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1.Instructor’sManualMATHEMATICALMETHODSFORPHYSICISTSAComprehensiveGuideSEVENTHEDITIONGeorgeB.Arfken

MiamiUniversityOxford,OHHansJ.WeberUniversityofVirginiaCharlottesville,VAFrankE.HarrisUniversityofUtah,SaltLakeCity,UT;

UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,FLAMSTERDAM•BOSTON•HEIDELBERG•LONDONNEWYORK•OXFORD•PARIS•SANDIEGO

SANFRANCISCO•SINGAPORE•SYDNEY•TOKYOAcademicPressisanimprintofElsevier

2.AcademicPressisanimprintofElsevier225WymanStreet,Waltham,MA02451,USATheBoulevard,LangfordLane,Kidlington,Oxford,OX5

1GB,UKc2013ElsevierInc.Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,

electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthe

publisher.DetailsonhowtoseekpermissionandfurtherinformationaboutthePublisherspermissionspoliciesandourarrangementswithorgani­

zationssuchastheCopyrightClearanceCenterandtheCopyrightLicensingAgency,canbefoundatourwebsite:www.elsevier.com/permissions.

ThisbookandtheindividualcontributionscontainedinitareprotectedundercopyrightbythePublisher(otherthanasmaybenotedherein).Notices

Knowledgeandbestpracticeinthisfieldareconstantlychanging.Asnewresearchandexperiencebroadenourunderstanding,changesinresearch

meth­ods,professionalpractices,ormedicaltreatmentmaybecomenecessary.Practitionersandresearchersmustalwaysrelyontheirown

experienceandknowledgeinevaluatingandusinganyinformation,methods,compounds,orexperimentsdescribedherein.Inusingsuchinformation

ormethodstheyshouldbemindfuloftheirownsafetyandthesafetyofothers,includingpartiesforwhomtheyhaveaprofessionalresponsibility.To

thefullestextentofthelaw,neitherthePublishernortheauthors,con­tributors,oreditors,assumeanyliabilityforanyinjuryand/ordamageto

personsorpropertyasamatterofproductsliability,negligenceorotherwise,orfromanyuseoroperationofanymethods,products,instructions,or

ideascontainedinthematerialherein.ForinformationonallAcademicPresspublications,visitourwebsite:www.books.elsevier.com

3.Contents1Introduction12ErrataandRevisionStatus33ExerciseSolutions71.MathematicalPreliminaries

DeterminantsandMatrices

72.

273.VectorAnalysis

344.TensorsandDierentialForms

585.VectorSpaces

666.EigenvalueProblems

817.Ordinary

DierentialEquations

11110.Green’sFunctions

TopicsinAnalysis

19215.LegendreFunctions

Theory

32320.IntegralTransforms

908.Sturm­LiouvilleTheory

1069.PartialDierentialEquations

11811.ComplexVariableTheory

12212.Further

15513.GammaFunction

16614.BesselFunctions

23116.AngularMomentum

26818.MoreSpecialFunctions

33221.IntegralEquations

28619.FourierSeries

25617.Group

36422.Calculusof

Variations

UnusedSixthEditionExercises425iv

4.Chapter1IntroductionTheseventheditionofMathematicalMethodsforPhysicistsisasubstantialanddetailedrevisionofitspredecessor.The

changesextendnotonlytothetopicsandtheirpresentation,butalsototheexercisesthatareanimportantpartofthestudentexperience.Thenew

editioncontains271exercisesthatwerenotinpreviouseditions,andtherehasbeenawide­spreadreorganizationofthepreviouslyexistingexercises

tooptimizetheirplacementrelativetothematerialinthetext.Sincemanyinstructorswhohaveusedpreviouseditionsofthistexthavefavorite problemstheywishtocontinuetouse,weareprovidingdetailedtablesshowingwheretheoldproblemscanbefoundinthenewedition,and conversely,wheretheproblemsintheneweditioncamefrom.Wehaveincludedthefulltextofeveryproblemfromthesixtheditionthatwasnot usedinthenewseventhedition.Manyoftheseunusedexercisesareexcellentbuthadtobeleftouttokeepthebookwithinitssizelimit.Somemay beusefulastestquestionsoradditionalstudymaterial.Completemethodsofsolutionhavebeenprovidedforalltheproblemsthatarenewtothis seventhedition.Thisfeatureisusefultoteacherswhowanttodetermine,ataglance,featuresofthevariousexercisesthatmaynotbecom­pletely apparentfromtheproblemstatement.Whilemanyoftheproblemsfromtheearliereditionshadfullsolutions,somedidnot,andwewere

unfortunatelynotabletoundertakethegargantuantaskofgeneratingfullsolutionstonearly1400problems.NotpartofthisInstructor’sManualbut

availablefromElsevier’son­linewebsitearethreechaptersthatwerenotincludedintheprintedtextbutwhichmaybeimportanttosome

instructors.Theseinclude•Anewchapter(designated31)onPeriodicSystems,dealingwithmathe­maticaltopicsassociatedwithlattice

summationsandbandtheory,•Achapter(32)onMathieufunctions,builtusingmaterialfromtwochap­tersinthesixthedition,butexpandedintoa

singlecoherentpresentation,and1

5.CHAPTER1.INTRODUCTION2•Achapter(33)onChaos,modeledafterChapter18ofthesixtheditionbutcarefullyedited.Inaddition,also

on­linebutexternaltothisManual,isachapter(designated1)onInfiniteSeriesthatwasbuiltbycollectionofsuitabletopicsfromvariousplacesin

theseventheditiontext.ThisalternateChapter1containsnomaterialnotalreadyintheseventheditionbutitssubjectmatterhasbeenpackagedinto

aseparateunittomeetthedemandsofinstructorswhowishtobegintheircoursewithadetailedstudyofInfiniteSeriesinplaceofthenew

MathematicalPreliminarieschapter.BecausethisInstructor’sManualexistsonlyon­line,thereisanopportunityforitscontinuingupdatingand

improvement,andforcommunication,throughit,oferrorsinthetextthatwillsurelycometolightasthebookisused.Theauthorsinviteusersofthe

texttocallattentiontoerrorsorambiguities,anditisintendedthatcorrectionsbelistedinthechapterofthisManualentitledErrataandRevision

Status.Errataandcommentsmaybedirectedtotheau­thorsatharrisatqtp.ufl.eduortothepublisher.Ifuserschoosetoforwardadditional

materialsthatareofgeneralusetoinstructorswhoareteachingfromthetext,theywillbeconsideredforinclusionwhenthisManualisupdated.

PreparationofthisInstructor’sManualhasbeengreatlyfacilitatedbytheeortsofpersonnelatElsevier.Weparticularlywanttoacknowledgethe assis­tanceofourEditorialProjectManager,KathrynMorrissey,whoseattentiontothisprojecthasbeenextremelyvaluableandismuch appreciated.ItisourhopethatthisInstructor’sManualwillhavevaluetothosewhoteachfromMathematicalMethodsforPhysicistsandtherebyto theirstudents.

6.Chapter2ErrataandRevisionStatusLastchanged:06April2012ErrataandCommentsreSeventhEditiontextPage522Exercise11.7.12(a)This

isnotaprincipal­valueintegral.Page535Figure11.26Thetwoarrowheadsinthelowerpartofthecirculararcshouldbereversedindirection.Page

539Exercise11.8.9Theanswerisincorrect;itshouldbeπ/2.Page585Exercise12.6.7Changetheintegralforwhichaseriesissoughtto∞0e−xv1

+v2dv.Theansweristhencorrect.Page610Exercise13.1.23Replace(−t)νbye−πiνtν.Page615Exercise13.2.6IntheHint,changeEq.(13.35)

toEq.(13.44).Page618Eq.(13.51)Changel.h.s.toB(p+1,q+1).Page624AfterEq.(13.58)C1canbedeterminedbyrequiringconsistencywith

therecurrenceformulazΓ(z)=Γ(z+1).ConsistencywiththeduplicationformulathendeterminesC2.Page625Exercise13.4.3Replace“(seeFig.

3.4)”by“andthatoftherecurrenceformula”.Page660Exercise14.1.25Notethatα2=ω2/c2,whereωistheangularfrequency,andthattheheight

ofthecavityisl.3

7.CHAPTER2.ERRATAANDREVISIONSTATUS4Page665Exercise14.2.4ChangeEq.(11.49)toEq.(14.44).Page686Exercise14.5.5In

part(b),changeltohintheformulasforamnandbmn(denominatorandintegrationlimit).Page687Exercise14.5.14Theindexnisassumedtobe

aninteger.Page695Exercise14.6.3Theindexnisassumedtobeaninteger.Page696Exercise14.6.7(b)ChangeNtoY(twooccurrences).Page

709Exercise14.7.3Inthesummationprecededbythecosinefunction,change(2z)2sto(2z)2s+1.Page710Exercise14.7.7Replacenn(x)byyn(x).

Page723Exercise15.1.12ThelastformulaoftheanswershouldreadP2s(0)/(2s+2)=(−1)s(2s−1)!!/(2s+2)!!.Page754Exercise15.4.10Insert

minussignbeforeP1n(cosθ).Page877Exercise18.1.6Inboth(a)and(b),change2πto√2π.Page888Exercise18.2.7Changethesecondofthe

fourmembersofthefirstdisplayequationtox+ip√2ψn(x),andchangethecorrespondingmemberoftheseconddisplayequationtox−ip√2

ψn(x).Page888Exercise18.2.8Changex+iptox−ip.Page909Exercise18.4.14Allinstancesofxshouldbeprimed.Page910Exercise18.4.24

ThetextdoesnotstatethattheT0term(ifpresent)hasanadditionalfactor1/2.Page911Exercise18.4.26(b)Theratioapproaches(πs)−1/2,not(πs)

−1.Page915Exercise18.5.5Thehypergeometricfunctionshouldread2F1ν2+12,ν2+1;ν+32;z−2.Page916Exercise18.5.10Change(n

−12)!toΓ(n+12).Page916Exercise18.5.12Herenmustbeaninteger.Page917Eq.(18.142)InthelasttermchangeΓ(−c)toΓ(2−c).Page

921Exercise18.6.9Changebtoc(twooccurrences).Page931Exercise18.8.3TheargumentsofKandEarem.Page932Exercise18.8.6All

37323.ProbabilityandStatistics

3874Correlation,ExercisePlacement3985

argumentsofKandEarek2;Intheintegrandofthehint,changektok2.

8.CHAPTER2.ERRATAANDREVISIONSTATUS5Page978Exercise20.2.9TheformulaasgivenassumesthatΓ>0.Page978Exercise

20.2.10(a)ThisexercisewouldhavebeeneasierifthebookhadmentionedtheintegralrepresentationJ0(x)=2π10cosxt√1−t2dt.Page978

Exercise20.2.10(b)Changetheargumentofthesquareroottox2−a2.Page978Exercise20.2.11Thel.h.s.quantitiesarethetransformsoftheir

r.h.s.counterparts,butther.h.s.quantitiesare(−1)ntimesthetransformsofthel.h.s.expressions.Page978Exercise20.2.12Theproperlyscaled

transformoff(µ)is(2/π)1/2injn(ω),whereωisthetransformvariable.Thetextassumesittobekr.Page980Exercise20.2.16Changed3xtod3r

andremovethelimitsfromthefirstintegral(itisassumedtobeoverallspace).Page980Eq.(20.54)Replacedkbyd3k(occursthreetimes)Page

997Exercise20.4.10Thisexerciseassumesthattheunitsandscalingofthemomentumwavefunctioncorrespondtotheformulaϕ(p)=1(2π)3/2

ψ(r)e−ir·p/d3r.Page1007Exercise20.6.1Thesecondandthirdorthogonalityequa­tionsareincorrect.Theright­handsideofthesecondequation

shouldread:N,p=q=(0orN/2);N/2,(p+q=N)orp=qbutnotboth;0,otherwise.Theright­handsideofthethirdequationshouldread:N/2,p=

qandp+q=(0orN);−N/2,p=qandp+q=N;0,otherwise.Page1007Exercise20.6.2Theexponentialsshouldbee2πipk/Nande−2πipk/N.

Page1014Exercise20.7.2Thisexerciseisill­defined.Disregardit.Page1015Exercise20.7.6Replace(ν−1)!byΓ(ν)(twooccurrences).Page1015

Exercise20.7.8ChangeM(a,c;x)toM(a,c,x)(two

9.CHAPTER2.ERRATAANDREVISIONSTATUS6occurrences).Page1028Table20.2Mostofthereferencestoequationnumbersdidnotget

updatedfromthe6thedition.Thecolumnofreferencesshould,initsentirety,read:(20.126),(20.147),(20.148),Exercise20.9.1,(20.156),(20.157),

(20.166),(20.174),(20.184),(20.186),(20.203).Page1034Exercise20.8.34Notethatu(t−k)istheunitstepfunction.Page1159Exercise23.5.5

ThisproblemshouldhaveidentifiedmasthemeanvalueandMasthe“randomvariable”describingindividualstudentscores.Correctionsand AdditionstoExerciseSolutionsNoneasofnow.

10.Chapter3ExerciseSolutions1.MathematicalPreliminaries1.1InfiniteSeries1.1.1.(a)Ifun<A/nptheintegraltestshowsnunconvergesforp

>1.(b)Ifun>A/n,nundivergesbecausetheharmonicseriesdiverges.1.1.2.Thisisvalidbecauseamultiplicativeconstantdoesnotaectthe

conver­genceordivergenceofaseries.1.1.3.(a)TheRaabetestPcanbewritten1+(n+1)ln(1+n−1)lnn.Thisexpressionapproaches1inthe

limitoflargen.But,applyingtheCauchyintegraltest,dxxlnx=lnlnx,indicatingdivergence.(b)HeretheRaabetestPcanbewritten1+n+1ln

nln1+1n+ln2(1+n−1)ln2n,whichalsoapproaches1asalarge­nlimit.ButtheCauchyintegraltestyieldsdxxln2x=−1lnx,indicating

convergence.1.1.4.Convergentfora1−b1>1.Divergentfora1−b1≤1.1.1.5.(a)Divergent,comparisonwithharmonicseries.7

11.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS8(b)Divergent,byCauchyratiotest.(c)Convergent,comparisonwithζ(2).(d)Divergent,comparison

with(n+1)−1.(e)Divergent,comparisonwith12(n+1)−1orbyMaclaurinintegraltest.1.1.6.(a)Convergent,comparisonwithζ(2).(b)

Divergent,byMaclaurinintegraltest.(c)Convergent,byCauchyratiotest.(d)Divergent,byln1+1n1n.(e)Divergent,majorantis1/(nlnn).

1.1.7.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.1.8.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.1.10.Inthelimitoflargen,un+1/un=1+1n+O(n−2).Applying

Gauss’test,thisindicatesdivergence.1.1.11.Letsnbetheabsolutevalueofthenthtermoftheseries.(a)Becauselnnincreaseslessrapidlythann,

sn+1<snandlimn→∞sn=0.Thereforethisseriesconverges.Becausethesnarelargerthancorre­spondingtermsoftheharmonicseries,this

seriesisnotabsolutelycon­vergent.(b)Regardingthisseriesasanewserieswithtermsformedbycombin­ingadjacenttermsofthesamesignin

theoriginalseries,wehaveanalternatingseriesofdecreasingtermsthatapproachzeroasalimit,i.e.,12n+1+12n+2>12n+3+12n+4,this

seriesconverges.Withallsignspositive,thisseriesistheharmonicseries,soitisnotaboslutelyconvergent.(c)Combiningadjacenttermsofthe

samesign,thetermsofthenewseriessatisfy212>12+13>213,314>14+15+16>316,etc.Thegeneralformoftheserelationsis2n

n2−n+2>sn>2n+1.

12.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS9Anupperlimittotheleft­handsidememberofthisinequalityis2/(n−1).Wethereforeseethatthe

termsofthenewseriesaredecreasing,withlimitzero,sotheoriginalseriesconverges.Withallsignspositive,theoriginalseriesbecomesthe

harmonicseries,andisthereforenotabsolutelyconvergent.1.1.12.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.1.13.Formthenthtermofζ(2)−c1α1−c2α2

andchoosec1andc2sothatwhenplacedoverthecommondenominatorn2(n+1)(n+2)thenumeratorwillbeindependentofn.Thevaluesofthe

cisatisfyingthisconditionarec1=c2=1,andourresultingexpansionisζ(2)=α1+α2+∞n=12n2(n+1(n+2)=54+∞n=12n2(n+1(n+2).

Keepingtermsthroughn=10,thisformulayieldsζ(2)≈1.6445;tothisprecisiontheexactvalueisζ(2)=1.6449.1.1.14.Maketheobservationthat

∞n=01(2n+1)3+∞n=11(2n)3=ζ(3)andthatthesecondtermontheleft­handsideisζ(3)/8).Oursummationthereforehasthevalue7ζ(3)/8.

1.1.15.(a)Writeζ(n)−1as∞p=2p−n,sooursummationis∞n=2∞p=21pn=∞p=2∞n=21pn.Thesummationovernisageometricseries

whichevaluatestop−21−p−1=1p2−p.Summingnowoverp,weget∞p=21p(p−1)=∞p=11p(p+1)=α1=1.(b)Proceedinafashion

similartopart(a),butnowthegeometricserieshassum1/(p2+p),andthesumoverpisnowlackingtheinitialtermofα1,so∞p=21p(p+1)=α1

−1(1)(2)=12.

13.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS101.1.16.(a)Writeζ(3)=1+∞n=21n3−∞n=21(n−1)n(n+1)+α2=1+∞n=21n3−1n(n2−

1)+14=1+14−∞n=21n3(n2−1).(b)Nowuseα2andα4=∞n=31n(n2−1)(n2−4)=196:ζ(3)=1+123+∞n=31n3−∞n=31n(n2−

1)+α2−16−∞n=3Bn(n2−1)(n2−4)+Bα4=2924+B96+∞n=31n3−1n(n2−1)−Bn(n2−1)(n2−4)=2924−B96+∞n=34−(1+

B)n2n(n2−1)(n2−4).TheconvergenceoftheseriesisoptimizedifwesetB=−1,leadingtothefinalresultζ(3)=2924−196+∞n=34n(n2−

1)(n2−4).(c)Numberoftermsrequiredforerrorlessthan5×10−7:ζ(3)alone,999;combinedasinpart(a),27;combinedasinpart(b),11.1.2

SeriesofFunctions1.2.1.(a)ApplyingLeibniz’testtheseriesconvergesuniformlyforε≤x<∞nomatterhowsmallε>0is.(b)TheWeierstrassM

andtheintegraltestsgiveuniformconvergencefor1+ε≤x<∞nomatterhowsmallε>0ischosen.1.2.2.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.2.3.

(a)Convergentfor1<x<∞.(b)Uniformlyconvergentfor1<s≤x<∞.

14.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS111.2.4.From|cosnx|≤1,|sinnx|≤1absoluteanduniformconvergencefollowfor−s<x<sforany

s>0.1.2.5.Since|uj+2uj||x|2,|x|<1isneededforconvergence.1.2.6.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.2.7.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

1.2.8.(a)Forn=0,1,2,

−1,d4nsinxdx4n0=sinx|0=0.Taylor’stheoremgivestheabsolutelyconvergentseriessinx=∞n=0(−1)nx2n+1(2n+1)!.(b)Similar

derivativesforcosxgivetheabsolutelyconvergentseriescosx=∞n=0(−1)nx2n(2n)!.1.2.9.cotx=1x−x3−x345−2x5945−···,−π<x<

π.1.2.10.Fromcothy=η0=ey+e−yey−e−y=e2y+1e2y−1weextracty=12lnη0+1η0−1.Tocheckthiswesubstitutethisintothefirst

relation,givingη0+1η0−1+1η0+1η0−1−1=η0.Theseriescoth−1η0=∞n=0(η0)−2n−12n+1followsfromExercise1.6.1.

wefindd4n+1sinxdx4n+10=cosx|0=1,d4n+2sinxdx4n+20=−sinx|0=0,d4n+3sinxdx4n+30=−cosx|0=

15.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS121.2.11.(a)Sinced√xdx0=12√x0doesnotexist,thereisnoMaclaurinexpan­sion.(b)|x−x0|

<x0becausetheoriginmustbeexcluded.1.2.12.limx→x0f(x)g(x)=f(x+(x0−x))g(x+(x0−x)=limx→x0f(x)+(x0−x)f(x)+···g(x)+

(x0−x)g(x)+···=limx→x0f(x)g(x),wheretheintermediateformalexpressionf(x+(x0−x))g(x+(x0−x)maybedropped.1.2.13.(a)−ln

nn−1=ln1−1n=−∞ν=11νnν.Hence1n−lnnn−1=−∞ν=21νnν<0.(b)lnn+1n=ln(1+1n)=∞ν=2(−1)ν−1νnν,1n−lnn+1n

=∞ν=2(−1)ννnν>0.Summing(a)yields0>nm=21m−ln2·3···n1·2···(n−1)=nm=21m−lnn→γ−1.Thus,γ<1.Summing(b)

yields0<n−1m=21m−ln2·3···n1·2···(n−1)=n−1m=21m−lnn→γ.Hence0<γ<1.1.2.14.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

1.2.15.Thesolutionsaregiveninthetext.1.2.16.Ifan+1an→1Rthen(n+2)an+1(n+1)an→1Randan+1/(n+2)an/(n+1)→1R.1.3

BinomialTheorem1.3.1.P(x)=Cx3−x345+···.1.3.2.Integratingtermwisetan−11=π4=∞n=0(−1)n10x2ndx=∞n=0(−1)n2n+1.

16.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS131.3.3.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Convergentfor0≤x<∞.Theupperlimitxdoesnothaveto

besmall,butunlessitissmalltheconvergencewillbeslowandtheexpansionrelativelyuseless.1.3.4.sinh−1x=x−12x33+1·32·4x55−··

·,−1≤x≤1.1.3.5.Theexpansionoftheintegralhastheform10dx1+x2=101−x2+x4−x6+···dx=1−13+15−17+···.1.3.6.For

m=1,2,

thebinomialexpansiongives(1+x)−m/2=∞n=0−m/2nxn.Bymathematicalinductionweshowthat−m/2n=(−1)n(m+2n−2)!!

2n(m−2)!!n!.1.3.7.(a)ν=ν1±νc+ν2c2+···.(b)ν=ν1±νc.(c)ν=ν1±νc+12ν2c2+···.1.3.8.(a)ν1c=δ+1/2δ2.(b)ν2c=δ−

3/2δ2+···.(c)ν3c=δ−1/2δ2+···.1.3.9.wc=1−α22−α32+···.1.3.10.x=12gt2−18g3t4c2+116g5t6c4−···.1.3.11.E=

mc21−γ22n2−γ42n4n|k|−34+···.1.3.12.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.3.13.Thetwoserieshavedierent,nonoverlapping

convergenceintervals.1.3.14.(a)Dierentiatingthegeometricseries∞n=0xn=11−xforx=exp(−ε0/kT)yieldsx(1−x)2=∞n=1nxn.

Therefore,ε=ε0x1−x=ε0eε0/kT−1.

17.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS14(b)Expandingyey−1=1+y2+···wefindε=kT(1+ε02kT+···)=kT+ε0+···.1.3.15.

(a)tan−1x=∞n=0(−1)nx0t2ndt=∞n=0(−1)n2n+1x2n+1,|x|≤1.(b)Writingx=tanyasix=e2iy+1e2iy−1weextracty=−i2ln1+ix

1−ix.1.3.16.Startbyobtainingthefirstfewtermsofthepower­seriesexpansionoftheexpressionwithinthesquarebrackets.Write2+2ε1+2ε=

1+11+2ε=2−2ε+(2ε)2−···,ln(1+2εε=1ε2ε−(2ε)22+(2ε)33−···2+2ε1+2ε−ln(1+2εε=43ε2+O(ε3).Insertingthisinto

thecompleteexpressionforf(ε),thelimitisseentobe4/3.1.3.17.Letx=1/A,andwritexi1=1+(1−x)22xln1−x1+x.Expandingthe

logarithm,ξ1=1+(1−x)22x−2x−2x33−···=2x−43x2+23x3−···.Thesimilarexpansionofξ2=2x1+2x/3yieldsξ2=2x−43x2+

89x3−···.Comparingtheseexpansions,wenoteagreementthroughx2,andthex3termsdierby(2/9)x3,or2/9A3.1.3.18.(a)Insertthe

power­seriesexpansionofarctantandcarryouttheinte­gration.Theseriesforβ(2)isobtained.(b)Integratebyparts,convertinglnxinto1/xand

1/(1+x2)intoarctanx.Theintegratedtermsvanish,andthenewintegralisthenegativeofthatalreadytreatedinpart(a).

18.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS151.4MathematicalInduction1.4.1.Usemathematicalinduction.Firstevaluatetheclaimedexpression

forthesumforbothn−1andn:Sn−1=n−130(2n−1)n3(n−1)2+3(n−1)−1=n55−n42+n33−n30Sn=n30(2n+1)(n+1)(3n2+3n−

1)=n55+n42+n33−n30NextverifythatSn=Sn−1+n4.CompletetheproofbyverifyingthatS1=1.1.4.2.Usemathematicalinduction.

