) acceleration (a) angle If Cand F respectively represent the capacitance of ‘capacitor and the potential difference between its plates, then the dimensions of CV? are (@) MT ) MUTI (©) MET (@) LT? io = bas the 2 |. If F and e respectively represent Planck's constant i. Ina system of and electronic charge, then the dimensions of are the same as those of | (a) magnetic field (b) electric field (€) magnetic ux (a) electric flux If energy B, velocity V and time T are chosen as the fundamental units, the dimensional formula for surface tension will be (@) ET? ) EV 'T? (Ever? @ BVT? ‘The number of particles crossing a unit area perpen= dicular tothe s-axis in a unit time is given by wo(nen) where m, and n; are the number of particles per unit (3 Nolume a-r= x, and:x=xy respectively and Dis the diffusion constant The dimensions of Dare (@) Mit? () MLZT (Mir ( MILT ‘A gas bubble from an explosion under water oseil- lates with a period proportional to Pd’ E* where P is the static pressure, dis the density of water and E is the energy of explosion. Then a, b and c respec- tively are a 3 1 @Uut ts in which the unit of mass is a kg, unit of length is & metre and the unit of time isc second, the magnitude of a ealorie is Compete Physics IEE Main 7. 6, 0. nn @ Ss abe ot The error in the measurement of the radius of a sphere is 1%. The error in the measurement of the volume is (a) 1% (6) 3% (©) 5% @) 8% If the erro in the measurement of the volume of a sphere is 6%, then the error in the measurement of its surface area will be (a) 2% ©) 3% (©) 4% @ 75% Aphysicel quantity Xisrepresentedby. The maximum percentage errors in the measure ment ofM, Land T respectively are a%, b% and e%. ‘The maximum pereentage error in the measurement oF Xwill be (a) (ax+ bye (b) (ae + By +) percent (©) (ax— by +2) pereent (@) (ax~ by~c2) perwent ‘The percentage errors in the measurements of the length ofa simple pendulum and its time period 29% and 3% respectively. The maximum error inthe value of the acceleration due to gravity obtained fiom these measurements is (a) 5% @) 1% () 8% (@) 10% ‘The moment of inertia of a body rotating about 3 sven axis is 6.0 kg min the SL system, What isthe Value of the moment of inertia ina system of units in which the unit of length is § cm and the unit of ‘mass is 10 27 (a) 24x10° (€) 60% 10° percent (b) 24% 108 (@) 60 10° A quam 5 given by gL he isthe permittivity of free space, L is a length, AV isa potential difference and A is a time interval. The dimensional formula for ¥ isthe same as that of (a) resistance (b) charge (6) voltage (2) current ‘The coetficient of viscosity (1) of a liquid by the ‘method of flow through a capillary tube is given by the formula n. m. 78 16. n where R= radius of the capillary be, ngth ofthe tube, P= pressure difference between its ends, and Q ‘Which quantity must be measured most aecurately? @R Oe oP @ @ ‘The mass m of the heaviest stone that ean be moved by the water flowing in a river depends on v, the speed of water, density (d) of water and the accel- eration due to gravity (g). Then m is proportional to @ oe ) of (©) * (ao solume of liquid flowing per second. ’. The speed (0) of ripples depends upon their wwavelenth (2), density (p) and surface tension (0) ‘of water. Then v is proportional to (a) va a 1 @ The period of reveition (7) of planet moving Toul te sun nw cou 5 cepts upon the Tatas (othe evi mass (4) of te sn nd te {Pvt constant (0) Thon Ps proportional @ 7? wr o oe If energy (E), momentum (p) and force (F) are cho- scnos ndamonal nie dimension of mesa th oe eytn l be OEP.) BF © Ep F? (a) B°p'P thee fn), gravitonal eon () td pane const) oe chosen fae Unite imcnons tine fc new Stem i fa) Gh? (b) 3G 22 (©) eG 7H? (@ &%G"7H The ample of «damped olor of mass m vain wah tine A= Age ‘The dimensions ofa are (@) MLT! () MLT! (©) MIT (@) ML'T Physics and Measiroment_ 111 78. A student measures the value of g with the help of a simple pendulum using the formula an 77 ‘The errors in the measurements of L and Tare AL and AT respectively. In which ofthe following eases is the error inthe value of g the minimum? (a) AL=OSem,AT=05 (b) AL =0.2em, Ar=0.2 (€) AL=O.1em,AT=1.05 (@ AL =0.1 em, ai A student performs an experiment to determine the Young's modulus of @ wire, exactly 2 m long, by Searle’s method. Ina particular reading, the student ‘measures the extension inthe length of the wire to be 0.8 mm with an uncertainty of + 0.05 mm at a load of exactly 1.0 kg. The student also measures the diameter of the wire to be 0.4 ram with a uncer tainty of £0.01 mm. Take g= 9.8 mis (exact). The Young's modulus obtained from the reading is (a) (2.0403) x 10" Nim? (b) @.0402)x 10" Nim? (6) (2.00.1) x 10" Nim? (@ 2.04005) x 10! Nim? |. In a vemier callipers, one main scale division is x «mand divisions of the vernicr seale eoineide with (1) divisions of the main scale. The least count {Gn em) of the calipers is Is 1. ©) oD ° (a=) EEE” «ANSWERS L@ - (b) 2 40) @ 6. (0) 2 @ ©) 10. (@) - (a) © 3.) i (b) i) 16. () - (b) @ 19. (b) 1 (o) - (a) 22. (@) - (b) (a) 25. (d) @ @® 28. (b) . (b) 1 (a) 31. (@) - (0) = (a) 34. (b) @ (0) 37d) i (b) 1 (a) 40. (b) - (a) - (a) 8. @) 44, (b) 45.) 46. (d) 47. (a) 48. (0) 49. (d) 30. (e) 51. (b) 52. (©) 33. (b) 54. (b) 58. (b) 56. (4) 57. (b) 58. (b) 59. (a) 60. (©) 61. (©) 2. (@) 63. (@) 64. (b) 65. (b) 66. (©) 67. () 68. (e) 69. (b) 70. (a) 71 (@) Re B. (a) 14. ©) 78. (a) 76. (a) 11. (@) 7B. W) 1. (b) 80. (e) > SOLUTIONS 6 5. Surface tension = fore’fengt Choices (a), (b) and (e) are units of length. Choice (@) the radian is unit of angle in a plane. 2. Impulse = force « time dp Pay dr ap -hange in momentum Hence the correct choice is (b). .. The dimensions of moment of inertia are ML°T" and ‘of moment of force are ML? T-*, All other pairs in (@), (b) and (4) have identical dimensions. 4. The viscous force acting on a spherical body of ra- dius r moving witha speed v ina fluid of coefficient ‘of viscosity 7s given by Fe 6nnro or n= are «Dimensions of 9 dimension of F imension of rx dimension of & Hence the correct choice is (). =MLTL= MLO Hence the correct choice is (a, From Newton's law of gravitation, the force of attraction F between two bodies of masses mand im, separated by a distance ris given by FG gravitational constant a2 Compete Physics IEE Main W. oe Unitor = wtol A xunitafr unit of mms __ newton (mette (k Hence the correct choice is (b). 1. The coefficient of thermal conduetivity is defined as the rate of flow of heat energy per unit area Of eross-seetion per unit temperature gradient ‘The dimensions of rate of flow of heat arc ML? T2T= ML? T°, The dimensions of area are ‘and the dimensions of temperature gradient are dimensions of femperature/dimension of length = KL, Hence the dimensions of the coefficient of thermal conductivity are MET? xxl =MLT?K? ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). 3. From Stefan’s law, the total energy emitted per see fond by a unit area of a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature, i ExT or £=oT* here o isthe stefan’s constant. Thus. E o a Sl unit of Slunit of energy per second ST unit of area x (SI unit of temperature) (metre) (kelvin)® thoice is (2) wm?k* Henee the correct 1. The correct choice is (c). L/R is the time constant of an L-R circuit and CR is the time constant of a C-R circuit. The dimension of ‘the time constant is the same as that of time, Hence the correct choice is (c). Entropy Sis defined through the relation T where di isthe change in entropy, dQ the change is hheat energy and Tis the absolute temperature, Dimensions of entropy 2. 1. 4 18, 16, n. 18, dimensions of heat energy dimensions of temperature =MUTFK! Hence the correct choice is (4). The dimensions of energy are ML? T*. The dimensions of pressure, momentum and power are ML'T?,MLT and MLET the core choice is (a. ML-'T are the dimensions of force por unit area. Out of the four choices, stress is the only quantity thats foree per unit area, Hence the correct choice is ‘The angular momentum L. ofa particle with respect to point whose postion vector is ris given by Lerxp where p is the linear momentum ofthe moving par tile Dimensions of L ofp=LxMLT! respectively, Thus dimension ox dimensions MT “Ths the coreeet choice is (b). Since G= Fhe dimensions of Gare dimensions of F x dimensions of r dimensions of ms MULT? XU yy papa aE ‘Thus the eorreet choice is (a). Prom the principe of homogeneity of dimensions, the dinesions of mun ete ames hse of .Thoofore dimensions ofa dimensions of 7 =ML'T?x(L*) ‘Thus ihe core! choice is (6) wv EE the dimensions of R are given b rl given by Since dimensions of P x dimensions of 7 ® ¢ dimensions of x dimensions of T = MENT gp not mmole ‘Thus the correct choice is (b) PF ite pt Ps tame units as those of work, namely, joule; the unitof Ris Now R Physics and Measurement 113 19, 0. a 2, 2. 2, 25, unit of PY J unitof mxunitot TF — molxK IK mol Hence the correct choiee is (@). Dimensions of h ~ Simension of E dimension of v MT ‘Thus the eorrect choice is (b). uniter & _ joule (second) Unitot} joule second unit oF v ‘ ‘Thus the correct choice is (6). ‘The correct choice is (). ‘The dimensions of the 1wo sides of proportionality TeMLhary ‘are the dimensions of g. T Mere anette Equating the powers of dimensions on both sides, we have a=0, +e =Oand~2e 1 sndao. where LT whichgve ont ae ‘Tins the correct chioce is (a). The dimensions ofthe two sides of proportionality DLL) erie err Equating the powers of dimensions on both sides, wehave dat p-3 Bb which give B= yand a= + G-B) i.e Bx ‘Thus the correct choice is (b). Since cos @ is dimensionless, using the dimensions of T, r, p and g, itis easy to see that choice (a) is only one that is dimensionally consistent. The dimensions of # are the same as those of Tirpg. ‘Squaring both sides ofthe given relation, we get dimensions of m . dimensions of F ‘imensions oF | 26. 2. 28, 29, 30. M 2. (pis dimensionless number) Henee the correct choice is (8), ‘Since the argument ofa sine function (or any trigo- nnomettic function) must be dimensionless, br and cer are dimensionless. Since brs dimensionless, the dimensions of b = dimensions of 1/7 = T~', which are the dimensions of frequency. Henee the correct choice is (), Dimensions of br = dimensions of ex, as they are both dimensionless. Dimensions of & = dimensionsof == = Lt Hence the eorreet choice is (a) From the principle of homogeneity, the dimensions of 4 must be the same as those of P, ie. dimen- ¥ sions of = dimensions of P vr mensions of PV, Hence the 2 dimensions of a correct choice is (b). ‘The correct choice is (b). ‘The dimensions of n& dimensions of PY ML" T? ‘The dimension of F, 4 and F in terms of M, L and T are the same as those of (= Ur ay= 10? and (= ML? Let y= U ar) Putting dimensions of ¥, 1A and F. we have (MET?) = (LTT?) (METS ee Mt erste Equating powers of M, Land T we have and —a~2h~ 20 which give @ 1.44 _Complete Physics JEE Main ‘Thus (= (EY 9) Thus the eorreet choice is (e). According to Coulomb's law oFelectrostaties, force F between two charges g, and ga distance r apart in vacuum, is given by La pe ae ae, 1 aa: an PF ——o_. MIT x 33, or & Dimensions of €, = = MTS T?Q?= MALTA ‘The correct choice is (a). ‘3M, The force per unit length between two long wires carrying currents J, and J; a distance r apart in vae~ uum, is given by = Ma ti f an L_xMLT~ xL* Dimensions of y= + 2MUTS x7 a A =MLr ta? ‘Therefore, the correct choice is (b). 35. Dimensions of ‘hich are the dimensions of velocity, Hence the eor- rect choice is (2) 36. The heat energy content Hof a body of mass m at temperature @ is given by H = ms@ where sis the specific heat. Therefore a nd Dimensions of s dimensions of heat energy dimension of mass > dimension of temperature MLT MxK MT Kk ‘Thus the correct choice is (e). 3a. 38. 39, a 2. Latent heat Zs theamount of heat energy Hf required to change the state of a unit mass without producing any change in temperature. Thus Hn MUT: L Dimensions of L ‘Thus the correct choice is (@), According to the law of equiparttion of energy, the energy per degree of freedom of a gas atom or molecule a a temperature O kelvin is given by e=1ko a @ where is the Boltzmann's constant imensions of Dimensions of ‘The potential difference V bewween two points isthe amount of work done in moving a unit eharge from ‘one point tothe other. work done _W. Thus, = —workdone charge moved” MT? + Dimensions of P= =MET?Q°! MUT At Hence the correct choice is (a, Qeary From Ohms law, resistance & is given by _ potential difference ot R Dimensions of R=“ = MUTA “Thus the correct choice is (b) Force F experienced by a charge q in an electric field Eis given by f Fa gk or E~* q dimensions of F_ MLT Gimensionsof@ AT = MILT A" ‘The force F, experienced by a charge q moving with speed @ perpendicular to the direction of a uniform ‘magnetic induetion field B is given by Dimensions of = Physics and Measurement 135 F=qoB or B Dimensions of B= MET = uri? QxiT =MLT At is. 43. The magnetic fux 6 linked with a circuit of a induction field B is given by = BA cos 6 where 6 is the angle between the field and area vee tors, & Dimensions of 6= dimensions of BA (> 0s Gis dimensionless) =ML'T 2A KEMLETAAT ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). 44, The self inductance £ of a coil in which the eurrent Hence the comect choi in dt dicties ofaal eee pay obese Now, Dimensions of Z dimensions of ‘Gimensions of //dimensions of _ META AT ‘Tins the correct choice is (). 45. When a capacitor of capacitance Cis charged to a potential difference V, the charge Q on the capacitor plates is given by 2 = CV or C= o . =MUT2A2 dimensions of 0 dimensions of V Dimensions of C =M LT ME Henee the correct choice is (f), 46, Let m= "FOES 2 IM] = (LT! x [ML T=]? x [MI 4. 0. st. 52. 1. Given 1= d* Equating the powers of I, L and Tand solving, we get a =~ 2, b=Oand c= 1. Hence the dimensional formula of m= [¥-? F" E] which is ehoice (d). Letnef* ph Putting dimensions ofall the quantit we have (1) = LM) (ML T° Equating powers of M, L and Ton both sides, we get b+e=0,a-3h—c=Oand-2e 1 1 L which give a 5 amle= 5. Thus nett pt yi Hence the correct choice is (a). 3. We know that Hence 1 6 Dimensior Hence the correct choiee is (). Energy per unit volume, force per unit arca and product of voltage and charge density all have dimensions of ML?T~*, but the dimensions of angular momentum are ML?T-'. Hence the correct choice is (¢). 1°? 5, Substituting dimensions, we have (= ML? Ey OMT? erro, 16202 +80) =e Equating powers of L, we have, 38 Ba4? =o, Given a wo which is choice (c). Both torque and energy have the dimensions of force x distance. Hence the correct choice is (b), aD les, we have log C3 log D 3 1.16 Complete PhysiceJEE Main Partially differentiating, we have AA, AB 1c x 4° B 3C Percentage erorin A Percentage errorin D= 3 42 —3 596 — D We find thatthe minimum percentage error is con- tributed by C. Hence the correct choice is (c). 153. The correct choice is (b) ‘54, ‘The correct choice is (b) 455. Dimensions of J and G are ML?T“! and M~1L? T= respectively. The eorreet choice is (b). 56. Dimensions of &, and A are M7IL T* A? and ML'T" respectively. The correct choice is (). RC! 5 1s the dimensions oftime (7). Vhas the dimen- sions ofemf whieh has the dimensions of. The correct choice is (b). a '58, The force F on a particle of charge q moving with a \elocity v in E and B fields is given by (E+vxB) Hence the dimensions of & are the same as those of 1B. The correet choice is (b) Energy stored ina capacitor of capacitance Chaving 4 potential difference V between its plates is given by ence, the dimensions of CV? = dimensions of en- ‘ergy. Hence the eareet choice is (a). 2) ow ar 60. dinesion or ( ewer x! Dimensions of # = MT 2 Magnetic flux = B x area. The correct choice is (c). 61, Let surface tension o= E° V!'T, Using the dimen- sions of o, £, V and Tand equating powers of M, Land T, find the values of a, b and c, The correct choiee is (c). a. gp 65, or. Dimensions of » (number of particles per unit area per unit time) = L7T"', Dimensions of m orm; (number of particles per unit yolume)=L*. Dimen= sions of x, or x;=L. The correet choise is (4) 1. The correct choice is (a). {. Let, be the magnitude (ic. numerical value) of a physical quantity when the fundamental units are (M,,L,, T,)and ns the magnitude of the same physi- cal quantity when the fundamental units are (Ms, Ls Ty) then, itis obvious that ny (MY LETS) =m (MELE TS @ where x, y and 2 are the dimensions ofthe physical quantity in mass, length and time respectively. Now, we know that calorie = 4.2 joule = 4.2 ke m’s* ‘Therefore, in the first system of units m= 4.2, x= I,y=2and =~ 2. Hence, in the second system of units in which M, =a kg, L; = bm and T=, we nen SY (eh (3) (2) Kee) » which is choice (b), z|Z ve dae, have log = log 4+ 1og x3 log r—log 3 Differentiating, we get Taking logarithm of both sides, we XeML'T*onlog.X=slog M+ log Differentiating, we have ax aM al ar ee ‘The maim enor ini (sine al errs ad up) zlog T. Physics and Measurement 147 0. n AL aM, Ab ,, An eM TE wat yb + 2h The coret cote 's (8). s orlog g=log (22) + log /~2 lg 7. The maximum snoring is ae Al.) 47 er Tr ). The dimensions of moment of inertia are (ML), We a rn(ts) or nM, U3) (MAL) MG 0, My= 1 kg. Ly Ly= Sem. Therelore, moon (it) (2) =60% (ae) ie (iseeny = 6.0% 100% (20)? = 24x 10" ‘The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by C= eptid. Hence the dimensions of él are the same as those of capacitance. av 2 Dimension of et © sy _ dimension of Cx dimensions of ¥ time _ dimension of O o-cn Hence the correct choi 8). ‘The correct choice is (a), ‘The maximum permissible erorin nis given by the relation An_ Ak RTP [tis clear that the error in the measurement of R is ‘magnified four times on account of the occurrence ‘of Rin the formula. Hence the radius (R) of the cap- illary tube must be measured most accurately. Thus the quantity whieh is raised to the highest power needs the most accurate measurement. n. n. m4. 1. 16. n. 78 mY Take m= 0% dg! and show that a = 6. ‘Take o = 2” po and show that =~ 1 2 Take Por MPG® and show that a= 3 Take M= £"p'F* and show that a c=0, 1,b=2and ‘The correct choice is (), ‘The exponent is a dimensionless number, Hence tim is dimensionless, Therefore, _ dimensionof m _ M Dimension of a= “imensionofim _ M. dimensionoty — T MLort ‘The proportions eor inthe measurement of gs fe ab, at eb Tr Hence Ag will be minimum i AL and AT te min ‘mum. Thus the correet choice is (d). FL _ AMet ax where M = 1.0 kg (exact), g = 9.8 ms (exact) L=2m(exac), J 08mm =08x 10 m a Al =£0.05 mm, d=0.4mm=0.4 x 10° m Ad = £0.01 mm Substituting the values of Mg, Z, d and Jin Eq, (1) we get Y= 2010!" Nm? From Ea, (1) the peoponionte uncertainty in ¥is gienby ay aw, Se aL, 2ad at ,roM se bod ‘7 Since the values of Mand Lar exact, AM= 0, and Al 0. Hence ay _2ad at road 2%0,0lmm _ 0.05mn 04mm” 0.8mm 05 + 0.0625 = 0.1125 AY = 0.1125 x ¥= 0.1125 x2.0% 10!" 