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Outcome Based Education

-An awareness
- An awareness
workshopworkshop
fr Evaluators / olders

Outcome Based Education &


Outcome Based Accreditation

Contents
Accreditation - What, why, how ??
Minimal Vs Input-Output Vs Outcome
Outcome based education (OBE) key constituents
Outcome based accreditation - criteria

Correlation among outcome based parameters


Assessment methods/tools
Assessment of attainment

What is Accreditation
Formal recognition of
the quality of an
educational program /
Institution by an external
- independent agency on
the basis of impartial
assessment on the basis
of well defined criteria

Significance of Accreditation
At National Level
Students and parents to select the institutions and programs for
admission.
Employers in deciding about the institutions for recruitment of
graduates.
Institutions to avail the benefits from regulatory bodies and funding
agencies institutions.
Institutions in deciding about transfer of students from other institutions
At International Level
Mobility of students for pursuing higher studies and employment in
other countries
Growing number of institutes , types (univ, deemed, private,
autonomous, affiliated ) and programs

Advantages of Accreditation & Its


Processes
Students get quality education and better employment opportunity.
Alumni share their experience and participate in curricular updates in view
of emerging technology and tools.
Development of faculty benefits of realization of efforts, opportunity of
attempting more complex problems, career advancement, consultancy &
sponsored R&D
Exchange of views opportunities supplement each other requirement.
Employer in industry / academia/ public services get well grounded practice
engineers with requisite technical and behavioral skills / graduate attributes.
Institution builds up a Brand.
Continuous improvement towards excellence.

Global Mobility upon Accreditation


Graduation from an accredited program is Educational Passport for
engineers mobility across good number of advanced nations and
emerging economies.
These graduates may get leadership positions and challenging
technology development opportunities.
Faculty may also get invitation for lectures, research guidance, and
academic leadership / administration.
Industry can hire graduates from accredited institutions for
innovation-intensive projects for higher profits.

How global mobility is assured ??


Multi-national accords for mutual recognition of accrediting process and
there by recognizing the accreditation.
Washington Accord, 1989
For UG Engineering Degree program

Sydney Accord, 2001


For Engineering Diploma / Polytechnic program

Dublin Accord, 2002


For Engineering Technician program

Seoul Accord, 2008


For Professional Engineers in computing and IT related fields

Washington Accord

III-A

An accord singed among six countries (Australia,


Canada, Ireland, New Zealand , United Kingdom and
United States) in the year 1989.
The purpose was to mutually recognize and accept
the qualifications accredited by signatories.
The accord at present has 15 full signatories and 5
provisional signatories.
Members of Washington Accord have outcome
based accreditation.

All members accept the defined Graduate


Attributes.
Washington Accord is applicable only for UG
Engineering Programmes.
If India wants to reap the benefits of its large
human resource and to become knowledge
society and global supplier of trained HR it is
must to be a full signatory of Washington Accord
- Countries like Australia have a demand for
Engineers.

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Signatories of WA
Australia Represented by Engineers Australia (1989)
Canada Represented by Engineers Canada (1989)
Chinese Taipei Represented by Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan (2007)
Hong Kong China Represented by the Hong Kong Institute of Engineers (1995)
Ireland Represented by Engineers Ireland (1989)
Japan Represented by Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education (2005)
Korea Represented by Accreditation Board of Engineering Education of Korea (2007)
Malaysia - Represented by Board of Engineers Malaysia (2009)
New Zealand Represented by Institution of Professional Engineers NZ (1989)
Singapore Represented by Institution of Engineers Singapore (2006 )
South Africa Represented by Engineering Council of South Africa (1999)
Turkey Represented by MUDEK (2011)
United Kingdom Represented by Engineering Council UK (1989)
United States Represented by Accreditation Board for Engineering
and Technology (1989)

Provisional Members of WA
Bangladesh Board of Accreditation for Engineering and Technical Education
Germany German Accreditation Agency for Study Programs in Engineering and
Informatics

India National Board of Accreditation

Pakistan Pakistan Engineering Council


Russia Russian Association for Engineering Education
Sri Lanka Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka

International Accords - Issues


MUTUAL
RECOGNITION
International
Agreements

Guiding Principles
Autonomy of Signatory
Transparency to Accreditation System
Free from Government and other influences
Basis - Education Framework
Entry level qualifications
Number of years of the program
Recognition of the program by Competent
Accreditation Authority and Reputation of
the Institute
Obstacles
Differences in Education System
Accreditation system
Disciplines

Who does accreditation in India


Institutional accreditation by National Assessment and
Accreditation Council (NAAC)
An autonomous body established by the UGC in 1994

Technical Programs
A totally independent body
National Board of Accreditation (NBA)
Diploma level to Post Graduate level in Engineering and
Technology, Management, Architecture, Pharmacy,
Hospitality and Mass Communication

NBA A brief history


The National Board of Accreditation (NBA) was set up by the AICTE in Sept 1994 and
became independent body in 2010
1994-2003 first format was put in use
1st Revision - Jan 2004
2nd Revision - Jan 2009

3rd Revision - June 2009 (SAR 2.0 version)


4th Revision - May 2011 (SAR Version.3.0)
5th Revision November 2012

Accreditation Models
Minimal Model

Often numeric and law-based


Provides a prescription for a minimal core and very general parameters for the
rest of the curriculum

Does not encourage continuous improvement

Input-Output Model

Often involving direct prescriptions of curriculum and faculty


Makes the accrediting process uniform and potentially fair
Relatively easy to maintain

composition

Stifle innovation and creativity in the curriculum

Outcome Model

Focuses on the objectives and outcomes of the program


Requires evidence of measurement and attainment of objectives and outcomes

Too much data may be collected and analyzed periodically

Input-Output Based Accreditation

financial resources
lab equipment
Infrastructure facilities
faculties
Number of quality of
students

Measureable Input

Progra
mme

Number of students
graduating
quantitative grades of
students
success rate of
students

Measurable Outputs

Shift
Input- outout based Assessment

Input-output:

from
Input- output
based
Assessment
to
Outcomebased
Assessment

Infrastructure, Students, Teachers, Support

staff, Management, Curriculum, Calendar.

Pass %, Number of publications, placement etc.,

Outcomes:

Outcome-based Assessment

What knowledge, skill and behavior a graduate is


expected to attain upon just completion of a
program and after 4-5 years of graduation
Observable and Measurable abilities / outcomes.
Graduate Attributes(GA) defined by NBA
This necessitates mapping of outcomes with
GA, Objectives, Mission and vision

Outcome Based Education

clear picture of what is


important for students to be able to do

Starting with a

Then organizing the curriculum,


delivary and assessment to make
sure learning happens

Outcome Based Education

OBE
(Education)

OBC

What the student


should be able to
(Curriculum)
do?
do
?
How to make the
student achieve the
(Learning &
outcome?
Teaching)
Attributes
How to measure what
the student has
achieved?

OBLT

OBA

(Assessment)

Key constituents of Outcome based


Education
Vision
d
e
s
i
g
n

Mission

Graduate
Attributes

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The Graduate Attributes


of NBA for UG Engineering
Engineering Knowledge: Apply knowledge of
mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an
engineering specialization to the solution of complex
engineering problems.
Problem Analysis: Identify, formulate, research
literature and analyze complex engineering problems
reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles
of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering
sciences.

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. . . Graduate

Attributes

Design/ Development of Solutions: Design solutions for


complex engineering problems and design system
components or processes that meet specified needs with
appropriate consideration for public health and safety,
cultural, societal and environmental considerations.
Conduct investigations of complex problems using
research-based knowledge and research methods including
design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data and
synthesis of information to provide valid conclusions.
Modern Tool Usage: Create, select and apply appropriate
techniques, resources and modern engineering and IT tools
including prediction and modelling to complex engineering
activities with an under- standing of the limitations.
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. . . Graduate

Attributes

The Engineer and Society: Apply reasoning informed by contextual


knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural
issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional
engineering practice.
Environment and Sustainability: Understand the impact of
professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental
contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable
development.
Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics
and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice.
Individual and Team Work: Function effectively as an individual,
and as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multi disciplinary
settings.
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. . . Graduate

Attributes

Communication: Communicate effectively on complex


engineering activities with the engineering com- munity and
with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and
write effective reports and design documentation, make
effective presentations and give and receive clear
instructions.
Life-long Learning: Recognize the need for and have the
preparation and ability to engage in independent and life- long
learning in the broadest context of technological change.
Project Management and Finance: Demonstrate knowledge
and understanding of engineering and management principles
and apply these to ones own work, as a member and leader
in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary
environments.