First,dierentiatetheLeibnizformulaforn−1,gettingthetwotermsn−1j=0n−1jddxj+1f(x)ddxn−1−jg(x)+n−1j=0n−1jddxjf(x)ddx

n−jg(x)Nowchangetheindexofthefirstsummationto(j−1),withjrangingfrom1ton;theindexcanbeextendedtoj=0becausethebinomial

coecientn−1−1vanishes.Thetermsthencombinetoyieldnj=0n−1j−1+n−1jddxjf(x)ddxn−jg(x)Thesumoftwobinomialcoecients

hasthevaluenj,therebyconfirmingthatiftheLeibnizeformulaiscorrectforn−1,itisalsocorrectforn.Onewaytoverifythebinomial

coecientsumistorecognizethatitisthenumberofwaysjofnobjectscanbechosen:eitherj−1choicesaremadefromthefirstn−1objects,

withthenthobjectthejthchoice,oralljchoicesaremadefromthefirstn−1objects,withthenthobjectremainingunchosen.Theproofisnow

completedbynoticingthattheLeibnizformulagivesacorrectexpressionforthefirstderivative.1.5OperationsonSeriesExpansionsofFunctions

1.5.1.Thepartialfractionexpansionis11−t2=1211+t+11−t,

19.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS16withintegralx−xdt1−t2=12ln(1+x)−ln(1−x)x−x=12ln1+x1−xx−x.Theupperand

lowerlimitsgivethesameresult,cancelingthefactor1/2.1.5.2.Startbywritingthepartial­fractionexpansionforp+1usingtheassumedformof

thatforpmultipliedbyanadditionalfactor1/(n+p+1).Thus,wewanttoseeifwecansimplify1p!pj=0pj(−1)jn+j1n+p+1togetthe

expectedformula.Ourfirststepistoexpandthetwofactorscontainingnintopartialfractions:1(n+j)(n+p+1)=1p+1−j1n+j−1n+p+1

Replacingthe1/(n+j)termofouroriginalexpansionusingthisresultandaddinganew1/(n+p+1)termwhichisthesummationoftheaboveresult

forallj,wereachpj=0(−1)jn+j1p!pj1p+1−j+pj=01p!pj1p+1−j(−1)j−1n+p+1UsingthefirstformulasuppliedintheHint,we

replaceeachsquarebracketbythequantity1(p+1)!p+1j,therebyidentifyingthefirstsummationasallbutthelasttermofthepartial­fraction

expansionforp+1.Thesecondsummationcannowbewritten1(p+1)! pj=0(−1)j−1p+1j 1n+p+1.Usingthesecondformula

suppliedintheHint,wenowidentifythequan­titywithinsquarebracketsasp+1j=1(−1)j−1p+1j−(−1)pp+1p+1+(−1)−1p+10=1+

(−1)p+1−1=(−1)p+1,

20.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS17sothesecondsummationreducesto(−1)p+1(p+1)!1n+p+1,asrequired.Ourproofby

mathematicalinductionisnowcompletedbyobservingthatthepartial­fractionformulaiscorrectforthecasep=0.1.5.3.Theformulaforun(p)

followsdirectlybyinsertingthepartialfractiondecomposition.Ifthisformulaissummedfornfrom1toinfinity,alltermscancelexceptthat

containingu1,givingtheresult∞n=1un(p)=u1(p−1)p.Theproofisthencompletedbyinsertingthevalueofu1(p−1).1.5.4.AfterinsertingEq.

(1.88)intoEq.(1.87),makeachangeofsummationvariablefromntop=n−j,withtherangesofjandpbothfromzerotoinfinity.Placingthep

summationoutside,andmovingquantitiesnotdependentuponjoutsidethejsummation,reachf(x)=∞p=0(−1)pcpxp(1+x)p+1∞j=0p+jjx1

+xj.UsingnowEq.(1.71),weidentifythebinomialcoecientintheaboveequationasp+jj=(−1)j−p−1j,sothejsummationreducesto∞

j=0−p−1j−x1+xj=1−x1+x−p−1=(1+x)p+1.InsertionofthisexpressionleadstotherecoveryofEq.(1.86).1.5.5.ApplyingEq.(1.88)to

thecoecientsinthepower­seriesexpansionofarctan(x),thefirst18an(a0througha17)are:0,−1,2,−8/3,8/3,−28/15,8/15,64/105,

−64/105,−368/15,1376/315,1376/315,−25216/3465,25216/3465,−106048/45045,−305792/45045,690176/45045,−690176/45045,

201472/765765.UsingtheseinEq.(1.87)forx=1,thetermsthrougha17yieldtheapproximatevaluearctan(1)≈0.785286,fairlyclosetotheexact

valueatthisprecision,0.785398.Forthisvalueofx,the18thnonzeroterminthepowerseriesis−1/35,showingthatapowerseriesforx=1cuto

after18termswouldbarelygivearesultgoodtotwosignificantfigures.The18­termEulerexpansionyieldsarctan(1/√3)≈0.523598,whilethe

exactvalueatthisprecisionis0.523599.

21.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS181.6SomeImportantSeries1.6.1.For|x|<1,ln1+x1−x=∞ν=0xνν(−1)ν−1+1=2∞n=0

x2n+12n+1.1.7Vectors1.7.1.Ax=Ay=Az=1.1.7.2.ThetrianglesidesaregivenbyAB=B−A,BC=C−B,CA=A−CwithAB+BC+

CA=(B−A)+(C−B)+(A−C)=0.1.7.3.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.1.7.4.Ifvi=vi−v1,ri=ri−r1,arethevelocitiesanddistances,

respectively,fromthegalaxyatr1,thenvi=H0(ri−r1)=H0riholds,i.e.,thesameHubblelaw.1.7.5.Withonecornerofthecubeattheorigin,the

spacediagonalsoflength√3are:(1,0,1)−(0,1,0)=(1,−1,1),(1,1,1)−(0,0,0)=(1,1,1),(0,0,1)−(1,1,0)=(−1,−1,1),(1,0,0)−(0,1,1)=

(1,−1,−1).Thefacediagonalsoflength√2are:(1,0,1)−(0,0,0)=(1,0,1),(1,0,0)−(0,0,1)=(1,0,−1);(1,0,0)−(0,1,0)=(1,−1,0),(1,1,

0)−(0,0,0)=(1,1,0);(0,1,0)−(0,0,1)=(0,1,−1),(0,1,1)−(0,0,0)=(0,1,1).1.7.6.(a)Thesurfaceisaplanepassingthroughthetipofa

andperpendiculartoa.(b)Thesurfaceisaspherehavingaasadiameter:(r−a)·r=(r−a/2)2−a2/4=0.1.7.7.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

1.7.8.Thepathoftherocketisthestraightliner=r1+tv,orinCartesiancoordinatesx(t)=1+t,y(t)=1+2t,z(t)=1+3t.

22.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS19Wenowminimizethedistance|r−r0|oftheobserveratthepointr0=(2,1,3)fromr(t),or

equivalently(r−r0)2=min.Dierentiatingtherocketpathwithrespecttotyields˙r=(˙x,˙y,˙z)=v.Settingddt(r−r0)2=0weobtainthe

condition2(r−r0)·˙r=2[r1−r0+tv]·v=0.Because˙r=visthetangentvectoroftheline,thegeometricmeaningofthisconditionisthatthe

shortestdistancevectorthroughr0isperpendiculartotheline,orthevelocityoftherocket.Nowsolvingfortyieldstheratioofscalarproductst=−

(r1−r0)·vv2=−(−1,0,−2)·(1,2,3)(1,2,3)·(1,2,3)=1+0+61+4+9=12.Substitutingthisparametervalueintotherocketpathgives

thepointrs=(3/2,2,5/2)onthelinethatisclosesttor0.Theshortestdistanceisd=|r0−rs|=|(−1/2,1,−1/2)|=2/4+1=3/2.1.7.9.Considereach

cornerofthetriangletohaveaunitofmassandbelocatedataifromtheoriginwhere,forexample,a1=(2,0,0),a2=(4,1,1),a3=(3,3,2).Then

thecenterofmassofthetriangleis13(a1+a2+a3)=acm=13(2+4+3,1+3,1+2)=3,43,1.Thethreemidpointsarelocatedatthepointof

thevectors12(a1+a2)=12(2+4,1,1)=3,12,1212(a2+a3)=12(4+3,1+3,1+2)=72,2,3212(a3+a1)=12(2+3,3,2)=52,3

2,1.

23.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS20Westartfromeachcornerandendupinthecenterasfollows(2,0,0)+2372,2,32−(2,0,0)=

3,43,1a1+2312(a2+a3)−a1=13(a1+a2+a3),(4,1,1)+2352,32,1−(4,1,1)=3,43,1a2+2312(a1+a3)−a2=13(a1+a2+

a3),(3,3,2)+233,12,12−(3,3,2)=3,43,1a3+2312(a1+a2)−a3=13(a1+a2+a3).1.7.10.A2=A2=(B−C)2=B2+C2−2BC

cosθwithθtheanglebetweenˆBandˆC.1.7.11.PandQareantiparallel;RisperpendiculartobothPandQ.1.8ComplexNumbersandFunctions

1.8.1.(a)(x+iy)−1=x−iyx2+y2.(b)x+iy=reiθgives(x+iy)−1=e−iθr=1r(cosθ−isinθ)=x−iyr2=x−iyx2+y2.1.8.2.Ifz=reiθ,

√z=√reiθ/2=√r(cosθ/2+isinθ/2).Inparticular,√i=eiπ/4=1+i√2or√i=e−i3π/4.1.8.3.einθ=cosnθ+isinnθ=(eiθ)n=(cosθ+isinθ)n

=nν=0nνcosn−νθ(isinθ)ν.Separatingrealandimaginarypartswehavecosnθ=[n/2]ν=0(−1)νn2νcosn−2νθsin2νθ,sinnθ=[n/2]ν=0(−1)ν

n2ν+1cosn−2ν−1θsin2ν+1θ.

24.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS211.8.4.N−1n=0(eix)n=1−eiNx1−eix=eiNx/2eix/2eiNx/2−e−iNx/2eix/2−e−ix/2=ei(N

−1)x/2sin(Nx/2)/sin(x/2).Nowtakerealandimaginarypartstogettheresult.1.8.5.(a)sinh(iz)=∞n=0(iz)2n+1(2n+1)!=i∞n=0(−1)nz2n+1

(2n+1)!=isinz.Allotheridentitiesareshownsimilarly.(b)ei(z1+z2)=cos(z1+z2)+isin(z1+z2)=eiz1eiz2=(cosz1+isinz1)(cosz2+isin

z2)=cosz1cosz2−sinz1sinz2+i(sinz1cosz2+sinz2cosz1).Separatingthisintorealandimaginarypartsforrealz1,z2provestheaddition

theoremsforrealarguments.Analyticcontinuationextendsthemtothecomplexplane.1.8.6.(a)Usingcosiy=coshy,siniy=isinhy,etc.andthe

additiontheoremweobtainsin(x+iy)=sinxcoshy+icosxsinhy,etc.(b)|sinz|2=sin(x+iy)sin(x−iy)=sin2xcosh2y+cos2xsinh2y=

sin2x(cosh2y−sinh2y)+sinh2y=sin2x+sinh2y,etc.1.8.7.(a)Usingcosiy=coshy,siniy=isinhy,etc.andtheadditiontheoremweobtain

sinh(x+iy)=sinhxcosy+icoshxsiny,etc.(b)|cosh(x+iy)|2=cosh(x+iy)cosh(x−iy)=cosh2xcos2y+sinh2xsin2y=sinh2x+cos2y,etc.

1.8.8.(a)UsingExercise1.8.7(a)andrationalizingwegettanh(x+iy)=sinhxcosy+icoshxsinycoshxcosy+isinhxsiny=12sinh2x(cos2

y+sin2y)+i2sin2y(cosh2x−sinh2x)cosh2xcos2y+sinh2xsin2y=12sinh2x+isin2ycos2y+sinh2x=sinh2x+sin2ycos2y+cosh

2x.(b)Startingfromcosh(x+iy)sinh(x+iy)thisissimilarlyproved.

25.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS221.8.9.Theexpansionsrelevanttothisexercisearetan−1x=x−x33+x55−···ln(1−ix)=−ix+

x22+ix33−···ln(1+ix)=ix+x22−ix33−···Thedesiredidentityfollowsdirectlybycomparingtheexpansionoftan−1xwithi/2timesthe

dierenceoftheothertwoexpansions.1.8.10.(a)Thecuberootsof−1are−1,eπi/3=1/2+i√3/2,ande−πi/3=1/2−i√3/2,soouranswersare−2,

1+i√3,and1−i√3.(b)Writeiaseπi/2;its1/4powerhasvaluese(πi/2+2nπ)/4forallintegern;therearefourdistinctvalues:eiπ/8=cosπ/8+i

sinπ/8,e5iπ/8=cos5π/8+isin5π/8,e9iπ/8=−eiπ/8,ande13iπ/8=−e5iπ/8.(c)eiπ/4hastheuniquevaluecosπ/4+isinπ/4=(1+i)/√2.1.8.11.

(a)(1+i)3hasauniquevalue.Since1+ihasmagnitude√2andisatanangleof45◦=π/4,(1+i)3willhavemagnitude23/2andargument3π/4,so

itspolarformis23/2e3iπ/4.(b)Since−1=eπi,its1/5powerwillhavevaluese(2n+1)πiforallintegern.Therewillbefivedistinctvalues:ekπi/5

withk=1,3,5,7,and9.1.9DerivativesandExtrema1.9.1.Expandfirstasapowerseriesinx,withykeptatitsactualvalue.Thenexpandeach

termofthexexpansionasapowerseriesiny,regardingxasfixed.Thenthtermofthexexpansionwillbexnn!∂∂xnf(x,y)x=0,y=0Themth

termintheyexpansionofthexntermisthereforexnn!ymm!∂∂ym∂∂xnf(x,y)x=0,y=0Thecoecientintheaboveequationcanbewritten1

(m+n)!(m+n)!m!n!=1(m+n)!m+nn.Usingtheright­handsideoftheaboveequationandcollectingtogetheralltermswiththesamevalueof

m+n,wereachtheformgivenintheexercise.

26.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS231.9.2.Thequantitiesαiareregardedasindependentofthexiwhenthedier­entiationsareapplied.

Then,expansionofthedierentialoperatorraisedtothepowernwill,whencombinedwithtn,producetermswithatotalofnderivativesappliedto f,witheachtermcontainingapowerofeachxiequaltothenumberoftimesxiwasdierentiated.Thecoecientofeachdistinctterminthe expansionofthisnthorderderivativewillbethenumberofwaysthatderivativecombinationoccursintheexpansion;theterminwhicheachxj

derivativeisappliednjtimesoccursinthefollowingnumberofways:n!n1!n2!···,withthesumoftheniequalton.Insertingthisformula,we

obtainthesameresultthatwouldbeobtainedifweexpanded,firstinx1,theninx2,etc.1.10EvaluationofIntegrals1.10.1.Applyanintegrationby

partstotheintegralinTable1.2definingthegammafunction,forintegern>0:Γ(n)=∞0tn−1e−tdt=tnne−t∞0+∞0tnne−xdx=Γ(n+1)n.

RearrangingtoΓ(n+1)=nΓ(n),weapplymathematicalinduction,not­ingthatifΓ(n)=(n−1)!,thenalsoΓ(n+1)=n!.Tocompletetheproof,we

directlyevaluatetheintegralΓ(1)=∞0e−xdx=1,whichis0!.1.10.2.Thisintegralcanalsobeevaluatedusingcontourintegration(seeExam­ple

11.8.5).Amethodmotivatedbythediscussionofthissectionstartsbymultiplyingtheintegrandbye−αxandconsideringthevalueofthisintegral

whenα=0.Wecanstartbydierentiatingtheintegralbytheparameterα,correspondingtoI(α)=∞0sinxe−αxxdx,I(α)=−∞0e−αxsinxdx=

−1α2+1,wheretheintegralforIisientifiedashavingthevaluefoundinExample1.10.4.WenowintegratetheexpressionforI,writingitasthe

indefiniteintegralI(α)=−tan−1α+C.ThevalueofCisnowdeterminedfromthevalueofI(∞),whichfromtheformofImustbezero.Thus,C=

tan−1∞=π/2,and,sincetan−10=0,wefindI(0)=π/2.1.10.3.Writetheintegrandas1coshx=2ex+e−x=2e−x1+e−2x=2(e−x−e−3x+e

−5x−···).

27.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS24Nowintegratetermbyterm;eachintegrandisasimpleexponential.Theresultis21−13+15−1

7+···.TheseriesinparenthesesisthatdiscussedinExercise1.3.2,withvalueπ/4.Ourintegralthereforehasvalueπ/2.1.10.4.Expandthe

integrandasapowerseriesine−axandintegratetermbyterm:∞0dxeax+1=∞0e−ax−e−2ax+e−3ax−···=1a−12a+13a−···After

factoringout(1/a),theseriesthatremainsisthatidentifiedinEq.(1.53)asln2,soourintegralhasvalueln(2)/a.1.10.5.Integratebyparts,toraise

thepowerofxintheintegrand:∞πsinxx2dx=∞πcosxxdx.Notethattheintegratedtermsvanish.Theintegralcannowberecognized(see

Table1.2)as−Ci(π).1.10.6.ThisisacaseoftheintegralI(α)definedinthesolutionofExercise1.10.2,withα=1.WethereforehaveI(α)=π2−

tan−1α;I(1)=π2−π4=π4.1.10.7.Writeerfasanintegralandinterchangetheorderofintegration.Wegetx0erf(t)dt=2√πx0dxt0e−u2du

=2√πx0e−u2duxudt=2√πx0e−u2(x−u)du=xerf(x)−1√πx02ue−u2du=xerf(x)+1√πe−x2−1.1.10.8.WriteE1asanintegral

andinterchangetheorderofintegration.Nowtheouter(u)integrationmustbebrokenintotwopieces:x1E1(t)dt=x1dt∞te−uudu=x1e−uu

duu1dt+∞xe−uudux1dt=x1e−uu(u−1)du+∞xe−uu(x−1)du=e−1−e−x−E1(1)+E1(x)+(x−1)E1(x)=e−1−e−x−E1(1)+

xE1(x).

28.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS251.10.9.Changethevariableofintegrationtoy=x+1,leadingto∞0e−xx+1dx=∞1e−y+1ydy

=eE1(1).1.10.10.Aftertheintegrationbypartssuggestedinthetext,with[tan−1x]2dif­ferentiatedanddx/x2integrated,theresultisI(1),where

I(a)=∞02tan−1axx(x2+1)dxWenowdierentiateI(a)withrespecttotheparametera,reachingafterapartial­fractiondecompositionI(a)=2

∞0dx(x2+1)(a2x2+1)=21−a2∞01x2+1−a2a2x2+1dx=21−a2π2−a2π2a=π1+a.Integratingwithrespecttoa,wegetI(a)=π

ln(1+a)+C,withCsettozerotoobtainthecorrectresultI(0)=0.Then,settinga=1,wefindI(1)=πln2,asrequired.1.10.11.Integratingover

onequadrantandmultiplyingbyfour,therangeofxis(0,a)and,forgivenx,therangeofyisfrom0tothepositiveysatisfyingtheequationforthe

ellipse.Thus,A=4a0dxb√a2−x2/a0dy=4baa0a2−x2dx=4baa2π4=πab.1.10.12.Drawthedividinglineaty=1/2.Thenthe

contributiontotheareaforeachybetween1/2and1is21−y2,soA=211/21−y2dy=π3−√34.Asimpleexplanationofthesetwotermsis

thatπ/3istheareaofthesectorthatincludesthepieceinquestion,while√3/4istheareaofthetrianglethatisthepartofthesectornotincludedin

thatpiece.1.11DiracDeltaFunction1.11.1.Themeanvaluetheoremgiveslimn→∞f(x)δn(x)dx=limn→∞n1/2n−1/2nf(x)dx=limn→∞nn

f(ξn)=f(0),as−12n≤ξn≤12n.

29.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS261.11.2.Usetheelementaryintegraldx1+x2=arctanz,thusreaching∞−∞dx1+n2x2=πn.

1.11.4.∞−∞f(x)δ(a(x−x1))dx=1a∞−∞f((y+y1)/a)δ(y)dy=1afy1a=1af(x1)=∞−∞f(x)δ(x−x1)dxa.1.11.5.Theleft­handsideofthis

equationisonlynonzerointheneighborhoodofx=x1,whereitisacaseofExercise1.11.4,andintheneighborhoodofx=x2,whereitisalsoa

caseofExercise1.11.4.Inbothcases,thequantityplayingtheroleofais|x1−x2|.1.11.7.Integratingbypartswefind∞−∞δ(x)f(x)dx=−∞−∞f

(x)δ(x)dx=−f(0).1.11.9.(a)Insertingthegivenformforδn(x)andchangingthevariableofinte­grationtonx,weobtainaresultthatisindependent

ofn.Theindefiniteintegralof1/cosh2xistanh(x),whichapproaches+1asx→+∞and−1asx→−∞,thusconfirmingthenormalizationclaimed

forδn.(b)Thebehavioroftanh(x)causestheright­handsideofthisequationtoapproachzeroforlargenandnegativex,buttoapproach+1for

largenandpositivex.

30.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS272.DeterminantsandMatrices2.1Determinants2.1.1.(a)−1.(b)−11.(c)9/√2.2.1.2.The

determinantofthecoecientsisequalto2.Thereforenonontrivialsolutionexists.2.1.3.Giventhepairofequationsx+2y=3,2x+4y=6.(a)

Sincethecoecientsofthesecondequationdierfromthoseofthefirstonejustbyafactor2,thedeterminantof(lhs)coecientsiszero.(b)Since

theinhomogeneoustermsontheright­handsidedierbythesamefactor2,bothnumeratordeterminantsalsovanish.(c)Itsucestosolvex+2y=

3.Givenx,y=(3−x)/2.Thisisthegeneralsolutionforarbitraryvaluesofx.2.1.4.(a)Cijisthequantitythatmultipliesaijintheexpansionofthe

deter­minant.Thesumovericollectsthequantitiesthatmultiplyalltheaijincolumnjofthedeterminant.(b)Thesesummationsformdeterminants

inwhichthesamecolumn(orrow)appearstwice;thedeterminantisthereforezero,2.1.5.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.2.1.6.Ifasetofformsis

linearlydependent,oneofthemmustbealinearcombinationofothers.Formthedeterminantoftheircoecients(witheachrowdescribingoneof theforms)andsubtractfromonerowthelinearcombinationofotherrowsthatreducesthatrowtozero.Thedeterminant(whosevalueisnot

changedbytheoperation)willbeseentobezero.2.1.7.TheGausseliminationyields10x1+9x2+8x3+4x4+x5=10,x2+2x3+3x4+5x5+

10x6=5,10x3+23x4+44x5−60x6=−5,16x4+48x5−30x6=15,48x5+498x6=215,−11316x6=−4438,sox6=2219/5658,x5=(215−

498x6)/48,x4=(15+30x6−48x5)/16,

31.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS28x3=(−5+60x6−44x5−23x4)/10,x2=5−10x6−5x5−3x4−2x3,x1=(10−x5−4x4−8x3−

9x2)/10.2.1.8.(a)δii=1(notsummed)foreachi=1,2,3.(b)δijεijk=0becauseδijissymmetricini,jwhileεijkisantisymmetricini,j.(c)For

eachεinεipqεjpqtobenon­zero,leavesonlyonevalueforiandj,sothati=j.Interchangingpandqgivestwoterms,hencethefactor2.(d)There

are6permutationsi,j,kof1,2,3inεijkεijk=6.2.1.9.Givenkimpliesp=qforεpqk=0.Forεijk=0requireseitheri=pandsoj=q,ori=qand

thenj=p.Henceεijkεpqk=δipδjp−δiqδjp.2.2Matrices2.2.1.Writingtheproductmatricesintermoftheirelements,AB=(maimbmk),BC=(n

bincnk),(AB)C=nmaimbmncnk=mnaimbmncnk=A(BC)=maimnbmncnk,becauseproductsofrealandcomplexnumbersareassociative

theparen­thesescanbedroppedforallmatrixelements.2.2.2.Multiplyingout(A+B)(A−B)=A2+BA−AB−B2=A2−B2+[B,A].2.2.3.(a)

(a1+ib1)−(a2+ib2)=a1−a2+i(b1−b2)correspondstoa1b1−b1a1−a2b2−b2a2=a1−a2b1−b2−(b1−b2)a1−a2,i.e.,the

correspondenceholdsforadditionandsubtraction.Similarly,itholdsformultiplicationbecausefirst(a1+ib1)(a2+ib2)=(a1a2−b1b2)+i(a1b2+

a2b1)andmatrixmultiplicationyieldsa1b1−b1a1a2b2−b2a2=a1a2−b1b2a1b2+a2b1−(a1b2+a2b1)a1a2−b1b2.