228 x 10!" Nav? Since the value of ¥ is correct only up to the first decimal place, the value of AY must be rounded ‘off t the first decimal place. Thus AY = 0.2 x 10"" Nm. Therefore, the result of the experiment is ¥+AY=(2.040.2)x 10" Nm? , Hence the correct Compete Physics IEE Man 80, Vernier constant = value of 1 M.S. ~ value of | tvs (%!) son SECTION Multiple Choice Questions Based on Passage Questions 1 and 2 are based on the following passage. Passage! The dimensional method is a very convenient way of finding the dependence of a physical quantity on other physical quantities of a given system. This method has its own limitations. In a complicated situation, itis often ‘ot easy to guess the factors on which a physical quantity will depend. Secondly, this method gives no infermation about the dimensionless proportionality constant. Thirdly, this method is used only if a physical quantity depends fn the product of other physical quantities. Fourthly, this method will not work if a physical quantity depends on another quantity as a trignometric or exponential function. Finally, this method does not give complete information in eases where a physical quantity depends on more than three quantities in problems in mechanics 1, The dimensional method cannot be used to obtain denpendence of (a) the height to which a liquid rises in a eapit- lary tube on the angle of contact speed of sound in an elastie medium on the modulus of elactreity. height to which a body, projected upwards with a certain velocity, will rise on time 1 the decrease in energy ofa damped oscillator on time f o) © @ 2. In dimensional method, the dimensionless propor- tionality constant isto be determined (a) experimentally (b) by a detailed mathematical derivation (6) by using the principle of dimensional homo- ‘eenci (2) by equating the powers of M, L and T. Questions 3, 4 and S are based on the following passage. Passage-II In the study of physics, we often have to measure the physical quantities. The numerical value of a measured quantity can only be approximate as it depends upon the Teast count ofthe measuring instrument used. The number of significant figures in any measurement indicates the de- agree of precision of that measurement, The importance of significant figures lies in calculation, A mathematical cal culation cannot increase the precision of a physical meas- urement. Therefore, the number of significant figures in the sum or product ofa group of numbers cannot be greater than the number that has the least number of significant figures. A chain eannot be stronger than its weakest link. 3. A bee of mass 0.000087 kg sits on a flower of mass 00123 kg. What is the total mass supported by the stem of the flower upto appropriate significant figures? (a) 0.012387 kg (b) 0.01239 kg (©) 00124 kg (@) 0012 kg 4. The radius of a uniform wire is r= 0.021 em. The Value ais given to be 3.142. What is the area of cross-section of the wire upto appropriate signifi- cant figures? (a) 0.0014 em’ (b) 0.00139 em’ (€) 0.001386em? (4) 0.0013856 em’ 5. A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. His average speed upto appropriate significant figures is (a) 9.76 ms (b) 9.757 ms (©) 97573ms! (a) 98 ms! > ANSWERS 1, The correct choices are (a) (c) and (€). The height of| 4 liquid ina capillary tube depends on cos 6, where Gis the angle of contact. The height S to which a body ses is given by S= wr + a whichis asm oftwo terms ut and ; af’, The energy of damped oscillator decreases exponentially with time. 2, The correct choices are (a) and (b), Physes and Measurement 139 “Total mass = 0.000087 + 0,0123 = 0.012387 ke, The mass of the bee is accurate upto sixth decimal place in ke, whereas the mass of the flower is accurate ‘only upto the fourth decimal place, Hence the sum must be rounded off to the fourth decimal place, ‘Therefore the eorrect choice is (c). 4. A= nr? =3,142x (0.021)? = 0.00138562 em?. Now, there are only two significant figures in 0.021 em, Hence the result must be rounded off to two signifi- ‘cant figure as 4 = 0.0014 em’, which is choice (a) 100.5m 38 The distance has four significant figures but the time hhas only three. Hence the result must be rounded ‘off to three signigicant figure to 9.76 ms '. Thus the correct choice is (a). 5. Average speed = = 9.7573 ms! SECTION Assertion-Reason Type Questions In the following questions, Statement-I(Assertion) is followed by Statement-2 (Reason), Each question has the following Four options out of which only ome choice is correct (@) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State- ‘ment-2 is the correet explanation for Statement-1 (b) Statement-l is true, Statement-2 is true but Stat ‘ment-2 is not the correct explanation for State- is tue, Statement-2 is false, is false, Statement-2 is tru, © @ 1, Statement-1 ‘The onder of accuracy of measurement depends on the least count of the measuring instrument Statement-2 ‘The smaller the least count the greater is the number ‘of significant figures in the measured value. 2. Statement-1 ‘The dimensional method cannot be used to abtain the dependence of the work done by a force F on the angle @ between force F and displacement x, Statement-2 All tignometric functions are dimensionless. Statement-1 ‘The mass of an object is 13.2 kg. In this measure ment there are 3 significant figures, Statement-2 ‘The same mass when expressed in grams as 13200 has five significant figures. > SOLUTIONS 1, The correct choice is (b) 2. Work done is IV = Fr cos @ . Since cos @ is dimen- sionless, the dependence of MF on 8 cannot be deter- mined by the dimensional method. Henee the cor- rect choice is (a) 3. The correct choice is (c). The degree of accuracy {and hence the number of significant figures) of a measurement cannot be increased by changing the 2 Kinematics @ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 1. Scalarand Vector Quantities AA scalar quamtity has only magnitude but no direction, such as distance, speed, mass, area, volume, time, work, energy, power, temperature, specific heat, charge, poten. tial, ee ‘Avector quantity has both magnitude and direction, such 1s displacement, velocity, acceleration, foree, momentum, torque, electric field, magnet field, et. 2. Parallelogram Law of Vector Addition ‘The procedure of finding the resultant of two vectors is known as the parallelogram law of vector addition and may be stated as follows If the two veetors are represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram drawn from a point, then their resultant is represented in ‘magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the paralleto~ gram passing through that point Figure 2.1 show two vectors A and B of magnitudes A and B inclined at an angle cz The magnitude R of the resultant vector R is given by B+ 2AB cose The angle fl which the resultant vector R subtends with sector A is given by sina sine 4 A+ Boosa B R In veotor notation the resultant vector is written as R= ASB. Special Cases (i) When the two vectors are in the same direction, is. a= 0°, then R= Ya? +H? +2 AB cos” = A+B. ‘Therefore, the magnitude ofthe resultant is equal 0 the sum of the magnitudes ofthe two veetors. Also tun B= 0 or B=0, Lc. the direction of the resultant is the same as tha of either vector. Gi) When the two vectors are in opposite divections, ive, @= 180°, then R= YA? +B +2 AB cos!80° = A-B.Also B=0 When the two vectors are at right angles to each other, ie. a= 90°, then Raf PEP + 2AB Coe ~ (FTE Also zB Note: Ray =A+B and Ryg=A-B Example 1 The following pairs of forces act on a part- cle a an angle @ which ean have any value ()2Nand3N — () (©) 2Nand6Nand (d) The resultant of which pair cannot have a magnitude of 4N? 3Nand3N 3Nand8N 22._Complete Physics JEE Main Solution For pair(s) + Ry and For pait(b) Ryn For pair(c) Rnn For pair(d) + Rea Hence the correct ansiver is (@). Example 2 The magnitude of the resultant of two vee- tors of the same magnitude is equal to the magnitude of cither vector. Find the angle between the two vectors. Solution Givend=8 and R=AorB. Re (PAR VD AB CosO = da LAER IA e050 = (24 (40058) = #= 24° + c08 6) = cos = —1 = = 120° Triangle Law of Vector Ad “The parallelogram law of vector addition yields the triangle law of vector addition. In Fig. 2.1, veetor QP = vector OS: = B, In triangle OGP, vector OP = R. Hence, the triangle law of vector addition may be stated as follows: If the two vectors are represented in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in the same order, then their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the third side of the triangle taken in the ‘apposite order 4. Subtraction of Vectors Suppose we wish to subtract a vector B from a vector A. Since AB +R the subtraction of vector B from vector is equivalent to the addition of vector— B to vector A. Hence the procedure (o find (A ~B) is as follows: a /e A/ 3B @ ® Fig.22 ‘Choose a convenient scale and draw the vectors A and Bas shown in Fig, 2.2 (a). IfBis to be subtracted from A, rays the vector negative of B, ic, draw the vector ~B [see Fig. 2.2 (b)]. Now shift the vector ~ B parallel to itself so that the tail of B is atthe head of A. Veetor € is the sum of vectors A and ~B, ie. [see Fig. 2.2 (€)] CHA+CB)=A-B 5. The Unit Vector A vector whose magnitude is unity is called a unit vector ‘A unit vector is represented by A’ where The unit vectors along x, y and = axes of a regtangular co-ordinate system are represented by 1, j and k respec- tively 6. Resolution of a Vector into Rectangular ‘Components Consider a vector A in the x-y plane making an angle 6 with the x-axis. The + and y components of A are A, and A,. The magnitudes of A, and A, are (Fig. 2.3) 4, = A008 8 along -irestion and 4, =A sin 6, along y- r where «is the angular fre- quency vector andr is the postion vector. Angular momentum = r x p where ris the position vector and p isthe linear «i, smentum vector. ample 3 Find the angle between vetors A= 1+ j and B-i Solution A: B= AB cos0 Magnitude of Ais = 1? +1? Magnitude of Bis B= J +(-IP = J7 = -jj-2c00 (. = 1-12 cos Oxives cos = 0 or 0=90° Example6 Two vectors A and Bare inclined st an angle 6. Using definition of scalar product, show thatthe magni- tude of the resultant of vectors A and B is given by R= VEEP + DAB cOsO Solution R= A+B, Therefore, R-R=(A+B).(A+B)=A.A+A.B+BLA + BOB RRA HDA +B = +B" +2 AB eos 8 = R= VEE +2 AB COsO Example? Given A~ 21-3 and B~ ih snagnitde and ditcetion of (A x B) (ci- 39) x (si+49) = Wixi+sixj-isi 4]. Find the Solution (Ax B) Tinus the magnitude of (A x B) is 23 units and its direction is along + 2 axis 10. Position Vector and Displacement Vector The poston vector ofa patcle describes it instantne- ous postion with respect othe origin ofthe chosen frame ofraferenes tis a vector joining the origin to the particle ands denoted by vector r. Forone-dimensional maton (sy along.-ans) r= xf where isthe distance ofthe parele from origin 0. For two-dimension motion (say inthe x-y plan, ¥ = xis yj, where (x,y) are the x and y coordinates ofthe pattcte an For thee-dimensional motion, r= xi+ yi 2h Displacement vector Ir; is the position veetor ofa particle at time f,, and ry at time f, them the displacement vector is given by 26 Complete Physes JEE Main ‘Vector sis the resultant of veetors rand ~ F, (Fig. 2.9) Fig. 29 ‘The displacement veetor is vector joining the initial and the final positions ofthe particle after a given interval of time and its direction is from the initial to the final po tion, Example8 A particle moves from 4 to B along a circle of radius R. Find the path length and the magnitude of the displacement in terms of R and @. [see Fig. 2.10] Fig. 2.10 Solution Path length arc B= RO Asshown in Fig. 2.11, the magnitude of displacements, Fig. 241 11. Instantaneous Velocity and Average Velocity ‘The rate of change of displacement with time at a given instant is called instantaneous velocity and is given by de a The average velocity in a given time interval is defined __ total displacement Time interval Example 9 The position of a particle moving along += axis is given by x = 21 37° +P, where x is in metre and tin second. (a) Find the velocity of the particle at 1=2 s. (b) Find the average speed of the particle in the time interval from (= 2st0/= 4, Solution () x= 2-3P +P ds Emr ort3¢ vat (1=2s8)=2-6x243x QF = (6) Position at = 2 sis x) 9 2x2-3x QF +) 0 Position at = 4 sis ty 2x43 (4)? + (4) = 24m Displacement is.x3~ xj =24-0 interval = 4-2= 2s, Therefore, 24m. Time ava veaciy= etna! 12. Instantaneous Acceleration The rate of change of velocity with time ata given instant is called instantaneous acceleration and is given by dr 13. Equations of One Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration Let xp be the position ofa particle at time t= 0 and let u be its velocity at (= 0. Ibis given # constant acceleration « for time ¢, Asa result it maves ina straight line toa position x and acquires a velocity 2. ‘The particle suffers a displacement s = x —xg in time f ‘The equations of motion of the particle are v=utar en Loa xexytut tar 2 Los or sort bar a2 and ax) 23) |. While solving numerical problems of bodies moving ina straight horizontal direction, we will consideronly the magnitudes of u, 2, a and s and take care oftheir direotion by assigning positive oF negative sign to the quantity. For example, ~ a will mean aeceleration ~a will mean retardation (or deceleration). 2. Inthe ease of body falling vertically under gravity or projected vertically upwards, we use the follow= ing sign conventions. Quantities directed vertically upwards are taken to ‘be postive and those directed vertically downwards are taken to be negative. Since the acceleration due to gravity is directed downward for a body moving vertically up or falling vertically dawn, we take 9.8 ms” in Eqs. (2.1), (2.2) and 2.3), 3. Displacement in the mth second is given by _= displacement in n seconds = displacement in (7 ~ 1) seconds L 1 "i + ba(ny? —u(a— Lain? 2 2 = ea fen Applications ( Ifa body moving with constant acceleration, starts from 4 with initial velocity w and reaches 8 with a velocity 2, then the velocity midway between 4 and Bis ma A body starting from rest has an aeceleration a for atime f and comes to rest under a retardation 6 for atime fy I's and, are te distances travelled inf, wi (b) Total distance travelled (s, + 3) AS (6) Maximum velocity attained is Pewee 71 5 (a) Average velocity over the whole tip is, 2 Gi) vy) wo wit) Kinematics 2.7 At time 1 = 0 a body is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity #, at time ¢= T, another body is theown vertically upwards with the same velo 1u, The two bodies will meet at time ru ts A body is dropped from rest and at the same time another body is thrown downward with a velocity fiom the same point, then (a) the acceleration of each body is g, (b) their relative velocity is always n, (©) thie separation willbe afer «tne f= Fi sp ing, sy A en cs win cert sens hy tics dae ses tt fr eoce tee bly eto tromet fom besa pit sand are he sieeve a ota ce eG ‘by of mas i rppe fom a ei hep o and I ponte a depen enn (a th averagerearain in send sven by oath thona because loss in PE (gh) = work done against the resistive force of sand (mas). (b) total average fores exerted by sand is F = mg+ma=m(g +a) AA body is thrown vertically upward with a velocity 1 I the resistive force due to air-iction produces, 4 constant aceeleration (or retardation) a (< g) (@) the net acceleration during upward motion =gta, the net acceleration during downward motion =e-0, the maximum height attained is ) © era) (4) ‘the time taken to reach the maximum height is (ee Vigra) ra) (©) the time of descent is .- [= « NV G@=a) (gat)? (9, shespeed with whieh the body hits the ground is 28 Complete Physics JEE Mam [e= Viera) Goo Note that les dha 4. Me aya Some useful tips (Ia body, starting from rest, moves with a constant acceleration, the distances covered by itn Is, 2s, 38, are in the ratio 17:27: 3°... = 14:9 I'a body starts from rest and moves with a contant acceleration, the distance covered by it in the Ist, 2nd, 3rd....seconds are in the ratio 1: 3:5 {A body is projected upward with a certain speed. If air resistance is nelected, the speed with which it hits the ground ~ the speed of projection. Ifa body is projected upwards witha velocity u, the maximum height attained is proportional to a? and the time of ascent is proportional to u (9) Fora freely falling body, (2) velocity = time (b) distance fallen & (time)? (6) velocity «= distance fallen 14, Graphical Representation iy «i, ww) 1. Displacement ~ time (<~ 9 graphs (Fig, 2.12) Fig. 2.16(a) : Body atrest Fig 2.16(6) © Body in uniform motion Fig. 2.16(c) : Body subjected to acceleration (a>0) Fig. 2.16(d) : Body subjected to retardation (<0) Fig.2.16(e) : Body accelerating and then de- ccolerating t t ° > ° ® co) i t = Tm 0 = © @ © Fig. 202 The slope of x 1 graph gives velocity for uniform motion [Fig.216(0)- For nomaniform motion [Fis 216(c),(d) and (e}], the slope of the tangent tothe curv ata point gives velocity at that 2, Velociy-time(# motion Fig. 2.13) ‘graphs for uniformly N w>oe<0 oS Fig. 2.13 Gag ‘Acceleration = slope of (@— #) graph Displacement = area under (0) graph 3, Acceleration —time (a1) graph (Fig. 2.14] 1 1 ql i> oo = consant> 0 > constant <0 1 o = 14>, increasing lincarly vw time Fig. 2.14 Kinematics 29 4. (2-1), (0-9, (¢~0 graphs for fee fall [Fig 215] Example 12 Figure 2.16shows the vlocity—time graph of a body moving in a straight line, Find (a) the distance 1 t travelled by the body in 20s, (b) the displacement of the « * body in 20 s and (c) the average velocity in the time inter o}———,,, 0 13 val '=0t07=205. 9a t ms ? 4 (as 1 Fig. 25 Example 10. The displacement x (in metres) of a body varies with time ¢ (in seconds) as Fig. 2.16 Solution (a) Distance ~ area under speed ~ time graph which is shown in Fig, 2.17. How long does the body take to come to rest? + solution v= = —4)416 Spee 3 (os) 0-446 > sens Z 2 os Sw Example 11 From the top of auilding 40m tall, «ball 1 thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 10 ms Fig.27 (o) After how long will the ball hit the ground? (b) After tow long wil tne ball take to pass trough the point from 2 Distance travelled in 20 ¢~ area of O4B + area where it was projected? (6) With what velocity will i hit of BCD in Fig 221 th rund Take g=10 ms contort x6xt0=60m Solution 2 2 (a) = —40m,u=+ 10 ms", 10 ms* (b) Displacement in 20 s = area of O4B — area of BCD 1 in Fig. 2.20 Now sur Sai ~ieti-F displacement = -40=100+ ; xe 10)0 (c) Average velocity = sepieement 0 = Aaa Example 13 A body moving in a straight line covers a distance of 14 m in the Sth second and 20 m in the 8th sec 2-sor4s, The negative value of fis ond. How much distance will it eover inthe 1Sth second? = V4 = 4 not possible Henes the ball will hit the ground after 4 folttion Smuts Gar“) (b) s=0,u=410ms" and a=—10ms~. 