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Classical Control Theory


Proportional - Integral - Derivative
Dr. Matt Stables
Dr. James Taylor
23/02/2010

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Introduction

History of Control
Been used since antiquity for
control of Mechanical systems.
Babylonian and Greek
development of Water Clock
Feedback Control;
Such as a float valve, controlling
temperature, speed or fluid levels

With Modern computer systems


Sensor output can be compared with
desired output, input adjusted
accordingly.
Example :
Temperature control can be achieved
through use of a heater or a fan
Challenge comes
when deciding
level of control
input for desired
results !

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Introduction

Proportional-Integral-Derivative
(PID) control accounts for more than 90% of

In this lecture;

the controls and automation applications today.

The need for feedback


control

Primarily because;
Effective and simple to implement.
Originally intended for linear, time-invariant
systems

The influences of
Proportional, Integral and
Derivative aspects

The PID algorithm has evolved, to control


systems with more complex dynamics.

Basic parameter tuning


methods
Concentrate on Continuous
Time control ( s operator )

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Introduction
A common actuator is a DC motor
Provides
Direct rotary motion or, via
drums and cables, translational
motion
The Stationary magnetic field
provides a force on a current
carrying conductor
For control purposes, there is
Input - voltage - u
Output - rotational velocity - y

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Introduction
Characteristics

RPM

Voltage

RPM

Time

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Proportional Control

Open Loop Control


Desired Output D
Motor Speed

Controller

Input U
Voltage

System

Output Y
Motor Speed

User determines desired response


Controller is an electronic amplifier, determines input voltage

Amplifier voltage U = K . D where K is a Gain


Actual motor speed depends on motor dynamics and load disturbances

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Proportional Control

Closed Loop Control


Desired Output D

Input U

Output Y

Controller

System

Sensor

Output is measured with a suitable sensor


Controller compares desired output with actual output
An electronic amplifier produces a voltage

proportional to the error U = K . (D Y)


Reduces Sensitivity to disturbance

Proportional Control

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Closed Loop Transfer Function

Desired Output D

Output Y

G1 (s)

Imaginary

G2 (s)

Y = G1 (s) G1 (s) D

G1 (s)

Desired Output D

Stable

Unstable

Output Y

G2 (s)
Y = G1 (s) + G1 (s) D

Real
Desired Output D

Output Y

+_

G1 (s)
G2 (s)

Roots of Characteristic equation


determine stability

Y=

G1 (s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)

xD

Proportional Control

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Closed Loop Stability


Desired Output D
Motor Speed

+_

Complex
Stable

Input U
Voltage

Output Y
Motor Speed

6.5

K=2

12s + 1

Unstable
K 6.5
Real

12s + 1

Y=

1+

Roots of Characteristic equation


determine stability

xD

K 6.5
12s + 1

Root = -1.167 STABLE

K 6.5
xD
=
12s + K 6.5 +1
=

13
12s + 14

xD

Proportional Control

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Example: Ventilation Control


Desired Output D
Ventilation rate

+_

Input U
Voltage

10s + 1

Closed Loop Transfer Function

Steady state Gain =

K 1.5

m3/s

K 1.5 +1

Always results in a steady


state error !!
Time

1.5

Output Y
Ventilation Rate

Y = K 1.5
xD
10s + K 1.5 +1

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Integral Control

The Integral Gain

Desired
Output D

Gain is applied to integral of error

+_

Input U

G (s)

Output Y

Proportional to both magnitude &

duration
Summing error over time gives an

Closed Loop Transfer Function

accumulated offset previously uncorrected

Results in Zero Steady State Error

Y=

Function may become unstable

1+ K

Can cause overshoot of setpoint


Greater complexity in closed loop Transfer

Y=

G (s)
1
S

xD
G (s)

K G (s)
s + K G (s)

xD

Integral Control

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Example: Ventilation Control


Desired Output D
Ventilation rate

+_

Input U
Voltage

10s + 1

Closed Loop Transfer Function

Steady state Gain =

K 1.5

m3/s

K 1.5

Zero steady state error !!