32.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS29(b)(a+ib)−1←→a/(a2+b2)−b/(a2+b2)b/(a2+b2)a/(a2+b2).2.2.4.Afactor(−1)canbe

pulledoutofeachrowgivingthe(−1)noverall.2.2.5.(a)Firstwecheckthatabb2−a2−ababb2−a2−ab=a2b2−a2b2ab3−ab3−a3b+a3b

−a2b2+a2b2=0.Second,tofindtheconstraintswewritethegeneralmatrixasABCDABCD=A2+BCB(A+D)C(A+D)BC+D2=0

givingD=−A,D2=−BC=A2.Thisimplies,ifwesetB=b2,C=−a2withoutlossofgenerality,thatA=ab=−D.2.2.6.n=6.2.2.7.Expanding

thecommutatorswefind[A,[B,C]]=A[B,C]−[B,C]A=ABC−ACB−BCA+CBA,[B,[A,C]]=BAC−BCA−ACB+CAB,[C,[A,B]]= CAB−CBA−ABC+BAC,andsubtractingthelastdoublecommutatorfromthesecondyieldsthefirstone,sincetheBACandCABtermscancel.

2.2.8.Bydirectmultiplicationofthematriceswefind[A,B]=AB=C,BA=0,etc.2.2.9.Theseresultscanallbeverifiedbycarryingoutthe

indicatedmatrixmultiplications.2.2.10.Ifaik=0=bikfori>k,thenalsomaimbmk=i≤m≤kaimbmk=0,asthesumisemptyfori>k.2.2.11.By

directmatrixmultiplicationsandadditions.2.2.12.Bydirectmatrixmultiplicationweverifyallclaims.2.2.13.Bydirectmatrixmultiplicationwe

verifyallclaims.

33.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS302.2.14.Fori=kandaii=akkwegetfortheproductelements(AB)ik=(nainbnk)=(aiibik)=

(BA)ik=(nbinank)=(bikakk).Hencebik=0fori=k.2.2.15.maimbmk=aiibiiδik=mbimamk.2.2.16.SincetraceABC=traceBCA,choose

oneoftheforegoinginwhichtwocommutingmatricesappearadjacenttoeachotherandinterchangetheirorder.Thenmakeacyclicpermutationif

neededtoreachCBA.2.2.17.Takingthetrace,wefindfrom[Mi,Mj]=iMkthatitrace(Mk)=trace(MiMj−MjMi)=trace(MiMj)−trace(MiMj)=

0.2.2.18.TakingthetraceofA(BA)=−A2B=−Byields−tr(B)=tr(A(BA))=tr(A2B)=tr(B).2.2.19.(a)StartingfromAB=−BA,multiplyon

theleftbyB−1andtakethetrace.Aftersimplification,wegettraceB=−traceB,sotraceB=0.2.2.20.Thisisprovedinthetext.2.2.21.(a)Aunit

matrixexceptthatMii=k,(b)AunitmatrixexceptthatMim=−K,(c)AunitmatrixexceptthatMii=Mmm=0andMmi−Mim=1.2.2.22.Same

answersasExercise2.2.21.2.2.23.A−1=17 7−70−711−10−12 .2.2.24.(a)Theequationofpart(a)statesthatTmovespeoplefrom areajbutdoesnotchangetheirtotalnumber.(b)WritethecomponentequationjTijPj=Qiandsumoveri.ThissummationreplacesTijbyunity,

leavingthatthesumoverPjequalsthesumoverQi,henceconservingpeople.2.2.25.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.2.2.26.IfO−1i=˜Oi,i=1,2,

then(O1O2)−1=O−12O−11=˜O2˜O1=O1O2.2.2.27.Takingthedeterminantof˜AA=1andusingtheproducttheoremyieldsdet(˜A)det(A)=

1=det2(A)implyingdet(A)=±1.2.2.28.If˜A=−A,˜S=S,thentrace(SA)=trace(SA)=trace(˜A˜S)=−trace(AS).

34.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS312.2.29.From˜A=A−1anddet(A)=1wehaveA−1=a22−a12−a21a11=˜A=a11a21a12a22.

Thisgivesdet(A)=a211+a212=1,hencea11=cosθ=a22,a12=sinθ=−a21,thestandard2×2rotationmatrix.2.2.30.Becauseεisreal,

det(A)=ikεi1i2 ina1i1a2i2···anin=ikεi1i2 ina1i1a2i2···anin=(detA).Because,foranyA,det(A)=det(˜A),det(A)=

det(A†).2.2.31.IfJxandJyarereal,soalsomustbetheircommutator,sothecommuta­tionrulerequiresthatJzbepureimaginary.2.2.32.(AB)†=

AB=˜B˜A=B†A†.2.2.33.AsCjk=nSnjSnk,trace(C)=nj|Snj|2.2.2.34.IfA†=A,B†=B,then(AB+BA)†=B†A†+A†B†=

AB+BA,−i(B†A†−A†B†)=i(AB−BA).2.2.35.IfC†=C,then(iC−)†≡(C†−C)†=C−C†=−iC†−,i.e.(C−)†=C−.SimilarlyC†+=C+=

C+C†.2.2.36.−iC†=(AB−BA)†=B†A†−A†B†=BA−AB=−iC.2.2.37.(AB)†=B†A†=BA=AByields[A,B]=0asthecondition,that

is,theanswerinthetext.2.2.38.(U†)†=U=(U−1)†.2.2.39.(U1U2)†=U†2U†1=U−12U−11=(U1U2)−1.2.2.40.Startbynotingthe

relationshipsσiσj+σjσi=0ifi=j,andσ2i=12;seeEq.(2.59);forproofaddEqs.(2.29)and(2.30).Then,(p·σ)2=(pxσ1+pyσ2+pzσ3)2

expandstop2xσ21+p2yσ22+p2zσ23+pxpy(σ1σ2+σ2σ1)+pxpz(σ1σ3+σ3σ1)+pypz(σ1σ2+σ2σ1)=p2x+p2y+p2z=p2.

35.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS322.2.41.Writingγ0=σ31andγi=γσi(i=1,2,3),whereγ=01−10,andnotingfronEq.

(2.57)thatifC=ABandC=ABthenCC=AABB,(γ0)2=σ23122=1212=14,(γi)2=γ2σ2i=(−12)12=−14γ0γi=

σ3γ12σi=σ1σi,γiγ0=γσ3σi12=(−σ1)σiγiγj=γ2σiσjγjγi=γ2σjσiItisobviousfromthesecondlineoftheaboveequationset

thatγ0γi+γiγ0=0;fromthethirdlineoftheequationsetwefindγiγj+γjγiiszeroifj=ibecausethenσjσi=−σiσj.2.2.42.Theanticommutation

canbedemonstratedbymatrixmultiplication.2.2.43.Theseresultscanbeconfirmedbycarryingouttheindicatedmatrixop­erations.2.2.44.Since

γ25=14,14(14+γ5)2=14(14+2γ5+14)=12(14+γ5).2.2.47.Since˜C=−C=C−1,andCγ0C−1=−γ0=−˜γ0,Cγ2C−1=−γ2=−˜γ2,

Cγ1C−1=γ1=−˜γ1,Cγ3C−1=γ3=−˜γ3,wehaveCγµC−1=˜C−1˜γµ˜C=C˜γµC−1=−˜γµ.2.2.48.(a)Writtenas2×2blocks,thematrices

αiandthewavefunctionΨareαi=0σiσi0andΨ=ΨLΨS.Inblockform,Eq.(2.73)becomesmc200−mc2+0σ1pxσ1px0+0σ2pyσ2py0+

0σ3pzσ3pz0ΨLΨS=EΨLΨS

36.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS33Thesolutioniscompletedbymovingtheright­handsideoftheaboveequationtotheleft,writtenin

theform−E00−Eandcombiningallthetermsbymatrixaddition.2.2.49.TherequirementsthegammamatricesmustsatisfyareEqs.(2.74)and

(2.75).UsethesameprocessthatwasillustratedinthesolutiontoExer­cise2.2.41,butnowwithγ0=σ112.2.2.50.IntheWeylrepresentation,

thematricesαiandthewavefunctionΨ,writtenas2×2blocks,taketheformsαi=−σi00σiandΨ1Ψ2.Thenproceedasinthesolutionto

Exercise2.2.48,obtainingthematrixequation0mc2mc20+−σ·p00σ·pΨ1Ψ2=EΨ1Ψ2.Herewewroteσ·pforσ1px+σ2py+σ3pz.Ifm

isnegligible,thismatrixequationbecomestwoindependentequa­tions,oneforΨ1,andoneforΨ2.Inthislimit,onesetofsolutionswillbewith

Ψ2=0andΨ1asolutionto−σ·pΨ1=EΨ1;asecondsetofsolutionswillhavezeroΨ1andasetofΨ2identicaltothepreviouslyfoundsetofΨ1

butwithvaluesofEoftheoppositesign.2.2.51.(a)Formr†r=(Ur)†Ur=r†U†Ur=r†r.(b)Ifforallr,r†r=r†U†Ur,thenwemusthaveU†U

=1.

37.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS343.VectorAnalysis3.1ReviewofBasicProperties(noexercises)3.2Vectorsin3­DSpace3.2.1.P×

Q=(PxQy−PyQx)ˆx׈y=(PxQy−PyQx)ˆz.3.2.2.(A×B)2=A2B2sin2θ=A2B2(1−cos2θ)=A2B2−(A·B)2withθtheanglebetween

ˆAandˆB.3.2.3.ThevectorPisatanangleθ(inthepositivedirection)fromthexaxis,whileQisatanangle−ϕ.Theanglebetweenthesevectorsis

thereforeθ+ϕ.Bothvectorsareofunitlength.ThereforeP·Q=cos(θ+ϕ)andthezcomponentofQ×Pissin(θ+ϕ).3.2.4.A=U×V=−3ˆy−

3ˆz,A/A=−(ˆy+ˆz)/√2.3.2.5.Ifaandbbothlieinthexy­planetheircrossproductisinthez­direction.Thesameisvalidforc×dˆz.Thecross

productoftwoparallelvectorsiszero.Hence(a×b)×(c×d)=0.3.2.6.CrossA−B−C=0intoAtoget−A×C=A×B,orCsinβ=Bsinγ,etc.

3.2.7.B=ˆx+2ˆy+4ˆz.3.2.8.(a)A·B×C=0,AistheplaneofBandC.TheparallelpipedhaszeroheightabovetheBCplaneandthereforezero

volume.(b)A×(B×C)=−ˆx+ˆy+2ˆz.3.2.9.ApplyingtheBAC­CABruleweobtain[a·cb−a·bc]+[b·ac−b·ca]+[c·ba−c·ab]=0.

3.2.10.(a)ˆr·Ar=A·ˆr.(b)ˆr·At=−ˆr·[ˆr×(ˆr×A)]=0.3.2.11.ThescalartripleproductA·B×Cisthevolumespannedbythevectors.

3.2.12.A·B×C=−120,A×(B×C)=−60ˆx−40ˆy+50ˆz,C×(A×B)=24ˆx+88ˆy−62ˆz,B×(C×A)=36ˆx−48ˆy+12ˆz.3.2.13.(A×B)·

(C×D)=[(A×B)×C]·D=[(A·C)B−(B·C)A]·D=(A·C)(B·D)−(A·D)(B·C).

38.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS353.2.14.UsingtheBAC­CABrulewithA×Basthefirstvectorweobtain(A×B)×(C×D)=(A×

B)·DC−(A×B)·CD.3.2.15.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.3.3CoordinateTransformations3.3.1.Thetrigonometricidentitiesfollowfromthe

rotationmatrixidentity cos(ϕ1+ϕ2)sin(ϕ1+ϕ2)−sin(ϕ1+ϕ2)cos(ϕ1+ϕ2) = cosϕ2sinϕ2−sinϕ2cosϕ2 cosϕ1sinϕ1 −sinϕ1cosϕ1 = cosϕ1cosϕ2−sinϕ1sinϕ2sinϕ1cosϕ2+cosϕ1sinϕ2−cosϕ1sinϕ2−sinϕ1cosϕ2−sinϕ1sinϕ2+cosϕ1cos ϕ2 .3.3.2.Alignthereflectingsurfaceswiththexy,xz,andyzplanes.Ifanincomingraystrikesthexyplane,thezcomponentofitsdirectionof propagationisreversed.Astrikeonthexzplanereversesitsycomponent,andastrikeontheyzplanereversesitsxcomponent.Theseproperties

applyforanarbitrarydirectionofincidence,andtogetherthereversethepropagationdirectiontotheoppositeofitsincidenceorientation.3.3.3.

BecauseSisorthogonal,itstransposeisalsoitsinverse.Therefore(x)T=(Sx)T=xTST=xTS−1.Then(x)Ty=xTS−1Sy=xTy.3.3.4.(a)

det(S)=1(b)a=Sa= 0.800.600.00−0.480.640.600.36−0.480.80 101 = 0.800.121.16 , 39.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS36b=Sb= 0.800.600.00−0.480.640.600.36−0.480.80 02−1 = 1.200.68−1.76 ,a·b=(101) 02−1 =−1,a·b=(0.800.121.16) 1.200.68−1.76 =−1.3.3.5.(a)det(S)= −1a=Sa= 0.600.000.80−0.64−0.600.48−0.48−0.800.36 101 = 1.40−0.16−0.12 ,b=Sb= 0.600.000.80−0.64−0.600.48−0.48−0.800.36 02−1 = −0.80−1.681.24 ,c=Sc= 0.600.00 0.80−0.64−0.600.48−0.48−0.800.36 213 = 3.60−0.440.92 .(b)a×b= −212 ,a×b= −0.40−1.64−2.48 .ComparewithS(a×b)= 0.600.000.80−0.64−0.600.48−0.48−0.800.36 −212 = 0.401.642.48 .(c)(a×b)·c=3,(a×b)·c=−3.(d)a×(b×c)= 211−2 ,a×(b×c)= −0.40−8.847.12 . ComparewithS(a×(b×c))= 0.600.000.80−0.64−0.600.48−0.48−0.800.36 211−2 = −0.40−8.847.12 .

40.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS37(e)NotethatSisanimproperrotation.ThefactthatS(a×b)hascomponentsofoppositesigntoa

×bshowsthata×bisapseudovector.Thedierenceinsignbetween(a×b)·cand(a×b)·cshowsthat(a×b)·cisapseudoscalar.Theequalityof

thevectorsS(a×(b×c))anda×(b×c)showsthata×(b×c)isavector.3.4RotationsinIR33.4.1.TheEulerrotationsdefinedheredierfrom

thoseinthetextinthattheinclinationofthepolaraxis(inamountβ,innowaboutthex1axisratherthanthex2axis.Therefore,toachievethesame

polarorientation,wemustplacethex1axiswherethex2axiswasusingthetextrotation.Thisrequiresanadditionalfirstrotationofπ/2.After

incliningthepolaraxis,therotationalpositionisnowπ/2greater(counterclockwise)thanfromthetextrotation,sothethirdEuleranglemustbeπ/2

lessthanitsoriginalvalue.3.4.2.(a)α=70◦,β=60◦,γ=−80◦.(b)Theanswerisinthetext.3.4.3.Theanglechangesleadtocosα→−cosα,sin

α→−sinα;cosβ→cosβ,sinβ→−sinβ;sinγ→−sinγ,cosγ→−cosγ.FromtheseweverifythateachmatrixelementofEq.(3.37)staysthe

same.3.4.4.(a)EachofthethreeEulerrotationsisanorthogonalmatrix,sotheirmatrixproductmustalsobeorthogonal.Thereforeitstranspose,˜S,

mustequalitsinverse,S−1.(b)ThisequationsimplycarriesoutthethreeEulerrotationsinreverseorder,eachintheoppositedirection.3.4.5.(a)

Theprojectionofrontherotationaxisisnotchangedbytherotation;itis(r·ˆn)ˆn.Theportionofrperpendiculartotherotationaxiscanbewritten r−(r·ˆn)ˆn.UponrotationthroughanangleΦ,thisvectorperpendiculartotherotationaxiswillconsistofavectorinitsoriginaldirection(r−(r· ˆn)ˆn)cosΦplusavectorperpendicularbothtoitandtoˆngivenby(r−(r·ˆn)ˆn)sinΦ׈n;thisreducestor׈nsinΦ.Addingthese

contributions,wegettherequiredresult.(b)Ifˆn=ˆez,theformulayieldsr=xcosΦˆex+ycosΦˆey+zcosΦˆez+ysinΦˆex−xsinΦˆey+z(1−cos

Φ)ˆez.Simplifying,thisreducestor=(xcosΦ+ysinΦ)ˆex+(−xsinΦ+ycosΦ)ˆey+zˆez.Thiscorrespondstotherotationaltransformation

giveninEq.(3.35).

41.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS38(c)Expandingr2,recognizingthatthesecondtermofrisorthogonaltothefirstandthirdterms,r2

=r2cos2Φ+(r׈n)·(r׈n)sin2Φ+(ˆn·r)2(1−cosΦ)2+2(ˆn·r)2cosΦ(1−cosΦ).Usinganidentitytomakethesimplification(r׈n)·(r

׈n)=(r·r)(ˆn·n)−(r·ˆn)2=r2−(r·ˆn)2,wegetr2=r2+(r·ˆn)2(−sin2Φ+1+cos2Φ−2cos2Φ)=r2.3.5DierentialVectorOperators

3.5.1.(a)−3(14)−5/2(ˆx+2ˆy+3ˆz).(b)3/196.(c)−1/(14)1/2,−2/(14)1/2,−3/(14)1/2.3.5.2.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.5.3.Fromr12=

(x1−x2)2+(y1−y2)2+(z1−z2)2weobtain1r12=r1−r2r12=ˆr12bydierentiatingcomponentwise.3.5.4.dF=F(r+dr,t+dt)−F(r,t)=F(r

+dr,t+dt)−F(r,t+dt)+F(r,t+dt)−F(r,t)=(dr·)F+∂F∂tdt.3.5.5.(uv)=vu+uvfollowsfromtheproductruleofdierentiation.(a)Sincef=

∂f∂uu+∂f∂vv=0,uandvareparallelsothat(u)×(v)=0,andviceversa.(b)If(u)×(v)=0,thetwo­dimensionalvolumespannedbyuandv,

alsogivenbytheJacobianJu,vx,y=∂u∂x∂u∂y∂v∂x∂v∂y,vanishes.

42.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS393.5.6.(a)From˙r=ωr(−ˆxsinωt+ˆycosωt),wegetr×˙r=ˆzωr2(cos2ωt+sin2ωt)=ˆzωr2.(b)

Dierentiating˙raboveweget¨r=−ω2r(ˆxcosωt+ˆysinωt)=−ω2r.3.5.7.Thetimederivativecommuteswiththetransformationbecausethe

coef­ficientsaijareconstants.ThereforedVj/dtsatisfiesthesametransforma­tionlawasVj.3.5.8.Theproductruledirectlyimplies(a)and(b).

3.5.9.Theproductruleofdierentiationinconjunctionwith(a×b)·c=a·(b×c),etc.gives·(a×b)=b·(×a)−a·(×b).3.5.10.IfL=−ir×,

thenthedeterminantformofthecrossproductgivesLz=−ix∂∂y−y∂∂x,(inunitsof),etc.3.5.11.Carryouttheindicatedoperations,

rememberingthatderivativesoperateoneverythingtotheirrightinthecurrentexpressionaswellasonthefunctiontowhichtheoperatorisapplied.

Therefore,LxLy=−y∂∂z−z∂∂yz∂∂x−x,∂∂z=−y∂∂x+yz∂2∂z∂x−z2∂2∂y∂x−xy∂2∂z2+zx∂2∂y∂z.LyLx=−z∂∂x−x,∂∂zy∂

∂z−z∂∂y=−zy∂2∂x∂z−xy∂2∂z2−z2∂2∂x∂y+xz∂2∂z∂y+x∂∂y.Combiningtheabove,LxLy−LyLx=x∂∂y−u∂∂x=iLz.3.5.12.[a·

L,b·L]=aj[Lj,Lk]bk=iεjklajbkLl=i(a×b)·L.3.5.13.Thestreamlinesofbaresolutionsofthedierentialequationdydx=bybx=x−y.

Writingthisdierentialequationasxdx+ydy=0,weseethatitcanbeintegratedtoyieldx2/2+y2/2=constant,equivalenttox2+y2=C2,

43.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS40theequationforafamilyofcirclescenteredatthecoordinateorigin.Todeterminethedirectionof

thestreamlines,pickaconvenientpointonacircle,e.g.,thepoint(+1,0).Herebx=0,by=+1,whichcorrespondstocounterclockwisetravel.3.6

DierentialVectorOperators:FurtherProperties3.6.1.Bydefinition,u×vissolenoidalif·(u×v)=0.Butwehavetheidentity·(u×v)=v·(×u)

−u·(×v).Ifavectorwisirrotational,×w=0,soifuandvarebothirrotational,theright­handsideoftheaboveequationiszero,provingthatu×

vissolenoidal.3.6.2.If×A=0,then·(A×r)=r·×A−A·(×r)=0−0=0.3.6.3.Fromv=ω×rweget·(ω×r)=−ω·(×r)=0.3.6.4.

Formingthescalarproductoffwiththeidentity×(gf)=g×f+(g)×f≡0weobtaintheresult,becausethesecondtermoftheidentityisperpen­

diculartof.3.6.5.ApplyingtheBAC­CABrulenaivelyweobtain(·B)A−(·A)B,wherestillactsonAandB.Thus,theproductruleof

dierentiationgeneratestwotermsoutofeachwhichareorderedsothatactsonlyonwhatcomesaftertheoperator.Thatis,(·B)A→A(·B)+(B·

)A,andsimilarlyforthesecondterm.Hencethefourterms.3.6.6.Writethexcomponentsofallthetermsontheright­handsideofthisequation.We

get[(A×)×B]x=Az∂Bz∂x−Ax∂Bz∂z−Ax∂By∂y+Ay∂By∂x,[(B×)×A]x=Bz∂Az∂x−Bx∂Az∂z−Bx∂Ay∂y+By∂Ay∂x,[A(· B)]x=Ax∂Bx∂x+Ax∂By∂y+Ax∂Bz∂z,[B(·A)]x=Bx∂Ax∂x+Bx∂Ay∂y+Bx∂Az∂z.Alltermscancelexceptthosecorrespondingto thexcomponentoftheleft­handsideoftheequation.

44.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS413.6.7.ApplytheBAC­CABruletogetA×(×A)=12(A2)−(A·)A.Thefactor1/2occurs

becauseoperatesonlyononeA.3.6.8.(A·B×r)=(r·A×B)=ˆex(A×B)x+ˆey(A×B)y+ˆez(A×B)z=A×B.3.6.9.Itsucestocheckone

Cartesiancomponent;wetakex.Thexcomponentoftheleft­handsideofEq.(3.70)is∂∂y(×V)z−∂∂z(×V)y=∂2Vy∂y∂x−∂2Vx∂y2−∂2

Vx∂z2+∂2Vz∂z∂x.Thexcomponentoftheright­handsideis∂∂x∂Vx∂x+∂Vy∂y+∂Vz∂z−∂2Vx∂x2+∂2Vx∂y2+∂2Vx∂z2.After

cancelingthetworight­hand­sideoccurrencesof∂2Vx/∂x2thesetwoexpressionscontainidenticalterms.3.6.10.×(ϕϕ)=ϕ×ϕ+ϕ×(ϕ)=0+0=

0.3.6.11.(a)IfForGcontainanadditiveconstant,itwillvanishonapplicationofanycomponentof.(b)Ifeithervectorcontainsatermf,itwillnot

aectthecurlbecause×(f)=0.3.6.12.Usetheidentityv×(×v)=(v·v)−(v·)v.Takingthecurlandnotingthatthefirsttermontheright­hand

sidethenvanishes,weobtainthedesiredrelation.3.6.13.UsingExercise3.5.9,·(u×v)=(v)·(×u)−(u)·(×v)=0−0=0.3.6.14.2ϕ=·ϕ=

0,and×ϕ=0.3.6.15.FromEq.(3.70),×(×A)=−2Aif·A=0.3.6.16.Usetheidentity2(fg)=f2g+g2f+2(f)·(g)withf=g=Φ.Thenwe

find2Ψ=k22Φ2Φ+2(Φ)·(Φ),whichsatisfiestheheatconductionequationbecause2Φ=0.