9a Thercone 0 101-5 => 12s Snurd o (©) v= + at= 10-10% 4 = 10-40 =~ 30 ms iz ‘The negative sign indicates the velocity vis directed Sy =u @ dowawards, 2 Solving (1) and @), we get a=2ms? and w= Sms“ 2.10 Complete PhysiceJEE Main 4m 15. Relative Velocity in One Dimension Iftwo bodies 4 and & are moving in a straight line with velocities 2, and vp respectively, the relative velocity of With respect to B is defined as ‘The relative velocity of B with respect to A will be Example 14 A police van moving on a highway wi a speed of 10-ms "fires a bullet ata thief's car speeding. away in the same direction with a speed of 30 ms ', Ifthe muzzle speed of the bullet is 140 ms-', with what speed will the bullet hit the thiet’s car? Solution Spoed of police van is thief's caris , 10 ms", speed of 30 ms". Relative velocity of bullet wi respect to van is yy= 140 ms. Let vg be the velocity of the bullet. py = 09 vy- Hence dp = vq) + 2p = 140 10 130 ms |The bullet will hit the ar witha speed 50-30 Be =%9-R% 0 ms Example 15. From the top of a tower Omaha is thown 4 yg verically down witha velocity of Wms" Atthesame time, another body is thrown vertically upward from the ground with aveloity of 20 ms (a) After how long will the two bodies meet? (b) At what he height above the ground do they | meet? Take g= 10 ms" Solution (@) Suppose the bodies meet at C and let be the time at ‘which they meet For body 1 Ground Fig. 2.18 1oms",a= hye 1oms 1 2 ors Sx C107 Which gives hy = Sr(r+2) For body 2: Inyay= +20 ms", 10 ms 2 hye 201-SP=si-1+4) 2) Adding (1) and (2), hy + hy = 300 or 60 = 30r (b) Using r= 2 sin Bq, (2), y= $32 (4 2)= 20m Alternative method Relative velocity of body 1 with respect to hody 2 is tag = ty uy = = 10 ~ 20) =~ 30 ms Relative displacement of body 1 with respect of body 2 is 8127 = fy ~ (hg) =~ (hy +g) =~ 60m Relative acceleration is aj, = a ~ a3 = Using e-Ca=0. urs a? wehave-60=-30 = 192s. 2 Or $= 20x2-$x2¥= 20m Example 16 The driver of tain 4 moving ata speed of 30ms sights another train 8 moving on the same track at a speed of 10 ms "in the same direction, He immediately applies brakes and achieves a uniform retardation of2ms~ ‘To avoid collision, what must be the minimum distance between trains 4 and B when the driver of sights B? Solution Relative initial velo ty A want Bis, yy = gy =30— 10 = 20 ms Relative retardation of A w.nt Bis a = 2 ms ‘To avoid collision, the relative final velocity of 4 wir. B vy must be 2e10. Minimum relative displacement of Watt Bis sp which is found by using the relation v* — a7 ‘as which gives aa~ar= 20 0-208=2%C2)Syp > Syp= 100m 16. Solving Problems Involving Non-uniform ‘Acceleration Finding velocity and displacement if the depend cence of acceleration on time is given ssiven expression for a in terms of 1 and integrate both sides. Jaw = and obtain the expression for 0() jena ‘To find displacement x, use 2(0) dr = 0(0 dl Substitute the expression for and integrate both sides ds hich gives a vmene jae = foo Example 17 A particle starts from rest at x = 0. Its acceleration at time r= 0 is 5 ms which varies with time Kinomatis 201 as shown in Fig. 2.19. Find (a) the maximum speed of the particle and (b) its displacement in time interval from r= Otor=2s, Solution (@) Slope of graph is cepte= Sms. Using. ‘a varies with time as 5 Sims" per sevond. Inter- ems ‘me + 6, the acceleration = Sis it Inegring fue = {$145} = 0 Fig. 2.19 It follows from graph that deceleration becomes zero at 1= 6s. Hence ¥ will be maximum at Using ¢= 6 s in Ea. (1) gives digg, = 15 ms di. Integrating i( Seesa ae (6) From = 5x res "79 (6) Finding velocity and displacement if the depend- ence of acceleration on displacement is given #0 ae Use SS or tdv= ade Subsite the given expression off) intems fx td negate Hence we get an expression for 0(s) in terms of x a ‘To find displacement, we use v(x) = & = pl it, = here 0 is the expression abt Example 18 A particle is moving along the x-axis with tanaceeleration a= 2x where a is in ms “and xis in mete I'he particle starts from rest atx = I'm, find its velocity when it reaches the position which gives 0= 4 ms" (©) Finding velocity and displacemem if the depend- ence of acceleration on velociyy is given do a(o) do ace) = dr Ono Integrating jae ae) jo Hence we obtain the expression for 0(9. = > demande Integrating fac= Jona Example 19 A particle initially (ie. at = 0) moving with a velocity w is subjected to a retarding foree which decelerates it at arate a= —ky'o where o is the instan- taneous velocity and & isa positive constant. (a) Find the time taken by the particle to come to rest. (b) Find the distance the particle tavels during this time. 242 Complete PhysiceJEE Main Solution Incgraing ja --4 hve ae = x 2 3 17. Motion in Two Projectile Motion yensions: (A body projected horizontally with a velocity u from {height h. (Fig. 2.20] Horizontal and vertical dis- tances covered in time rare xu es) 26) Differentiating Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6) w.rt time f, we get the horizontal and vertical velocities. de “ 2.6) FE 26) et en Equation to trajectory Eliminating ¢ from Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6), we get Since ys x7 the trajectory of the body is parabolic, ‘Time of fight 1) Putting y = and r= 1) in Eq, (2.6), we get ty Th g Horizontal range (R) Putting ¢= sand x = R in Eg. (2.5), we get Reauya ul Ve Magnitude of resultant velovity at time fis " “The angle er which the resultant velocity vector sub tends with the vertical is given by (ere tana = at i) A body projected from the ground witha velocity u ‘ar an angle @ withthe horizomal. (Fig. 2.21) ‘The horizontal and vertical distances covered in time rare x = (weos 8) ay Lie and y= (usin Fer 29) Horizontal and vertical components ofthe velocity 60s 6 2.10) usin 8 gr ea and 4 Magnitude of resultant velocity at time fis ‘The angle e’subtended by the resultant velocity vec- tor with the horizontal is given by tana = Kinomatice 243 3 aS Fig. 221 Equation of trajectory Putting 2u sind g Maximum height attained (ja) Pute= 1/2 and y= hs in Eg. (2.9), we get WP sin? 28 Horizontal range (R) Putting ¢= spand x = R in Eq, (2.8) we get sin(20) & A body projected from a height h with a veloctty u at ‘an angle 8 with the horizontal. (Fig, 2.22) R Se Fig. 222 LETis the total time of fight, then we have tl hea Ta Set? ‘The horizontal range is R’ = (w cos 0)T Applications () The horizontal range is the same for angles @ and (90° - 6), (i) The horizontal range ts maximum for 6 = 45° Rags = We z (9 Wa rion range mais, gg = Ba : (i) Atte pit of etn, KE = Em FE = 0 1? ‘Total energy E (©) Atte highest point, KE = + mu? cos? and PE, total energy ~ KE. (vi) To find @ and ig, ftom the equation of tajectory yeax~ be where a and > are constants, refer to Fig. 2.23. z woe a (0) At O and B, y = 0. Putting y = 0 in the above equation, we have 0= ax — bx? = x=0, x= alb, Therefore p= 4 6 (b) ACA, = Figg and Using these Values in =e? We et gg = 214 Compete Physics IEE Main wi iti) ro) I-A and B are two points atthe same horizontal level (on a trajectory at a height 4 from the ground, (see Fig. 2.24), then Fig. 224 2usind zg hts woe tee (6) Average velocity during time interval (4 ~«) ‘cos 8 Ce during this interval, the vertical displace- ment is zero) Velocity and Direction of Motion of Projectile at any Height. Let P be a point on the trajectory of a projectile ata height hand let» be the velocity ofthe projectile at that height, If is the angle which the Velocity vector makes withthe horizontal, then the horizontal and vertical components of the veloc toe eventy 0,0, conat or ‘Deos =u cos @ @ and Baud 2gh or (wsin ay? =(wsin 8) =~ 2¢h w Squaring Bq, (i) and then adding to Ea (i), we get u.-2gh or v= (u'—2h)" This gives the speed of the projectile a height ‘The direction ofthe velocity vector (1, direction ‘of motion) is obtained by taking the square root of Eq. (i) and then dividing by Eq (2). We get sina, (vsin’o—29n)"? fee e080 Time of Flight and Range of a Projectile on an Inclined Plane Consider an inclined plane O48 making an angle @ with the horizontal (Fig. 2.25). Let a body be projected with a velocity a at an angle @ with the horizontal. Let us choose the x-axis along the plane (4 and y-axis perpendicular to the plane OA. Let the body hit the inclined plane at point P so that R = OPis he range on the inclined plane. The x and y components ofthe velocity ofthe projectile are v= ueos(@-a) and ‘The. and y components of acceleration duc to grav- ity are— gin erand~ g.eos crespectively, as shown in Fig. 2.25, Let 7,-be the time of flight om the in- clined plane. Since the net vertical displacement in time 7, is zet0 (ie, = 0), we have 7 into) Lame, 2usin (@—a) ge0s F kena Fig. 2.25 During this time, the horizontal component of ‘laity woos @remains constant. Hence, horizontal distance OO is 00 =(ucos OT, Range of the projectile on the inclined plane is 00 _(weos0)T, cost cose R=OP= ww Using Eq, (ii) in Eq, (iv), we get 2u? sin (@-a)eos@ goose 18, Relative Velocity in Two Dimensions R ‘The relative velocity of a body B with respect to body is defined as If vectors v4 and vp are inclined to each other at an angle @ as shown in Fig, 2.26, the relative velocity vp is found as follows. Kinomatice 28 Fig. 2.26 Vag Vp W Me OV ‘Thus, the magnitude and direction of vector vg, can be found by finding the resultant of vectors v, and ¥, which is vector OC as shown in Fig. 2.26. Magnitude of vector vp, i given by gq = (04 +0} +204 09 cosa)!” 1409 c0s0) (:a=180°-6) ‘The angle which the resultant vector OC subtends wi ‘cetor OD is given by oc | cb sind” Sind (Dsind _vpsind = sin esind OC ty Special Case Gi) Ivector 2, and vy are in the same direction, 6 0°, 0) +p — 20404 =Vg- Vy If vector 0, and ty are in opposite direction, 0 = 180%, then tpg = * ty then dy, Applications. To cross the river of width d along the shortest path ‘which is PO, the boat must move along PR making an angle (90° ~ 8) with the direction ofthe stream such thatthe direction ofthe resultant velocity v is, along PQ. Angle 0 is given by (sce Fig, 2.27) a ) Gy Also ‘The time taken to eross the river along the shortest path is given by oie To eross the river in the shortest time, the boat should move along PQ. The shortest time is given by ‘Acthis time, the boat will each the point & on the ‘opposite bank of the river at a distance x from the point Q (Fig. 2.28). From the Figure, we have x= dun, but tan @ ~ “= Therefore, s-4(S) 2) gs 8 steamow a 4 6 y fig.2.28 Holding an Umbrella to Project from Rain Let v, be the velocity of the rain falling vertically down ward and v, the velocity of a man walking from north to south direction (Fig. 2.29). In order to pro- tect himself from rain, he must hold his umbrella in the direction ofthe resultant velocity v, which is aiven by South —g 216 Compete Physics IEE Main 19. @ va Von, This isthe speed with which the rain strikes the um- brella If @is the angle subtended by the resultant ve~ locity v withthe vertical, then from triangle ORM’, wwe have tang ~ BM” OR ®, or o-tan' (2 ‘Thus, the man must hold the umbrella at an angle with the vertical towards north Uniform Circular Motion Fora body moving in horizontal eile « ‘The centripetal acceleration of a body of mass m moving in a citcle of radius & witha constant speed 1 (or angular speed «is Cntripetal force is mor f= ma, For a body moving in a vertical circle ‘The minimum speed to complete the circle when the body is at the top of the cirele is = Rg ‘The minimum speed to complete the circle when the ‘body is at the bottom of the eitele is = SRE SECTION! Multiple Choice Ques |. The magnitude of the resultant of two vectors of magnitudes 3 units and 4 units in $ units, What is the angle between two vectors? x 5 oF oF © = ax . The magnitude ofthe resultant of two equal vectors is equal to the magnitude of either veetor. What is the angle between the two vectors? (a) 60° () 90° (©) 120° (@) 150° In Q2, the angle between the resultant and cither vector will be (a) 60" () 90° () 120° (@) 150° 1. Given P= A+ Band Q= A~ B. Ifthe magnitudes of vectors P and Q are equal, what is the angle between vectors A and B? (@) zer0 oF a AB, what is the angle between A and 6 ns with One Correct Choice (a) zer0 (b) 30° (c) 60" (a) 90° If]A x B|= 4 4B, what is the angle between A and uP (a) ze10 (by 30° (6) 60" (a) 90° 1. IFA-B= magnitude of A B, then the angle between veotors A and Bis (a) 30° (by 48° (e) 60" (a) 1° s. Given A-B= 0 and Ax C= 0. Whatis the angle between B and C? (a) 4s° (©) 18° () 90° (a) 180° 1. The resultant of two veetors A and B subtends an angle of 45° with either of them, The magnitude of the resultant is tb) V2 4 24 (@) 2210 ja 1. Vector Cis the sum of two vectors A and Band vec {or Dis the cross product of veetors A and B. What is the angle between vectors C and D? (a) ze10 (by 60° (6) 90° (a) 180" Kinematics 247 iy 13, 16. 1”. 1. Given ©= Ax Band D ‘between C and D? (@) 2010 (6) 60° fe) 90° (a) 180° ‘The resultant of two vectors of magnitudes 3 units and 4 units is unit, What isthe value of their dot XA. What is the angle product? (@) = 12 units () ~T nits (6) —Tunit @) zero ‘The resultant of two vectors of magnitudes 3 units and 4 units is 1 unit, What is the magnitude of their «ross product? (a) 12 units (©) Lunit () Tunits (@) zer0 1. Three vectors A, B and C are related as. A + B= C. If veotor € is perpendicular to vector A and the magnitude of C is equal to the magnitude of A, what will be the angle between vectors A and B? (a) 45° (b) 90° fe) 135° (@) 180° s. The magnitude of the resultant of (A + B) and (A-B)is (@ 24 ) 28 © Vere @ Vee In Q.15, what is the angle between the resultant vector and vector A? 6) a & a/b (2) The particle will come back to its starting point as ¢ > = ‘The variation in the speed of a car during its two hour journey is shown in the graph of Fig, 231..The ‘magnitude of the maximum acecleration of the ear ‘occurs during the interval 100 & + 0 ze Ew Em of ds ih is 20 “Time h) —> Fig. 231 (a) OA (b) BC (©) cD (a) DE A parachutist drops fieely from an aeroplane for 10s before the parachute opens out. Then he descends with a net retardation of 2.5 ms-*. IP he bails out of the plane at a height of 2495 mand g=10 ms”, his velocity on reaching the ground will be (a) 2.5ms" (b) 75 ms (©) Sms! (@) 10ms! Kunomatice 249 35, A car accelerates from test at a constant rate ct for some time after which it docelerates at a constant rate B to come to rest If the total time elapsed is, the maximum velocity acquired by the ear is given by i mae, fa) a+B (b) op ese, a CHB (©) Bae {d) Bac 36. The distance travelled by the car in Q.35 above is siven by ay 1(8_\p 1(a+B 2 sae)’ © ASF) ofS {ss 37, The acceleration of @ particle, starting from rest, varies with time according to the relation a = ka + c, ‘where & and ¢ are constants of motion. ‘The velocity isthe particle after a time # will be (a) krter (b) (12)kF +08 (6) V2 (kr +e (a) he? +12) 38, Theacceleration of particle, starting from rest varies with time according tothe relation a =—s aF cos 4, where s and o are constants. The displacement of this particle at atime ¢ will be Loe i (@ ~ 5 (ar sin oF) s sin a1 (©) s @c0s or @ scosot 39, A freely falling body, falling from a tower of height 1h covers a distance f/2 in the last second of its ‘motion, The height of the tower is (lake g~ 10ms) neatly (a) 58m (&) 50m (©) 60m (@) 55m 40. balloon is rising vertically upwards ata velocity (of 10 ms", When its eta height of 45 m from the ‘ground, a parachutist bails out from it, After 3s he ‘opens his parachute and decelerates at a constant rate of $ ms". What was the height of the parachut- ist above the ground when he opened his parachute? Take g= 10 ms (a) 13m () 30m (©) 45m (@) 6m In Q.40, how far isthe parachutist from the balloon atr=39? (@) 1sm (b) 30m (©) 43m (@) 60m 42, Im Q40, with what velocity does the parachutist hit the ground? (a) 10ms () 20 ms! (©) 30ms* (@) 40 ms! 8 Q40, after how long does the parachutist hit the ‘ground after his exit from the balloon? (@ 4s (b) Ss (©) 6s @ Ts 44, Car is moving with a speed of 36 km bh on a tworlane road. Two cars B and C, each moving with 4 speed of $4 km hin opposite directions on the other lane are approaching ear 4. Ata certain instant when the distance 4B = distance AC = 1 km, the driver of ear B decides to overtake before C does. ‘What must be the minimum acceleration of car B so as to avoid an accident? (a) Ims (b) 2ms? (©) 3ms (2) 4ms? 45, The driver ofa train A moving ata speed of 30 ms"* sights another train & moving on the same track to- wards his tran ata speed of 10 ms" He immediate- ly applies brakes and achieves a uniform retardation of 4 ms *, To avoid head-on collision, what must be ‘the minimum distance between the trains? (a) 100m () 200m (©) 300m (2) 400m 46, A cyclist stats from the centre O of a circular track of radius r =1 km, reaches the edge P of the track and then cycles along the circumference and stops at point Q as shown in Fig. 2.32. If the total time taken is 10 min, what isthe average velocity of the eyelist? Q Z.\, Fig. 232 (a) 3kmnt (b) 6kmh* (©) 9kmirt (@) 12kmh* 47. In Q.46 above, the average speed of the eyclist is approximately equal to 2.20 Complete PhysiceJEE Main (@) 123 ms" () 13.4 ms! (©) 44ms* (@)* Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 4 ms"! After some time, wind starts blowing with a speed of 3ms inthe north to south direction. In order to pro- ‘cot himself from rain, a man standing on the ground should hold his umbrella at an angle @ given by 48, @ tan-*(2) withthe vria! towards south 4 ~ tan-*( 3) with the vertical towards nor (0 a0'(2) with ei ovo (©) @=cor" (2) withthe vertical towards south (0, 0- cat (2) withthe veri vad sath 49. In.Q.48 above, with what speed does the rain strike the umbrella? (a) 3ms! () 4ms (©) Sms" (@) 6ms* 450. A sovitmmer ean swim in sll water witha speed of Sms, While crossing a river his average speed is Sims Ihe crosses the iver in the shortest posible time, whats the speed of flow of water? @ 2ms! () 4ms? (© 6ms" (@) Sms? 1, A bods, starting from rest, moves ina straight line ‘with a constant acceleration « for a time interval 1 uring whieh it ravels a distance 5, It continues to ‘move with the same acceleration forthe next time interval r during which it travels a distance 5, The relation between 5, and is @ 0) 5; Os Ws InQ.51, if, isthe velocity ofthe body atthe end of. frst time interval and that atthe endof the second time interval, the relation between 0, and vis (@) y=0 (0) 2," 20, © w= 32, () v= 40, 553. A body dropped from the top of a tower its the around after 4s. How much time does it take to cover the first half of the distance feom the top of the tower? (@ Is ) 25 @ 22s @) Bs ‘A body moving in a straight line with constant ac- celeration of 10 ms™ covers a distance of 40 m in 58. st. 58 59. the 4" second, How much distance will it cover in the 6" second? (@) 50m (6) 60m (©) 70m (@) 80m A body, moving in a straight line with an initial ve- locity of 5 ms ' and a constant acceleration, covers a distance of 30 m in the 3° second. How much distance will it cover in the next 2 seconds? (@) 70m () 80m (©) 90m (2) 100m ‘A body, moving in a straight tine, with an initial velocity 1 and a constant acceleration a, covers a distance of 40 m in the 4" second and a distance of 60 min the 6" second. The values of w and arespee- tively are (2) 1ms!, Sms? (b)"!, 10m (©) Sms',Sms? (a) Sms", 10ms? ‘A body, starting from rest and moving with a con- stant acceleration, covers a distances, in the 4 see- ond and a distance s, in the 6® second. The ratio 4 oF 7 a 2 OF Acar, starting from rest, has a constant acceleration ‘9; for a time interval 7, during which it covers a distance s,. Inthe next time interval, the car has a constant retardation a, and comes to rest aftr ering a distance sin time 1, Whieh ofthe following relations is correct? @ ) 4a8 In Q. 58, ifthe total distance covered by the ear ss, the maximum speed attained by it will be oli) (2 wo (2 |. Acar, starting fom rest, is accelerated at a constant rate until it attains a speed v.Itis then retarded at ‘constant rate until it comes to rest. The average speed of the car during its entire journey is Kinematics 2.20 6. 