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Summary of Graduate Attributes


Engineering knowledge
Problem analysis
Design & Development of Solutions
Investigation of Complex Problem
Modern tool usage
Engineer and society
Environment& sustainability
Ethics
Individual & team work
Communication
Lifelong learning
+ Project management & finance

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Course, Degree, Programme, ??


Course
Course is a unit of teaching, which encompasses various topics,
that typically lasts one semester, is led by one or more faculty
and has a fixed registered students.
Programme
Cohesive arrangement of courses, co-cuuricular and extracurricular activities to accomplish predetermined objectives
leading to the awarding of a degree.
Degree
Academic award conferred upon a student on successful
completion of a program designed to achieve the defined
attributes

Vision and Mission


Vision is a futuristic statement that the institution / department would
like to achieve over a long period of time
Mission statements are essentially the means to achieve the vision
For example,
Vision: Create high-quality engineering professionals
Mission: offer a well-balanced programme of instruction,
practical experience, and opportunities for overall
personality development.

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Program Educational Objectives (PEOs)


Program educational objectives are broad statements that describe
the career and professional accomplishments that the program
is preparing the graduates to achieve.
Guidelines for the PEOs
PEOs should be consistent with the mission of the Institution
The number of PEOs should be manageable
PEOs should be achievable by the program
PEOs should be specific to the program and not too broad
PEOs should be based on the needs of the

constituencies

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II-B (2)

How to Evolve Program Educational


Objectives
A)

B)
C)
D)
E)

Consultation
- Industry
- Alumni
- Students
- Management

- Professional Bodies
- Faculty
- Parents
- Data on future
- Data on trends in
development in the profession

- Summary of views during consultation


- Accepted views - objectives
- Identification and designing of courses with defined objectives.
Elective and core courses.
- Courses to achieve objectives

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Program Outcomes (POs)


Program outcomes are narrower statements that describe what students
are expected to know and be able to do by the time of graduation.

Guidelines for the POs


Program outcomes basically describe knowledge, skills and behavior of
students as they progress through the program as well as by the time of
graduation.
POs should not be too broad
They must align with the Graduate Attributes
They must reflect all the Graduate Attributes

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Course Outcomes (COs)


1. Student-focused, not professor-focused

That means: learning not coverage-oriented


2. Alignment between course, program, and institutional levels
Course outcomes need to reflect both the objectives and coutcomes that the academic
program represents as well as the broader mission of the institution as a whole
3. Focus on abilities central to the discipline
Course outcomes should help prepare students for what is important to the discipline of
which the course is a part
4. Focus on aspects of learning that will endure
Teaching students new modes of thinking is likely to have an impact on their future;
having them memorize facts tends to be much more short-lived
5. Are limited to manageable number
Learning outcomes should focus a course on a few (say, 4-6) key purposes that have a
realistic chance of being accomplished within a semester
6. Specific enough to be measurable

Most important and fundamental to OBE


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Program Specific Criteria


Program Criteria provide the specificity needed for interpretation of the
bachelor level criteria as applicable to a given discipline.
Requirements stipulated in the Program Criteria are limited to the areas of
curricular topics and faculty qualifications/expertise.
Example:
CSE must include probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, mathematics through
differential and integral calculus; sciences (defined as biological, social, or physical science);
and engineering topics (including computing science) necessary to analyze software, and
systems containing hardware and software components.
ME must include Principles of engineering, basic science, and mathematics (including
multivariate calculus and differential equations); to model, analyze, design, and realize
physical systems, components or processes; and prepare students to work professionally in
both thermal and mechanical systems areas.