45.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS423.6.17.StartbyformingthematrixM·.WeobtainM·= 1c∂∂t−i∂∂zi∂∂yi ∂∂z1c∂∂t−i∂∂x−i∂∂yi∂∂x1c∂∂t .Applythismatrixtothevectorψ.Theresult(aftermultiplicationbyc)iscM·ψ= ∂Bx∂t−∂Ey∂z+∂Ez∂y+i−1c2∂Ex∂t−∂By∂z+∂Bz∂y∂By∂t−∂Ez∂x+∂Ex∂z+i−1c2∂Ey∂t−∂Bz∂x+∂Bx∂z ∂Bz∂t−∂Ex∂y+∂Ey∂x+i−1c2∂Ez∂t−∂Bx∂y+∂By∂x .Equatingtozerotherealandimaginarypartsofall

componentsoftheabovevector,werecovertwoMaxwellequations.3.6.18.Bydirectmatrixmultiplicationweverifythisequation.3.7Vector

Integration3.7.1.AtriangleABChasarea12|B−A||C−A|sinθ,whereθistheanglebetweenB−AandC−A.Thisareacanbewritten|(B−A)×(C

−A)|/2.Expanding,AreaABC=|A×B+B×C+C×A|/2.ApplyingthisformulatoOAB,wegetjust|A×B|/2.Continuingtotheotherthree

faces,thetotalareaisArea=|A×B|+|B×C|+|C×A|+|A×B+B×C+C×A|2.3.7.2.LetusparameterizethecircleCasx=cosϕ,y=sinϕ

withthepolarangleϕsothatdx=−sinϕdϕ,dy=cosϕdϕ.ThentheforcecanbewrittenasF=−ˆxsinϕ+ˆycosϕ.Theworkbecomes−Cxdy−

ydxx2+y2=−π0(−sin2ϕ−cos2ϕ)dϕ=π.Herewespendenergy.Ifweintegratecounterclockwisefromϕ=0toπwefindthevalue−π,because

weareridingwiththeforce.Theworkispathdependentwhichisconsistentwiththephysicalinterpretationthat

46.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS43F·drxdy−ydx=Lzisproportionaltothez­componentoforbitalangularmomentum(involving

circulation,asdiscussedinSection3.5).Ifweintegratealongthesquarethroughthepoints(±1,0),(0,−1)sur­roundingthecirclewefindforthe

clockwiselowerhalfsquarepath−F·dr=−−10Fydy|x=1−−11Fxdx|y=−1−0−1Fydy|x=−1=10dy1+y2+1−1dxx2+(−1)2+0−1dy

(−1)2+y2=arctan(1)+arctan(1)−arctan(−1)−arctan(−1)=4·π4=π,whichisconsistentwiththecircularpath.3.7.3.Theanswerdependsupon

thepaththatischosen.Asimplepossibilityistomoveinthexdirectionfrom(1,1)to(3,1)andthenintheydirectionfrom(3,1)to(3,3).Thework

istheintegralofF·ds.ForthefirstsegmentofthepaththeworkisFxdx;forthesecondsegmentitisFydy.Thesecorrespondtothespecific

integralsw1=31(x−1)dx=x22−x31=2,w2=31(3+y)dy=3y+y2231=10.3.7.4.Zero.3.7.5.13r·dσ=x3dydz+y3dzdx+z3dxdy

=1310dy10dz+···=33=1.Herethefactorxinthefirsttermisconstantandthereforeoutsidetheintegral;itis0foronefaceofthecubeand

unityfortheoppositeone.Similarremarksapplytothefactorsy,zintheothertwotermswhichcontributeequally.3.8IntegralTheorems3.8.1.For

aconstantvectora,itsdivergenceiszero.UsingGauss’theoremwehave0=V·adτ=a·Sdσ,whereSistheclosedsurfaceofthefinitevolumeV.

Asa=0isarbitrary,Sdσ=0follows.

47.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS443.8.2.From·r=3inGauss’theoremwehaveV·rdτ=3Vdτ=3V=Sr·dσ,whereVisthe

volumeenclosedbytheclosedsurfaceS.3.8.3.Covertheclosedsurfacebysmall(ingeneralcurved)adjacentrectanglesSiwhosecircumferenceare

formedbyfourlinesLieach.ThenStokes’theoremgivesS(×A)·dσ=iSi(×A)·dσ=iLiA·dl=0becausealllineintegralscanceleachother.

3.8.4.ApplyGauss’theoremto·(ϕE)=ϕ·E+ϕ·E=−E2+ε−10ϕρ,whereS→∞ϕE·dσ=0.3.8.5.First,showthatJi=·(xJ)bywriting·(xJ)=

x·J+(x)·J=0+ˆex·J=Jx.SinceJiszeroontheboundary,soisxJ,sobyGauss’theoremwehave·(xJ)dτ=0,equivalenttoJxdτ=0.3.8.6.

Bydirectcalculationwecanfindthat×t=2ez.Then,byStokes’theorem,thelineintegralhasthevalue2A.3.8.7.(a)Asr×dr/2istheareaofthe

infinitesimaltriangle,r×dristwicetheareaoftheloop.(b)Fromdr=(−ˆxasinθ+ˆybcosθ)dθandˆx׈y=ˆzweobtainr×dr=ˆzab(cos2θ+

sin2θ)andr×dr=ˆzab2π0dθ=ˆz2abπ.3.8.8.WeevaluatethesurfaceintegralwithP=r.Notethatdσ=ˆezdA,andthat,evaluatingcomponents,

dσ×=−ˆex∂∂y+ˆey∂∂x.Thenform(dσ×)×r.Thexandycomponentsofthisexpressionvanish;thezcomponentis−∂∂yy−∂∂xx=−2.

Thesurfaceintegralthenhasthevalue−2A,whereAistheareaoftheloop.NotethatthealternateformofStokes’theoremequatesthissurface

integralto−r×dr.

48.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS453.8.9.Thisfollowsfromintegrationbypartsshiftingfromvtou.Theinte­gratedtermcancelsfora

closedloop.3.8.10.UsetheidentityofExercise3.8.9,i.e.(uv)·dλ=0,andapplyStokes’theoremto2Suv·dσ=(uv−vu)·dλ=S×(uv−vu)·

dσ=2S(u×v)·dσ.3.8.11.StartingwithGauss’theoremwrittenas∂VB·dσ=V·Bdτ,substituteB=a×P,whereaisaconstantvectorandPis

arbitrary.Theleft­handintegrandthenbecomes(a×P)·dσ=(P×dσ)·a.Theright­handintegrandexpandsintoP·(×a)−a·(×P),thefirsttermof whichvanishesbecauseaisaconstantvector.OurGauss’theoremequationcanthenbewrittena·∂VP×dσ=−a·V×Pdτ.Rearrangingtoa·∂V

P×σ+V×Pdτ=0,wenotethatbecausetheconstantdirectionofaisarbitrarythequantityinsquarebracketsmustvanish;itsvanishingis

equivalenttotherelationtobeproved.3.8.12.StartfromStokes’theorem,S(×B·dσ=∂SB·drandsubstituteB=ϕa,whereaisaconstant

vectorandϕisanarbitraryscalarfunction.Becauseaisconstant,thequantity×ϕareducesto(ϕ)×a,andtheleft­sideintegrandismanipulatedas follows:(ϕ)×a·dσ=(dσ×ϕ)·a.TheStokes’theoremformulacanthenbewrittena·Sdσ×ϕ=a·∂Sϕdr.Becauseaisarbitraryindirection, theintegralsonthetwosidesofthisequationmustbeequal,provingthedesiredrelation.

49.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS463.8.13.StartingfromStokes’theoremaswritteninthesolutiontoExercise3.8.12,setB=a×P.

ThissubstitutionyieldsS(×(a×P))·dσ=∂S(a×P)·drApplyingvectoridentitiesandrememberingthataisaconstantvector,theleft­andright­ sideintegrandscanbemanipulatedsothatthisequationbecomes−Sa·((dσ×)×P)=∂S(P×dr)·a.Bringingaoutsidetheintegralsand

rearranging,wereacha·S(dσ×)×P−∂Sdr×P=0.Sincethedirectionofaisarbitrary,thequantitywithinthesquarebracketsvanishes,thereby

confirmingthedesiredrelation.3.9PotentialTheory3.9.1.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.9.2.ϕ(r)=Q4πε0r,a≤r<∞,ϕ(r)=Q4πε0a32−1

2r2a2,0≤r≤a.3.9.3.Thegravitationalaccelerationinthez­directionrelativetotheEarth’ssurfaceis−GM(R+z)2+GMR22zGMR3for0

≤zR.Thus,Fz=2zGmMR3,andFx=−xGmM(R+x)3−xGmMR3,Fy=−yGmM(R+x)3−yGmMR3.IntegratingF=−Vyieldsthe

potentialV=GmMR3z2−12x2−12y2=GmMr22R3(3z2−r2)=GmMr2R3P2(cosθ).3.9.4.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.3.9.5.The

answerisgiveninthetext.

50.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS473.9.6.A=12(B×r)forconstantBimpliesB=×A=12B·r−12B·r=32−12B.3.9.7.(a)

ThisisprovedinExercise3.6.14.(b)2×A=×(uv−vu)=u×v−v×u=2u×v.3.9.8.IfA=A+Λ,thenB=×A=×A+×Λ=Bbecause×Λ

=0,andA·dr=A·dr+Λ·dr=A·drbecausebaΛ·dr=Λ|ba=0forb=ainaclosedloop.3.9.9.UsingGreen’stheoremassuggestedinthe

problemandtheformulafortheLaplacianof1/r(whereristhedistancefromP),thevolumeintegralofGreen’stheoremreducestoV(−ϕ)21rdτ=

V(−ϕ)[−4πδ(r)]dτ=4πϕ(P).Thesurfaceintegrals,forasphereofradiusacenteredatP,areS1aϕ−ϕ1rdσ.Using(1/r)=−ˆer/r2,thesecond

termofthesurfaceintegralyields4πtimesϕ,theaverageofϕonthesphere.Thefirstsurface­integraltermvanishesbyGauss’theorembecause·ϕ

vanisheseverywherewithinthesphere.Wethushavethefinalresult4πϕ0=4πϕ.3.9.10.Use×A=B=µH,D=εEwith∂E∂t=0in×H=∂D∂t+

J=×(×A)/µ=(·A−2A)/µ=Jsothat−2A=µJfollows.3.9.11.StartfromMaxwell’sequationfor×BandsubstituteforthefieldsBandEin

termsofthepotentialsAandϕ.Therelevantequationsare×B=1c2∂E∂t+µ0J,B=×A,E=−ϕ−∂A∂t×(×A)=−1c2∂ϕ∂t−1c2∂2A∂t2

+µ0J

51.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS48Nextmanipulatetheleft­handsideusingEqs.(3.70)and(3.109):×(×A)=−2A+(·A=−2A−

1c2∂ϕ∂t.Insertingthisresultfor×(×A),thetermsin∂ϕ/∂tcancelandthedesiredformulaisobtained.3.9.12.Evaluatethecomponentsof×A.(

×A)x=∂Az∂y−∂Ay∂z=∂Az∂y=−∂∂yxx0By(x,y0,z)dx−yy0Bx(x,y,z)dy=0+Bx(x,y,z),(×A)y=∂Ax∂z−∂Az∂x=−∂∂zyy0

Bz(x,y,z)dy+∂∂xxx0By(x,y0,z)dx−yy0Bx(x,y,z)dy=−yy0∂Bz∂zdy+By(x,y0,z)−yy0∂Bx∂xdy.Theevaluationof(×A)yis

nowcompletedbyusingthefactthat·B=0,sowecontinueto(×A)y=yy0∂By∂ydy+By(x,y0,z)=By(x,y,z),(×A)z=∂Ay∂x−∂Ax∂y=

−∂Ax∂y=∂∂yyy0Bz(x,y,z)dy=Bz(x,y,z).3.10CurvilinearCoordinates3.10.1.(a)Inthexy­planedierentu,vvaluesdescribeafamilyof

hyperbolasinthefirstandthirdquadrantswithfocialongthediagonalx=yandasymptotesgivenbyxy=u=0,i.e.thex­andy­axes,and

orthogonalhyperbolaswithfocialongthex­axiswithasymptotesgivenbyv=0,i.e.thelinesx±y.Thevaluesz=constantdescribeafamilyof

planesparalleltothexy­plane.(c)Foru=const.andv=const.wegetfromx2−y2=v,xdx−ydy=0,ordx/dy=y/x,dy/dx=x/y.Thus,onthex­

axisthesehyperbolashaveaverticaltangent.Similarlyxy=u=const.givesxdy+ydx=0,ordy/dx=−y/x.Theproductoftheseslopesisequalto

−1,whichproves

52.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS49orthogonality.Alternately,fromydx+xdy=du,2xdx+2ydy=dvwegetbysquaringandaddingthat

(x2+y2)(dx2+dy2)=du2+dv2/4.Here,themixedtermsdudv,dxdydropout,provingagainorthogonality.(d)Theuvz­systemisleft­handed.

ThisfollowsfromthenegativeJaco­bian∂(x,y)∂(u,v)=−1x2+y2.Toprovethis,wedierentiatethehyperbolaswithrespecttouandvgiving,

respectively,y∂x∂u+x∂y∂u=1,y∂x∂v+x∂y∂v=0,x∂x∂u−y∂y∂u=0,x∂x∂v−y∂y∂v=12.Solvingforthepartialsweobtain∂x∂u=

yx2+y2=yx∂y∂u,∂x∂v=x2(x2+y2)=−xy∂y∂u.FromthesewefindtheJacobiangivenabove.Thecoordinatevectorsare∂r∂u=∂x∂u,

∂y∂u=∂x∂u1,xy,∂r∂v=∂x∂v,∂y∂v=∂x∂v1,−yx.3.10.2.Theseellipticalcylindercoordinatescanbeparameterizedasx=ccoshucosv,

y=csinhusinv,z=z,(usingcinsteadofa).Asweshallseeshortly,theparameter2c>0isthedistancebetweenthefociofellipsescenteredatthe

originofthex,y­planeanddescribedbydierentvaluesofu=const.Theirmajorandminorhalf­axesarerespectivelya=ccoshuandb=csinhu.

Sinceba=tanhu=1−1cosh2u=1−ε2,theeccentricityε=1/coshu,andthedistancebetweenthefoci2aε=2c,provingthestatementabove.

Asu→∞,ε→0sothattheellipsesbecomecircles.Asu→0,theellipsesbecomemoreelongateduntil,atu=0,theyshrinktothelinesegment

betweenthefoci.Dierentvaluesofv=const.describeafamilyofhyperbolas.Toshoworthogonalityoftheellipsesandhyperbolaswesquareand addthecoordinatedierentialsdx=csinhucosvdu−ccoshusinvdv,dy=ccoshusinvdu+csinhucosvdv,

53.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS50toobtaindx2+dy2=c2(sinh2ucos2v+cosh2usin2v)(du2+dv2)=c2(cosh2u−cos2v)(du2+

dv2).Sincethereisnocrosstermdudv,thesecoordinatesarelocallyorthogonal.Dierentiatingtheellipseandhyperbolaequationswithrespecttou

andvwecandetermine∂x/∂u,

definition(projection)a=iˆqia·ˆqi≡iaqiˆqiandasimilarexpressionforb,geta·b=ijˆqi·ˆqja·ˆqib·ˆqj=ia·ˆqib·ˆqi=iaqibqiusing

orthogonality,i.e.ˆqi·ˆqj=δij.3.10.4.(a)FromEq.(3.141)withˆe1=ˆq1and(ˆe1)1=1,(ˆe1)2=(ˆe1)3=0,weget·ˆe1=1h1h2h3∂(h2h3)∂q1.

(b)FromEq.(3.143)withh2V2→0,h3V3→0,weget׈e1=1h1ˆe21h3∂h1∂q3−ˆe31h2∂h1∂q2.3.10.5.Thisproblemassumesthatthe

unitvectorsˆqiareorthogonal.Fromdr=∂r∂qidqiweseethatthe∂r∂qiaretangentvectorsinthedirectionsˆei=ˆqiwithlengthshi.This

establishesthefirstequationofthisproblem.Writing(foranyi)ˆei·ˆei=1h2i∂r∂qi·∂r∂qi=1h2i∂x∂qi2+∂y∂qi2+∂z∂qi2=1,we

confirmtheformulaforhi.Ifwenowdierentiatehiˆei=∂r/∂qiwithrespecttoqj(withj=i)andnotethattheresultissymmetriciniandj,weget

∂(hiˆei)∂qj=∂2r∂qi∂qj=∂(hjˆej)∂qi.Expandingthedierentiationsoftheleftandrightmembersofthisequa­tionandequatingtheresults,∂hi

∂qjˆei+hi∂ˆei∂qj=∂hj∂qiˆej+hj∂ˆej∂qi.

54.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS51Since∂ˆei/∂qjmustbeavectorintheˆejdirection,weareabletoestablishthesecondequationofthe

exercise.Toprovethelastrelation,wedierentiateˆei·ˆei=1andˆei·ˆej=0withrespecttoqi.Wefindˆei·∂ˆei∂qi=0,∂ˆei∂qi·ˆej=−ˆei·∂ˆej

∂qi.Theseequationsshowthat∂ˆei/∂qihasnocomponentintheˆeidirectionandthatitscomponentsintheˆejdirectionsare−ˆei·∂ˆej/∂qi.Using

thesecondformulatowritethesederivativesintermsofthehi,wereachthefinalequationofthisexercise.3.10.6.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

3.10.7.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.8.UsingtheformulasfromExercise3.10.5,withhρ=hz=1andhϕ=ρ,nonzerotermsonlyresultif

thehibeingdierentiatedishϕ,andthenonlyifdierentiatedwithrespecttoρ.Theseconditionscauseallthefirstderivativesoftheunitvectorsto

vanishexceptforthetwocaseslistedintheexercise;thosecasesarestraightforwardapplicationsoftheformulas.3.10.9.Theformulagiveninthe

exerciseisincorrectbecauseitneglectstheϕ­dependenceofˆeρ.Whenthisisproperlyincluded,insteadof∂Vρ/∂ρwegetρ−1∂(ρVρ)/∂ρ.3.10.10.

(a)r=(x,y,z)=(x,y)+zˆz=ρˆρ+zˆz.(b)FromEq.(3.148)wehave·r=1ρ∂ρ2∂ρ+∂z∂z=2+1=3.FromEq.(3.150)withVρ=ρ,Vϕ=0,

Vz=zweget×r=0.3.10.11.(a)Thepointsx,y,zand−x,−y,−zhavethesamevalueofρ,valuesofzofoppositesign,andifx=ρcosϕ,y=ρsin

ϕ,then−xand−ymusthaveavalueofϕdisplacedfromtheoriginalϕvaluebyπ.(b)Aunitvectorˆezwillalwaysbeinthesame(the+z)direction,

butthechangebyπinϕwillcausetheˆeρunitvectortochangesignunderinversion.Thesameistrueofˆeϕ.3.10.12.Thesolutionisgiveninthe

text.3.10.13.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

55.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS523.10.14.UsingVz≡0weobtain×V|ρ=1ρ∂(ρVϕ(ρ,ϕ))∂z=0,×V|ϕ=1ρ∂(Vρ(ρ,ϕ))∂z=0,×

V|z=1ρ∂(ρVϕ(ρ,ϕ))∂ρ−∂Vρ(ρ,ϕ)∂ϕ.3.10.15.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.16.(a)F=ˆϕ1ρ.(b)×F=0,ρ=0.(c)2π0F·ˆϕρdϕ=

2π.(d)×Fisnotdefinedattheorigin.Acutlinefromtheoriginouttoinfinity(inanydirection)isneededtopreventonefromencirclingtheorigin.

Thescalarpotentialψ=ϕisnotsingle­valued.3.10.17.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.18.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.19.Resolving

theunitvectorsofsphericalpolarcoordinatesintoCartesiancomponentswasaccomplishedinExercise3.10.18involvinganorthogonalmatrix.The

inverseisthetransposematrix,i.e.ˆx=ˆrsinθcosϕ+ˆθcosθcosϕ−ˆϕsinϕ,ˆy=ˆrsinθsinϕ+ˆθcosθsinϕ+ˆϕcosϕ,ˆz=ˆrcosθ−ˆθsinθ.

3.10.20.(a)ThetransformationbetweenCartesianandsphericalpolarcoordinatesisnotrepresentedbyaconstantmatrix,butbyamatrixwhose

compo­nentsdependuponthevalueofr.AmatrixequationoftheindicatedtypehasnousefulmeaningbecausethecomponentsofBdependupon bothrandr.(b)UsingthefactthatboththeCartesianandsphericalpolarcoordinatesystemsareorthogonal,thetransformationmatrixbetweena Cartesian­componentvectorAanditsspherical­polarequivalentAmusthavetheformA=UA,withU= ˆer·ˆexˆer·ˆeyˆer·ˆezˆeθ·ˆex ˆeθ·ˆeyˆeθ·ˆezˆeϕ·ˆexˆeϕ·ˆeyˆeϕ·ˆez 56.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS53UsingthedatainExercise3.10.19,wehaveU= sinθcosϕsinθsinϕcosθcosθcosϕcosθ sinϕ−sinθ−sinϕcosϕ0 NotethatbothAandAareassociatedwiththesamepoint,whoseangularcoordinatesare(θ,ϕ).Tocheck

orthogonality,transposeandchecktheproductUTU.WefindUTU=1.3.10.21.Onewaytoproceedistofirstobtainthetransformationofavector

AtoitsrepresentationAincylindricalcoordinates.LettingVbethetrans­formationmatrixsatisfyingA=VA,withV= ˆeρ·ˆexˆeρ·ˆey ˆeρ·ˆezˆeϕ·ˆexˆeϕ·ˆeyˆeϕ·ˆezˆez·ˆexˆez·ˆeyˆez·ˆez UsingdatagivenintheanswertoExercise3.10.6,VevaluatestoV= cosϕsinϕ0−sinϕcosϕ0001 NotethatAandAareassociatedwiththesamepoint,whichhasangularcoordinateϕ.Wenowconvert fromsphericalpolartocylindricalcoordi­natesintwosteps,ofwhichthefirstisfromsphericalpolartoCartesiancoordinates,accomplishedbythe

transformationUT,theinverseofthetransformationUofExercise3.10.20(b).WethenapplytransformationVtoconverttocylindricalcoordinates.

TheoveralltransformationmatrixWisthenthematrixproductVUT.Thus,W= cosϕsinϕ0−sinϕcosϕ0001 sinθcos ϕcosθcosϕ−sinϕsinθsinϕcosθsinϕcosϕcosθ−sinθ0 = sinθcosθ0001cosθ−sinθ0 Theinverseofthis

,justasinExercise3.10.1,andobtainthecoordinatevectors∂r/∂uand∂r/∂v.3.10.3.Fromthecomponent

transformationisrepresentedbythetransposeofW.

57.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS543.10.22.(a)Dierentiatingˆr2=1weget∂r∂r=(sinθcosϕ,sinθsinϕ,cosθ)=ˆr,∂r∂θ=r(cosθ

cosϕ,cosθsinϕ,−sinθ)=rˆθ,∂r∂ϕ=r(−sinθsinϕ,sinθcosϕ,0)=rsinθˆϕ.(b)Withgivenbyˆr∂∂r+ˆθ1r∂∂θ+ˆϕ1rsinθ∂∂ϕ,the

alternatederivationoftheLaplacianisgivenbydottingthisintoitself.Inconjunctionwiththederivativesoftheunitvectorsabovethisgives·=ˆr·

∂∂rˆr∂∂r+ˆθ·1r∂ˆr∂θ∂∂r+ˆϕ·1rsinθ∂ˆr∂ϕ∂∂r+ˆϕ·1rsinθ∂ˆθ∂ϕ1r∂∂θ+ˆϕ·1rsinθ∂∂ϕˆϕ1rsinθ∂∂ϕ=∂2∂r2+1r2∂2∂θ2

+2r∂∂r+tanθr2∂∂θ+1r2sin2θ∂2∂ϕ2.Notethat,with1r2sin2θ∂∂θsinθ∂∂θ=tanθr2∂∂θ+1r2∂2∂θ2,wegetthestandardresult

usingExercise3.10.34fortheradialpart.3.10.23.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.24.Vθ,Vϕ1/r.3.10.25.(a)Sincer=x2+y2+z2,

changesofsigninx,y,andzleaverun­changed.Sincez→−z,cosθchangessign,convertingθintoπ−θ.Signchangesinxandyrequirethat bothsinϕandcosϕchangesign;thisrequiresthatϕchangetoϕ±π.(b)Sincethecoordinatepointisafterinversionontheoppositesideofthepolar axis,increasesinrorϕcorrespondtodisplacementsindirectionsoppositetotheireectbeforeinversion.Bothbeforeandafterinversion,anincrease inθisinadirectiontangenttothesamecircleofradiusrthat

58.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS55passesthroughboththenorthandsouthpolesofthecoordinatesystem.Thetwotangentdirections

areparallelbecausetheyareatoppositepointsofthecircle,andbothareinthesoutherlytangentdirection.Theyarethereforeinthesamedirection.