0, 65. 6. (@ 210 we © os A simple pendulum is hanging from the ceiling of ‘compartment ofa train, Its observed thatthe string is inclined towards the rear of the train, If follows that the train is (a) atrest (b) accelerated (6) decelerated (@) in uniform motion, ‘The displacement of a body from a reference point, is given by Ve = 2643 here x is in metres and rin seconds. This shows that the body is (a) atest (©) decelerated (b) accelerated (@) in uniform motion In Q.62, what i the initial velocity of the body? (a) 2ms* (6) 3 ms" (©) 6 ms" (@) 12ms 1. In Q.62, what isthe acceleration of the body? (@) 2ms? (b) 3 ms? (©) 6ms* (@) 8m ‘A car moving at a speed o is stopped in a certain distance when the brakes produce a deceleration a, the speed of the ear was ne, what must be the de- celeration of the car to stop it in the same distance and in the same time? (a) via © wa @ na A car is moving at a certain speed. The minimum distance over which it can be stopped is x. Ifthe speed of the ear is doubled, what will be the mi mum distance over which the car can be stopped during the same time? (a) ar (b) 2« (©) x2 (@ x4 A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial velocity of $0 ms. 1 covers a distance Mr during the frst second and a distance i during the last 3 seconds ofits upward motion. If g= 10 ms, jr, and ‘will be related as (a) = 3h; (b) na ) hy © h @ hy 70. m. n. B. ball is thrown vertically downward with velocity 1 from the top of a tower. It strikes the ground with ‘velocity 3, The time taken by the ball to reach the ‘ground is given by @ + oo & & © * w@ % 8 « 9. In Q.68, the height ofthe tower is given by @ © wo) # ® © * w z & ‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a straight Line in time is given by the relation 2 eaeer If vis the velocity ofthe body at a certain instant of time, its acceleration will be @) - (by -207 (© -30" @ -40° ‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a straight line in time is given by +23 ‘The acceleration of the body will vary as 1 @ L © “The motion ofa body is given by the equation a(n) 0 oO 60-370) where V() isthe speed (in ms“ at time # (in sec cond). Ifthe body was at rest at (= 0, which of the following statements is wrong? (@) the terminal speed is 2.0 mst (b) the magnitude ofthe intial acceleration is 6.0 (©) the speed varies with time as HW) =2(1 ~€) (@) the speed is 2.0 ms“ when the acceleration is half the initial value A body, moving in a straight line, covers half the distance with a speed ¥, the remaining part of the 222 Compete Physics IEE Main 16. n. 78, ”. distance was covered with a speed ¥” for half the time and with a speed ¥” for the other half of the lime. What is the average speed of the body? wy anus ves") (Qverar”) (verse) wr ver S Tray ©! TPP A cat is moving on a straight horizontal road with a speed 2. When brakes are applied to give a constant retardation , the ears stopped ina shortest distance 5. Ifthe car were moving on the same road with a speed 3» and the same retardation « is applied, the shortest distance in which the cari stopped will be (a) 35 ) 6s 9s @ 278 The maximum height attained by a projectile and its horizontal range are equal to each other if the projectile is projected at an angle 8 given by (@) @= tan!) (b) @= tan (3) (©) B=tan'(4) (a) @= tan '(5) A person aims a gun a a target located at horizon tal distance of 100 m. Ifthe gun imparts a horizontal speed of 500 ms to the bullet at what height above the target must he aim his gun in order to hit i? Take (©) 206m (@) 100 em ‘When a projectile is atthe highest point ofits trajec= tory, the directions of its velocity and acceleration (a) parallel o each other (b) anti-parallel to each other (c) inclined to each other at an angle of 45° (@) perpendicular to each other A boll is projected horizontally with a velocity of Sms" from the top ofa building 19.6 m high. How Jong will the ball take to hit the ground? @ Vs tb) 28 © Ss (38 ‘A bomb is dropped from an aeroplane when itis at height ditctly above a target. If the aeroplane is moving horizontally at a speed 2, the distance by which the bomb will miss the target is given by omE off at 2, 85, ol wo aE ‘An enemy plane is lying horizontally tan altitude ‘of 2 km with a speed of 300 ms! Amarmyman with an ant-aiteraft gun onthe ground sights the enemy plane whenitisdreetly ovetheadand fies asbell with a muzzle speed of 60 ms" At what angle with the \ertial should the gun be fred sos obit the plane? @) 30° @) 4s (©) 60° @ 18 1.Q.80, at what minimum altitude should the enemy plane fly to avoid being hit? Take g = 10 ms® (a) 125 km (b) 13.5 km. (©) 145 km (a) 15.5 km. ‘The ceiling ofa tunnel is S m high, What is the max- imum horizontal distance that a ball thrown with a speed of 20 ms ', can go without hitting the ceiling of the tunnel? Take g= 10 ms”, (a) 10¥3 m () 20V3 m (©) 30¥3 m (a) 4003 m .. From the top of a tower of height 40 m, a ball is projected upwards witha speed of 20 m/satan angle ‘of elevation of 30°. The ratio of the total time taken bby the bal to hit the ground tits time of fight (time taken to come back fo the same elevation) is (Take g=10mis) f@) 2:1 (3:1 (3:2 (@) 15:1 1. In Q.83, the horizontal displacement (from the foot of the tower) of the ball is approximately equal to (a) Som () 60m (©) 70m @ 80m A.cannon on a level plain is aimed at an angle « above the horizontal and a shell is fired with a muz- ale velocity 1 towards a vertical cliff a distance R ‘aay. Then the height from the bottom at which the shell strikes the side walls ofthe clits Kinomatice 223 86. a7. 88, 89, 90, on 92, 93, Itispossible to projecta particle witha given velocity in two possible ways so as to make it pass through 4 point P ata distant r from the point of projection ‘The product ofthe times taken to reach this point in the two possible ways is then proportional to (@) Ur (or or ‘Agan kept on a strsight horizontal roa is used o hit ear travelling om the same road away from the um ata unifom speed of 1002 ms The car iat 8 distance of 150 m rom the gun when fied at fn angle of 45° tothe horizontal, With what speed Should the shel be projected so that it hits the at? ‘Take g = 10 ms (a) 20ms* (b) 30 ms (©) 40ms* (@) 50 ms In Q.87, whats the distance of the ear from the gun ‘when the shell hits it? (@) 250m () 500m (6) 750m (@) 1000 m_ From the top of @ tower of height 40 m, a ball is projected upwards with a speed of 20 ms"! at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. If g= 10 ms, after ‘how Jong will the ball hit the ground? @ ts (o) 28 (© 3s @ 4s A projectile has @ maximum range of 200 m. What is the maximum height attained by i (@) 25m () 50m (© 75m (@) 100m A body thrown along 4 fritionless inelined plane ‘of angle of inclination 30° covers a distance of 440 m along the plane. Ifthe body is projected wit the same speed at angle of 30° with the ground, it Will have a range of (take g =*) (@) 20m () 2003 m (©) 20V3 m (@) 40m Which ofthe following remains constant during the motion ofa projectile fired from a planet? () kinetic energy (b) momentum (©) vertical component of velocity (@) horizontal component of velocity A body is projected with kinetic energy K at an an- tle of 60° with the horizontal. Its kinetic energy at the highest point ofits trajectory will be 95, o, 98, 100. 101. (@) 2 i) K (©) Ke (a) Kis A body, projected with a certain kinetie energy, has 4 horizontal range R. The kinetic energy will be minimum at a position of the prajcetile when its horizontal range is (@ R () 384 © Ra (@) RM ‘Ac what angle (6) with the horizontal should a body bbe projected so that its horizontal range equals the maximum height it attains? (@) 0 tan" (V3) (© = tan" (23) ) tant (22) (@) O= tan"! (4) ‘The horizontal distance x and the verical height y ‘of a projectile at a time ¢ are given by x =at and y= be +t where a, band c are constants. What is the magni- tude of the velocity of the projectile | second alter itis fired? (@) a2 +P!) [2a + 4 ey (©) (a? + 2b + cf")! (a) fa? + (b+ 2eP 2 tn Q.96, the angle (8) with the horizon the projectiles projected is given by at which « o=wn'(2) © o=tn'(2) (a o= un (2) 196, the acceleration duc to gravity is given by (@) -20 () 2 (© 2 (8) ~ae+b 1. In Q. 96, the magnitude of the initial velocity ofthe projectile is given by () (+82) +e? © @+)' (a) (6? —4acy"® Four projectiles are projected with the same speed a angles 20°, 35°, 60° and 78° withthe horizon- tal, The range will be the longest for the projectile whose angle of projection is (@) 20° () 35° © 60° (6) 15° projectile town at an angle of 30° with the hor Zonal ha a range Rand attains a maximum height ‘y,. Anosber projectile thrown, withthe same veloc ‘ty, at am angle 30° with the vertical, has @ range 224 Compete Physics IEE Main 102. 103. 108, 105. 106, 107. 108. 109, Ry and attains a maximum height fy, The relation ‘between Rand Ry is RB fa) R= b) R= Ry @ &- = (b) R= Ry (©) R,=2R (2) R= AR, In Q.101 what is the relation between and h: (@) iy () my 4 3 hy (©) y= (d) y= hy Om @ The maximum height attained by a projectile is creased by 10% by inereasing its speed of projec tion, without changing the angle of projection. The percentage increase in the horizontal range will be (a) 20% () 15% (6) 10% (a) 5% ‘In Q.103, what isthe percentage increase in the time ‘of flight of the projectile? (a) 20% () 15% fe) 10% (a) 5% ‘The maximum height attained by projectile is creased by 10% by changing the angle of projec tion, without changing the speed of projection, The percentage increase in the time of fight will be (a) 20% ©) 15% (6) 10% (a) 5% ‘The speed of projection of projectile is increased by 596, without changing the angle of projection. The percentage increase in the range will be (a) 2.58 () 5% (©) 75% (@) 10% In Q. 106, what is the percentage inerease in the ‘maximum height attained by the projectile? (a) 2.5% ) 5% (c) 75% (@) 10% In Q. 106, what is the percentage inerease in the time of flight ofthe projectile? (a) 2.5% ) 5% © 75 (2) 10% A projectile attains a cortain maximum height when projected from earth, IP tis projected at the same dangle and with the same initial speed from the moon, where the aeceleration due to gravity is one sixth that on earth, by What factor will the maximum height of the projectile increase? mo, m2, 3. m4, us. 6, f@) V5 tb) 3 © 6 (a 6 [A projectile has a range & and time of fight 7: If the range is doubled (by increasing the speed of projec: tion, without changing the ange of projection), the time of fight will become () Or as r ‘ © > @2T AA projectile has the same range R when the maxi- ‘mum height attained by itis either hy ot hy. Then R, 1h, and fy willbe related as 2h ( R- Vis ) (©) R= 3Vinhy (a) R= With; body i projected horizontally from a point above the ground. The motion ofthe body is described by the equations xo2r and yose where x and y ate the horizontal and verical dis placements (in m) respectively at time The trajee- tory ofthe body is (@) a straight tne (©) aneltipse What isthe veloc is projected? @ 2ms" () 25m (© 35ms" (@) Sms? What isthe magnitude ofthe velocity ofthe boy in Q.112,0.2 second after itis projected? (@ V2 ms" (b) 2 v2 ms" (©) 33 ms (0) 4 ms" The velocity ofthe body in Q. 112 at time t= 0.26 is inetned withthe vertical at an angle of @ 2s (0) 30° © 4" (6) 60° [Abody is projected at time =0 from a certain point ‘ona planet’ surface with a erain velocity ata cer tain angle with the planet’ surface (assumed hor- zontal). The horizontal and verical displacements x and y Gin metes) respectively vary with time (in seconds) a8 r=10N3 1 (b) acirele (a) a parabola ‘with which the body in Q. 112 Kinomatice 225 47, 9, 120. 1. 2. 123. y= 101 What isthe magnitude and direction ofthe velocity with which the body is projected? (@) 20 ms" atan angle of 30° with the horizontal (6) 20ms atanangle of 60° with the horizontal (©) 10 ms aan angle of 30° with the horizontal (@) 10ms ! at an angle of 60° with the horizontal ‘What is the value of acceleration due to gravity on the planet's surface in Q. 116? (a) 1.0ms* (b) 2ms? (©) 4ms* (a) 98 ms What is the maximum height which the body in Q.116 wil attain? (a) 25m (©) 50m (©) 75m (@) 100m What is the total time of flight of the body in Quer (a) 2s ) 5s (©) 10s (a) 20s ‘What is the distance between the point from where the body in Q. 116 is projected and the point where itstrikes the planet’ surface? (a) 25¥3 m (6) 50V3 m (©) 75¥3 m (a) 10093 m ‘Which one of the following statements is NOT true about the motion ofa projectile? (a) The time of ight of a projectile is proportional to the speed with which it is projected. (b) the horizontal range of a projectile is propor- tional to the square-root of the speed with which itis projected, (6) For a given speed of projection, the angle of projection for maximum range is 45°. (@) At maximum height, the acceleration due to _eravity is perpendicular to the velocity of the projectile A plumb line is hanging from the ceiling of ata If the train moves along a horizontal track with uniform acceleration a, the plumb line gets inclined to the vertical at a angle wan { 3) om() A block is placed on the top of a smooth inclined plane of inclination @ kept on the floor of a lift ‘When the lift is descending with a retardation a, ©) tan! (4) (@ cos'(£) 124, 128, 126. 12, 128, 129. the block is released, The acceleration of the block rwlative tothe incline is (@) gsino (©) (a) sino A ball is projected vertically upwards with a certain initial speed. Another ball ofthe same mass is pro- jected at angle of 60° with the vertical with the same initial speed. At the highest point, the ratio of their potential energies will be @ act (322 2:3 @ 2:1 Displacement (x) of a particle is elated to time (2) as x= artbe—oF where a, b and ¢ are constants of motion. The velocity of the particle when its acceleration is zero is given by (b) asin @ (a) (e+ aysin@ wert wart e ore oak % The angle between vectors A=3i +4] +S and B=6i +8] + 10k is (a) ze10 ) 45" (©) 90° (a) 180° A vector A isalong the positive z-axis and its vector ‘product with another vector B is 2ero then vector B could be @ i+j (oy 4h @ irk (@) -7k Aisa vector which when added to the resultant of vectors Qi -3} +4Ryand(f +5] +2) yields 2 unit vetor along the y-anix, Then veetor Ais? () 3i-j-ok gsi +j-ok @si-jtok sis jrok ‘The angle between two vectors A and Bis @. Vector Ris the resultant ofthe two vectors. FR makes an (@) 4=28 4 (4-8 (@ 4B-1 1. A river is flowing from west to cast at a speed of 5 miminute, In what direction should a man on the south bank of the river capable of swimming at 10 m/minute instill water swim to eross the river in the shortest time? 226 Compete Physics IEE Main 1a. 132. 133. 134. 138. 136. (a) East (b) West (6) South (@) North In Q. 130 above, in what direction should the man ‘swim so that he erosses the river by swimming the shortest distance? (a) North () 60" west of north () 30° west of north (d) 30° west of south A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity It passes three points 4, B and C in its upward journey with velocities “, “ and respectively. The ratio respectively. 4B ig 3 ae 20 @ 22 2 OFZ ) 10 @ a1 o% ® A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity 1. It passes a point at a height above the ground at time 1, while going up and at time fs while falling down, Then the relation between wf and fis du de arn) gen z £ Out Want ® z In Q. 133 above, the relation between tty and his n= 2 ane * ® z wtar= tw arnr= « « A body dropped from a height /¥ above the ground sitikes an inclined plane at a height ft above the sground. Asa result ofthe impact, the velocity ofthe body becomes horizontal. The body will take the ‘maximum time to reach the ground if 4 i (a) a= re @it OW Se H Li © a> Ome -Aboy is dropped from the roof oF a mulli-storeyed building. I passes the ceiling of the 15th storey at 4 spocd of 20 ms. Ifthe height of each storey is 44m, the number of storeys in the building is (ake = 10 ms and neglect ai resistance) (a) 20 (o) 25 © 30 (o) 35 137, 138. 139, 140. 1. 12, 143, 144, ‘Two balls 4 and B are projected from the same loca tion simultaneously. Ball 4 is projected vertically upwards and ball B at 30° to the vertical. They reach the ground simultaneously. The velocities of projec- tion of 4 and B are inthe ratio (oy 1: V5 @ 3:2 (a) 2: V5 [A body is projected with a velocity v=(34 + 49) ims '. The maximum height attained by the body is @ Bet (ake g= 10s) (a) 08m ) 8m (©) 80m (2) 800m In Q. 138 above, the time of fight ofthe body is (a) 08s (b) Los (©) 405 @) 805 A body is projected with a velocity w at an angle @ with the horizontal. The velocity of the body will bbccome perpendicular to the velocity of projection after atime r given by @ 2esina 08 € © © Find » gsi A body is projected at an angle @ with the horo- Zonta. When it at the highest point, the ratio of the potential and kinetic energies ofthe body is (a) wn @ (b) tan? (©) core (a) core The equation of motion ofa projectile isy= ax~ ba? where aand bare constants of motion. The borizan- tal range of te projectile is a va a) £ (oy YE @ oF OF OF In Q. 142 above, the greatest height attained by the projectile is a va @ > o> oF OF In Q. 142 above, the time of flight ofthe projectile Kinomatice 227 4s, 146. 7. 148. 149. 