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Publishing and disseminating Vision and


Mission, PEOs, POs, COs
Awareness to all the stakeholders on the defined Vision
and mission, PEOs, POs, COs
Publishing in websites, curricula books, display boards
etc.,
Awareness workshops to students and faculty periodically

Prepare stakeholders to reinforce with the activities vis-vis achievement of Vision and mission, PEOs, POs,
COs

How do PEOs, POs and COs relate


COs

GAs

POs

Mission

PEOs

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Accreditation criteria
1. Vision, Mission and Program Educational Objectives
2. Programme Outcomes
3. Programme Curriculum
4. Students Performance in the Programme
5. Faculty Contributions

6. Facilities and Technical Support


7. Academic Support Units and Teaching-Learning Process
8. Governance, Institutional Support and Financial Resources
9. Continuous Improvement

Consistency between PEOs and Mission


EX: to impart quality education for the holistic
development of undergraduate and graduate students
with social responsibility and technically competent
Key Components of Mission statements

PEOs
PEO1

PEO2

Socially responsible
Technical career
.

Explain with reason the above correlation

PEO3

Alignment of defined POs with


Graduate Attributes
Program Outcomes

Graduate Attributes of the NBA (a-l)


a

(i) Program outcome ()


(ii) Program outcome ()
.

Explain with reason the above correlation

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PEO alignment with POs


Program Educational Objectives

Program Outcomes
i

ii

iii

iv v

vi

vii

viii

ix

..

..

..

(1) PEO ()

Explain with reason the above correlation

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Mapping COs with POs


Contribution of courses to program
outcomes
Type

Units

Course No. & Title

LAB

CHEM30AL General
Chemistry Laboratory
II

LEC

EE1 Electrical
Engineering Physics I

LEC

EE2 Physics for


Electrical Engineers

OTH

EE3 Introduction to
Electrical Engineering

DES

Program outcomes

EE115D Design Studies in


Electronic Circuits

OTH

EE19 Fiat Lux


Freshman Seminar

OTH

EE99 Student
Research Program

LEC

EE100 Electrical and


Electronic Circuits

Strong Contribution

Week Contribution

No Contribution

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Program Curriculum Components


Course Component

Curriculum Content
(% of total number
of credits of the
program )

Total
number of
contact
hours

Total
Number of
credits

POs

PEOs

Mathematics
Science

Computing
Humanities
Professional core
.
..

Balance between various components and their


coverage of the PEOs and POs
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Program Curriculum Balance between


theory and practical
Balance between theory ad practice

Course
Code

..

Course
Title

Total Number of contact hours


Lect
ure
(L)

Tutorial

Practical#

(T)

(P)

Credits
Total Hours

..

Total

Laboratory work and Project work should contribute towards outcomes


Delivery method and assessment of the course is very key
Project Name

Type

Achivement

PO

Project (.)

Design

Published

PO 3

Project (.)

Application/multi-disciplinary

Prototype

PO2

..

..

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Program Curriculum Contributions of


professional core
How the core courses are contributing to PEOS and POs
Any courses specific to meet any of the PEOS and POs
Course content contribution to meet the POs
Draft the content/syllabus in tune

Design experience and engineering problem solving skills are very


important

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Assessment methods and tools


Direct Assessment Method: using measurable performance indicators of
students
Exams
Assignments
Projects
Tutorials
Labs
Presentations

Indirect Assessment Method: Ascertaining opinion or self-reports


Rubrics
Alumini survey
Employer survey
Course-end survey, etc.,.

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Rubric
Rubrics is set of performance indicators which define
and describe the important component of the work being
completed
Information to/about individual student competence
(Analytic)
Communicate expectations
Diagnosis for purpose of improvement and feedback

Overall examination of the status of the performance of a


group of students? (Holistic)

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Generic or Task Specific ?