3.10.26.(a)A·r=Ax∂r∂x+Ay∂r∂y+Az∂r∂z=Abecause∂r∂x=ˆx,∂r∂y=ˆy,∂r∂z=ˆz.(b)Using∂ˆr∂θ=ˆθ,∂ˆr∂ϕ=sinθˆϕandinpolar

coordinatesfromExer­cise3.10.22wegetA·r=A·ˆr∂r∂r+A·ˆθ∂ˆr∂θ+A·ˆϕsinθ∂ˆr∂ϕ=Arˆr+Aθˆθ+Aϕˆϕ=A.3.10.27.Thesolution

isgiveninthetext.3.10.28.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.3.10.29.FromExercise3.10.32andusingtheCartesiandecompositioninExercise

3.10.18ˆθz=−sinθwegetLz=−isinθsinθ∂∂ϕ.3.10.30.UseExercise3.10.32togetthisresult.3.10.31.Solvingthisproblemdirectlyin

sphericalcoordinatesissomewhatchal­lenging.Fromthedefinitionsoftheunitvectors,onecanestablish∂ˆeθ∂ϕ=cosθˆeϕ,∂ˆeϕ∂ϕ=−sinθˆer

−cosθˆeθ,∂ˆeθ∂θ=−ˆer,∂ˆeϕ∂θ=0,ˆer׈eθ=ˆeϕ,ˆeθ׈eϕ=ˆer,ˆeϕ׈er=ˆeθ.WenowwriteL×Landexpanditintoitsfourterms,which

weprocessindividually.Whenaunitvectoristobedierentiated,thedierentiationshouldbecarriedoutbeforeevaluatingthecrossproduct.This

firsttermonlyhasacontributionwhenthesecondˆeθisdierentiated:−ˆeθsinθ∂∂ϕˆeθsinθ∂∂ϕ=−ˆeθsinθ×∂ˆeθ∂ϕ1sinθ∂∂ϕ=−(ˆeθ×

ˆeϕ)cosθsin2θ∂∂ϕ.

59.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS56Nextweprocess−ˆeϕ∂∂θˆeϕ∂∂θ=−ˆeϕ×∂ˆeϕ∂θ∂∂θ−(ˆeϕ׈eϕ)∂2∂θ2=0.Thenˆeθsinθ∂

∂ϕˆeϕ∂∂θ=ˆeθ׈eϕsinθ∂2∂ϕ∂θˆeθsinθ×(−ˆersinθ−ˆeθcosθ)∂∂θ=ˆersinθ∂2∂ϕ∂θ+ˆeϕ∂∂θ.Finally,ˆeϕ∂∂θˆeθsinθ∂∂ϕ=−ˆersin

θ∂2∂θ∂ϕ−(ˆeϕ׈eθ)−cosθsin2θ∂∂ϕ+(ˆeϕ×(−ˆer)1sinθ∂∂ϕ.Severalofthetermsintheaboveexpressionscancel.Theremainingterms

correspondtoiL.3.10.32.(a)Using=ˆr∂∂r+ˆθ1r∂∂θ+ˆϕ1rsinθ∂∂ϕandr=rˆr,ˆr׈θ=ˆϕ,ˆr׈ϕ=−ˆθ,wefindL=−i(r×)=−iˆϕ∂∂θ−

ˆθ1sinθ∂∂ϕ.(b)UsingEq.(2.44),ˆθz=−sinθwefindLz=−i∂∂ϕ,andfromˆθx=cosθcosϕ,ˆϕx=−sinϕwegetLx=isinϕ∂∂θ+icotθ

cosϕ∂∂ϕ;fromˆθy=cosθsinϕ,ˆϕy=cosϕwegetLy=−icosϕ∂∂θ+icotθsinϕ∂∂ϕ.(c)Squaringandaddinggivestheresult.

60.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS573.10.33.(a)Usingˆr×r=0and=ˆr∂∂r−ir×Lr2andtheBAC­CABruleweget−ir×=−1r2r

×(r×L)=−1r2(r·Lr−r2L)=LbecauseL·r=0.(b)Itsucestoverifythex­componentofthisequation.SubstitutingtheformulaforL,the

resulttobeprovedis×(r×)=r2−(1+r·).Thex­componentoftheleft­handsideexpandsinto×(r×)x=∂∂yx∂∂y−y∂∂x−∂∂zz∂∂x−x

∂∂z=x∂2∂y2−∂∂x−y∂2∂y∂x−∂∂x−z∂2∂z∂x+x∂2∂z2.Thex­componentoftheright­handsideisx∂2∂x2+∂2∂y2+∂2∂z2−∂∂x−∂

∂xx∂∂x+y∂∂y+z∂∂z.Theleft­andright­handsidessimplifytoidenticalexpressions.3.10.34.From(a)1r2ddrr2=ddr+2rweget(c),and

viceversa.Fromtheinnerddrr=rddr+1in(b)weget1rd2dr2r=1rddr+d2dr2+ddr,hence(c),andviceversa.3.10.35.(a)×F=0,r≥

P/2.(b)F·dλ=0.Thissuggests(butdoesnotprove)thattheforceisconservative.(c)Potential=Pcosθ/r2,dipolepotential.3.10.36.Solutionsare

giveninthetext.3.10.37.E(r)=3ˆr(p·ˆr)−p4πε0r3.

61.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS584.TensorsandDierentialForms4.1TensorAnalysis4.1.1.ThisisaspecialcaseofExercise4.1.2

withB0ij=0.4.1.2.IfA0ij=B0ijinoneframeofreference,thendefineacoordinatetransfor­mationfromthatframetoanarbitraryone:xi=

xi(x0j),sothatAij=∂xi∂x0α∂xj∂x0βA0αβ=∂xi∂x0α∂xj∂x0βB0αβ=Bij.4.1.3.Makeaboostinthez­direction.IfAz=Az=A0=0,then

A0=0intheboostedframebytheLorentztransformation,etc.4.1.4.SinceT12=∂xi∂x1∂xk∂x2Tik=cosθsinθT11+cos2θT12sin2θT21−

sinθcosθT22wefindT12=T12forarotationbyπ,butT12=−T21forarotationbyπ/2.IsotropydemandsT21=0=T12.Similarlyallothero­

diagonalcomponentsmustvanish,andthediagonalonesareequal.4.1.5.Thefour­dimensionalfourth­rankRiemann–Christoelcurvaturetensorof

generalrelativity,Riklmhas44=256components.Theantisymmetryofthefirstandsecondpairofindices,Riklm=−Rikml=−Rkilm,reduces

thesepairsto6valueseach,i.e.62=36components.Theycanbethoughtofasa6×6matrix.Thesymmetryunderexchangeofpairindices,Riklm

=Rlmik,reducesthismatrixto6·7/2=21components.TheBianchiidentity,Riklm+Rilmk+Rimkl=0,reducestheindependentcomponentsto20

becauseitrepresentsoneconstraint.Notethat,uponusingthepermutationsymmetriesonecanalwaysmakethefirstindexequaltozerofollowedby

theotherindiceswhicharealldierentfromeachother.4.1.6.Eachcomponenthasatleastonerepeatedindexandisthereforezero.4.1.7.Asthe

gradienttransformslikeavector,itisclearthatthegradientofatensorfieldofranknisatensorofrankn+1.4.1.8.Thecontractionoftwoindices

removestwoindices,whilethederivativeaddsone,so(n+1)−2=n−1.4.1.9.Thescalarproductofthefour­vectors∂µ=1c∂∂t,−and∂µ=1c

∂∂t,isthescalar∂2=1c2∂2∂t2−2.

62.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS594.1.10.ThedoublesummationKijAiBjisascalar.ThatKijisasecond­ranktensorfollowsfromthe

quotienttheorem.4.1.11.SinceKijAjk=Bikisasecond­ranktensorthequotienttheoremtellsusthatKijisasecond­ranktensor.4.2Pseudotensors,

DualTensors4.2.1.ThedirectproductεijkClmisatensorofrank5.Contracting4indicesleavesatensorofrank1,avector.InvertinggivesCjk=

εjkiCi,atensorofrank2.4.2.2.Thegeneralizationofthetotallyantisymmetricεijkfromthreetondi­mensionshasnindices.Hencethegeneralized

crossproductεijk AiBjisanantisymmetrictensorofrankn−2=1forn=3.4.2.3.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.4.2.4.(a)Aseachδijis

isotropic,theirdirectproductmustbeisotropicaswell.Thisisvalidforanyorderoftheindices.Thelaststatementimplies(b)and(c).4.2.5.The

argumentrelatingtoEq.(4.29)holdsintwodimensions,too,withδij=det(a)aipajqδpq.Nocontradictionarisesbecauseεijisantisymmetricwhile

δijissymmetric.4.2.6.ij=01−10.IfR=cosϕsinϕ−sinϕcosϕisarotation,thencosϕsinϕ−sinϕcosϕ01−10cosϕ−sinϕsinϕcosϕ=0

1−10.4.2.7.IfAk=12εijkBijwithBij=−Bji,then2εmnkAk=εmnkεijk=(δmiδnj−δmjδni)Bij=Bmn−Bnm=2Bmn.4.3TensorsinGeneral

Coordinates4.3.1.Thevectorεiiscompletelyspecifiedbyitsprojectionsontothethreelinearlyindependentεk,i.e.,bytherequirementsthatεi·εj=

δij.Takingtheformgivenintheexercise,weformεi·εi=(εj×εk)·εi(εj×εk)·εi=1,εi·εj=(εj×εk)·εj(εj×εk)·εi=0,thezerooccurring

becausethethreevectorsinthescalartripleproductarenotlinearlyindependent.Theaboveequationsconfirmthatεiisthecontravariantversionof εi.

63.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS604.3.2.(a)Fromthedefiningformula,Eq.(4.40),theorthogonalityoftheεiim­pliesthatgij=0

wheni=j.(b)Seetheanswertopart(c).(c)FromEq.(4.46)withtheεiorthogonal,theεimustalsobeorthog­onalandhavemagnitudesthatarethe

reciprocalsoftheεi.Then,fromEq.(4.47),thegiimustbethereciprocalsofthegii.4.3.3.ThisexerciseassumesuseoftheEinsteinsummation

convention.Insertingthedefinitionsoftheεiandεiandevaluatingthescalarproducts,wereach(εi·εj)(εj·εk)=∂qi∂x∂qj∂x+∂qi∂y∂qj∂y+

∂qi∂z∂qj∂z∂x∂qj∂x∂qk∂qi∂x∂qj∂x+∂y∂qj∂y∂qk+∂z∂qj∂z∂qkThetermoftheproductarisingfromthefirsttermofeachfactorhasthe

form∂qi∂x∂qj∂x∂x∂qj∂x∂qk=∂qi∂x∂x∂qkj∂x∂qj∂qj∂x=∂qi∂x∂x∂qk,wherewehavenotedthatthejsummationisthechain­rule

expansionfor∂x/∂x,whichisunity.Theproductsarisingfromthesecondtermsandthirdtermsofbothfactorshaveanalogousforms,andthesumof

these“diagonal”termsisalsoachain­ruleexpansion:∂qi∂x∂x∂qk+∂qi∂y∂y∂qk+∂qi∂z∂z∂qk=∂qi∂qk=δik.Theremainingtermsofthe

originalproductexpressionallreducetozero;weillustratewith∂qi∂x∂qj∂x∂y∂qj∂y∂qk=∂qi∂x∂y∂qkj∂y∂qj∂qj∂x.Herethejsummationis

thechain­ruleexpansionof∂y/∂xandthereforevanishes.4.3.4.StartingfromEq.(4.54),Γmjk=εm·(∂εk/∂qj),weseethataproofthat∂εk/∂qj=

∂εj/∂qkwouldalsodemonstratethatΓmjk=Γmkj.Fromthedefinitionofεk,wedierentiatewithrespecttoqj,reaching∂εk∂qj=∂2x∂qj∂qkˆex

+∂2y∂qj∂qkˆey+∂2z∂qj∂qkˆez.Becausethecoordinatesaredierentiablefunctionstheright­handsideofthisequationissymmetricinjandk,

indicatingthatjandkcanbeinterchangedwithoutchangingthevalueoftheleft­handsideoftheequation.

64.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS614.3.5.Thecovariantmetrictensorisdiagonal,withnonzeroelementsgii=h2i,sogρρ=gzz=1

andgϕϕ=ρ2.Thecontravariantmetrictensorisalsodiagonal,withnonzeroelementsthatarethereciprocalsofthegii.Thus,gρρ=gzz=1andgϕϕ

=1/ρ2.4.3.6.Letsbethepropertimeonageodesicanduµ(s)thevelocityofamassinfreefall.Thenthescalardds(V·u)=dVds·u+Vβd2xβ

ds2=∂µVαdxµdsuα−VβΓβαµuαuµ=uµuα∂µVα−ΓβαµVβinvolvesthecovariantderivativewhichisafour­vectorbythequotienttheorem.

Notethattheuseofthegeodesicequationford2xβ/ds2isthekeyhere.4.3.7.Forthisexerciseweneedtheidentity∂gik∂qj=εi·∂εk∂qj+εk·∂εi

∂qj,whichcanbeprovedbywritinggik=εi·εkanddierentiating.Wenowwrite∂Vi∂qj=∂(gikVk)∂qj=gik∂Vk∂qj+Vk∂gik∂qj=gik∂V k∂qj+Vkεi·∂εk∂qj+Vkεk·∂εi∂qj=gik∂Vk∂qj+Vkgilεl·∂εk∂qj+Vkεk·∂εi∂qj=gik∂Vk∂qj+gilVkΓlkj+VkΓkij.Intheabove wehaveusedthemetrictensortoraiseorlowerindicesandtherelationAkBk=AkBk,andhaveidentifiedChristoelsymbolsusingthedefinition

inEq.(4.54).Thelastlineoftheaboveseriesofequationscanberearrangedtotheformconstitutingasolutiontotheexercise.4.3.8.Γ122=−ρ,Γ2

12=1/ρ.4.3.9.AllbutthreeofthecovariantderivativecomponentsofacontravariantvectorVareoftheformVi;j=∂Vi∂qj.

65.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS62TheremainingthreecomponentsareVϕ;ϕ=∂Vϕ∂ϕ+Vρρ,Vϕ;ρ=∂Vϕ∂ρ+Vϕρ,Vρ;ϕ=

∂Vρ∂ϕ−ρVϕ.4.3.10.gij;k=∂kgij−Γαikgαj−Γαjkgiα=∂kgij−12gjαgαβ(∂igβk+∂kgβi−∂βgik)−12giαgαβ(∂jgβk+∂kgβj−∂βgjk)=

∂kgij−12(∂igjk+∂kgji−∂jgik)−12(∂jgik+∂kgij−∂igjk)≡0.Inordertofindgij;k=0takethecovariantderivativeoftheidentitygimgmj=δj

i.Thisgives0=gim;kgmj+gimgmj;k=gimgmj;k.Multiply­ingthisbygniandusinggnigim=δnmgivesgnj;k=0.4.3.11.Tostart,notethat

thecontravariantVkare,inthenotationofEq.(3.157),Vr,Vθ/r,Vϕ/rsinθandthat[det)g)]1/2=r2sinθ.Thenthetensorderiva­tiveformula,Eq.

(4.69),evaluatesstraightforwardlytoEq.(3.157).4.3.12.∂µΦ;ν=∂ν∂µΦ−Γαµν∂αΦ≡∂νΦ;µ=∂µ∂νΦ−Γανµ∂αΦ.4.4Jacobians4.4.1.(uv)=vu

+uvfollowsfromtheproductruleofdierentiation.(a)Sincef=∂f∂uu+∂f∂vv=0,uandvareparallel,sothat(u)×(v)=0.(b)If(u)×(v)=

0,thetwo­dimensionalvolumespannedbyuandv,alsogivenbytheJacobian∂(u,v)∂(x,y)=∂u∂x∂u∂y∂v∂x∂v∂y,vanishes.4.4.3.(a)The

directcomputationof∂(x,y)/∂(u,v)requiresderivativesofxandywithrespecttouandv.Togetthesederivatives,itisconvenienttogetexplicit formulasforxandyintermsofuandv:theseformulasare

66.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS63x=uv/(v+1),y=u/(v+1).Now,J=∂(x,y)∂(u,v)=∂x∂u∂x∂v∂y∂u∂y∂v=vv+1u(v+1)2

1v+1−u(v+1)2=−uv(v+1)3−u(v+1)3=−u(v+1)2.(b)HerewefirstneedJ−1,computedasfollows:J−1=∂(u,v)∂(x,y)=∂u∂x∂u∂y

∂v∂x∂v∂y=111y−xy2=−xy2−1y=−x+yy2.TakingthereciprocaltoobtainJ,andrewritingintermsofuandv(theformusually

neededifJistobeinsertedintoanintegraloveruandv),wegetJ=−y2x+y=−uv+121u=−u(v+1)2,inagreementwiththeanswertopart

(a).4.5DierentialForms4.5.1.Theresultsfor1and(dtdx1dx2dx3)wereexplicitlydiscussedinExample4.5.2,aswasthevalueof

dx1.Theresultsfordxi(i=1)correspondinsign,sincetheorderingdxi,dt,dxj,dxkwithi,j,kcyclichasthesameparityasdx1,dt,dx2,dx3.

Fordt,dtfollowedbytheotherdierentialsproducesastandardordering,anddt(theonlydierentialintheexpressionbeingstarred)hasthe

metrictensorelementgtt=+1.Thisconfirmsthevaluegivenfordt.Example4.5.2derivedavaluefor(dtdx1).Correspondingresultsfor(dt

dxi)holdbecausethecyclicorderingofdxi,dxj,dxkcausesthepermutationtostandardordertobethesameforalli.Toverifythat(dxjdxk)=

dtdxi,notethattheorderingdxj,dxk,dt,dxiisanevenpermutationofthestandardorder,andthatbothgjjandgkkare−1,togetherproducingno

signchange.Turningnowto(dx1dx2dx3),wenotethatdx1,dx2,dx3,dtisanoddpermutationofthestandardorder,butthequantitybeing

starredisassociatedwiththreenegativediagonalmetrictensorelements.Theresultthereforehaspositivesign,asshowninEq.(4.82).Thefinalcase

tobeconsideredis(dtdxidxj).Notethatdt,dxi,dxj,dxkisanevenpermutationofthestandardorder,andthatdt,dxi,dxjcon­tributetwo

minussignsfrommetrictensorelements.Theoverallsignisthereforeplus,asshowninEq.(4.82).

67.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS644.5.2.Sincetheforcefieldisconstant,theworkassociatedwithmotioninthexdirectionwillhave

theformaxdx,whereaxisaconstant.Similarstatementsapplytomotioninyandz.Thus,theworkwisdescribedbythe1­formw+a3dx+b2

dy+cdz.4.6DierentiatingForms4.6.1.(a)dω1=dxdy+dydx=0.(b)dω2=dxdy−dydx=2dxdy.(c)d(dxdy)=d(dx)dy

−dxd(dy)=0.4.6.2.dω3=ydxdz+xdydz+zdxdy+xdzdy−zdydx−zdydx=2ydxdz+2zdxdy.d(dω3)=2dy

dxdz+2dzdxdy=0.4.6.3.(a)(xdy−ydx)(xydz+xzdy−yzdx)=x2ydydz−xy2dxdz+x2zdydy−xyzdxdy−xyz

dydx+y2zdxdx=x2ydydz−xy2dxdz.Applyd:d(x2ydydz)−d(xy2dxdz)=2xydxdydz+x2dydydz−y2dx

dxdz−2xydydxdz=4xydxdydz.(b)dω2ω3−ω2dω3=2dxdy(xydz+xzdy−yzdx)−(xdy−ydx)(2ydx

dz+2zdxdy)=2xydxdydz−2xydydxdz=4xydxdydz.4.7IntegratingForms4.7.1.Letdx=a1du+a2dv+a3dw,dy=

b1du+b2dv+b3dw,anddz=c1du+c2dv+c3dw.Then,dxdydz=(a1du+a2dv+a3dw)(b1du+b2dv+b3dw)(c1du+c2dv+c3dw).Expanding

theright­handside,discardingtermswithduplicatedier­entials,andarrangingthewedgeproductstostandardorderwiththenecessarysign

assignments,wereachdxdydz=(a1b2c3−a1b3c2−a2b1c3+a2b3c1+a3b1c2−a3b2c1)dudvdw.

68.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS65WerecognizethecoecientofdudvdwasthedeterminantJ=a1a2a3b1b2b3c1c2c3.To

completetheidenficationofJasaJacobian,notethata1=∂x/∂u,a2=∂x/∂v,andsoon,andthereforeJ=∂(x,y,z)/∂(u,v,w).4.7.2.SeeExample

4.6.2.4.7.3.ydx+xdy:Closed;exactbecauseitisd(xy).ydx+xdyx2+y2:Notclosedbecause∂A∂y=∂∂yyx2+y2=x2−y2(x2+y2)2,∂B

∂x=∂∂xxx2+y2=y2−x2(x2+y2)2.[ln(xy)+1]dx+xydy:Closedbecause∂A/∂y=1/y=∂B/∂x.Itisexact,beingd(xlnxy).−ydx+xdyx2

+y2:Notingthatthisissimilartoapreviousdierentialformofthisexerciseexceptforthesignofthedxterm,weseethatthisformisclosed.Itis

exact,beingdtan(y/x).f(z)dz=f(x+iy)(dx+idy):∂A/∂y=∂B/∂x=if(z).Itisclosed;alsoexactbecauseAandBcanbeobtainedasderivativesof theindefiniteintegralf(z)dz.

69.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS665.VectorSpaces5.1VectorsinFunctionSpaces5.1.1.Usingorthogonalitytheφn|f=an=ba

w(x)f(x)φn(x)dxarederivedfromfandthereforeunique.5.1.2.Iff(x)=iciφi(x)=jcjφj,theni(ci−ci)φi=0.Letck−ck=0bethefirstnon­zero

term.Thenφk=−1ck−cki>k(ci−ci)φiwouldsaythatφkisnotlinearlyindependentoftheφi,i>k,whichisacontradiction.5.1.3.Forf(x)=n

−1i=0cixiwehavebj=10xjf(x)dx=ici10xi+jdx=n−1i=0cii+j+1=Ajici.Thisresultsalsofromminimizingthemeansquareerror10f(x)

−n−1i=0cixi2dxuponvaryingtheci.5.1.4.From0=∂∂clba[F(x)−mn=0cnφn(x)]2w(x)dx=2baF(x)−mn=0cnφn(x)φnw(x)dxwe

obtaincn=baF(x)φn(x)w(x)dx.

70.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS675.1.5.(a)and(b)π−πf(x)2dx=h222π∞m,n=01(2m+1)(2n+1)×π−πsin(2m+1)xsin(2n+

1)xdx=4h2π∞n=01(2n+1)2=h2π2.Using∞n=01(2n+1)2=34ζ(2),wereachζ(2)=π26.5.1.6.|f|g|2=f2g2−12baba|f(x)g(y)−

f(y)g(x)|2dxdyimplies|f|g|2≤f2g2becausethedoubleintegralisnonnegative.5.1.7.Theϕjareassumedtobeorthonormal.ExpandingI,wehave

I=f|f−iaiϕi|f−iaif|ϕi+ijaiajϕi|ϕj≥0.Usingtherelationai=ϕi|fandtheorthonormalityconditionϕi|ϕj=δij,I=f|f−iaiai−iaiai

+iaiai=f|f−i|ai|2≥0.5.1.8.Theexpansionweneedissinπx=iϕi|sinπxϕi|ϕiϕi(x).Thenecessaryintegralsareϕ0|ϕ0=10dx=1,ϕ1|ϕ1=

10(2x−1)2dx=13,ϕ2|ϕ2=10(6x2−6x+1)2dx=15,ϕ3|ϕ3=17ϕ0|f=10sinπxdx=2π,ϕ1|f=10(2x−1)sinπxdx=0,ϕ2|f=2π−24

π3,ϕ3|f=0

71.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS680.20.40.60.810.51xFigure5.1.8.Redlineisapproximationthroughϕ3,blacklineisexact.sin

πx=2/π1ϕ0+2/π−24/π31/5ϕ2+···=0.6366−0.6871(6x2−6x+1)+···.Thisseriesconvergesfairlyrapidly.SeeFig.5.1.8.5.1.9.e−x=a0L0(x)

+a1L1(x)+a2L2(x)+a3L3(x)+···,ai=∞0Li(x)e−2xdx.Byintegrationwefinda0=1/2,a1=1/4,a2=1/8,a3=1/16.Thus,e−x=12(1)+1

4(1−x)+182−4x+x22+1166−18x+9x2−x36+···.ThisexpansionwhenterminatedafterL3failsbadlybeyondaboutx=3.SeeFig.

5.1.9.5.1.10.Theformsi|ϕiϕi|andj|χjχj|areresolutionsoftheidentity.Therefore|f=ij|χjχj|ϕiϕi|f.Thecoecientsoffintheϕbasisareai=ϕi|f

,sotheaboveequationisequivalenttof=jbjχj,withbj=iχj|ϕiai.5.1.11.Weassumetheunitvectorsareorthogonal.Then,j|ˆejˆej|a=j(ˆej·a)

ˆej.Thisexpressionisacomponentdecompositionofa.