150, 3 ‘ woz % OV ° Te i — © Vie @ Vag [A paricle moving ina straight line covers half the distance with a speed of 3 mvs. The other half of the distance is covered in two equal time intervals with speeds of 4.5 ms and 75 m/s respectively. The average aperl of the pesicl during this mation is (@ 4omis () 50m (© 53m (@) 48 ms Acar is telling ata velocity of 10 kmh on @ straight road, The driver of the ear throws 2 parcel witha velocity of 102 kh when the cris passing byaman taning on the side ofthe rou. Ihe parcel isto reach the man, the direction of throw makes the following angle with the ditetion ofthe car, (@) 135° (b) as" : 14) (©) tan" (2) « aw (J) The initial velocity of a particle is u = (43+39) ms. It is moving with uniform acceleration (04 + 0.39) ms, The magnitude ofits velocity after 10 is (a) 3ms! (©) dims! (©) Sms" (@) 10 ms" ‘The horizontal and vertical displacements of a pro jectile at time “7 are x= 36¢ and y = 48r— 4.97 respectively where x and y are in metre and 1 isin second. Initial velocity of the projectile im m/s is: (a) 15 ) 30 © 43 (a) 60 ‘The displacement x of a particle moving in one dimension is related 10 time rby the equation VE +3 ‘here xis in metres and tin seconds. The displace- ment of the particle when its velocity is zero is (a) ze10 @) 4m ©) 1m (@) 05m Apartile intially (ie, at = 0) moving with a veloe- ity wis subjected to a retarding force, as a result of which it develerates at arate a=—ke where vis the instantaneous velocity and 4 s-a po tive constant, The time T taken by the particle to come to rests given by 181. 182. ve 7-2 ype? aut 7-28 A particle stars from rest, Is acceleration at time is 5 ms which varies with time as shown in Fig, 2.33. The maximum speed of the particle will be (a)! (b) 15 ms! (©) 30ms* (a) 75 ms? tom ° «! Fig. 2.33 Figure 2.34 shows the variation of velocity (2) of a body with position (x) from the origin O. Which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.35 correctly represents the variation ofthe aceeleration (a) with position (x)? o y= Fig. 234 4 1 r= 6 = @ o ! ! 9 = 9 = © @ Fig. 235, 2.38 Complete Physice—JEE Main 153. The velocity (0) ofabody moving slong the postive 67. (6) 68. (b) @.@ x-direction varies with displacement (x) ftom the 70. (4) 7.) n.d) origin as v= AV, where isa constant. Which of 73. (a) ©) 75.0) the graphas shown in Fig. 2.36 corretly represents 76, (b) nw 18. (b) the displacement-time (x1) graph ofthe motion? 79, (@) we a 8) 82. (b) 83. (a) 84.) { { 85. (c) 86. (b) 87. (d) x : 88. (o) 89. (d) 90. (b) 91. (©) 92. (d) 93. (a) 94. (©) 98. (@) 96. (9) 9. (@) 98. () 99. (©) ° = oO = 100. (b) 101. (6) 102. (b) ® » 103. (e) 104. (@) 108. (a) 106. (@) 107. (@) 108. (b) | ! 1.) ‘ ‘ m2. @) 113. (@) 114. () 118, (©) 116, (@) 117. () 118. (@) 19. @) 120. @) 1. 122. (@ 123. (@) = eo Fe 124. (@) 125. (©) 126. (@) 127. @) 18. (@) 129. () Fig.2236 130. (@) BL © 132. (@) 133. (@) 134, (@) 138, ©) 136. (@) 132. © 138. (@) CEE ANSWERS OEE 4.35) (3) 10. @ Mat. @ 1) 2© .@ 122, (a) 143, @) 144, (@) L@ £@ 0) 148. (@) 146. (0) 147. (@) 7b) 26) © 148. @) 149. (@) 150. (0) 10. no @ 131.) 152. (@) 133. (©) 3B. @) 14. @) © 16, (a) 17.) © > SOLUTIONS 9. @) 20. (©) (0) 2. @) 23. (0) .(@) 1. The magnitude ® ofthe resultant vector R of two a5) eo © sgetors ‘and B inclined at an angle Bis given by 28. (©) 29. (0) . (0) ROMS BES TAB cos 0 31d) © © 2 4.) @ © cos 4 (roo -uF o 37. (b) ) =) * 40. (6) (0) (2) . 8.0) (0) 45. (b) 20». ence the comect choice i 46. (0) (3) 48.) a #9. () 0) 51. @) 2. R= AP + B+ 24B 60s 6. his given that R= A = B. ae oe a Pattng those vals we have 55. (©) - (d) 57. () +4? +24? cos 8 58. (@) @ 60. () 1 ich diene 61. (6) (0) 6. @) Zone ne 64. (@) © 66, (3) Honce the correct choice i (0) From the triangle law of veetor addition, i s clear that the veetors R, A and B in Q.2 must be rep- resented by the three sides of an equilateral trian- tse because the magnitudes ofthe three vectors are ‘equal. Hence the angle a between vectors R and is 60°. Alternatively, the value of es given by tana = —83in@__sin@_(. gp) A+ Boos 1+00s8 = Sin120" a5 T+e0s120° which gives a = 60°. Hence the correct choice is @. 1. Let Obe the angle between A and B. Then magni- tudes of vectors P and Q are given by Pia a? + P4240 cos 0 and Q?= A" +B 24B 60s 8 Since P = Q, it follows that cos 0 = 0 or O~ 22. Hence correct choice is (c) Given ay fore 60°, Hence correct choice is (). Given JA Bl = 4B sin Varia 2 2 ‘Therefore @= 30°, Hence the correct choice is (b. Given AB cos @= AB sin 8 or wn = 1 which gives I5°. Hence the correct choice is (b). Since A + B= 0, it follows that A is perpendicular to B.Also Ax C= 0, Therefore A is perpendicular oC. Hence B is perpendicular to C. Therefore, the ccorect choice is (b). As shown in Fig. 2.37, the angle @ between vectors ‘A and B is 90°, Also 41 ~ B, Therefore, the magt s given by = APA 2 c08 90° Kunomatice 229 or R- 4. choice is (b). 10. Vector € lies in the plane containing veetors A and B, and vector D is perpendicular to both A and B. Hence D must be perpendicular to C. Henee the cor- rect choice is (c). ‘ince Ax B=-BxA,C=~D, Le. veetors Cand D are in opposite directions. Hence the correct choice is(@. 12. Let be the angle between the two vectors. The resultant is given by Re 2AB cos @ Putting the values of R, A and B we get (CF = GP + GP +234 x c08 0 or 0s 8 =~ 1 or = 180" Now AB = AB cos @= 34x -cos 180° =~ 12 Hence the correct choice is (a). 13. ‘The magnitude of Ax B= AB sin 0= 3 x4 x sin 180° = 0. Hence the comect choice is (d). 14, Since A+B = C, vector C is the resultant of vectors A and B. Using the triangle law of vector addition (ee Fig, 2.38), we have 0= 45° (7 A= C) ‘Thus, the correct choice is (a) Hence the correct Fig. 238 15, The resultant R of vectors (A+B) and (A~B) is R=(A+B)+(A—B)= 24 ‘The magnitude of the resulta correct choice is (a) ince R = 2A, R is parallel to A. Hence the correct choice is (a). 14, Hence the 17. Let i and j represent the magnitudes of vectors i and j respectively. Since 7 and j are unit vectors, i= tand j 1 Therefore, the magnitude of vector Vu +0F = 92, ‘Thus, the correct choice is (b). 230 Compete Physics IEE Main 1. 20. ‘The angle subtended by vector with the axisis given by ( cos = UA aa (Pe a oa 14040 1 en oh Hence the eoreetchoiee is (a). Here (02)? + (0.67 * a = ora? = 1.6 or a= V0.6 , So the correct choice is (c). 2. 2 mM ‘Thus, the correct choice is (a). Ax Be (ii)x(ieRlaixi rick eed ejxk K +i which is choice (4). The component of vector A along vector B (A+ B)B where ‘of vector B. Now (ac) = (2 +3))(i+3) where B is the magnitude iabjoabieshi =2+040+3-5 Also Sis ‘Thus the answer is (7+) whichis eolee 1 fli) ©. . vector (Ij) is perpendic i) “The required component is c (acy & (a0) G (> Magnitude o 25, 26, 2. 29, ‘Thus, the correct choice is (a). Let n seconds be the time taken by the stone toreach the ground. The distance covered in the ast second = distance covered in n seconds ~ distance covered l 1 gn? + gin 1) The dis- in (a1) seconds = > gn — > a(n 1). The di tance covered in the first 3 seconds = + gx (3). It is given that a 1 L : ds wi xGF 2 ea Gy or wn 1P=9 which gives 1 = 5s. Hence the correct choice is . gr? te : since a= #2 wehave = fadt=f 4) 3 an Ate * s, a eye 4 Hence the correct choice is () For a given initial speed, the maximum height attained and the downward speed at the point of projection ate independent of the masses of balls Hence the correct choice is (4). Given 2+ 161+ 2, Comparing it with 2 sours © af, wehave w= 16ms" and £=—2 or 2 23 4 ms, Fora body to come to rest, the final velocity © = 0. Using these values of u, 2 and a in eeutat wwe have o-w Sr 3 or elds Hence the caroet choice is (). Given w= 30-ms"! From Fig, 2.34 the acceleration 30ms! a= slope of lis The maximum height is reached when final velocity 2= 0. Using the values of , 2 and ein relation 0° ~ a? = 2as, we have 0-30*30 =2x-10xs Kinematics 23% 30. uM. 2 3 4, 30%30 20 Hence the corset choices (). ‘The two arrows wil bes the ste height at 984.9998 (n= 5)—4.9 (4-5) Thieves 12.55. The time to reach the highest point i given by0=98-9.87i.e, = 10s therefore time o ight {82% 100205 The seed ofthe fst arrow at = 20 sis 98 ms" ‘while that of the second arrow is (98 9.8 x 0.5) ms! ie. 49 ms''. The maximum, eights tained are 490 m each, Hence the correct choice is (c) ‘The area under the velocity-time graph always gives the distance covered as it is given by the integral {dr woh stu inept of whether the body ee acceleration. Henee the correct choice is (d). Velocity ofthe particle is given by #24] eA. a ait ape Acetration ofthe partici given by a0 beh) ane 0d (oe) a abe anal) 6, the displacement ofthe particle is Hence choice (a) is wrong. At ¢= 0, the values v and a respectively are v= ae"? = a and a= ~ abe” =~ ab. Hence choice (b) is also wrong. The dis- placement x is maximum when fF, Fe. gg— - Hence choiee (c) is correct, ‘The acceleration is given by the slape ofthe specd— time graph. The slope of the graph is maximum dur- ing the interval BC. Hence the corect choice is (). ‘The velocity of the parachutist at the end of 10 seconds = 10 g = 10x 10= 100 ms"! and the dis- tance fallen in 10 seconds = 2"/2¢ = 100 x 1002 300 m, The distance travelled after he bails 2495 ~ $00 = 1995 m. For this distance =~ 2.5 ms”. Therefore, the final velocity vis given by (100)? - 22.5 x 1995 ms", Hence, the correct choice is 135. Let be the time during which the car accelerates at a rate c, The velocity atthe end of time f, will be vat =wray=O+an=an — ( w=0) ‘The time during which the ear decelerates is f, 11), For this time f, the initial velocity is 2, and the final velocity is zero and the acceleration is ~. ‘Therefore an,~BU-4) which gives, = PL therefore, maximum ich gives t= GBF. mere obi velocity = vat = a1, = 24 oem OB Hence the correct choice is (a. 36, The distance travelled in time ¢ is (wo) wi) = 28s; ‘Therefore, Hence the correct choice is (a, te 37, Since a= 12, we have w= fadt= [ltr teyde 7 Jaar= [lar +e) ‘ges = Lat? ser, Hence the correct choice is ( 3 ) 38. The vl ofthe prise atte seven by ae 232 Compete Physics IEE Main 9. 40, 2. Ih ow te dplasment it en by x= Jodr=—sfosinorat * cos) dt 0s or Thus, the correct ehviee is (), hol wehave Ha! g (an— 1) s0 that» pry een) Honee his given by ‘Simplifying and puting g= 10 ms” #? 60h + 100 ‘The positive root ofthis quadratic gives = 58 m Hene e correct choice is (2). When the parachutist bails out, he shares the veloc- ity of the balloon and has an upward velocity of 10ms",ie.u=+ 10m" Alsog=— 10 ms" (acting downwards). The displacement in ¢~ 3s is given by 1 ute 0x3 Exe x OF 15m Since the displacement is negative, it is directed downwards. So the height from the ground when he 15 — 15 = 30-m, Thus, the ‘opened his parachute correct choice is (b). Intime 3s, the balloon has risen through 30m (as the velocity of the balloon ig 10 ms” upwards). lence the parachutist is now 30 + 15 = 45 maway from the balloon, Thus, the correct choice is () ‘The velocity of the parachutist 3s after he bails out tet 0+ © 10) x 3=— 20 ms" (directed downwards) 20 ms and ~ 30 m (see, Att= 3s, his initial veloc to hit the ground, his displacement 5 solution of Q. 40). Now a = +5 ms” (directed up- ‘wards). The time taken to hit the ground is given by smut ge fe or ~30 =-207+ 5 2 or #812 =0 or (6-2) = which gives 1= 6s or2 s.If with which he hits the ground is @ = w+ ar=~ 20 + 5%6=10 ms |. This is positive, Le. vis directed upwards, which is not possible. Thus the correct answer is = 2, in whieh case, the velocity with which he hits the ground is p=-20+5x2=-10ms" Which is negative as it should be. Thus, the correct choice is (a). 65, then the velocity 1. The total time the parachutist takes (after his exit from the balloon) to hit the ground is = 3 s +2 s= 5s which is choice (b), 44, Let us suppose that cars 4 and B are moving in the 45, positive x-direction. Then car C is moving in the neyative x-direction. Therefore, v4 = + 36 kmh” = 10 ms oy = +54 km WE 1S ms and vo=- Sékmh! = 15 ms! The relative velocity B with respect to is Y—,= pv ‘he relative velocity of C with respect to A is Rey =We-B4=— 15 10=— 25s". distance between 4 and B = distance between 4 and C= 1 km-= 1000 m, The ear C will cover a distance AC= 1000 m and just reach ear 4 ata time given by 405 Car B will overtake car A just before car C does and avoid an accident, if it acquires a minimum ae- celeration a such that it covers a distance s = AB = 1000 min time 1 40 s, travelling ata relative speed rms !, Putting these values in relation 1 3 seurt } ae 2 We get 1000 = 5 x40 + > xax(40y? which gives a = 1 ms which in choice (a). ‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train B 30+ 10= 40 ms". The minimum distance now is given by Kinomatice 233 46. a7. 48. which gives »= 200 m which is choice (b). Average velocity ‘otal time The displacement of the eyelist in moving from P to Q along the circumference = shortest distance between P and Q = straight line distance PQ (shown bby broken lines in the figure) inthe direction from P {© O. The net displacement in moving from O to P and then from P to Q = resultant of vector displace ment OP and PQ. From the triangle law of vector addition, the magnitude of the net displacement = 1 2Q= 1 km. Now th tie kan = 10min Therefore, average velocity is | ka Zh= kmh, which is choice (b). total distance Average speed = ‘21st distance. Be speed’ total time ‘Total distance = 0 to P (along radius) + P t0 Q (along the are) £. Average spect is choice (a). Velocity of rain ( “vercalydowamacs Velocity of wind (0, " from north to south ditection. A ain drop is acted upon by two veloc ties 2, and 2, as shown in Fig. 2.43. From the tia ale lav, the Fesultant velocity ofthe rain drop is (OW. In order to protect himself from rain, he must hold his umbrella at an angle @ with the vertical (owards north) given by ° South <— 49. sh. 52. 53. Thus, the correct choice is (). The magnitude » of the resultant velocity gives the speed with which the rain strikes the umbrella, ‘which is given by P= [16 +9)! =5 me! Hence the correct choice is (c). |. In order to eross the river in the shortest time, the resultant velocity v ofthe swimmer must be perpene dicular to the velocity 0, of water, s shown in Fig 2.40, 1 follows from the figure that v= y+ vor y= u;- 0 16 OF V, ms! which is choice b). Fig. 2.40 Since the initial velocity is zero, the distance trav celled in the frst time interval is sy =0+) af z ‘The velocity of the body at the end of this time in- terval iso = 0-+ at = at, This is the initial velocity for the next time interval r during which the body twavels a distance. 1 1 sour ator & at a suThus the correct choice is (e) Here 9, = 0 + at = at and 0, =v, + af = ar + a= 2 at. Therefore, 0 ~ 20,. Hence the correct choice is 0. Late Wee o heone Thn = a = 3 © gay 8g. The ime rake ofall rough gf ordg 4 gPorf 38 ‘Thus, the correct choice is (). 2.34 Complete PhysiceJEE Main ‘54, The distance covered in the mth second is given by or 40 =u+2 x 100r: 2 =5ms! n-sttex (6-2) hi es =m Thus, the correct choice is (b). $8. Nomsjeurte (n=!) These, 2 20-5+0(3-1) which gore toms? ant se25e10(5-4) 50m doe $6 Gen ae : dona UE 2 ‘These equations give w= $ ms“! and a = 10 ms”, Thm cece $7 Sine O-nohve & 042 : 2 2 sylsy = T/L, which is choice 458, Since the inital velocity ofthe ears ze, its veloc- ity atthe end ofthe first time interval fis «if, = aif, This is the initial velocity for the next time interval 1. Since the final velocity is zero, we have, from o= u + ar Deana [Now the distance covered in the first time interval 1 js given by 2a; wast) 89, ata i or sehat o ‘The distance covered inthe next time interval fs given by day, = 0-4} (+ 9 0 and w= ayt now) or nit aad aa 2 From (i) and (i) we get = “1-5 whieh is choice (0. ‘The maximum speed 2 attained by the ear = speed itattains atthe end of time interval j during which it is accelerated. As shown above, this speed is Now 5 and Hence the correct choiee is (a, 1. The distance s, covered by the car during the time it is accelerated is given by 2as, = v", which gives 5, = v'/2ce The distance s covered during the time the car is decelerated is, similarly given by 5) = 22/29, ‘Theefor, he ol dacs eoveredis. eld renene (Lol) @ If he ine of eclerton ad that of des There, he liek os (es) a 8B. rath Gi Kinomatice 235 o. o. 65. From (i) and (ii), the average speed of the car is sive by total distance _s_@ toualtime 12 Honee the correct choice is (4), the train atest or in uniform motion its aeeclera= tion is zero. The only acceleration aeting on the bob is the acceleration due to gravity. Hence the sting al. Hence choice (a) and (a) re not pos- is inclined along the direction ofthe resultant of the acceleration a of tain aeting bo: zontal and the acceleration due to gravity g acting vertically. In Fig. 241, vector a isthe resultant of veotors a and g (use triangle law). Hence, the string is inclined opposite to the direction ofthe accelera- tion ofthe train, Thus the correct choice is (b) Fig. 2.41 Squaring both sides, we have 2+ ae +9 Since displacement x changes with time f, the body ‘cannot be at rest The velocity of the body is given by v= Sense a Since the velocity v changes with time tthe body isnot in uniform motion; itis accelerated because increases with 1, Hence the correct choice is (). We have seen that 0= 12 + 81. Comparing it with 7 1 + at we find that w= 12 ms", Hence the correct shove is. Now »= 12+ 8. Comparing it wth » = u-+ af, we find that a= 8 ms Altematively, acceleration ais aivenby doa He 4ar es, dt a ” ora = Sms", Hence the correct choice is (4). ‘The distance over which the ear can be stopped is given by 2 ay =v" or a=w'/2s. [fv becomes nv, the value a° of ato stop the car in the same distance is 1. mL. at = (no)? = ws, Thus a” = na, Hence the correct choice is (), Leta be the maximum retardation the brakes of the car can produce, Then 2ar = 0”, If v is doubled to 20, then the minimum distance x” is given by 2ax" (20) = dv". Thus x" = 4x, Hence the eorreet choice is @. ‘The total time taken by the bullet to reach the high- est point (where its velocity becomes zero) is given by =u — gr or f= nig = 50/10 =5 s, The distance it covers in the first 1 second of its upward motion ishy-ut— 4 gP=soxi-} x 10x(y'=50-5 =45 m. 2 Now, the velocity of the bullet at the end of frst 2 seconds is v= u— gi=50—10x2=30 ms". Thisis the initia velocity forthe last 3 seconds of upward motion, The distance covered in the last 3 seconds is yn30x3-1 31030) 90-45=45 mT 1h, = hy, which is choice (c). From v =u + gi, we have 3u= w+ gi or 20 u/g. Hence the correct choice is (b). From 2gh = v* ~ u', we have 2gh = (3u)" — a? = Bu? or A= Air ig. Henee the correst choice is (). stor Differentiating 27 + 3x ~ f with respect to 1 we have de, 3d aft Me oy i a dt 9 Now & =a, Therefore, 4x0 + 30= 1 or 4x + 3= Vo, Differentiating Eq. (i) with respect to time 4, we have (acy (#} sae (G+ ° or 40? + dxa +300 aa a3 =>. Putting 1—> v= 2-e%) w We have V(o)= 2 (1 -€7)= 21 -0)=2 mst Hence, choice (a) is correct. Finally, let us check choice (@). The acceleration will be half the initial value, ée., it will be equal to 6.0/2 3.0 ms atime 1° given by [use Eq. (i)] 30-60-30") or very=1 m m4 18. 