Generic
General rubric that can be used across similar performance
(used across all communication task or problem solving tasks)
Big picture approach
Element of subjectivity

Task specific
Can only be used for a single task
Focused approach
Less subjective

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Sample Program Outcome: Student can Work Effectively in Teams


Unsatisfactory
Developing
1
2
Research &
Does not collect
Collects very
gather
any information
limited
information
relating to the topic information;
some relate to
the topic
Fulfill teams Does not perform Performs very
roles & duties any duties assigned little duties
to the team role
Shares work
equally

Always relies on
others to do the
work

Listen to other Is always talking;


Team mates
never allows
anyone else to
speak

Satisfactory
3
Collects some
basic
information;
most refer to the
topic
Performs nearly
all duties

Exemplary
Score
4
Collects a great
deal of
information; all
refer to the topic

Performs all
duties of
assigned team
roles
Rarely does the Usually does
Always does the
assigned work; the assigned
assigned work
often needs
work; rarely
without having
reminding
needs reminding to be reminded.
Listens, but
Usually does
most of the
sometimes talk
talking; rarely too much
allows others to
speak

Listens and
speaks a fair
amount
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When to Assess

Program Educational Objectives(PEOs)

Few years after


Graduation 4 to 5 years

Program Outcomes (POs)

Upon
graduation

Course Outcomes (COs)

Upon
course completion

PEO Assessment tools


The data may be collected progressively
Survey questions should elicit the required information
Not to confirm the objective
Ex. PEO: producing the graduates with leadership qualities
Employer survey
Q1: At which level/position our graduates (year) are working in
your organization

Assessment Tool (frequency)


Employer satisfaction survey (Yearly)
Alumni survey (Yearly).
Placement records, higher education records

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CO Assessment tools for each course


Assessment Tool
End-of-course surveys
Student comments
Rubrics

Internal Assessment and home assignment


Semester end performance reports
Course performance history plots

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PO Assessment tools for all courses


Assessment Tool
End-of-course surveys (Quarterly).
Instructor evaluation reports (Quarterly).
Department performance report (Quarterly).
Student exit survey (Yearly).
Alumni survey (Yearly).
Alumni Advisory Board (Once or twice yearly).
Student Advisory Committee (Once or twice yearly).

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Summary of assessment methods/tools


PEOs

Assessment Tool

Assessment frequency

Assessed by

Reviewed by

Employer survey

Every year

Institute

Institute/Department

Alumni survey

Once or twice a

Department

Institute

Assignments

two months

Faculty

Faculty

Examinations

Semester end

Faculty

Faculty/Department

End-of-course survey

Every six months

Faculty

Faculty/Department

Every year

Institute

Department

Any other

Every six months

Department

Assignments

two months

Faculty

Faculty

Examinations

Semester end

Faculty

Faculty/Department

Projects

Every six

Faculty

Faculty/Department

Any other
POs

Rubrics specific to PO/POs


Employer survey
Faculty survey

COs

Group tasks

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Assessment of the attainment of PEOs


1. PEO (..)

2. PEO (..)

Assessment tool

Specific query/Problem

Goal (%)

Evaluation(%)

Industrial Survey

Query (....)

80%

85%

Alumni Survey

Query(.)

..

Alumni survey

Query (.)

..

Industrial Survey

Query (....)

80%

85%

Alumni Survey

Query(.)

..

..

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Assessment of the attainment of COs


1. CO (..)

2. CO (..)

Assessment tool

Specific query/Problem

Goal$ (%)

Evaluation(%)

End examination

Problem (....)

80%

85%

Rubric

Query(.)

..

Alumni survey

Query (.)

..

Assignment

Problem

80%

85%

Industry Survey

Query(.)

..

..

(....)

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Assessment of the attainment of POs


POs attainment through each Course
Contribution of courses to program
outcomes
Type

Units

Course No. & Title

LAB

CHEM30AL General
Chemistry Laboratory II

LEC

EE1 Electrical Engineering


Physics I

Program outcomes
a

POs attainment through all the courses and activities

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Administrative support for OBE


Quality Assurance cell
OBE assessment and evaluation at institutional level
Program wise assessment semester/year
Continuous improvement initiatives
Industrial/alumni advisory body
Review of the attainment of PEO,PO and suggest improvements
Program coordinator
Interacting with course coordinators towards attainment of POs
and review/update the changes required for curriculum contents
Course coordinator
Assess the attainment of COs and review/update the course
delivery and assessment methods

Thank YOU

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