72.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS690.20.40.60.81246xFigure5.1.9.RedlineisapproximationthroughL3,blacklineisexact.

5.1.12.Thescalarproducta|amustbepositiveforeverynonzerovectorinthespace.Ifwewritea|aintheform(a1−a2)2+(k−1)a22,this

conditionwillbeviolatedforsomenonzeroaunlessk>1.5.2Gram­SchmidtOrthogonalization5.2.1.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Notethat

a10=−1/2,a20=−1/3,a21=−1/2,a30=−1/4,a31=−9/20,a32=−1/4.5.2.2.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Notethata10=−1,a20=−2,a21=

4.5.2.3.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Notethata10=−2,a20=−6,a21=−6√2.5.2.4.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Notethata10=0,a20=

−1/2,a21=0.5.2.5.RelyingwithoutcommentontheintegralformulasinExercise13.3.2,wecomputefirstx0|x0=1−1(1−x2)−1/2dx=π,x1

|x1=x0|x2=1−1x2(1−x2)−1/2dx=π/2,x2|x2=1−1x4(1−x2)−1/2dx=3π/8,x0|x1=x2|x1=0.

73.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS70Notethatsomeintegralsarezerobysymmetry.ThepolynomialT0isoftheformc0x0,withc0

satisfyingc0x0|c0x0=|c0|2x0|x0=π,soc0=1andT0=1.Bysymmetry,thepolynomialT1,whichinprincipleisalinearcombinationofx0and

x1,mustactuallybeanoddfunctionthatdependsonlyonx1,soisoftheformc1x.ItisautomaticallyorthogonaltoT0,andc1mustsatisfyc1x|c1x

=|c1|2x|x=π2.Becausex|x=π/2,wehavec1=1andT1=x.ThedeterminationofT1isabitlesstrivial.T2willbeanevenfunctionofx,and

willbeofthegeneralformT2=c2x2−T0|x2T0|T0T0=c2x2−π/2πT0=c2x2−12.Theconstantc2isnowdeterminedfromthe

normalizationcondition:T2|T2=|c2|2x2−12x2−12=|c2|23π8−π2+14π=|c2|2π8=π2,fromwhichwefindc2=2andT2=2x2−1.

5.2.6.FromtheformulagivenintheHint,wehavex0|x0=1−1(1−x2)1/2dx=π2,x0|x2=x1|x1=π8,x2|x2=π16.TakingU0=c0x0,we

find|c0|2x0|x0=π/2,soc0=1andU0=1.TheUnhaveeven/oddsymmetry,soU1=c1x,and|c1|2x|x=π/2,so|c1|2π/8=π/2,andc1=2,U1=

2x.Finally,U2=c2x2−U0|x2U0|U0U0=c2x2−π/8π/2U0=c2x2−14.

74.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS71Wedeterminec2fromU2|U2=|c2|2x2−14x2−14=|c2|2π32=π2,soc2=4,U2=4x2−1.

5.2.7.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.Notethata10=−1/√π.5.2.8.Lettheorthonormalizedvectorsbedenotedbi.First,Makeb1anor­malized

versionofc1:b1=c1/√3.Thenobtainb2(denotingb2beforenormalization)asb2=c2−(b1·c2)b1= 112 −(4√3) 1/√31/√3 1/√3 = −1/3−1/32/3 .Normalizing,b2=3/2b2.Finally,formb3=c3−(b1·c3)b1−(b2·c3)b2= 102 −(√3) 1/ √31/√31/√3 −(√3/2) −1/√6−1/√62/√6 = 1/2−1/20 .Normalizing,b3=√2b3.Collectingouranswers,the orthonormalvec­torsareb1= 1/√31/√31/√3 ,b2= −1/√6−1/√62/√6 ,b3= 1/√2−1/√20 .5.3Operators

5.3.1.ForarbitraryϕandψwithinourHilbertspace,andanarbitraryoperatorA,ϕ|Aψ=A†ϕ|ψ=ψ|A†ϕ=(A†)†ψ|ϕ=ϕ|(A†)†ψ.Sincethe

firstandlastexpressionsinthischainofequationsareequalforallA,ψ,andϕ,wemayconcludethat(A†)†=A.5.3.2.ψ2|V†(U†ψ1)=(Vψ2)

(U†ψ1)d3r=(UVψ2)ψ1d3r=ψ2|(UV)†ψ1.

75.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS725.3.3.(a)(A1)ij=xi|A1|xj.AcorrespondingformulaholdsforA2.Comput­ingforeachiandj,we

findA1= 100010001 ,A2= 010−100000 .(b)ψ= 1−23 .(c)(A1−A2)ψ= 1−10110001 1−23 = 3−13 =χ.Check:A1ψ=x1−2x2+3x3;A2ψ=−2x1−x2;(A1−A2)ψ=3x1−x2+3x3.5.3.4.(a)FirstcomputeAPn

(Pnarethenormalizedpolynomials).AP0=0,AP1=3/2x=P1AP2=5/2(3x2)=2P2+√5P0,AP3=7/2152x3−32x=3P3+√21P1.Using

theaboveandnotingthatourbasisisthePn,weconstructA= 00√50010√2100200003 Note:WebuiltthematrixofA

directlyfromtheexpansions.Analternateandequallyvalidapproachwouldbetoidentifythematrixelementsasscalarproducts.(b)Toexpandx3

weneedP3|x3=2√14/35andP1|x3=√6/5;thecoecientsofP2andP0vanishbecausex3isodd.Fromtheabovedata,wegetx3=(2√

14/35)P3(x)+(√6/5)P1(x).Thus,thecolumnvectorrepresentingx3isx3←→ 0√6/502√14/35 . 76.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS73(c)Ax3= 00√50010√2100200003 0√6/502√14/35 = 03√6/506√14/35 .InsertingtheexplicitformsofP1andP3,wefindAx3=(3√6/5)(3/2x)+(6√14/35)7/2(52x3

−32x)=3x3,inagreementwiththedirectlycomputedvalue.5.4Self­AdjointOperators5.4.1.(a)(A+A†)†=A+A†,[i(A−A†)]†=−i(A†−

A)=i(A−A†).(b)A=12(A+A†)−i2i(A−A†).5.4.2.(AB)†=B†A†=BA=ABifandonlyif[B,A]=0.5.4.3.(AB−BA)†=(iC)†=B†

A†−A†B†=−iC†=BA−AB=−iC.5.4.4.IfL†=Lthenψ|L2ψ=ψ|L†(Lψ)=Lψ|Lψ=ba|Lψ(x)|2dx≥0.5.4.5.(a)Forthenormalizationof

ϕ3=Cz/r=Ccosθ,weneedthefollowingintegral:zrzr=2π0dϕπ0sinθdθcos2θ=2π−cos3θ3π0=4π3.Thenormalizedformofϕ3is

therefore3/4π(z/r).Tocheckorthogo­nality,weneedintegralssuchasxryr=2π0cosϕsinϕdϕπ0sin3θdθ.Theϕintegralvanishes;oneeasy

waytoseethisistonotethatcosϕsinϕ=sin(2ϕ)/2;theϕintegralisovertwocompleteperiodsofthisfunction.Anappealtosymmetryconfirms

thatalltheothernormalizationandorthg­onalityintegralshavesimilarvalues.(b)Itisusefultonotethat∂(1/r)/∂x=−x/r3;similarexpressionsare

obtainedifxisreplacedbyyorz.Now,Lzϕ1=Lzxr=−ix∂x/r∂y−y∂x/r∂x=iyr=iϕ2.BecauseLzisantisymmetricinxandy,wealsohave

Lzϕ2=Lzyr=−ixr=−iϕ1

77.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS74Finally,Lzϕ3=Lzzr=−ix∂(1/r)∂y−y∂(1/r)∂x=0.Combiningtheaboveintoamatrix

representationofLz,Lz= 0−i0i00000 .Similarprocesses(orcyclicpermutationofx,y,z)leadtothematrixrepresentationsLx= 00000−i0i0 ,Ly= 00i000−i00 .(c)FormthematrixoperationscorrespondingtoLxLy−Ly−Lx: 00000−i0i0 00i000−i00 00i000−i00 00000−i0i0 .Carryingoutthematrixmultiplicationandsubtraction,the resultisitimesthematrixofLz.5.5UnitaryOperators5.5.1.(a)(1)Thecolumnvectorrepresentingf(θ,ϕ)isc= 32i−101 .(2)c= −1/√2−i/√20001/√2−i/√200000i/√21/√2000−i√21/√2000001 3 2i−101 = −1/√25/√2−i/√2i/√21 .(3)Check:iciχi=iciχi.(b)FormU†andverifythatUU†= 1: −1/√2−i/√20001/√2−i/√200000i√21/√2000−i/√21/√2000001 −1/√21/√2 000i/√2i/√200000−i/√2i/√20001/√21/√2000001 =1. 78.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS755.5.2.(a)TheithcolumnofUdescribesϕiinthenewbasis.Thus,U= 00−1010100 .

(b)Thetransformationisacounterclockwiserotationofthecoordinatesystemabouttheyaxis;thiscorrespondstotheEuleranglesα=0,β=π/2,γ

=0.TheaboveUisreproducedwhentheseanglesaresubstitutedintoEq.(3.37).(c)c= 2−31 .Uc= 00−1010100 2 −31 = −1−32 .Thisvectorcorrespondstof=−x−3y+2z,whichisconsistentwithapplicationoftherelevantbasistransformation tof.5.5.3.SincethematrixUforthetransformationofExercise5.5.2isunitary,theinversetransformationhasmatrixU†,whichisU†= 001 010−100 .Multiplying,wefindthatUU†=1.5.5.4.(a)Uf= isinθcosθ0−cosθisinθ0001 3−1−2 = cosθ+ 3isinθ−3cosθ+isinθ−2 ,V(Uf)= 1000cosθisinθ0cosθ−isinθ cosθ+3isinθ−3cosθ+isinθ−2 = cosθ +3isinθ−3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ−2)3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ+2) .Theaboveindicatesthatf(x)=(cosθ+3isinθ)χ1+(−3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ− 2))χ2+(3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ+2))χ3.(b)UV= isinθcos2θisinθcosθ−cosθisinθcosθ−sin2θ0cosθ−isinθ

79.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS76VU= isinθcosθ0−cos2θisinθcosθisinθ−cos2θisinθcosθ−isinθ .Usingthe above,wefindUV 3−1−2 = cos2θ+isinθ(3−2cosθ)2sin2θ−3cosθ+isinθcosθcosθ+2isinθ ,VU 3−1−2 = cosθ+3isinθ−3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ−2)3cos2θ+isinθ(cosθ+2) .OnlyVUfgivesthecorrectresultthatwefoundinpart(a).

5.5.5.(a)ThenormalizedversionsofthePn,denotedPn,arePn=(2n+1)/2Pn.ThenormalizedversionsoftheFn,denotedFn,areF0=5/2F0,F1

=3/2F1,andF2=1/8F2.(b)ThetransformationmatrixUhaselementsuij=Fi|Pj.Forexam­ple,u02=1−1F0P2dx=√521−1(x2)(1)dx=√

53.ThecompletetransformationmatrixisU= √5/302/3010−2/30√5/3 .(c)Vhaselementsvij=Pi|Fj.Thus,V= √5/30−2/3 0102/30√5/3 .(d)BymatrixmultiplicationwecanverifythatUV=1,showingthatV=U−1.SinceVisalsoU†,wecanalsoconclude

thatUandVareunitary.(e)f(x)=8√23P0(x)−√6P1(x)+2√103P2(x)=4√103F0(x)−√6F1(x)−2√23F2(x).Lettingcandcbethe

vectorsdescribingtheexpansionsoff(x)respec­tivelyinthePnandtheFnbases,c= 8√2/3−√62√10/3 ,c= 4√10/3−√6−2√ 2/3 , 80.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS77wecheckthatc=Uc,i.e., 4√10/3−√6−2√2/3 = √5/302/3010−2/30√5/3 8√2/3−√62√10/3 .5.6TransformationsofOperators5.6.1.(a)ThefirstcolumnofSxshowstheresultofitsoperationonα;the

secondcolumndescribesSxβ.SimilarobservationsapplytoSyamdSz.WegetSx=120110,Sy=120−ii0,Sz=12100−1.(b)(1)Check

thatα+β|α−β=0.Expanding,wehaveα|α−α|β+β|α−β|β=1+0+0−1=0.(2)Asimilarexpansionshowsthatα+β|α+β=2,soapropervalue

ofCis1/√2.Thesameresultisobtainedforϕ2|ϕ2.(3)Thematrixelementsofthetransformationareuij=ϕi|ϕj.TheseevaluatetoU=1/√21/√

21/√2−1/√2=1√2111−1.(c)Inthetransformedbasis,thematrixofanoperatorSbecomesS=USU−1.NotingthatU−1=U,wecompute

Sx=USxU−1=14111−10110111−1=14200−2=12100−1=Sz.SimilaroperationsforSyandSzyieldSy=USyU−1=120i−i0

=−Sy.Sz=USzU−1=120110=Sx.5.6.2.(a)ApplyLxtotheϕi:Lxϕ1=0,Lxϕ2=iϕ3,andLxϕ3=−iϕ2.ThereforethematrixofLxforthis

basisisLx= 00000−i0i0 . 81.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS78(b)FormULxU−1.Uisunitary;thiscanbecheckedbyverifyingthatUU†=1.Thus,ULxU−1= 10001/√2−i/√201/√2i/√2 00000−i0i0 10001/√21/√20i/√2−i/√2 = 00001000−1 .

(c)Thenewbasisfunctionshavecoecients(intermsoftheoriginalbasis)thatarethecolumnsofU†.Readingthemout,wehaveϕ1=Cxe−r2,ϕ2

=C√2(y+iz)e−r2,ϕ3=C√2(y−iz)e−r2.ApplyingLx,Lxϕ1=0,Lxϕ2=LxC√2(y+iz)e−r2=C√2[iz+i(−iy)]e−r2=C√2(y+iz)e−r2,

Lxϕ3=C√2(y−iz)e−r2=C√2[iz−i(−iy)]e−r2=−C√2(y−iz)e−r2.5.6.3.DefineD1,D2,D3asthedeterminantsformedfromtheoverlap

matrixelementsofthefirst,thefirsttwo,andallthreebasisfunctions.Lettingsij=χi|χjbetheelementsofthisoverlapmatrix,D1=S11,D2=

S11S22−S12S21etc.BysubstitutionintotheformulasobtainedasinSection5.2,wefindthesystematicformulasfortheϕi:ϕ1=χ1√D1ϕ2=χ2

−S12χ1D1D2/D1,ϕ3=χ3−S13χ1D1−D1S23χ2D2+S12S23χ1D2+S21S13χ2D2−S12S21S13χ1D1D2D3/D2.Comparingwiththematrix

TasdefinedinExample5.6.1,weseethatitsjthcolumnconsistsofthecoecientsoftheχiintheformulaforϕj.Fromtheaboveformulas,wefind

T= T11T12T130T22T2300T33 ,

82.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS79withT11=1√D1,T12=−S12√D1D2,T22=D1D2,T13=−D2S13+D1S12S23−

S12S21S13D1√D2D3,T23=−D1S23+S21S13√D2D3,T33=D2D3.5.7Invariants5.7.1.Replacexbyx=UxU−1andp=pbyUpU−1,so

[x,p]=xp−px=UxU−1UpU−1−UpU−1UxU−1=U(xp−px)U−1=iUU−1=i1.5.7.2.Weneedσ1=Uσ1U†=sin2θcos2θcos2θ−sin2θ

,σ2=Uσ2U†=0−ii0,σ3=Uσ3U†=cos2θ−sin2θ−sin2θ−cos2θ.Nowformσ1σ2=icos2θ−isin2θ−isin2θ−icos2θ=iσ3,σ2σ1=−i

cos2θisin2θisin2θicos2θ=−iσ3.Fromtheabove,σ1σ2−σ2σ1=2iσ3.5.7.3.(a)FromtheequationsLxϕ1=0,Lxϕ2=iϕ3,Lxϕ3=−iϕ2,we

seethatLxappliedtoanyfunctioninthespacespannedbyϕ1,ϕ2,ϕ3afunctionthatremainswithinthatspace.Theaboveequationscorrespondto

theactionontheϕbasisofthematrixLx= 00000−i0i0 .(b)Lx(ϕ1+iϕ2)=0+i(iϕ3)=−ϕ3=−ze−r2. 83.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS80(c) 00000−i0i0 1i0 = 00−1 .Ifthisequationistransformedby U,thequantitiesinitbecomeLx= 00001000−1 , 1i0 −→ 1i/√2i/√2 , 00−1 −→ 0i/√2−i/√ 2 ,andthetransformedmatrixequationis 00001000−1 1i/√2i/√2 = 0i/√2−i/√2 .(d)Theϕarethose

linearcombinationsoftheϕwithcoecientsthatarecomplexconjugatesofthecorrespondingrowofU,andareϕ1=ϕ1=xe−r2,ϕ2=(ϕ2+iϕ3)/

√2=(y+iz)e−r2/√2,ϕ3=(ϕ2−iϕ3)/)2=(y−iz)e−r2/√2.(e)ThematrixequationisequivalenttoLxx+i√2y+iz√2+i√2y−iz√2e−r2

=i√2y+iz√2−i√2y−iz√2e−r2,whichsimplifiestoLx(x+iy)e−r2=−ze−r2.Thisisaresultthatwasprovedinpart(b).5.8Summary—

VectorSpaceNotation(noexercises)

84.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS816.EigenvalueProblems6.1EigenvalueEquations(noexercises)6.2MatrixEigenvalueProblems

Thesolutionstomatrixeigenvalueproblemsconsistoftheeigenvaluesλi,andassociatedwitheachanormalizedeigenvectorri.Theeigenvectors

correspondingtodegenerateeigenvaluesarenotunique.6.2.1.λ1=0,r1=(1,0,−1)/√2λ2=1,r2=(0,1,0)λ3=2,r3=(1,0,1)/√2.6.2.2.λ1=

−1,r1=(1,−√2,0)/√3λ2=0,r2=(0,0,1)λ3=2,r3=(√2,1,0)/√3.6.2.3.λ1=−1,r1=(1,−2,1)/√6λ2=1,r2=(1,0,−1)/√2λ3=2,r3=

(1,1,1)/√3.6.2.4.λ1=−3,r1=(1,−√2,1)2λ2=1,r2=(1,0,−1)√2λ3=5,r3=(1,√2,1)2.6.2.5.λ1=0,r1=(0,1,−1)√2λ2=1,r2=(1,0,

0)λ3=2,r3=(0,1,1)√2.6.2.6.λ1=−1,r1=(0,1,−√2)√3λ2=+1,r2=(1,0,0)λ3=2,r3=(0,√2,0)√3.6.2.7.λ1=−√2,r1=(1,−√2,

1)/2λ2=0,r2=(1,0,−1)/√2λ3=√2,r3=(1,√2,1)/2.6.2.8.λ1=0,r1=(0,1,−1)/√2λ2=2,r2=(0,1,1)/√2λ3=2,r3=(1,0,0).

85.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS826.2.9.λ1=2,r1=(1,1,1)/√3λ2=−1,r2=(1,−1,0)/√2λ3=−1,r3=(1,1,−2)/√6.6.2.10.λ1=

−1,r1=(1,1,1)/√3λ2=2,r2=(1,−1,0)/√2λ3=2,r3=(1,1,−2)/√6.6.2.11.λ1=3,r1=(1,1,1)/√3λ2=0,r2=(1,−1,0)/√2λ3=0,r3=

(1,1,−2)/√6.6.2.12.λ1=6,r1=(2,0,1)/√5λ2=1,r2=(1,0,−2)/√5λ3=1,r3=(0,1,0).6.2.13.λ1=2,r1=(1,1,0)/√2λ2=0,r2=(1,−1,

0)/√2λ3=0,r3=(0,0,1).6.2.14.λ1=2,r1=(1,0,−√3)/2λ2=3,r2=(0,1,0)λ3=6,r3=(√3,0,1)/2.6.2.15.Sincethequadraticformx2+

2xy+2y2+2yz+z2=1definingthesurfaceisobviouslypositivedefiniteuponwritingitasasumofsquares,(x+y)2+(y+z)2=1,itisan

ellipsoidoranellipse.Findingtheorientationinspaceamountstodiagonalizingthesymmetric3×3matrixofcoecients.Thecharacteristic

polynomialisλ(1−λ)(λ−3)=0,sothattheeigenvaluesareλ=0implyinganellipse,andλ=1,and3.Forλ=1aneigenvectorisv1=(1,0,−1)

givingoneofitsaxes,forλ=3aneigenvectorisv3=(1,2,1)givingtheotheraxis.v1×v3=(2,−2,2)isnormaltotheplaneoftheellipse.6.3

HermitianEigenvalueProblems(noexercises)6.4HermitianMatrixDiagonalization6.4.1.Thisfollowsfromtheinvarianceofthecharacteristic

polynomialundersimilaritytransformation.

86.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS836.4.2.TheorthonormalityoftheeigenvectorsimpliesthatthetransformationmatrixUdiagonalizing

ourmatrixHisunitary.Sincethediagonalma­trixismadeupbytherealeigenvectors,itisHermitian,andsoisthetransformedmatrixH.6.4.3.

AssumethataunitarymatrixUcausestherealnonsymmetricmatrixAtobediagonal,i.e.,thatUAUT=D,adiagonalmatrix.Ifweapplythe

inversetransformationtoD,torecoverA,wewouldhaveA=UTDU.ButthisformforAissymmetric:(UTDU)T=UTDU.6.4.4.First,notethat

L2xhasthesameeigenvectorsasLx,witheigenvaluesthatarethesquaresofthe(real)Lxeigenvalues.Therefore,L2x(andforthesamereason,L2

yandL2z)haveonlynonnegativeeigenvalues.Second,forvectors|xofunitlength,theexpectationvaluex|L2x|xwillberealandhaveasits

smallestpossiblevaluethesmallesteigenvalueofL2x.ProofofthisstatementisthetopicofExercise6.5.5.SimilarstatementsaretrueforL2yand

L2z,sox|L2x+L2y+L2z|xmustalwaysbenonnegative.WethereforemayconcludethatalltheeigenvaluesofL2x+L2y+L2zare

nonnegative.6.4.5.IfA|xi=λi|xi,then|xi=λiA−1|xiuponmultiplyingwiththeinversematrix.Movingthe(non­zero)eigenvaluetotheleft­hand

sideprovestheclaim.6.4.6.(a)IfAissingular,itsdeterminantiszero.IfAistransformedtodiagonalform,itsdeterminantisseentobetheproduct

ofitseigenvalues,soazerodeterminantindicatesthatatleastoneeigenvalueiszero.Theeigenvectorcorrespondingtoazeroeigenvaluewillhave

thepropertythatA|v=0.(b)IfA|v=0,then|visaneigenvectorwitheigenvaluezero,thedeter­minantofAwillbezero,andAwillbesingular.

r1=(1,+√2,1)/2λ2=0,r2=(1,0,−1)/√2λ3=−1,r3=(1,−√2,1)/2.ForMy,λ1=+1,r1=(1,+i√2,−1)/2λ2=0,r2=(1,0,1)/√2λ3=−1,

r3=(1,−i√2,−1)/2.6.4.9.(a)Formaij=ϕicosθ−ϕjsinθ|A|ϕisinθ+ϕjcosθ.