16, or 31" Ine! =n) or <3 = =0,693 or f=02318 Putting this value of in Eq. (if) we have V (at r= 0.231 5) =2(1 7" =2(1-¢ *) = 2(1 0.5) =1.0ms" so choice (d) is wrong. ) Let the total distance be 2 and let f and 4, be the times taken to averse the frst half and the second half ofthe distance respectively. Then f,~ s/V. For the second half of the distance, the distance 5, is tb covaedintime 2 with ped Ys s,= 7" and the distance sis covered in time wih peed ¥” isey- 072, sothats=sp+s)- 1 2er7e = ee 2 2s °° “Total time taken = 4, + fy sy 2s _sQv+y's¥") veer) vee I distance Total time Hence average speed = asxvve+v") sQV4040" ws") arene) ‘Thus, the correct choice is (a). ‘The shortest stopping distance S is given by o-v? =-2a8, or Thus, for a given value of a $c 0* IF 2a 1s increased by a factor of 3, $ will increase by a factor (3)* = 9. Hence the correct choice is (€). ‘The maximum height ( sin® @/2g) and the horizon- tal range (= 1 sin 20) are equal if sin” 6 = sin 28 = 2 sin @ cos @ortan @= 4 of @= tan" (4), Hence the correct choice is (c). ‘The bullet covers a distance of 100 m in time 100/500 =0.2s. The vertical downward distance moved intime1= 0.2818 + g= 1 x 10x (02F = 0.2 m= 20 em, Hence the correct choice is (b) Kinomatice 237 7. 78. 1. [At the highest point of the trajectory, the velocity of the projectile is parallel to the ground but its ae~ celeration is ditected vertically downwards. Hence the correct choice is (2), ‘The time taken to reach the ground is independent oF the horizontal velocity of projection, Since the initial downward velocity is zero (the initial velocity hhas only a horizontal component), the time of fight is given by heat (2 y whichgives r= J =[ 24.0 36)" z Honee the correct choice is © ‘The time taken by the bomb 10 hi given by (as shown above) the ground is Bh 1 Ve ‘Now, the horizontal speed of the aeroplane (and also of the bomb) is v Horizontal range ~ horizontal velocity x 1 — oft ¢ eit sre eons aL. G be th poten of ie pun a that of ae pe ap ST a ms', when the shell is fired with a speed t = 600 ms” in a direction @ with the horizontal (Fig, 2.42). Thehrtogael comgancat a lt cos 8 Fig. 2.42 [Let the shell hit the plane at point P and let ¢be the time taken forthe shell to hit the plane, It is clear that the shell will hit the plane, if the horizontal distance EP travelled by the plane in time r= the distance travelled by the shell in the horizontal di- rection in the same time, Le,,uX¢= 0,Xoru=2, =vycos Bor cos 0= 1 = 3% <5 of 0-60" % 600 Therefore angle with the vertical = Honce the correct choice is (a), 81. To avoid being hit, the plane should have @ mini- op 30° mum altitude ~ maximum height attained by the shell which is vjjsin® @ _ (600)" xsin® (60°) ina 2g 2x10 = 13.5% 10? m= 13.5 ke, which is choice (b). 82, Giver higg, = 5m, know that 20 ms" and ¢= 10 ms". We 2e ¥ [Eis = 35 APTOS 10°. Therefore Honee the correct ch 183, The time of zi 2s. The inital downward velocity ~ 20 sin 30° = 10 ms", The time taken to fall through a height of 40 m with velocity 10 ms" is given by 40 = 10x04 b xtoxe or A 421-8 0 which gives ¢= 2s. Hence the total time to hit the ground. Thus, the correct choice is. ‘84, The horizontal distance covered in 4s = 20x c0s 30° x4 = 70 m, Hence the correct choice is (c). ‘The time taken to move a horizontal distance R is = ‘Rio c08 @). Therefore, the vertical distance moved in this time is given by h Loe t- 5 a wana ?*(aena 2.38 Complete Physice—JEE Main ak = Runa I cosa which is choice (c). 86. The range of a projectile is r= 203 eos @ sin Bg the two possible angles of projection are @and (90° 4). The time of flight carresponding to these wo angles are 2eysind 4 & 0 sin(90°-8) _ 20 c088 * € 0 that ¢,y Thus 4n © r Heenee the correct choiee is (b), 87, Let at = 0, O and A are the positions of the gun and the car (Fig. 243). Let us say that at time 1= fy the shel and the car each B simultaneously so ‘thatthe shell hits the ear when itis at a distance OB from the gun. Let w be the speed of projection of the shell, Then initial horizontal component of velocity of the shell = 1 608 45° = Tan inal vera w/J2 . Therefore, the time of flight = Vwig. The car takes this time i” ‘@ to cover the distance 4B while the shell eovers the distance OB in this time, Now OB = O4 + AB 150m + AB. Distance 4B is given by Su i 3 fH 150 m— Fig. 2.43 joV2 x V2 x% = 20 wg ® and ial ee 1. The horizontal range R 3 or wf =20u~ 1500 =0 (+ g=10ms4) ‘The positive root of this quadratic equation is v= 50 ms". Hence the correct choiee is (d). “The distance of the car hits is som the gun when the shell op = 50x50 = 250 m, which is choice (a 8 10 a ©) = 2005 m ACC, the velocity ofthe ball is again 20 ms! directed ddowa as shown in Fig. 2.44, Fig. 2.48 ‘The downward vertical component ofthis velocity is 20 sin 30° = 10 ms |The ball will hit the ground at D after travelling @ vertical distance h = 40m. If 1 Js the time taken for this, then omy et or 4o=101,55¢8 or f+2n-8-0 The postive rot of his quadmtic equation sr, = 2s. [Now the time of fight from 4 to C via Bis 2usind _ 2>(20)xsin30° @ 10 = 2x20xsin30? _ 5, 10 2s-+ 2s = 4s, Hence 2 Total time taken = 1 +f, the correct choice is (a), Pig and 30m, For maximum range 8= 45°, Hence Ry = Reg! = 200/4 Hence the correct choiee is (b). Kinomatice 239 91, Let u be the initial speed with which the body is thrown along the inclined plane. As shown in Fig, 2.45, the effective deceleration is given by a=gsind ‘The body stops after covering a distance, say, ¢ along the plane, which is given by ~ 2as = 0— v2 or BxSx40 =20ms'. A projectile projected at angle @= 30° with this speed will have a range of ? sin20 _20%20xsin 60° £ 10 R 203 m Fig. 245, Henee the correct choice is (c). 92, Since the velocity ofthe projectile changes continu- ously, both kinetic energy and momentum undergo ‘a change with time. Only the vertical component of ‘velocity changes due to gravity; the horizontal com- ponent always remains constant. Hence the correct choice is (d). 93, At the highest point, the velocity has only the hori- zontal component v, = v cos @= v €0s 60° = v2. Now kinetic energy + m0 is proportional to Since the velocity is reduced to half, the kinetic en- ergy becomes one-fourth, /e, K/4. Hence the cor- rect choice is (0). 94, Kinetic energy is minimum when the projectile is atthe highest point of its trajectory. At the highest point, its range = half the horizontal range. Hence the correct choice is (c). w sin29 g _ Wisin? @ aa” Now R= and h, Given R= higyye Therefore sin 20 = 59° © 92 sin Bos 6: z sin’ @ ortan 8= 4, Hence the correct choices is (), 96, The horizontal component of velocity is 7 98, 100. 101. 102. 103. 1. We have seen above that u cos aed a ge i) ‘The vertical component of velocity is oy, =2btte i) =A GP vet) =2me6 GD) Theva fo at1= 4s Qh 0, Theo, the regio ofan atte ae va elt) 2s [a+ Qb+ gy! ‘Ts, the correct choice is (a) Ifa projectile is projected with an initial velocity at an angle @ with the horizontal, the horizontal and vertical components ofits velocity at time fare aiven by 2, =ucos @ (i andy, =usin @- gr &) ‘Comparing (ii) and (iv) with () and (i) above we have w eos 8= a and w sin 8= e tan iding, we get, Ja. Hence the correct choice is (4) ‘Comparing (iv) with (ii) we have g =~ 2b. Hence the correct choice is (b) and ysind=c ‘Squaring and adding we get: uv? = a + c? or w=(a’ + c*)', Hence the correet choice is (c). Range R = asin 20. For the same R= sn 20 Since sin 20s the largest for @= 35°, the comest choice is (b). The range isthe same for @ and (90° ~ 6), Hence 2, =Rylor0=30°or60°,Thasthecorrectchoiein() ct hans ~ e same for both projectiles, we have fi fy ‘Thus the correct choice is (b). Wisin? 2g when w changes by 8 can be obtained by partially differenting this expression. Thus We know that ‘The increase 5h in h _ Iudusin® whites 24 chistes 10% <0. Th, 2.40 Compete Physics IEE Main 104. 10s. 106. 07. 284 gy Now, range SHO theetoe ag = 2edusinzo f oh oy i ‘Thus 5R = 0.1 R. Hence R also increases by 10%, ‘Thus, the correct ehoice i () “The ime of fight is 7 = 2508 26usin r= € which give ‘Therefore ou #988 tet 2 008 or 8T= 0.05 7. Hence T inereases by 5%. Thus, the correct choice is (a. Given h = 489°@ pitterentiating partially we 2g et 04 costan d= 2 sin B cos 0 5 te an _ 2008080 ris 2808088 9. given, h sin er Therefore, S82 — 9.05. We also have 2asind 1208088 which gives 67 = ‘Thus £ oso But «ine = 0.05, Therefore, SF 005 or 87 = 0.05 7, Hence P increases by ‘5% Thus the correct choice is (2). 28u we en te at #8525 <2 05 wos (84 ime 10% Ta he cont ie i 08) or 01 We have seen that 54 = 284. 9 6h = 0.1 h, Hence fe increases by 10%. Thus, the correct choice is (dl). 0.05 109. 110, m2. m3, 0.05 or 67 = 0.05 T. Thus, 7 Tow increases by 5%. Hence, the correct ehoice is (b). Let h, and hy be the maximum heights attained by the projectile when projected from earth and moon respectively. Now pw E028 ag pg WB 2k. which give <= 6, Hence the correct choice is (4), inBeos e From these two equations we have 7°=22 tan @ or T VR . Hence the correct choice is (b). Now R ‘The range ofa projectile isthe same for two angles ‘of projection @ and 90° ~ 8, For these two angles of 7, the maximum heights are 2 dutsin? Oc0s"@ & Which give &? = 16 igh or R= 4.JF; Fy - Hence the comectchoiee is). Given x = 2r and 3x ye body is parabolic, Thus, the correct choice is Let ube the velocity with which the body is pro- {ected and g be the acceleration due to gravity. Then, we have Also & Eliminating swe get i.e. y= 24 Hence, the trajectory of the + gf ze x =wrandy ‘Thus, the magnitude of the velocity of projection isthe coefficient of in the expression for x. Now given that x= 2k Hence w= 2m * which is choice , Kinomatis 241 114, ‘The x and y components of velocity are aed ; #4 ey 2m de ae » ad a am 2, = #454) =10 " = Bef esh) = 101 Atr=0.2 5,0, = 10% 0.2=2 ms“, The magnitude 02sis = (=F as Hence the correet choice is (b). ‘The angle of the velocity vector: time tis given by of velocity at? the vertical at lelt ms, Comparing tan a We have seen that Lap : 4 at? with y= 50, we get, — 5H SP we 10 ms”, Therefore, at _— a _. 1x02 which gives = 45°, Hence the correct choice is(c). 25, 116, We know thatthe position coondinaes x and y are given by ° and usin 8) 4 —— gf ) Comparing Ea. @) with x = 104 1, we have, 10/3 ms '. Also, comparing Eq. (ii) with 101-2, we have, usin @= 10 ms". These eq 10? + 10? x 3 = 400 oF w= 20 ms! cos @ L and tan which gives @= 30°, Hence the Man O= ives = 30) correct choice is (a). 117, Comparing y = 101 ~ ? with Eq, (i) above, we get, 1s is 0) We have seen above that w= 20 ms", @= 30° and ms”, Now, the maximum height attained is or g = 2 ms. Hence the correct choice 2 sin? @ _(20)? xsin? 30° _ 2g 2x2 h 25m Hence t 119, The time of fight is e correct choice is (2). 120. nt. 12. 123. 124, 128, usin _2%20xsin30° 2x20%sin30" 195 z 2 Tus, the correct choice is (). ‘The horizontal range is kt (20)? 8in60" = 69 5 pp g 2 Hence, the correct choice is (4). Since R17, choice (b) is incorrect. ‘When the tain is at rest or moving with 2 uniform velocity, the plumb line hangs vertically along OB (Fig. 246). I'he train moves with an aceeleration a, the plumb line gets inclined along QC, the direction of the resultant of accelerations a and g. It is clear from the figure that tan O ~ aig. Hence the correct choice is (a). Fig. 2.46 ‘When the lift is descending with a retardation (nega tive acceleration) a, the effective value of 8 gag = e+. The component ofthis acceleration slong the inclined plane is gq sin 8= (g +a) sin @. Hence the ‘correct choice is (. ‘The maximum height attained by the first bal is ayete 2g where u is the initial speed of projection. The ‘maximum height attained by the second ball is (= 90" 60° = 30°) Nov, PE of ball at height hy = mh and that of ball 2 at height Ay = mghy. Therefore, the ratio of Sz hw potential energies © 4 tence the Eomect choice sa). #2 28 ity isv= 2% =a 261 30° ‘ Velocity iso = 2 = 04 2-3 0 242 126. 127. 1s. 129. Compete Physics IEE Main #x Acceleration isa = © = 26 — ber rT Acceleration is zero at me s given by 0 © puting this value of Eq We have ‘Thus, the correct choice is () We know that AB cos 0 +4j sk) +8] +k) 3x6+4x8+5% 10 00 wo ‘The magnitudes of A and B are 4-3 +P +6" = 50 iid) and B= Yo? +18)" +10)" = V200 vy Using (i, (ii) and (iv) in (i), we have 100 = V0 x ¥200 cos @= 100 cos 8 for cos 8= | oF 8= zero, which is choice (a). ‘The vector product of two non-zero vectors is zero if they are in the same direction. Hence, vector B must ‘be parallel to vector A, ie. along * z-axis, Thus the correct choice is (dl). Given A+ (21-35 +4ky+Ci +5] +2K) <1] or A=~31 ~] ~ 6h, which is choice (a). The angle & which the resultant R- makes with A is given by Bsind tan c= Bsn A+ Boos given a= ©. Hence 130. 131. 132. (0) which gives 4 + B cos @= 2B co (2 warafeee(] soe(8 which gives A = B, which is choice (c). Refer to Fig. 2.47, where w is velocity of water eur rent, Let v be the velocity of the man and let AB vibe the width ofthe river. The river is erossed with 4 velocity equal to the component of v along AB, which is v cos @, where @ is the angle between the north direction and the direction of velocity v. 4 Time taken to eross the river = —"” e086 Fig. 247 ‘This time is the shortest if @= 0°. Hence the man should swim in the north direction, which is choice (@. ‘The distance will be the shortest if the resultant of velocities w and v is along 4B. Thus, 4 Sm/min or = 30", i.e,, He should swim 30° west of north, which is choice (6). sum (5)-(5) TOm/min ~ 2 iy 4B _ 20 Dividing (by Gd, we get 4% = 22 when is choice (a. go Kinomatice 243 ‘The roots ofthis quadratic equation are f,and f-The sum ofthe roots is 1, +f)~ 2 Hence the correct choice is (a. 8 24 which is choice (a. z 138. The time f, taken by the body to strike the inclined plane is given by 134, Product of roots ist 4 Ve The time f taken by the body to reach the ground after striking the plane is ie ne Ve put = ny & nth + Ve z Time ¢ will be maximum it “= 0,40, #¢ a (=F no dh & & 1 han 3a ‘Total time 7 L L oF he = or hah of h= Vimar 2 Hence the correet choice is (c. 136. Letsnbe the number of storeys above the |Sth storey ‘Then height fallen is h= 4n metees. Using va? = 2h, we have (20)? -0= 2 104" which gives n= 40 5, Therefore, the total number 80 of storeys = 15 + 5 = 20, which is choice (a). _ 2upsin® _ 2uy sin6o* 137. 1,= 244 and tp e _ Sia « Given f4~ tp Therefore uy 2a = tn og ee me? Hence the correct choice is () 138, v= (34 +45) ms"! The magnitude of velocity is v= (GF)? = 5 ms! The angle subtend- ed by the velocity vector with the horizontal (axis) is given by 4 | which gives sin 3 which NOW; fgg =§ SE 2 Hence the correct 139, 1,= 2288 2454 955, Hence the corset £ 3x10 choice is (). 140. Velocity of projection is vy = (u eos Oi + (w sin 8)j. ‘Actime the velocity of the body is v= (cos Oi + (wsin O- gj ‘The dot product of vy and v is u cos? 8+ usin O(wsin 8-20) a wee =i —(usin Oat 0 Since vi perpendicular tov. ¥p: ¥~0. Using this in(@, we have 0 =u*-(wsin@dgr or ¢=—" eset oT in Hence the correct choice is (@), Mi, PE mt hag = in(ur cos PE KE wan’ Thus, the correct choice is (b) 142, Given y= ar — be?, Comparing this equation with y= (tan Oe 2A4 Complete PhysiceJEE Main Wehave a= tan @ and b= —&—_ Dw cov 8 Horizontal range R= #28028 _ 24?sindo0s0 Honee the correct choice is (a, wisn’ _ wcost@ ee) 2w cos" ag 2 wae On Hn te ante (0, 144. 2usin® _ 240086 ay gy wo : “ Now bE or noe [Eo wera br Using ii) in (i), we get fz ima po ich is coi (a 148, Let the total distance be S. The time taken to travel s the firsthalf, te. is si2_s 36 Lotz, be the time taken to cover a distance 8, with speed 4.5 mvs and f, that to cover distanee S; with 4 yes7sms ie SKsiaasa7sy tien s:5)= 5 sadign Shel 5 There Sos4s, Sass, astton one 2. Taaltine tens) ty= 5+ S = 38 cr aeyy total distance ‘Average speed = eres 5108 ‘otal time 146. 147, 148. = 4 asms, 3 which is choice () In the figure 2, represents the velocity ofthe ear and 1, that of the parcel. M is the position of the man, From parallelogram law, the direction of the resul tant velocity 2, must be along the direction along Whieh the man is standing. Ic follows from Fig. 2.48 that angle @is given by wt = oro=ase a Tor EP Hence the correet choice i Fig. 248 vous ar= (4i+3))+(041+0.3) x10 (8i+6)) ms ‘The x and y components of v and 2, = 8 ms! and 19, = 6 ms, The magnitude of 9 is +2; = VG)? +10" = 10ms" Hence the correct choice is (4), Given: x= 367 “ and y= 484.97 Gi) For a body projected with a velocity w at an angle @ with the horizontal, the x and y displacements at time fare given by x= (u 00s Oy Gi = (usin @r- 4 ge iv) and y= (usin Or 5 ww ‘Comparing (i) with (i) and (i) with (iv), we have 6 8 Squaring and adding, we have and wsin Kinomatice 245 19. 150. 12 (cos? 0+ sin? 6) = (36)* + 48) or =3600 oF = 60 ms", which is choice (), Givens = Ve +3. Squaring, we have x= Porto. @ dx a fh a velocity v = 61+9)=21-6 Find from Eq, Gi) when v = 0. Use this value of ¢ is Bq, (i). The correct choice is (a, Given @=— V8 or @ =~ ke. Thus wv"? do we a Integrating, we got 20" initial condition (© = w at ‘Thus, we have Are, Using the given 0), we get c= 2Vue 20 A) =k Now, use r= Tand v= 0. The correct choice is (a, Sng? © ms per second and gms er its intercept is e= Sms. Using y = mx c, the celeration a (in ms *) as function of time ris given by ‘The slope ofthe line ism or 0 where & isthe constant of integration. Since the par- ticle starts from rest, 0 = Oat = 0. Using this in (i) we ger k= 0. Hence va Seas ww 1 follows from the graph that the deceleration be- comes zeroat 6's Hence, the speed of the particle will be maximum at = 6, Putting ¢~ 6s in Eg (i), we have ing 2 (+56 15 +30= 15 ms" Hence the correct choice is (b). 