Time

1.5

Output Y
Ventilation Rate

Y = K 1.5
xD
10s2 + s +K 1.5

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Derivative Control

The Derivative Gain

Desired
Output D

Gain is applied to rate of change of error

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Ks

Acts to slowdown change

Most noticeable near setpoint


Used to reduce magnitude of overshoot
Used in combination with Proportional

and/or Integral gains


Greater complexity in closed loop Transfer
Function may become unstable due to
sensitivity to noise

Closed Loop Transfer Function


Y=

K s G (s)
1 + K s G (s)

xD

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Control Requirements

Control Gains Summary


Proportional Gain
Applicable to Error between setpoint & output
Larger values
faster response
Very large values
process instability and oscillation.
Results in Steady State Error
Integral Gain
Proportional to integral of Error between setpoint & output
Larger values
steady state errors rapidly eliminated.
Overshoot may lead to instability
Zero Steady State Error
Derivative Gain
Proportional to derivative of Error between setpoint & output
Larger values
decreased overshoot, but slower transient response
May lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error

Important considerations;

Is steady state error to be eliminated ?


Does system have restraints on input or output?
How rapidly can change be achieved?
How rapidly does change NEED to be achieved?

Control Combinations

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Proportional
Derivative Control

Desired
Output D

+_

Where a steady state error can be tolerated


Destabilising nature of Integral action
Reduces overshoot effects
However; Susceptible to noise, acts to amplify it

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Kp +Kd s

Used;
Avoids;

Closed Loop Transfer Function


Y=

G( Kp +Kd s)

xD

m3/s

1 +G( Kp +Kd s)
Desired
Output D

+_

Kp

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Time

Alternative Form;

Proportional Velocity Feedback


Control

Kd s

Control Combinations

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Proportional
Integral Control
Used;
Ensures;
.
However;
.

predominantly 1ST

Desired
Output D

Where systems are


Order
Zero Steady State Error (if closed loop transfer
.
function is stable )
Increased setpoint tracking speed
Increased complexity introduces a Phase Lag ; reducing
stability

+_

Kp + KI

Output Y

G (s)

Closed Loop Transfer Function


Y=

G( s Kp +KI )

xD

m3/s

s +G( s Kp +KI)
Desired
Output D

+_

Time

Alternative Form;

Proportional Integral (Feedback )


Control

KI

1
S

+_

Input U

Output Y

G (s)

Kp

Control Combinations

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Proportional Integral
Derivative Control

Output Y

Desired
Output D

Used:
Where system is 2ND or high order
Ensures;
Setpoint tracking with zero steady state error
Allows;
Faster response without oscillatory nature of PI control
Greater influence of error response, degree of overshoot
and oscillation

+_

Kp + KI

1
S

Input U

+ Kd s

Closed Loop Transfer Function


Y=

G(s2 Kd + s Kp + KI)

m3/s

s +G(s2 Kd+ s Kp + KI)

Time

G (s)

xD

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Control Gain Tuning

Manually :
Set KI & KD to zero, increase KP until
response begins to oscillate, then halve it
Increase KI until steady state error is
eliminated, (but not too much! )
Increase KD until system responds
sufficiently rapidly (but not too much! )

ZieglerNichols method
Set KI & KD to zero, increase KP until
response begins to oscillate;
Defined as Critical Gain KC with an
Oscillation Period PC

Then set gains as follows:Control


Type

Kp

KI

Kd

Trial & Error !

0.50Kc

Experienced operator required.

PI

0.45Kc

1.2Kp / Pc

PID

0.60Kc

2Kp / Pc

KpPc / 8

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Conclusions

Systems have been controlled


mechanistically for millennia!
Development of electronics in
early 20th Century paved the way
for feedback amplifiers and
feedback control
Control response is changeable
based on feedback gains used.
Electronic control systems using
PID structure used in 90% of
industrial controllers
Applicable to LINEAR Systems

Advances in Classical Control:


Linearization by Feedback : Nonlinearities are cancelled by feeding back
inverse of system dynamics

Model-Based Gain calculation for higher


order systems. Requires more control
gains Proportional Integral PLUS (PIP)
Gain scheduling for time varying
systems: Control gains are updated
throughout operation
State Dependant Parameter (SDP)
control; Gains are updated based on
current state of system

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Any Questions ?
Classical Control Theory
Proportional - Integral - Derivative

Dr. Matt Stables


Dr. James Taylor
23/02/2010