87.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS84Usingthefactthatϕµ|A|ϕν=aµνandrememberingthataνµ=aµν,weexpandtheexpressionforaij

andsetitequaltozero,getting(aii−ajj)sinθcosθ+aij(cos2θ−sin2θ)=0.Usingthetrigonometricdouble­angleformulasandrearranging,we

reachtan2θ=2aijajj−aii.(b)SinceonlythebasisfunctionsϕiandϕjarealteredbytheJacobitransformation,allmatrixelementsofAnot

involvingiandnotinvolvingjremainunchanged.(c)Proceedingasinpart(a),wefindaii=aiicos2θ+ajjsin2θ−2aijsinθcosθ,ajj=aiisin2θ+

ajjsin2θ+2aijsinθcosθ.Formingaii+ajj,theaijtermscanceland,usingtheidentitysin2θ+cos2θ=1,theremainingtermsareseentoaddto

aii+ajj,asrequired.(d)Formthesquaresofaµiandaµj:aµi=aµicosθ−aµjsinθ,(aµi)2=(aµi)2cos2θ+(aµj)2sin2θ−2aµiaµjsinθcosθ,aµj

=aµjcosθ+aµisinθ,(aµj)2=(aµi)2sin2θ+(aµj)2cos2θ+2aµiaµjsinθcosθ.Thus,a2µi+a2µjisnotchangedbythetransformation,andthe

sumofthesquaresoftheo­diagonalelementshasbeenchangedonlybythereplacementofaijandajibyzero,anetdecreaseof2(aij)2.6.5Normal

Matrices6.5.1.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.6.5.2.Thecharacteristicpolynomialis(λ−λ1)(λ−λ2)=λ2−(λ1+λ2)λ+λ1λ2=λ2−trace(A)λ+

det(A)=0.6.5.3.IfUr=λrwith|r|2=1,then1=r†r=r†U†Ur=|λ|2r†r=|λ|2.6.5.4.Chooseacoordinatesysteminwhichtherotationisabout

thez­axis,andtransformourrotationmatrixtothesecoordinates.Thistransformation 88.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS85willnotchangethetraceoftherotationmatrix.NowtherotationmatrixwillhavetheformU= cosϕsinϕ0−sinϕcosϕ0001 ,andthetraceofUisobviously1+2cosϕ.6.5.5.Expand|yintheeigenvectors:|y=ici|xi.Thennote

that,because|yisofunitmagnitudeandthe|xiareor­thonormal,y|y=ijcicjxi|xj=i|c2i|=1.Moreover,becausethe|xiareorthonormal

eigenvectors,y|A|y=ijcicjxi|A|xj=i|c2i|λi.Lowerandupperboundsforthisexpressioncannowbeobtainedbyre­placingλibythesmallest

orthelargesteigenvalue,afterwhichthe|c2i|canbesummed(yieldingunity).6.5.6.FromExercise6.5.3theeigenvalueshave|λ|=1.IfUis

Hermitian,thenλisreal,hence±1.6.5.7.Ifγµandγνanticommute,γµγν=−γνγµ.Takethedeterminantsofthetwosidesofthisequation:det(γµγν)

=det(γµ)det(γν)=det(−γνγµ)=(−1)ndet(γν)det(γµ).Herewehaveusedthefactthatthedeterminantisnotalinearoperator,andthatthe

determinantof−Ais(−1)ndet(A),wherenisthedimensionofthedeterminant.Sincetheγareunitary,theycannotbesingular,andthe

anticommutationleadstoaninconsistencyunlessniseven,making(−1)n=+1.6.5.8.Expand|yintheeigenfunctions:A|y=ncnA|xn=nλncn|xn,

withcn=xn|y.WegetthesameresultfromtheeigenvectorformofA:A|y=nλn|xnxn|y=nλncn|xn.6.5.9.Thesolutionisgiveninthetext.

89.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS866.5.10.Writevi|A|uj=λjvi|uj=A†vi|uj=λivi|uj.Subtractingtheright­handsideofthesecond

linefromthatofthefirstline,(λj−λi)vi|uj=0,fromwhichweconcludethatvi|uj=0unlessλi=λj.6.5.11.(a)and(b)Apply˜Atothefirst

equationandAtothesecond:˜AA|fn=λn˜A|gn=λ2n|fn,A˜A|gn=λnA|fn=λ2n|gn.(c)BecauseAisreal,˜AAandA˜Aarebothself­adjoint

(Hermitian),andthereforehaveeigenvectorsthathaverealeigenvaluesandformanorthog­onalset.6.5.12.IfthegivenformulaforAgivesthe

requiredresultforeverymemberofanorthogonalsetitisavalidexpressionforA.Applytheformulatoan|fjofarbitraryj.Becausethefnare

orthonormal,theresultreducestoλj|gj.6.5.13.(a)A˜A=158−6−617˜AA=1004,(b)λ1=1|g1>=1√521,|f1>=10,(c)λ2=2,|g2>=1

√51−2,|f2>=01.6.5.14.Disregardthisexercise(itisill­defined).6.5.15.(a)TaketheadjointofU;becauseHisself­adjoint,theresultisU†=

exp(−iaH).Notethatanexponentialcanbeinterpretedasitspower­seriesexpansionandtheadjointtakentermwise,thusvalidatingthepro­cessing

appliedtotheexponent.TheresultshowsthatU†=U−1.(b)FormUUT=exp(iaH)exp(−iaH).BecauseHcommuteswithitself,thisproduct

reducestoexp(iaH−iaH)=1.Notethatexponentialscanbecombinedinthiswayonlyiftheexponentscommute.(c)IfHisdiagonalizedbya

similaritytransformation,thezerotrace

90.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS87impliesthatthesumofitseigenvaluesλniszero.ThenU,whichisalsodiagonal,willhavediagonal

elementsexp(iaλn),anditsdetermi­nant,whichwillthenbetheproductofitsdiagonalelements,willbeexp(iaλn)=exp(0)=+1.(d)Conversely,in

abasisinwhichHandUarediagonal,aunitdetermi­nantforUimpliesanexponentialinwhichexp(iaλn)=1;thiscondi­tiondoesnotquiteimply

thattraceH=0,butonlythata(traceH)=0isanintegermultipleof2π.6.5.16.FromAvi=AiviweobtainAn=Anivifori=0,1,2,

=exp(A)=∞n=0An/n!wegetB=∞n=0Anvi/n!=∞n=0[Ani/n!]vi=(eAi)vi.6.5.17.ForanyoperatorA,theeigenvaluesofA2arethe

squaresoftheeigenvaluesofA.6.5.18.Insertingtheindicatedexpansionandusingtheorthogonalitypropertyoftheeigenvectors,x|A|x=λ1x1|x1+

ni=2|δi|2λnxi|xi,x|x=x1|x1+ni=2|δi|2xi|xi.Becauseallλifori>1aresmallerthanλ1,x|A|x<λ1x1|x1+ni=2|δi|2xi|xi,sox|A|xx|x<λ1.

Theerrorwhenthisratioisusedtoapproximateλ1isapproximately1x|xni=2(λ1−λi)|δi|2xi|xi,whichisoforder|δi|2.

91.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS886.5.19.(a)Lettingx1andx2bethedisplacementsofthetwomoveablemasses,eachofthesame

massm,measuredfromtheirequilibriumpositions(withthepositivedirectionforbothxithesame),theequationsofmotionarem¨x1=−kx1+k(x2

−x1),m¨x2=−kx2−k(x2−x1).Inanormalmodeofoscillationxi=Xieiωt,withthesameangularfre­quencyωforbothmasses.Insertingthese

expressions,−mω2kX1=−2X1+X2,−mω2kX2=X1−2X2.Theseequationsareequivalenttothematrixequation2−1−12X1X2=λX1

X2,withλ=mω2/k.(b)Thisisaneigenvalueequationwhichhassolutionsonlyif2−λ−1−12−λ=0,witheigenvaluesλ=1andλ=3.(c)For

λ=1,theequationsolutionisX1=X2,correspondingtothetwomassesmoving,inphase,backandforth.Forλ=3,theequationsolutionisX1=

−X2,correspondingtoaperiodicmotioninwhichthemassesoscillaterelativetoeachother.6.5.20.RelyingontheproofthatanormalmatrixAand

itsadjointhavethesameeigenvectorsxj,xj|A|xj=λjxj|xj=A†xj|xj=µjxj|xj,whereµjistheeigenvalueofA†correspondingtoxj.Weseethat

µj=λj.SinceAandA†havecommoneigenvectors,(A+A†)|xj=(λj+λj)|xj=2eλj.Likewise,A−A†haseigenvaluesλj−λj,or2im

λj. 92.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS896.5.21.(a)UsingEq.(3.37),thematrixUoftherotationisU= 1/2−1/21/√21/2−1/2 −1/√21/√21/√20 .Uhasthefollowingeigenvaluesandeigenvectors:λ1=1r1=2/3ˆex+1/3ˆezλ2=12(−1+i√3)r2=−1/6ˆex

+i1/2ˆey+1/3ˆezλ3=12(−1−i√3)r3=−1/6ˆex−i1/2ˆey+1/3ˆezFromthesedataweseethattherotationofthecoordinateaxescorre­

spondingtoUisequivalenttoasinglerotationaboutϕ1byananglegivenasthephaseofλ2(theangleitmakeswiththerealaxis),whichis120◦.

93.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS907.OrdinaryDierentialEquations7.1Introduction(noexercises)7.2First­OrderEquations7.2.1.(a)

SeparatingthevariablesobtainI(t)=I0e−t/RC,whereI0istheinte­grationconstant.(b)HereΩ=106Ohm,thenI0=10−4Amp,RC=104sec

andatt=100,e−t/RC=e−0.01≈0.99.Thus,I=0.99×10−4Amp.Thetime100secisonly1%ofthetimeconstantRC.7.2.2.Separatingvariables

obtainlnf(s)=f(s)f(s)ds=−sdss2+1=−12ln(s2+1)+lnC,implyingf(s)=C√s2+1.7.2.3.NN0dNN2=−t0kdt=−kt=−1N+1N0.

Thus,N=N01+t/τ,τ=(kN0)−1.7.2.4.(a)SetA0=A(0),B0=B(0).Separatingvariablesandusingapartialfractionexpansionobtainαdt=αt=

dC(A0−C)(B0−C)=1B0−A01A0−C−1B0−CdC.ThuslnA0−CB0−C=(A0−B0)αt+lnA0B0.RewritethisasC(t)=

A0B0[e(A0−B0)αt−1]A0e(A0−B0)αt−B0.ThenC(0)=0.(b)FromdC(A0−C)2=αtget1A0−C=αt+1A0,whichyieldsC(t)=αA20t1+

αA0t.AgainC(0)=0.

94.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS917.2.5.Thevaluesn<0areunphysicalastheaccelerationdiverges.Thecasen=0givesm[v−v(0)]

=−kt,v(t)=v(0)−kt/m,x(t)=x(0)+v(0)t−kt2/2m.Thecasen=1givesv(t)=v(0)e−kt/m,x(t)=x(0)+mv(0)k1−e−kt/m.Forn=0,1,2and

n>0weintegratetogetv1−n−v(0)1−n)1−n=dvvn=−kmt,v(t)=v(0)1+(n−1)ktmv(0)n−11/(1−n).Integratingagaingivesx(t)=x(0)+

mv(0)2−n(2−n)k1−1+(n−1)ktmv(0)n−1(n−2)/(n−1).Thecasen=2leadsto˙x=v(0)1+αt,x(t)=x(0)+mkln1+kv(0)tm.7.2.6.The

substitutionu=y/x,ory=xu,correspondstody=xdu+udx,andourODEassumestheformxdu+udx=g(u)dx,orxdu=[g(u)−u]dx,whichis

separable.7.2.7.If∂ϕ∂x=P(x,y)thenϕ(x,y)=xx0P(X,y)dX+α(y)follows.Dierentiatingthisandusing∂ϕ∂y=Q(x,y)weobtainQ(x,y)=dα

dy+xx0∂P(X,y)∂ydX,sodαdy=Q(x,y)−xx0∂Q(X,y)∂XdX.

FromB

95.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS92Sodαdy=Q(x0,y)andα(y)=yy0Q(x0,Y)dY.Thusϕ(x,y)=xx0P(X,y)dX+yy0Q(x0,Y

)dY.Fromthisweget∂ϕ∂x=P(x,y)and∂ϕ∂y=xx0∂P(X,y)∂ydX+Q(x0,y)=xx0∂Q(X,y)∂XdX+Q(x0,y)=Q(x,y).7.2.8.Seeproofof

Exercise7.2.7.7.2.9.Forαdy+α(py−q)dx=0tobeexactrequires∂α∂x=∂∂yα(x)(py−q)=αp,whichisEq.(7.14).7.2.10.Forf(x)dx+

g(x)h(y)dy=0tobeexactrequires∂f(x)∂y=0=∂g(x)h(y)∂x=h(y)∂g(x)∂x,i.e.,g=const.7.2.11.y=−pe−xpdtxesp(t)dtq(s)ds+C+e−x

pdtexpdtq(x)impliesy+p(x)y(x)=q(x).7.2.12.Separatingvariablesweget−btm=ln(g−bmv)−ln(Abm)withAanintegrationconstant.

Exponentiatingthisweobtainv(t)=mgb−Ae−bt/m,thusv0=v(0)=mgb−A.Hencev(t)=v0−mgbe−bt/m+mgb.Setv0=0here.The

velocitydependentresistanceforceopposesthegravitationalacceler­ationimplyingtherelativeminussign.7.2.13.SolvefirstforN1,whichis

separableandhasthegeneralsolutionN1=Ce−λ1t.SinceN1(0)=N0,wehaveN1(t)=N0e−λ1t.SubstitutethisresultintotheequationforN2,

whichisnowaninhomoge­neousequationinwhichN2istheonlyunknown.Welookforaparticular

96.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS93integraloftheinhomogeneousequation,guessingtheformofthesolutiontobeN2=Aexp(−λ1t).

Thus,dN2dt+λ2N2=λ1N0e−λ1tbecomes−Aλ1e−λ1t+Aλ2e−λ1t=λ1N0e−λ1t,confirmingthatwithaproperchoiceofAourguesswillwork.

WefindthatA=λ1N0/(λ2−λ1).Tothisparticularintegralwemustaddthemultipleofthesolutiontothehomogeneousequationthatisneededto

satisfytheconditionN2(0)=0.Thehomogeneousequationhassolutione−λ2t,soourcompletesolutionisN2(t)=λ1N0λ2−λ1e−λ1t−e−λ2t.

7.2.14.WehavedV/dt=−C4πr2withV=4πr3/3thevolumeandCapositiveconstant.Sodr/dt=−Candr(t)=r0−Ct.7.2.15.(a)Separating

variables,dv/v=−adtyieldslnvv0=−at,v=v0e−at.(b)dv/v+adt=0yieldsϕ(t,v)=lnv+at.ϕ(t,v)=lnv0=const.isequivalentto(a).(c)

SubstitutingintotheformofsolutionwritteninExercise7.2.11withq=0,p=awegetv(t)=Ce−at.Settingt=0weidentifyCasc0.7.2.16.

SeparatingvariablesasinExample7.2.1wegetthevelocityv(t)=v0tanhtT+tanh−1viv0forvi≥0.7.2.17.ThisODEisisobaric,andbecomes

separableunderthesubstitutionv=xy.Removingxviathissubstitution,theODEbecomes(vy−y)dvy−vdyy2+vdyy=0.Thisequation

separatesinto−v−1v2−2vdv+dyy=0,withintegral−12ln(v2−2v)+lny=lnC.Exponentiating,wegety2v2−2v=C,oryx2y−2x=C.

97.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS947.2.18.ThisODEishomogeneous,sowesubstitutey=vx,obtaininginitially(x2−v2x2ev)dx+

(x2+x2v)ev(xdv+vdx)=0.Thisrearrangestodxx+(1+v)evdv1+vev=0withintegrallnx+ln(1+vev)=lnC.Thus,x(1+vev)=C,or

x+yey/x=C.7.3ODEswithConstantCoecients7.3.1.Trysolutionemx.Theconditiononmism3−2m2−m+2=0,withrootsm=2,m=1,m

=−1.ThegeneralsolutiontotheODEisthereforec1e2x+c2ex+c3e−x.7.3.2.Trysolutionemx.Theconditiononmism3−2m2+m−2=0,

withrootsm=2,m=i,m=−i.Thesolutionseixande−ixcanbeexpressedintermsoftherealquantitiessinxandcosx,sothegeneralsolutionto

theODEisc1e2x+c2sinx+c3cosx.7.3.3.Trysolutionemx.Theconditiononmism3−3m+2=0,withrootsm=1,m=1,m=−2.Two

independentsolutionsform=1areexandxex,sothegeneralsolutiontotheODEisc1ex+c2xex+c3e−2x.7.3.4.Trysolutionemx.The

conditiononmism2+2m+2=0,withrootsm=−1+iandm=−1−i.Wecancombinee(−1+i)xande(−1−i)xtoforme−xsinxande−xcosx,so

thegeneralsolutiontotheODEisc1e−xsinx+c2e−xcosx.7.4Second­OrderLinearODEs7.4.1.ForP(x)=−2x1−x2,Q(x)=l(l+1)1−x2,

(1x)Pand(1x)2Qareregularatx=±1,respectively.Sotheseareregularsingularities.Asz→0,2z−2/z1−1z2=2(z+z1−z2)isregular,and

Q(z−1)z4=l(l+1)z2(z2−1)z−2diverges.So∞isaregularsingularity.7.4.2.ForP=1−xx,Q=nx,x=0isaregularsingularity.Forz→

0,2z−P(z−1)z2=z+1z21/z2divergesmorerapidlythan1/z,so∞isanirregularsingularity.

98.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS957.4.3.WritingtheChebyshevequationintheformy+x1−x2y+n21−x2y=0,weseethatthe

coecientsofyandybecomesingular(forfinitex)onlyatx=±1andthateachsingularityisfirstorder,sotheODEhasregularsingularitiesatthese

points.Atinfinity,weapplythecriteriongivenafterEq.(7.22).ForthepresentODE,2x−P(x−1)x2=2x−1/xx2−1,Q(x−1)x4=n2x4−x2.

Thesehave,atx=0,singularitiesthatarerespectivelyoffirstandsecondorder,indicatingthattheODEhasaregularsingularityatinfinity.7.4.4.

Hermite’sODE(asgiveninTable7.1)hasnocoecientsthataresingularatfinitex,andthereforeisregularforallfinitex.Atinfinity,2x−P(x−1)

x2=2x+2x3hasasingularityoforder3atx=0,sotheODEwillhaveanirregularsingularityatinfinity.7.4.5.x(1−x)d2dx2+[c−(a+b+

1)x]ddx−ab→(1−x2)d2dx2−2xddx+l(l+1)becaused2dx2→4d2dx2,ddx→−2ddx,−ab→l(l+1),x(1−x)→1−x21−1−x2

=14(1−x2),c−(a+b+1)x→1−(l+2−l)1−x2=x.7.5SeriesSolutions—Frobenius’Method7.5.1.Ifinitialconditionsarey(x0)=y0,y

(x0)=y0aregiven,thesolutions’Taylorexpansionsareidenticalprovidedx0isnoworsethanaregularsingularity.Thefactorxkfromtheindicial

equationdoesnotaectthis.7.5.2.Underthetranslationx1=x−x0,d/dx1=d/dx,etc.theODEisinvariantandy(x−x0)=y(x1)hasthesame

Maclaurinexpansionasy(x)atx=0.Asaresult,therecursionrelationsforthecoecientsandtheindicialequationstaythesame.

99.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS967.5.3.Ifa1k(k+1)=0witha1=0,thenk=0ork=−1.(a)k=0setsa1k(k+1)=0wherea1

remainsundetermined.(b)Ifk=1thentheindicialequationa1k(k+1)=0requiresa1=0.7.5.4.ThetwoindicialequationsforLegendre’sODEare

k(k−1)a0=0andk(k+1)a1=0.ForBessel’sODEtheyare(k2−n2)a0=0and[(k+1)2−n2)]a1=0.ForHermite’sODEtheyarethesameas

Legendre’s.Therestofthesolutionisgiveninthetext.7.5.5.ComparewithEq.(18.120).Convergentfor|x|<1,alsoatx=1forc>a+bandatx=

−1forc>a+b−1.7.5.6.ComparewithEq.(18.136).Convergentforallfinitexprovidedthese­riesexists[c=−n,anegativeinteger,inEq.

(18.137),2−c=−ninEq.(18.136)].7.5.7.Thepointξ=0isaregularsingularityoftheODE.Thetrialsolutionjajξk+jyieldsthegivenindicial

equation.Fork=m/2,a0=0andnon­negativemwesetthecoecientofthetermξk+1tozero.Thisgivesa1=−αa0/(m+1).Settingthecoecient

ofξk+2tozerogivesthesecondgiventerm,etc.7.5.8.Substituting∞j=0ajηj+kanditsderivativesintoddη(1−η2)dudη+αu+βu2=0,we

obtaintherecursionrelationaj+2(j+k+2)(j+k+1)−aj[(j+k)(j+k+1)−α]+βaj−2=0.Forj=−2,a−2=0=a−4bydefinitionandtheindicial

equationk(k−1)a0=0comesout,i.e.k=0ork=1fora0=0.Forj=−1witha−3=0=a−1wehavea1k(k+1)=0.Ifk=1,thena1=0implying

a3=0=a5.Forj=0,k=0weget2a2=−a0αand6a2=a0(2−α)fork=1.Forj=1,k=0wefind6a3=12a3=a1(6−α)fork=1.Finally,forj=

2,k=1wehave20a4−(12−α)a2+βa0=0,givingtheexpansionlistedintheproblemset.7.5.9.Substitutingψ=a0+a1x+a2x2+a3x3+···,

andsettingA=2mA2,E=2mE2,V=Axe−ax,A<0,a>0,weobtain2a2+6a3x+···+−A+(E+aA)x−12Aa2x2+···(a1+a2x+···)=

0,

100.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS97wherethecoecientsofallpowersofxvanish.Thisimpliesa0=0,2a2=Aa1,6a3+a1(E+aA)

−Aa2=0,etc.Thus,wegetthegivenseries.7.5.10.Eventhoughthepointx=0isanessentialsingularitywetrysubstituting∞j=0ajxj+k,y=∞

j=0aj(j+k)xj+k−1,y=∞j=0aj(j+k)(j+k−1)xj+kintoourODEweobtaintherecursionrelationaj[(j+k)(j+k−1)−2]+aj+1(j+k+1)=0.Forj=

−1,a−1=0bydefinition,sok=0fora0=0istheindicialequation.Forj=0,−2a0+a1=0,andforj=1,−2a1+2a2=0,whilej=2yieldsa3=0,

etc.Henceoursolutionisy=a0(1+2x+2x2),andthisisreadilyverifiedtobeasolution.7.5.11.WritingthesolutiontotheODEasex√2πxf(x),

wefindthatf(x)satisfiestheODEx2f+2x2f+f/4=0.SubstitutingintothisODEtheseriesexpansionf(x)=b0+b1/x+b2/x2+···,wefindthat

thebnsatisfytherecurrenceformulabn+1=n(n+1)+142n+2bn,which,withtheinitialvalueb0=1,wecanusetoobtainthecoecientsinthe

asymptoticexpansion.Thefirsttwocoecientsareb1=(1/4)/2=1/8andb2=(2+14)b1/4=9/128.7.6OtherSolutions7.6.1.aˆx+bˆy+cˆz= abc =0impliesa=b=c=0.7.6.2.IfA,B,Carelinearlyindependent,geometrytellsusthattheirvolume(A×B)·C=0,andviceversa.

7.6.3.Usingyn=xnn!,yn=xn−1(n−1)!,etc.forn=0,1,

continuing,W2=···=WN=1.

101.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS987.6.4.IfW=y1y2−y1y2=0,theny1y1=y2y2.Integratinggiveslny1=lny2+lnC.Hencey1

=Cy2,andviceversa.7.6.5.IftheWronskianW(x)iswrittenasaTaylorseriesatx0,allofitscoe­cientsmustbezero.7.6.6.Theanswerisgiven

inthetext.7.6.7.ϕ2doesnotexistatx=0 7.6.8.Thesefunctionsarerelatedby2y1(x)−y2(x)−1y2(x)=0,whichisnon­linear.7.6.9.PnQn−

PnQn=W(x)=Ane−xPdt=An1−x2because−xPdt=x2t1−t2dt=−ln(1−x2).7.6.10.Assumingtheretobethreelinearlyindependent

,NwegetW1=1x01=1,W2=1xx2201x001=1x01=W1=1,and,

solutions,constructtheirWronskian.Itwillbeidenticallyzero.7.6.11.Fromddxp(x)ddx+q(x)u=0wehave(a)dWW=−xppdx=ln1p+ln

C=lnW.HenceW=W(a)p(x)withW(a)=C.(b)y2=W(a)y1xdsp(s)y1(s)2followsfromW(y1,y2)=y21(x)ddxy2(x)y1(x).7.6.12.Usingy

=zE,E=e−12xPdt,y=zE−12zPE,y=zE−PzE−z2PE+z4P2E,weobtainy+Py+Q=Ez−z2P−z4P2+Qz=0.7.6.13.Since2

=∂2∂r2+2r∂∂r+L2r2wehave−12rPdt=−rdrr=−lnr,e−12rPdt=1r,sothatϕ(r)=ψ(r)/r.Equivalently2ϕ(r)=1rd2dr2(rϕ)+L2

r2ϕ.

102.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS997.6.14.DefiningE1=xe−sPdty1(s)2ds,E(x)=e−xPdtandusingy2=y1(x)E1,y2=y1E1+E

y1,y2=y1E1−PEy1,weobtainy2+Py2+Qy2=E1(y1+Py1+Qy1)=0.7.6.15.Changingthelowerlimitfromatobchangestheintegralthat

multipliesy2byaconstant:saPdt=sbPdt+baPdtandviaxae−saPdty21(s)ds=e−baPdtxbe−sbPdty21(s)ds+bae−sadty2

1(s)dsaddsaconstanttoy2.7.6.16.Using−rdrr=−lnr,e−rPdt=1r,rdss·s2m=−r−2m2m,wehavey2=−rmr−2m2m=−12mrm.