152, 153. ‘The slope of the given o versus.x graph ism and intercept is c=+ 0, Hence v vaties with x as. “ where 9 and xy are constants of motion, Differenti- ating with respest to time f, we have «a Using Eq, (i) in Eg. Gi), we get ~()e) ‘Thus, the graph of a versus xis a straight line hav- ~ ee te cones hie Given = kV > have Wr, Differentiating, we wit dr ‘Thus x =. Hence the correct choice is (©) 2.46 Complete Physice—JEE Main SECTIONII Multiple Choice Ques! ns Based on Passage Questions 1 to 4 are based on the following passage. Passage 1 emust be clearly understood that distance is not the same as displacement, Distance isa scalar quantity and is given by the total length of the path travelled by the body in a certain interval of time. Displacement isa vector quantity and is given by the shortest distance (in a specified diree- tion) between the initial and the final positions of the body. ‘The direction ofthe displacement vector is from the initial position (starting point) to the final position (end point) of the motion. Speed is a scalar quantity. The average speed is defined as = total distance travelled total time taken Velocity isa vector quantity. The average velocity is defind snetdisplacement timetaken The direction of the velocity vector isthe same as tha of the displacement vector, Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity and itis a vector quantity 1, A cyclist starts from centre O ofa circular track of radius r~ km, reaches edge P ofthe track and then cycles along the circumference and stops at point Q as shown in Fig. 2.49. the displacement of the cyclists r) out) we r) nr © (18) oF Fig. 2.49 2. In Q.1 above the magnitude of the velocity in km h “of the cyclist is (@ 123 ) 120 (©) 30 (a 60 43. In QL the distance travelled by the cyclist is ap- proximately (a) 2km (b) 2.01 km (©) 2.05 km (@) km 4. Im QL, the average speed (in km hr!) of the eyclist (@) 123 () 6.5 (©) 60 @ 120 > SOLUTIONS 1, Net displacement is OO ~ shortest distance bet the starting point O and end point @ = 1 km = 7, ‘Therefore, the correct choice (b. 2. Average velocity Hence the correct choice is (). 43. Distance travelled = OP + PQ (along the are) E49) =14m(1+214) = 2.05 4m 3 Hence the correct choice is () 4. Average seca = sisamee 2.08 time 7 6 2.3 km he! ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). ‘Questions § to 7 are based on the following passage. Passage I Ball Ais rolled along the postive x-direetion with a speed of 5 ms! towards a bigger ball B 20 m away. After col- lision with ball B, ball A retraces the path and reaches its starting point with a speed of 4 ms! 5, The average velocity of ball A during the time inter- val from 0to4 sis, (a) Sms along positive (b) Sms“ along negative x (6) © ms" along negative x-direction (a) ms" along positive x-direction 6. The average valoity of ball A during the time inte- val 0109 sis, (a) 4 ms" along positive -tetion. (0) 4.5 ms" along negative «-irecton 40 (e) “2 ms along negative x-direetion oF 1 nega (8) zer0 7. The average velocity of ball A during the time inter sal 10 68% (a) 2s" along positive x-direction. (b) 2m along negative x-direction, (@) Emax" along positive direction ; mg pos (© "angst > SOLUTIONS 5. Tine atenby ll Ato etch al Bi : Daring the ine 8 4h td Theft vlsy a balls rng ‘Sms ‘along positive.x-direction, which is choice (a), 6. Time taken by ball Ato retrace its path and reach the starting point afte collision with ball B is = ass go Des ‘Therefore, the net displacement i time interval 0 to 9=0, Hence average velocity =0, whichis choice @. During the time interval 0 10 6 s, ball A covers a distance of 20 m along, positive x-direction up to ball B (which takes 4s) and in the next 2s, it covers a distance of 4 ms ' x 2 s= 8 m along the negative direction. Therefore, Ketdsphemerot fon 00 65-20-8-12m eneng ons ‘Thus the correct choice is (a). Kinomatis 247 ‘Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following passage. Passage II The speedstime graph of the motion of a body is shown, in Fig. 2.50, Time (s)§ — Fig. 250 '8. The accelerations ofthe body during the last 2 see- conds is, 20 2 (@) Sms (©) 10m @ 210 9. The ratio of distance travelled by the body during the last 2 seconds tothe total distance travelled by itis ® 2 9 4 © wi 10, ‘The average speed ofthe car during the whole jour- ney is (a) 10ms (b) 20 ms 30 40 (© Sms () Pins > SOLUTIONS 8. Acceleration during last2 seconds = slope of Hine BC = 2 <0 ms? “Thus the eorrect choice is (e) 9. Distance travelled in last two seconds = area of triangle BCD 2.48 Complete Physice—JEE Main txapxpe 2 4x 20%2=20m 2 ‘Total distance travelled = area of trapesium OABC =! us e008 L =1e+nx20=90m zern Hence the correct choice is (bp. 10 Average speed = 2listancerraveled toialtimetaken 90m 737 ‘Thus the correct choice is (e). (Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage. Passage IV A particle initially (cat time r= 0) moving with a veloe- ity wis subjected to a retarding force, asa result of which it decelerates at arate a=-kve Where o is the instantaneous velocity and & is @ positive constant The particle comes to rest ina time a fe oe (©) 2kvw (a) Rie 12, The distance covered by the pate before coming @ = wo xe? a? ©) 2k @ evs > SOLUTIONS ng ae Given Ths © Integrating, we ave forte afar or Dw =_k+e @ ‘where ¢is the constant oF integration. Given that at 2a. Using this in () we get 20! = e. Using this value of ¢ in (i), we have 20"? 0!) =k Ga Let r be the time taken by the particle to come to rest. Then, 0 = at ~ 7. Using this in (ii), we get au! 20-u!y=—kt or T= Hence the correct choice is (a) ‘To find the distance s covered in this time, we use Eg. (2) t0 get 2. ‘Squaring, we have But Therefore, Integrating from ¢= 0 tor = 4, we have wt eee Substituting the value of from (iil) ue? qu? 2k which is choice (dl) we we 12k 3k ‘Questions 13 to 17 are based on the following passage. Passage V Relative Velocity If'two objects A and B are moving in a straight line with velocities ¥, and vy respectively, the relative velocity of ‘object 4 with respect to object B is given by It follows thatthe relative velocity of object B with respect to object A will be objects 4 and 8 are moving along different directions in 1 plane, the relative velocity of one object with respect to the other is found by using the parallelogram law of vee- for addition. To find vj, We find the resultant of vectors Yqand~ vp. To find ¥nq, We find the resultant of vectors vyand— vj. 13, Two persons P and Q are standing S4_m apart on 2 long horizontal belt moving with a speed of 4 ms * inthe direction from P to Q. Person P rolls a round stone towards person Q with a speed of 9 ms! with respectto the bell. The velocity of stone with respect to an observer on a stationary platform is (a) 13 ms" in the direction to motion ofthe belt (b) 13 ms" opposite to the direction of motion of the belt (6) Sms in the direction of motion ofthe bel. (@) 5 ms" opposite to the direction of motion of the bel. 14, What will be the answer to Q. 13 above if person (Qrolls the stone towards person P with a speed of 9 ms"! with respect to the belt? {@) 13 ms inthe direction of motion ofthe belt (6)" opposite to the direction of motion of the belt (©) Sms in the direction of motion ofthe belt (2) 5 ms“ opposite to the direction of motion of the bel. 15, In Q.13 above, whats the time taken by the stone to travel from P vo Q? 34 sé @ Fs Fs a0 (©) 6 @ Zs 16, Rain is falling vertically with a speed of 4 ms“ A man riding a bicycle is travelling at a speed of 3 ms in the north to south direction. In order to protect himself from rain, the man should hold his umbrella at an angle @ given by (0 ws" (2) inhesovn dntin (6 a" (2) inthe sonnet dcotn (6 wo" (4) inthe son distin (0 sm! (2 ate ct ion 17, InQ 16 above, with what speed does the rain strike his umbrella? Kinomatice 248 (a) Ims" (b) Tims" (© Sms" (a) 35 ms" > SOLUTIONS 13, Let us choose the positive direction to be the dite tion from P to Q. Le, the direction of motion of the bolt, Then, the velocity ofthe belt is vps tAmst Speed of the stone with respect tothe belt is Pye +9 ms! If 0g is the speed of the stone with respect toa sta- tionary observer, we have or 4944-613 ms" ‘The positive sign shows thatthe direction of veloe- ity of stone is ftom P to Q, ie. in the direction of ‘motion of the belt, Hence the corest choice is (a). 4s" but 2 op tg 9+ 4 =~ Sms ve sign indicates that the direction of velocity of stone is opposite to the direction of ‘motion ofthe bet, Henes the eorect choice is () 4 9 ms"! Hence Inthe ease 0g 18, Since persons P, Q and the stone are located on the the speed of the stone relative to P or Q will be Time taken ~ 54 = 65, which is choice (c), ims 16, Refer to Fig. 2.51 F East Fig. 251 Let OR =v, and RM =, respectively represent the velocities of the rain and the man. Given v,~ 4 ms Vertically downward from west to east direction 250 Complete Physice—JEE Man vy,,=3 ms from north to south direction, In order to protect himself from rain, the man must hhold his umbrella in the direction ofthe relative ve~ locity Ve which is given by Yaw MeN EY) Thus, We vector Voy is the resultant of vectors v, and ~ Vp. In Fig. 2.35, vector RM’ = — vj from the parallelogram law of vector addition, the resultant velocity is given by vector OM’. If 8 is the angle subtended by the resultant velocity v,, with the ver- tical, then from triangle ORM’, we have n= BM “a OR Hence the correct choice is (b) 17, Since v, and vj, are perpendicular to each other, on (ob +03) Le Hence the correct choi a7]? = sms is. Questions 18 to 21 are based on the following passage. Passage VI Two objects are projected from the same point with the same speed 1 at angles of projection « and B with the horizontal respectively. They strike the ground atthe same point ata distance R from the point of projection. The re- spective maximum heights attained by the objects are fy and i and 1, and fare the respective times of fight. 18, Rh and hare related as (@) R= Vii (o) R= hh (© R-2Viihe () R~4H 19. The ratio is equal to @) sine (6) cose © ana (6) cova 20, The ratio yy is equal to (a) sin? @ (b) cos? a (©) tan a (a) cot? ee 21. The sum (hi, +) is equal to to) Seos & @ + © OF > SOLUTIONS Since the horizontal range in the same & + 6 = 90°. There- foe pe0" aandelae 0 w Sermacme Gi aasing on : ie 2 ey 18, From Egs (i), (i) and (ii), we have Hence the correct choice is (@) 19, From Eqs. (iv) and (v) it follows that the correct choice is (). 20, Ftom Eas (i), Gand (9), we have Ay a Hence th comet choice is 21, From Eas) and Gi), we find that 2 whichis eboee 28 At Questions 22 to 25 are based on the following passage. Passage VII ‘The vertical displacement y ofa projectile varies with the horizontal displacement x as year bet where a and b are constants 22, The trajectory of the projectile is a (a) straight line (b) eirele (6) parabola (@) hyperbola 23, The horizontal range of the projectile is @a wb @ 2 @ 24, The maximum height attained by the projectile is @) z (b) . of of 28, Theta ght othe pj a (2 oe wal Te is 2a [2 « 20 ° ie a > SOLUTIONS 22, Thosivn ono ye ar~ bx? @ + he oguton of panto, Hep th eee Same 28, Thevale fs ze abs“ Dand sR ori range). Putting y ~ O and x= R in Eq. (9), we get R = aib, which is choice (@), 24 Differentiating Eq. (1) with respect to time f, we ine 8 gM ayy He aa a s vat, =2 0x0, (a 2h}, Atthe maximum height v,=0. Using this in Eg. (i), Weget (a~2br) = Oorx a/2b. Putting this value of sin Eq, (), we have (since y= higay at this value of x) ()-*(8) Hence the correct choice is (d), a 25, The time £10 reach the maximum height is given by Lee ‘Therefore, the time of fight is [2 Vig 1 Which is choice () Kinomatis 251 Questions 26 to 32 are based on the following passage. Passage VIL The positon vector r with respeet to the origin ofa particle varios with time ras (ani + (bre where a, band ¢ are constants, 26. The trajectory ofthe particle is a (=) sight line () cits (©) parabola (3) mone ofthese 27, The magitde of the ntl velit ofthe prices awe @ ee © — @ arh-29 28, The angle @ with the horizontal along which the pails projected i given by wiece® — quented 6 wano-% an 29, The time of fish ofthe panes ws ms ot ot 30, The ascleaton duc to gravity at that place is (@) 20 (2% © 26 (3) none of these 31. The maximum height to which the parole riss is we 6 we we e a oe @ 532, The horizontal ange ofthe patil s a we ws oe ot ier > SOLUTIONS 26, Comparing Eq, (ati + (bt cP) with Eq, rari +y],we get et 0 252 Complete PhysiceJEE Man y= beer ii) atom (8 x= ()# i's gion rabola, Hence the eorreet choice is (). 27, From Eqs. (i) and (i), we have «i «wy Putting #= 0 in Eq. (ii), the initial values of 2, and 1, are a and b respectively. The initial speed of the particle is u = Va? +B" , which is choice (c). 28, If the panicle is projected with an intial velocity u atanangle 6 withthe horizontal, then the horizontal displacement x and vertical displacement y at time ¢ 29, 30. 3h. Comparing Eqs. (v) and (wi) with Eqs. (ii) and (iv) we have » cos @= cand sin 8b which give tan 0= ia, which is choice (c). When = fp" 0. Puting y= 0 and ¢= 4;in Eg. (i) wwe get 0 ~ ib ~ ct) gives (,~ 0 and i,~ Bye. But 17- iis not possible, Hence the correct choieeis (a) Comparing Fg. (vi) with Eq, (il), we get g = 2c, ‘which is choice is (c) NOW Y= figa, When Veae 08 = and = x =(u cos 0 By. cid,wegere= and y= (usin 0 > a wo is. SECTION Assertion-Reason Type Questions In the following questions, Statement-1 (Assertion) is followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has the following four options out of which only ONE choice is correct (@) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State- ‘ment-2 is the correet explanation for Statement-1 (b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State~ ‘ment-2 is NOT the correct explanation for State- mentl (©) Statement-t is tue, Statement-2 is false. (@) Statement is false, Statement-2 is tue. 1, Statement-1 A body moving in a straight line may have non-zero Acceleration atan instant when its spoed is zero Statement-2 Ia body is thrown vertically upwards, its speed at the instant when it reaches the highest point is zero butts acceleration is 9.8 ms . Statement-L A body moving in a straight Hine with & constant speed must have a zero acceleration Statement-2 A body moving along a curve with a constant speed ‘may have a zero acceleration \. Statement-1 ‘A wooden ball and a stee! ball of the same mass, released from the same height in air, do not reach the ground at the same time. Statement-2 ‘The apparent weight of a body in « meduim depends ‘on the density of the body relative to that of the me duim, Statement-1 If the displacement-time graph of the motion of a body is. straight line parallel tothe time axis, then it follows that the body is at rest Kunomatice 253 Statement-2 Velocity is equal to the rate of change of displace: 5. Statement-1 [the voelocity-time graph of the motion of a body is curve, them the body is cither uniformly acceler= ated or uniformly retarded. Statement-2 ‘The slope of the vel celeration, time graph gives the ac- Statement-1 A body is projected horizontally with a velocity fiom the top of a building of height A. It hits the ‘ground after atime t= J2hig Statement-2 ‘The vertical an independently. 7. Statement-1 A body is projected from the ground with kinetic energy Kat an angle of 60° with the horizontal. If airresistance is neglected, its kinetic energy when it is at the highest point ofits trajectory will be K’4, Statement-2 horizontal motions can be weated Atthe highest point ofthe trajectory, the directions ‘of the velocity and acceleration of the body are per- pendular to each other. 8 Statement One end ofa string of eng 2 is ted to stone of mass mand the other end. smal pivot on a ie- toaless vertical board, The sone is whiled in a ‘erica tle withthe pivots the centre The it mum speed the stone must have, when it sa the topmost point onthe cree, so that he string doss notslackis et Statement-2 At the topmost point on the circle, the centripetal force is provided partly by tension inthe string and partly by the weight of the stone, 9. Statement-t ‘The maximum range on an inclined plane when a body is projected upwards from the base of the plane is less than that when itis projected down- \wards from the top ofthe same plane with the same speed Statement-2 ‘The maximum range along an inclined plane is in- dependent of the angle of inclination of the plane. 10. Statement-1 In projectile motion, the velocity of the body at a point on it trajectory is equal to the slope at that Point. Statement-2 The velocity vector at a point is always along the tangent to the trajectory a that point. 11, Statement-t Ina uniform circular motion, the centripetal force is always perpendicular to the velocity vector. Statement-2 ‘Then the foree does no work on the body and its kinetic energy remains constant 12, Statement-l In a non-uniform circular motion, the particle has {wo accelerations-one along the tangent tothe circle and the other towards the centre ofthe rele. Statement-2 In a non-uniform circular motion, the magnitude and the direction of the velocity vector both change with ime. 13, Statement In a non-uniform circular motion, the acceleration of the particle is equal to sum of the tangential acceleration and the centripetal acceleration, Statement-2 ‘The two accelerations are perpendicular to each other, 14, Statement {In a uniform circular motion, the kinetic energy of the body remains constant Statement-2 ‘The momentum of the body does not change with 15, Statement-t In a uniform circular motion, the acceleration is always directed towards the centre of the eicle Statement-2 Otherwise the speed of the body moving along the cirele will change with time. > SOLUTIONS 1. The correct choice is (b) 2. The correct choice is (c). The velocity of a body ‘moving along a curve continuously changes 254 Compete Physics IEE Main ‘because its direction of motion is changing. Hence a body moving along a curve with @ constant speed thas acceleration called centripetal acceleration. 1. The correct choice is (a), The effective acceleration due to gravity in a meduim is given by. where p~ density of the medium and @~ density of the body. 1. The correet choice is (a). Ifthe displacement-time ‘raph is parallel to the time axis, then, rate of change ‘of displacement is zero. The correct choice is (d) IFthe velocity-time graph is a curve, the slope of the graph is not constant The correct choice i (a). The time taken by the body to hit the ground is the same as if it was dropped from that height and fell frcely under gravity. 1. The correct choice is (b). If m isthe mass ofthe body and w its velocity of projection, the initial kinetic energy is Atthe highest point, the horizontal velocity is (uv e0s (60°) and vertical velocity is zero, Hence the kinetic energy atthe highest point is At the highest point ofthe trajectory the velocity of the body is horizontal (parallel to the ground) but its acceleration is g directed vertically downwards 1. The correct choice is (a). When the stone is at the topmost point 4 on the circle, the centripetal force is provided by (mg + 7) as shown in Fig, 2.52. 4 Thus 4 18, ‘When the stone isat 4, the string will not slack iter sion T= 0, which gives "= mg =0= Re. 1. The range along the inclined plane when a body is projected with velocity w at an angle @ with the hhotizontal is given by aw [sin 2 0) -sin a] oot where ois the angle of inclination of the plane Range 2 witl be maximum of sin(26~ a) = | or 28 = a= 90° in which ease tse) Roan = [1-sin y= 00 If the body is projected downwards from the top of the same inclined plane, the maximum range will be ~ g(l-sing) "Ths Rgoe> Rea sec Statement 2is false. Hence the correct choice is ). The correct choice is (4). Atthe highest point on the ts cctory, the slope is zero but velocity is u cos 0. The correct choice is (a). 3. The correct choice is (a). 1. The correct choice is (d). The acceleration of the particle is given by a= yeivet where o, = centripetal acceleration anda, = tangen- tial acceleration ‘The coroct choice is (2). The speed ofthe body remains constant but the momentum changes with time because the direction ofthe velocity vector changes with time. “The correct choices i (a. Ifthe acecleration vector isnot directed towards the conte ofthe circle, it will have a component along the tangent, a8 a result the speed ofthe body will change andthe motion no longer remains uniform ) RoE) medida) @ REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS 1. Newton's First Law of Motion Newton's first law of motion slates that every bod contin. tus in its state ofrest or ofuniform motion ina straight line unless itis compelled to change that state by an external unbalanced force, 2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion ae i a or a a ini Ua wma Ta ely pagal Hat ne tna rere aaa Pe caer el soe a Line Mee Neves Sed ie tan seed oP sn al ar vlog ox be at whore intervocy en cerichraration thee: sag he sucrose aE oy a a ae (+ mis constant) Fema dy wherea= the acceleration produced, Mg () Foree = slope of momentum-time (p ~1) graph. Q) Change in momentum = area under the force-time (F=0 graph, Example 1 _A constant force acts for 0.5s on a body of mass 1.5 kg initially at rest, When the force ceases to act, the body is found to travel a distance of 5.0 m in 2.0 sin the direction of the force. Find the magnitude of the force applied Solution According 10 Newton's first law, when the force ceases to act, the body will move with a uniform velocity given by =25ms' Using u=0,0=2.5 ms and 1=0.5 sin v= u+ar,we get a=5 ms”, From Newton's second law, Force F= ma=1.5x$=7.5N, Example2 Two forees cach of magnitude 10 N act on a body of mass $ kg at an angle of 120°. Find the magnitude of acceleration produced Solution F\~F;=10N and 0. Fo JRF IF F008 20°, Resultant force F_10 2 Fn 0 a me mS Example3 The velocity ofa body of mass Pkg changes from vy, =(24+3}- ym +238) ms" in 5.5 Find (a) the magnitude ofthe change in momentum of the body and (b) the magnitude of the force applied. Solution (@) Change im momentum = final momentum — initial ‘momentum or p= my,—mv, tows =( = m{(-ais2}+3%)-@i+3]-2) 3.2. Complete Physics JEE Mam Example 4 _A particle of mass | g is moving along the positive x-axis under the influence of a force. 10°* Nov, When the particle is at x= 1.0 m, its Find (a) the magnitude ofits velocity when, (0.5 m and (b) its position when its speed is itreaches x ims! Solution Fo mam me mm 2 AE yo l® ae dt a Given, F= — “Therefore ~ mo?» pdv= Integrating, we have Joao -Afxtar k = pte @ where ¢ isthe constant of integration. Given » = 0 when x= 1.0 m, Using this in eg, (@), we get e~ becomes fa Equation (a) when (b) when @= ms, 1= 3. Newton’s Third Law of Motion Newton's third law of motion states that whenever one bod exerts a force on a second hod, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the firs, oF. to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, The action and reaction forces act on different body. 4. Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum The law of conservation of linear momentum may be stated as ‘when no net external force acis on a system consist Ing of several particles, the total linear momentum of the stem is conserved, the total linear momentum being the vector sum ofthe linear momentum of each particle in the Recoil of a Gan ‘The gun and the bullet constitute a two-body system. Be- fore the gun is fired, both the gun and the bullet are at ret. “Therefore, the total momentum of the gun-bullet system is zero. After the gun is fired, the bullet moves forward and the gun recoils backwards. Let mand m, be the masses of the bullet and the gun, If, and ¥, are their respective ve- locities after fring, the total momentum of the gun-bullet system after firing is (my, + m, v,), From the law of | conservation af momentum, the total momentum after and before the gun is fred must be the same, ie ‘The negative sign indicates that the gun recoil ina direc- tion opposite to that ofthe bullet. In terms of magnitudes, we have Consider a collision between two bodies 4 and 8 moving in the same straight line. Let Af be the duration of the collision, ic. te time for which the bodies were in contact during which time the transfer of momentum took place. ‘We assume that the bodies continue moving in the same siraight line after the collision with velocities different from their initial velocities. Impulse ofa force is the produet of the average force and the time for which the force acts and itis equal to the change in momentum of the body during that time. Impulse isa vector and is measured in kg ms" or Ns Te Fare Ap Lays of Motion 33 Example 5 A ball of mass m is moving with @ velocity ¥ towards a rigid vertical wall, After striking the wall, the ball deflects through an angle @ without change in its speed. Obtain the expression for the impulse imparted to the ball Solution Let v, and v, be the initial and final velocities of the ball (Fig. 3.1(2)] Impulse » change in momentum = my, = my; = mv =v) mls V3) or Impulse = mav where Av = ¥; +(¥;) i the resulant of ¥, and —v, [Fig S.106)) @ Fig. 3.1 Magnitude of Av is [magnitude of v, = magnitude of v= fof +07 +20,0,c088 = Yo" +0? +207 e080 = Y20"(1+ 0050) eew(2) ‘The direction of impulse is perpendicular to the wall and away from it 6. Contact Forces (1) Normal Reaction “The force exerted by one body when placed on the surface of another body is known as contact force. If the vo surfices in contact are perfetly smooth (ie, frietionless), then the contact force acts only perpendicular (normal) their surface of contact and is known as normal reaction ®) ‘Ifa block of mass m is placed on a horizontal fiction- Jess surface [Fig. 3.2 (a], the normal reaction & = mg. If the block is placed on an inclined plane of inclination « [ig. 32 (] the normal reaction R= mg cos k R me A 8 » If there is frietion between the surface of contact, then the component of the contact force perpendicular ta their surface gives the normal reaction and the other compo- rent which acts along the tangent tothe surface of contact gives the foree of ftiction. The normal reaction, tension and friction are examples of contact force. (2) Tension ‘The force in a string is called tension (7). Ifthe string is ‘massless, the tension has the same magnitude at all points of the string. Tension in the string always acts away from the body to which it is attached. Ifthe string passes over a fiietionless pulley and its ends are attached to two bod- ies, the tension in the entire string has the same magnitude and its direction is towards its point of contact with the pulley. 6. Friction Friction isthe force which comes into play when one body slides or ros over the surface of another body and acts ina direction tangential tothe surfaces in contact and opposite to the direction of motion of the body. ‘The maximum (or limiting) force of ftiction when a body just begins to slide over the surface of another body is called the limiting friction. The force of fietion just before one body begins to slide over another is ealled the Uimiting or static fiction.) The coe cient of limiting oF slatie friction (4) i defined as where & isthe normal resetion, i. the normal force press ing tho two surfaces together. “The force necessary to maintain a body in uniform mo- ion over the surface of another body, after motion has started, i called the kinetic or sliding fitiom (f,). The coeficien of kinetie friction Qh) is defined as fe ho Note thats is alays less than 4, 34 Complete Physes JEE Mam Angle of Friction Angle of friction isthe angle between the resultant of the force of limiting frition (/) and the normal reaction (R). In Fig. 3.3, 8s the angle of friction, which is given by tan o~ £ R = tan (a) x + Fig. 3.3 Angle of Repose Suppose a body is placed on an inclined plane. The angle of inclination is gradually increased until the body just begins to slide along the plane. When this happens the angle of inclination cof the inclined surface ‘with the horizontal is called the angle of repose (see Fig, 3.4). I follows from the figure that Force of limiting friction (/) ~ mg sin o Force of normal reaction (R) = mg cos a R Ing cos me Fig. 3.4 ‘Therefore, tan or tan 0 or a= = tan! (u) 7. Solving Problems in Mechanics by Free Body Diagram Method In mechanics, we often have to handle problems which involve a group of bodies connected to one another by strings, pulleys, springs, et. They exert forces on one an- other Furthermore, there are frictional forces and the force of gravity acting on each body in the group. To solve such complicated problems, it is always convenient to choose fone body in the group, find the magnitude and the diree~ tion of the forces acting on this body by all the remaining bodies in the group. Then we find the resultant of all the forces acting on the body to obtain the net force exerted fn it, We then use the laws of motion to determine the ddynamies of the body. We apply this procedure to all other bodies in the group one by one, Its useful to draw a sepa- rate diagram for each body, showing the directions of the different forces acting on it. Such a diagram is called the {roe body diagram (B.D) of the body. (D) Two masses tied to a sting going over a frictionless pulley Consider two bodies of masses m, and m, (mn > 1m,) connected by a string which passes over a pulley, as shown in Fig. 3.5(a). When the bodies are released, the hncavier one moves downwards and the lighter one moves up. FBD.ofm, — FBD.ofm, KO i ny o ms Fig. 35 Net force in the direetion of motion of my is mig ~ 7. ‘Therefore, the equation of motion of m; is mg —T= ma 0 Net force in the direction of motion of mis (7— ms) ‘Therefore, the equation of motion of m, is Tome ma (ism) (sn) 2) Two masses in contact Figure 3.6(a) shows two blocks of masses m, and m; placed in contact on a hori- zontal frictionless surface. A force F is applied to mass m), ‘As a result, the masses move with a common aeceleration 4. To find o and the contact force on mis, we draw the free body diagrams as shown in Figs. 3.6(0) and (c). ony and Lays of Motion 38 FED. of m, EBD. ofa f Ff t 2fm Ss o © Fig. 3.6 R= normal reaction foree between the blocks. From Figs. 3.6(b)and (c), we get F-R=ma G} and R=mge wi) ‘Adding (i) and (i) we get F=(m+ma = a-—* im +m) Contact force on ms is Fyomya~ ah oem Tm mg) 6) Three masses in contact Figure 3.7(a) shows three blocks of masses m, ms, and m placed in contact on a horizontal fritionless surface, A force F is applied to m,. ‘Asa resul, the three masses move with a common accel eration. To find a and the contact forees on m, and m, we draw the free body diagrams as shown in Figs. 3.7(b) ()and (@), r— @ FBD.ofm, EBD. of ms EBD. ofms eof RL » @ @ ® saction force between m, and my ‘R= contact force on m, = reaction force between m, and "follows from Figs. 3.7(b), () and (A) that F-R=ma @ R-R= ma (i and Rema ai) Adding (i, (i) and Gi) we get _ (mt, +m) Contact force on m, is F, = R which from (ii is given by F, Using Gi) we have Fy mat ma Rema = (m+ my0 (+m) Tat +m) Contact force on mt Fy= R= mgs MF _ aaa (4 Two masses connected witha string Figure 38() Shows two blocks of masses my and my connected with i atig and ping on a botioatal EicGoales arfcn A force Fisapnliadiom,- Asa result themassesmove with a common seceleration a To find @ and fro exerted on mj we drew tho fe body diagrams as shown in Figs. 3.806) and () 7 is the tension nthe sting. my String Go # ERD. of m, mper rv F » © Fig. 3.8 It follows from Figs. 3.8(b) and (e) that T=ma @ and PoP ma Gi ‘Adding (i) and (i) we get at ‘Tension in the string is mE If force F is applied on mass m, as shown in Fig. 3.9, then 3.6 Complete Physies JEE Mam ‘Tension in the string is (5) Three masses connected by strings Figure 3.10 (a) shows thrve blocks of masses m,m, and m; connected by two strings and placed on a horizontal frictionless surface. A force F is applied 10 m,. As a result, the blocks move with a common acceleration a To find «and the forces act- ing on m, and ms, we draw free body diagrams as shown in Fig. 3.10(b) and (¢) and (4). 7s the tension in the string. between m, and m, and 7” is the tension in the string be- twwoen m, and ms, yr m ber ref ber re fmf fe 230 11 follows from Figs, 3.10(b), (c) and (d) that @ ww ii) a=-—_+ __ (om, +m, m5) The tension inthe string between m, and m, is T, which is obtained by adding (i) and (i) (im, +m) T= (m+ mja= ma tma (sm Tama +5) ‘The tension inthe string between m, and m, is 7% which from (i is given by T= ma=— ah __ im +m, +m) (6) Two masses connected by a string and suspended from a support Two blocks of masses my and my are ‘connected by two strings and suspended from a support as shown in Fig. 3.11(a). Mass m is pulled down by a force The tension Fis the string between m, mand tension 7” inthe string between m, and the support can be found from the free body diagrams as shown in Fig. 3.11(b) and (c). a FBDotm BDO my r r Pome x ee @) o eo Fig. 3.7 1 =Teme 0 =Ftmg wo Using (i) and (), we get T= FH Om, + mg (7) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a ‘Jrictionless pulley fixed at the edge of « horizontal table Consider a block of mass im, lying on a frietion- less table connected through a pulley to another block of ‘mass mi, hanging vertically (Fig, 3.12). When the system is released, et acceleration of the blocks be a From free body diagrams, the equations of motion of m, and m, are ma 0 «i and mg —T ‘Adding (i) and (i), we get Also im +m) @ ERD.otm FRD.otm, i mi ter om t ] 1 o Fig. 3.12 Ifthe tabletop is frictionless, the blacks wll move even itm, T-ymg=ma z ~ Ler Fig. 3.13 (8) Two blocks connected by a string passing over 4 frictionless pulley fixed at the top of an inclined plane Let Tbe the tension in the string. Sinee the pul- ley is frictionless, the tension isthe same throughout the string (Fig. 3.14). There are the following two eases: (@) Mass m moving up along the incline with acceleration (Fig. 3.14] ame mecos 0 Fig. 3.14 Laws of Moon 37 The equations of motion of m, and ms [see Fig. 3.1406)] To mgsin Oma o mgt ome w wrhich give = Cems and T=m(¢-@) If sis the coefficient of friction between m, and the inclined plane, the frictional fore, img cos will act down the plane because the block m, is moving up the plane. In this ease, Ea, (i) is replaced by T—mye sin 8-f: mg sin 8 nmyg cos 6 (8) Mass m, moves down the incline with acceleration a In this case, we get mg sin @-7=m,a and T— mg = ma which give ae (nisin) (im +m, and T=m,(e+a) (9) Two blocks connected by a string passing over a ‘Srictionless pulley fixed at the top of a double inclined lane Let the block of mass m, move up along the in- clined plane of angle of inclination @,, and the block of | ‘mass ni; move down the inclined plane of angle of inclina- tion 8, (Fig. 3.15). Let Te the tension in the sting. Then, form, and ms, we have T—mg sin and mg sin Eliminating 7, we get (m, sind, —m sind.) (rm +m) Also. T= m(a+gsin 6) = mz(g sin O, a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. (a) the surface is frictionless and (b) the coefficient of kinetic frietion between the sur- face and the block is 4 ~ 0.2, Take g ~ 10 ms *. F Fig. 3.18, Solution The free body diagrams ofthe block inthe two, cases are shown in Fig. 3.19. Psino t ° Feas@ om cy) Fino zn g é Feos@ Sout » Fig. 3.19 (a) From Fig. 3.19(@) Feos 8 = ma 108010 xe0860" (b) From Fig, 3.19(b) Feos 0-f Lays of Motion 3.9 = Feos 8 ~ jtmg = ma a= Peos8— bmg = 1Weos60"- 0.2110 7 =3ms? From Fig. 3.19(b) we also have F sin 0+ R= mg or Fsin @= mg — R. Since F sin @< mg, the block does not move upwards. Example 7 Two blocks of masses m, = 2 kg and im, = 3 kg are suspended from a rigid support by means of strings AB and CD as shown in Fig, 3.20. String 4B has negligible mass and string CD has mass 0.5 kg/m. Each string has length 50 cm. Find the tension (a) at mid-point P of string AB and (b) at point Q of string CD where CO 0 cm. Take g = 10:ms". Fig. 3.20 Solution Mass of string CD is m= 0.5 x 0.5=0.25 kg Since string 4B is massless, the tension in 4B is the same at every point. (2) Total mass below point P =m, +m +m = 24025 +3=5.25ke Tension at P= 5.25 % I 52.5 (©) Total mass below point Q= mass of length QDs 05%03+3=3.15 kg Tension at Q=3.15% 10=31.5N Example @ A block of mass m= 100 gis placed on an inetned plane of inclination 8 30° as shown in Fig 3.2 There is no fiction betwoen the block and the inclined plane. What minimum acceleration @ shouldbe given to the system to the let so that the block docs no slide doven the plane? a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. 3.18 Complete PhysiceJEE Main any} » p> OR € v= 30 revimin= °2 0.5 na, 0 /=03 mand g in Yen ~ « 4x (3.14) x (0.5) x03 98 =03 Example 25. A small sphere of mass m = $00 g mov- ing on the inner surface of a large hemispherical bow! of radius R = Sm describes a horizontal ciele ata distance OC= 2.5 m below the centre 0 of the bow! as shown in Fig. 3.47, Find the foree exerted by the sphere on the bowl and the time period of revolution of the sphree around the circle, Take g = 10 ms. Fig. 3.47 Solution Given OP = 5 mand OC = 2.5 m. Therefore 1 cos 0= OC = | 9 oor, op 2 Radius of circle is r= CP = OP sin @= 5 sin 60° = su , Fig. 3.48 Figure 3.48 shows the forces acting on the sphere, Nis the normal reaction. [Net force towards centre C of the circle = N sin @ > mre = N sin @ Also. mg = N cos Gi) Fram (i cos8 cos 60° ion From (i), may R sin@ = N sin@ = Pee AO a ads! - oe (oss? rime period 7 = 2% ~ gsecond=3.145 Example 26 A steel metre rod of mass m= 1.5 kg ress with its upper end against « smooth vertical wall and its lower end on rough horizontal floor. What should be the ‘minimum coefficient of frietion between the ground and the rod so that it can be inclined at an angle of 30° with the floor without slipping? Refer to Fig. 3.49. Length of rod 1N, = normal reaction of the wall IN, =normal reaction ofthe floor ‘The frictional force () between the rod and the floor acts along AD. The weight mg of the rod acts at its mid point (centre of mass) C so that AC = AB2, Fig. 3.49 For translational equilibrium, Nz "mg and N,=f ‘Taking moments of forces about 4, we have for rota tional equilibrium Ny xO-mgxAD + Nx BE=0 = O-N,XAD +X BE =0(2 me= Na =)