7.6.17.AsP=0,y1=sinx,e−xPdt=const.andy2=sinxxdssin2s=sinxcotx=cosx.Usingtheseriesexpansionswithp−1=0=q−2gives

theindicialequationk(k−1)=0.Thusk=α=1=nandy2(x)=y1(x) c1lnx+∞j=0,j=1cjj−1xj−1 .Substitutingthesey2,y2,y2into theclassicalharmonicoscillatorODEyields2y2 c1x+∞j=0,j=1cjxj−2 +y1 −c1x2+∞j=0,j=1cj(j−2)xj−3 =0.TheTaylor

seriesfory1=sinxgives2c1−c1=c1=0forthecoecientof1/x.Thus,y2doesnotcontainatermproportionaltolnx.

103.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1007.6.18.SinceBessel’sODEisinvariantundern→−nweexpectandverifythatJ−n(x),definedby

itsTaylorseries,isasolutionalongwithJn(x).FromthelowestpowerseriescoecientsweobtainW(Jn,J−n)=Anx=−2sinπnπx=0,sothat

theyareindependentifn=integer.ThisisEq.(14.67).Thestandardseriesy=∞j=0ajxj+kleadstotheindicialequation[k(k−1)+k−N2]a0=0.

Fora0=0weobtaink=±N,N≥0.Therootsareα=N,n=2N,consistentwithpj=δj,−1,qj=δj0+N2δj,−2,n−2α=p−1−1,α(α−n)=q−2.

Thesecondsolutionisy2=y1(x)∞j=0cjxxj−n−11dx1.Ifn=integerthereisnolnxterminy2.Sincen=2N,ifNisneitheranintegernorhalfof

anoddinteger,thereisnologarithmicterminy2.ItremainsforustoshowthatwhenN=halfanoddintegerthereisnolnxterminy2.SinceWN

(x)=0forN=integer,thisisclearfromourfirstpart.7.6.19.(a)Ify1=1forα=0thenxPdt=−x2,andy2=xes2ds,y2=ex2,y2=2xex2.

Hencey2−2xy2=0.Integratingthepowerseriesfores2yieldsy2(x)=∞j=0x2j+1(2j+1)j!=∞j=0a2jx2j+1withaj+2aj=2(j+1)(j+2)(j+3)

,jeven,whichistherecursionforthek=1caseofExercise8.3.3(a)forα=0.(b)Ifα=1theny1=xisasolutionoftheODE,asiseasilyverified,

andy2=xxes2s2ds.

104.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS101Integratingthepowerseriesyieldsy2(x)=∞j=0a2jx2j=−1+∞j=1x2j(2j−1)j!withaj+2aj=

2(j−1)(j+1)(j+2),jeven,whichistherecursionfork=0ofExercise8.3.3(a)forα=1.7.6.20.Forn=0,y1=1isverifiedtobeasolutionof

Laguerre’sODEwhereP(x)=1x−1.AsxPdt=lnx−x,y2(x)=xexxdx=lnx+1+x2+···.=lnx+∞n=1xnn·n!.7.6.21.(a)Seethe

solutionofExercise7.6.20.(b)y2=exx,y2=exx−exx2=y2−y2x.Hencey2+1x−1y2=0.(c)y2=xessds=∞n=11n!xsn−1ds=lnx

+∞n=0xnn!n,y2=exx=∞n=0xn−1n!,andy2=−1x2+∞n=2xn−2(n−2)!nimplyy2+1x−1y2=∞n=2xn−2(n−2)!1n+1n(n−1)−

1n−1=0.7.6.22.(a)ThecoecientP(x1)isthecoecientofywhentheODEiswritteninaformsuchthatthecoecientofyisunity;thus,P(x)

=−x/(1−x2),andthereforeP(x)dx=ln(1−x2)/2.ThentheformulaofEq.(7.67)becomes(forn=0,y1=1),y2(x)=xe−ln(1−x22)/2dx2=(1−

x2)−1/2dx=sin−1x.

105.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS102(b)Lettingv=y,ourODEbecomes(1−x2)v−xv=0,whichisseparable,oftheformdvv=x

dx1−x2,withintegrallnv=−12ln(1−x2).Exponentiatingbothsides,andthenwritingy2astheintegralofv,wereachthesameintegralasin

part(a).7.6.23.Thevalueofexp(−Pdx)hasthesamevalueasinExercise7.6.22,namely(1−x2)−1/2.Thereforeoursolutiony2(forn=1,y1=

x)isy2=xxduu2(1−u2)1/2=−(1−x2)1/2.7.6.24.RescaletheODEbymultiplyingby2m/2sothatE=2mE/2,b−1=2mb−1/2,etc.The

indicialequationhasroots−(p−1−1)(p−1−1)2−4q−22,withp−1=0andq−2=−l(l+1).Therootfortheregularsolutionisα1=l+1andthat

oftheirregularsolutionisα2=−l.SinceP(r)=0wehavey2(r)=y1(r)rdsy1(s)2.Thisleadstoy2(r)r−l[1+O(r)]aswell.7.6.25.y2=y1f

impliesy2=y1f+y1f,y2=y1f+2y1f+y1f,andsoy2+Py2+Qy2=f(y1+Py1+Qy1)+Py1f+2y1f+y1f=0.Thusfy1+f(2y1+Py1)=0.

Separatingvariablesandintegratingyieldslnf=−2lny1−xPdt,f=1y1(x)2e−xPdt,andfasgiven.7.6.26.(a)Fromy1=a0x(1+α)/2,wehave

y1=a02(1+α)x(α−1)/2,y1=a04(α2−1)x(α−3)/2.

106.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS103Hencey1+1−α24x2y1=a04x(α−3)/2(α2−1)(1−1)=0.Similarly,y2=a0x(1−α)/2,y2=

a02(1−α)x−(α+1)/2,y2=a04(α2−1)x−(α+3)/2.Hencey2+1−α24x2y2=a04x−(α+3)/2(α2−1)(1−1)=0.Alternatively,asolutiony

xpleadstop(p−1)+(1−α2)/4=0withtherootsp=(1±α)/2.(b)y10=a0x1/2,P=0givexPdt=0,e−xPdt=1.Hencey20=a0x1/2xdsa2

0s=1a0x1/2lnx.(c)L’Hˆopital’srulegiveslimα→0y1−y2α=limα→0x(α+1)/2−x(−α+1)/2α=12x1/2lnx.7.7InhomogeneousLinear

ODEs7.7.1.DenotingE1=xy1FdsW(y1,y2),E2=xy2FdsW(y1,y2),wecheckthatyp=y2E1−y1E2+y2y1FW−y1y2FW=y2E1−y1E2,

yp=y2E1−y1E2+FW(y2y1−y2y1)=y2E1−y1E2+F.Henceyp+Pyp+Qyp=E1(y2+Py2+Qy2)−E2(y1+Py1+Qy1)+F=F.Thisis

thegeneralizationofthevariationoftheconstantmethodofsolvinginhomogeneousfirst­orderODEstosecond­orderODEs.Ifweseekaparticular

solutionoftheformyp(x)=y1(x)v(x)withy1(x)asolutionofthehomogeneousODEy+Py+Qy=0,thenvobeysddx(y21v)+Py21v=y1F,

107.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS104fromwhichtherefollowsddx(y21vexP(t)dt)=y1(x)F(x)exP(t)dt=y1FW(y1,y2).

Integratingthisgivesy21vW=xy1(s)F(s)W(y1(s),y2(s))ds.Rewritingthisasv(x)=ddxy2(x)y1(x)xy1(s)F(s)W(y1(s),y2(s))dsand

integratingasecondtimeyieldsv(x)=y2(x)y1(x)xy1(s)F(s)W(y1(s),y2(s))ds−xy2(s)F(s)W(y1(s),y2(s))ds.Hencethedesiredyp.7.7.2.We

needthegeneralsolutiontotherelatedhomogeneousequationandaparticularintegralofthecompleteinhomogeneousODE.Thehomoge­neous

equationy+y=0hassolutionsy1=cosxandy2=sinx.Wemightbeabletoguessaparticularintegral(y=1)butwecanalsousethemethodof

variationofparameters.Thismethodassumesaparticularintegraloftheformy(x)=u1(x)y1(x)+u2(x)y2(x),andleadstothetwoequationsu1y1+

u2y2=u1cosx+u2sinx=0,u1y1+u2y2=−u1sinx+u2cosx=1.Theseequationshavesolutionu1=−sinx,u1=cosx;thesecanbe

integratedtoobtainu1=cosx,u2=sinx.Insertingtheseintotheexpressionfory(x),wegety(x)=cos2x+sin2x=1.Thegeneralsolutiontothe

originalODEisthereforec1cosx+c2sinx+1.7.7.3.FollowingthestrategyandnotationoftheanswertoExercise7.7.2,wefindy1=cos2x,y2=

sin2x,fromwhichwefindu1=−exsin(2x)/2andu2=exsin(2x)/2.Weintegratetheseexpressionstofindu1=(ex/10)(2cos2x−sin2x),u2=(ex

/10)(cos2x+2sin2x),soy=u1y1+u2y2=ex/5.TheoriginalODEhasgeneralsolutionc1cos2x+c2sin2x+ex/5.7.7.4.Followingthestrategy

andnotationoftheanswertoExercise7.7.2,wefindy1=ex,y2=e2x,fromwhichwefindu1=−e−xsinxandu2=e−2xsinx.Weintegratethese

expressionstofindu1=(e−x/2)(cosx+sinx),u2=−(e−2x/5)(cosx+2sinx),soy=u1y1+u2y2=(3cosx+sinx)/10.TheoriginalODEhas

generalsolutionc1ex+c2e2x+(3cosx+sinx)/10.

108.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1057.7.5.FollowingthestrategyandnotationoftheanswertoExercise7.7.2,wefindbyinspection

y1=x+1;usingtheWronskianmethodwegetthesecondsolutiony2=ex.Rememberingthattheinhomogeneoustermistobedeterminedwhen

theoriginalODEisinstandardform(coecientofyequalto1)wesetuptheequationsfortheuiandfindu1=−1,u2=(x+1)e−x,sou1=−xand

u2=−(x+2)e−x.Thus,y=u1y1+u2y2=−(x2+2x+2).Wecan,withoutgeneratinganerror,removefromythe2x+2sinceitisjust2y1.Thus,

theoriginalODEhasgeneralsolutionc1(x+1)+c2ex−x2.7.8NonlinearDierentialEquations7.8.1.AmoregeneralsolutiontothisRiccati

equationisy=2+u,whereuisageneralsolutiontotheBernoulliequationu=3u+u2.SeeEq.(7.104).InthenotationofEq.(7.101),p=3,q=1,

andn=2,andtheBernoulliequationhassolutionu=1/v,wherevisasolutionofv+3v=−1,namelyv=Ce−3x+13.Thereforeu=3/(Ce−3x−

1)andy=2+3/(Ce−3x−1).7.8.2.AmoregeneralsolutiontothisRiccatiequationisy=x2+u,whereuisageneralsolutiontotheBernoulli

equationu=u2/x3+u/x.SeeEq.(7.104).InthenotationofEq.(7.101),p=1/x,q=1/x3,andn=2,andtheBernoulliequationhassolutionu=

ThisODEcorrespondstoEq.(7.101)withp=−x,q=x,andn=3.Thus,withu=y−2,Eq.(7.102)becomesu−2xu=−2x.Thehomoge­neous

equationforuhassolutionex2,andfromthemethodofvariationofparametersorbyinspection,aparticularintegraloftheinhomogeneousequation

isu=1.Thusthegeneralsolutionforuisu=Cex2+1.Sincey=u−1/2,thegeneralsolutionforyisy=1/√Cex2+1.7.8.4.(a)Thegeneral

solutioncomesfromy=0,andthereforehastheformy=ax+b.However,notallvaluesofaandbleadtosolutionsoftheoriginalClairaut

equation.Substitutingintoy=xy+(y)2,wefindax+b=xa+a2,whichshowsthatyisasolutiononlyifb=a2.(b)Thesingularsolutioncomes

from2y=−x,whichintegratestoy=−x2/4+C.Substitutingintoy=xy+(y)2,weget−x2/4+C=x(−x/2)+x2/4,whichshowsthatthisyisa

solutiononlyifC=0.Thesingularandageneralsolutioncoincideonlyif−x20/4=ax0+a2,thesolutiontowhichisx0=−2a.Atx0,both

solutionshaveslopea,sothesingularsolutionistangenttoeachinstanceofthegeneralsolutionandisthereforereferredtoastheirenvelope.

109.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1068.Sturm­LiouvilleTheory8.1Introduction(noexercises)8.2HermitianOperators8.2.1.Using

ψ(x)=e−x/2y(x)intheODExy+(1−x)y+ny=0givestheequivalentself­adjointODEddxxdψdx+(n+12−x4)ψ=e−x/2[xy+(1−x)y+

ny]=0.Theweightfunctionw=e−xandtheintervalarealsoobviousfromtheorthogonalityrelation,Eq.(18.55).Notealsothatddxxe−xy(x)=e

−x[(1−x)y+xy]fromwhichp(x)=xe−xfollows.Notethatmultiplyingthewavefunctionbye−x/2andtheODEbye−xleadstothesameresults.

8.2.2.Usingψn(x)=e−x2/2Hn(x)intheODEHn−2xHn+2nHn=0givestheequivalentself­adjointHermiteODEψn+(2n+1−x2)ψn=e−x2

/2[Hn−2xHn+2nHn]=0.Theweightfunctionw=e−x2andtheintervalareobviousfromtheorthogonalityrelationinEq.(18.11).Notethat

multiplyingthewavefunctionbye−x2/2andtheODEbye−x2leadstothesameresults.8.2.3.TheChebyshevODEinTable7.1isthatwhose

polynomialsolutionsaretheTypeIChebyshevpolynomialsTn.MultiplyingtheODE(1−x2)Tn−xTn+n2Tn=0by(1−x2)−1/2,weobtainthe

equivalentself­adjointODEddx(1−x2)1/2dTndx+n2(1−x2)−1/2Tn=0.ThecoecientofTnhasthefunctionalformofthescalar­product

weight­ingfunction.8.2.4.(a)ForLegendre’sODEp(x)=1−x2,whichiszeroforx=±1.Thusx=±1canbetheendpointsoftheinterval.Since

polynomialsolutionsoftheODEwillbefiniteandhavefinitederivativesatx=±1,thenvpu|x=±1=1n(n+1)2(1−x2)|x=±1v(±1)u(±1)=0,

andSturm­Liouvilleboundaryconditionswillbesatisfiedfortheinterval[−1,1].

110.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS107(b)WeconsiderheretheChebyshevpolynomialsTn(x).WhentheCheby­shevODEiswrittenin

self­adjointform,thecoecientp(x)is(1−x2)1/2,whichiszeroatx=±1.ThereforetheSturm­Liouvilleboundarycondi­tionsaresatisfiedatx=

±1becausethepolynomialsremainfinitethereandhavefinitederivatives.(c)ForHermite’sODEp(x)=e−x2→0onlyforx±∞.,andp(x)goesto

zerofasterthananypolynomial.Thus,theboundaryconditionsaresatisfiedfortheinterval(−∞,∞).(d)ForLaguerre’sODEp(x)=xe−xiszerofor

x=0andp(x)goestozeroasx→∞fasterthanaypolynomial,sotheboundaryconditionsaresatisfiedfortheinterval[0,∞).8.2.5.Ifu2=Cu1,

thenHu2=C(Hu1)=λ1Cu1=λ1u2,i.e.,λ1=λ2.Thus,twolinearlydependenteigenfunctionscannothavedierenteigenvalues.8.2.6.(a)Use

integrationbyparts,integratingthefactorxandwritingtheresultas(x2−1)/2,anddierentiatingthelogarithms.Thisyields1−1x2ln1+x1−x

dx=x2−14ln1+x1−x1−1−1−1x2−1411−x+11+xdx=121−1dx=1,theintegratedtermbeingzero.Alternatively,wecanexpand

Q0(x)asapowerseriesandthenintegratexQ0(x)termbyterm.Weget1−1P1Q0dx=lim→0∞ν=01−−1+x2ν+22ν+1dx=2∞ν=01(2ν+1)

(2ν+3)=1=0.(b)ThenecessaryboundaryconditionsareviolatedbecauseQ0issingularatx=±1.8.2.7.Dividing(1−x2)y−xy+n2y=0by(1

−x2)1/2putstheChebyshevODEinself­adjointformwithp(x)=(1−x2)1/2,q(x)=0,w(x)=(1−x2)−1/2,λ=n2.Theboundarycondition

p(vu−vu)1−1=0isnotsatisfiedwhenu=T0(x)andv=V1(x).Inthisparticularcase,u=0,u=1,andvisanoddfunctionwhichbecomes

infiniteatx=±1ataratethatisproportionalto1/p(x).TheresultisthattheSturm­Liouvilleboundaryconditionisnotsatisfied.8.2.8.By

integratingbypartsthefirsttermofbaumddxp(x)undx+λnbaumw(x)undx=0,

111.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS108weobtainump(x)un|ba−baumpundx+λnbaumw(x)undx=0.Thefirsttermiszerobecause

oftheboundarycondition,whilethethirdtermreducestoλnδnmbyorthogonality.Hencetheorthogonalityrelationbaumpundx=λnδmn.8.2.9.If

ψn=n−1i=1aiψithenAψn=λnψn=n−1i=1aiλiψi.Comparingbothex­pansions,aiλi/λn=ai,i.e.,λi=λnforthoseiforwhichai=0.This

contradictsourhypothesis.8.2.10.(a)Multiplyby(1−x2)α−1/2.8.3ODEEigenvalueProblems8.3.1.Usingy=∞j=0ajxj+ktosolve(1−x2)y−

2xy+n(n+1)y=0yieldsaj+2=(j+k)(j+k+1)−n(n+1)(j+k+2)(j+k+1)aj.(a)Forj=−2,a−2=0setsuptheindicialequationk(k−1)a0=

0,withsolutionsk=0andk=1fora0=0.(b)Thecasek=0givestherecursionformulaaj+2=j(j+1)−n(n+1)(j+2)(j+1)aj.Hencey(x)has

evenparity.(c)Ifk=1thenwegettherecursionformulaaj+2=(j+1)(j+2)−n(n+1)(j+2)(j+3)aj.Hencey(x)hasoddparity.(d)Ifthe

numeratorofeitherrecursionformulaisalwaysnonzero,thentheratioaj+2/aj→1asj→∞,implyingdivergenceforx=1.Boththeaboveseries

alsodivergeatx=−1.(e)Ifnisanon­negativeintegeroneofthetwoseriesofcases(b)and(c)breaksoatj=n,generatingincase(b)the

Legendrepolynomialscontainingevenpowersofx,andincase(c)theLegendrepolynomialscontainingoddpowersofx.

112.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1098.3.2.IftheHermiteODEismultipliedthroughbyexp(−x2),itbecomese−x2y−2xe−x2y+

2αe−x2y=0−→e−x2y+2αe−x2y=0,amanifestlyself­adjointODE.ThiseigenvalueproblemwillbeHermi­tianiftheweightfactorexp(−x2)

isincludedinthescalarproductandtheODEissolvedsubjecttoSturm­Liouvilleboundaryconditions.Therequirementthatthescalarproductexist

willnecessarilymeanthattheboundarytermsmustvanishatx=±∞,therebydefiningaHermitianproblem.8.3.3.(a)Thetrialsolutionjajxk+j

yieldstherecursionformulaaj+2=2(k+j−α)aj(k+j+1)(k+j+2).Fork=0,a0=0,a1=0wegetthegivenyeven.Fork=1,a0=0,a1=0we

getthegivenyodd.(b)Forjα,ktherecursionyieldsaj+2/aj→2/j,justlikethecoe­cientsofex2,viz.(j/2)!/(j2+1)!→1/(j2+1).(c)Ifα=non­

negativeinteger,thentheseriesbreako.8.3.4.Letnbeanon­negativeinteger.ThentheODEisEq.(18.44)anditssolutionsaregiveninEqs.

(18.46),(18.53)andTable18.2.Thetrialsolutionja(n)jxk+jyieldstherecursionformulaa(n)j+2=(k+j−n)a(n)j(k+j+1)2.Fork=0andn

anon­negativeintegertheseriesbreakso.8.3.5.Theinfiniteseriesdoesconvergeforx=±1.Hencethisimposesnorestrictiononn.Comparewith

Exercise1.2.6.Ifwedemandapolynomialsolutionthennmustbeanonnegativeinteger.8.3.6.Fork=1,takentobeapositiveoddinteger.

ComparewithEq.(18.98).Herea0=(−1)(n−1)/2(r+1).8.4VariationMethod8.4.1.(a)Thenormalizationintegralis4α3∞0x2e−2αxdx=4α32!

(2α)3=1.(b)x−1=4α3∞0xe−2αxdx=4α31!(2α)2=α.

113.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS110(c)d2ψdx2=2α3/2(α2x−2α),andtherefored2dx2=4α3∞0(α2x2−2αx)e−2αxdx=α2−

2α2=−α2.(d)Forgeneralα,W(α)=ψ−12d2dx2−1xψ=α22−α.ThevalueofαthatminimizesW(α)isobtainedbysettingdW/dα=0;the

resultisα=1,fromwhichwefindW(1)=−1/2.8.5Summary,EigenvalueProblems(noexercises)

114.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1119.PartialDierentialEquations9.1Introduction(noexercises)9.2First­OrderEquations9.2.1.

Introducevariabless=x+2y,t=2x−y.Then∂ψ∂x+2∂ψ∂y=5∂ψ∂st,andourPDEbecomesanODEinswithparametricdependenceont:5

dψds+tψ=0,solnψ=−ts5+C(t)orψ=f(t)e−ts/5,wheref(t)isarbitrary.Intermsofxandy,thegeneralsolutionofthisPDEisψ(x,y)=f(2x

−y)e−(2x2−2y2+3xy)/5.Thissolutionassumesasomewhatsimplerformifwemultiplytheexpo­nentialbyexp(−2t2/5)=exp(−[8x2+2y2−

8xy]/5)(incorporatingthechangeintof),reachingψ(x,y)=f(2x−y)exp(−2x2+xy).9.2.2.Followingaproceduresimilartothatinthesolutionto

Exercise9.2.1,sets=x−2yandt=2x+y,andnotethatx+y=(3t−s)/5.ThePDEreducesto5dψds+3t−s5=0.ThisODEhassolutionψ=

(s−3t)2/50+f(t)=(x+y)2/2+f(2x+y),withfarbitrary.9.2.3.Heres=x+y−z;tanducanbet=x−y,u=x+y+2z.ThePDEreducesto3

dψ/ds=0,withsolutionψ=f(t,u)=f(x−y,x+y+2z),withfarbitrary.9.2.4.Heres=x+y+z,taket=x−y,u=x+y−2z.ThePDEreducesto

3dψds=t,withsolutionψ=ts3+C.Thesolutioncanbesimplifiedbysubtractingtu/3andmakingtheobser­vationthatt(s−u)/3=tz.Wethen

haveψ=z(x−y)+f(x−y,x+y−2z),withfarbitrary.9.2.5.(a)Itisusefultonotethatdv=2xdx−2ydy−→2x∂x∂uv−2y∂y∂uv=0−→∂y∂uv=x

y∂x∂uv.

equationvanishesbecausethequantitywithinthesquarebracketsiszeroaccordingtothePDE.Wenoweec­tivelyhaveanODEinuwithsolution

ψ=f(v)=f(x2−y2),withfarbitrary.(b)Thelinesofconstantvarecharacteristicsofthisequation;theydierfromourearlierexamplesinthat

theyarenotstraightlines,butcurvesdefinedbyx2−y2=constant.9.2.6.DefineuandvasinExercise9.2.5,andfromdu=xdy+ydxfind∂y∂vu

=−yx∂x∂vu.Nowweform∂ψ∂vu=∂ψ∂xy−yx∂ψ∂yx∂x∂vu=0,wherethequantitywithinsquarebracketsvanishesbyvirtueofthe

PDE.IntegratingtheresultingODE,wegetψ=f(u)=f(xy),withfarbitrary.9.3Second­OrderEquations9.3.1.Itmaybeeasiesttomultiplyoutthe

factoredexpressionforLandstartfromLf=afxx+2bfxy+cfyy,wherethesubscriptsidentifydierentia­tions.Then,usingthedefinitionsofξand

η,wehavefx=c1/2fξ,fy=c−1/2(−bfξ+fη),fxx=cfξξfxy=−bfξξ+fξη,fyy=c−1(b2fξξ−2bfξη+fηη).Substitutingintotheoriginal

expressionforL,wegetLf=(ac−b2)fξξ+fηη.9.4SeparationofVariables9.4.1.(2+k2)(a1ψ1+a2ψ2)=a12ψ1+a1k2ψ1+a22ψ2+a2k2

ψ2.9.4.2.Ifψ=R(ρ)Φ(ϕ)Z(z)then1RρddρρdRdρ+f(ρ)+k2+1ρ21Φd2Φdϕ2+g(ϕ)+1Zd2Zdz2+h(z)=0

116.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS113leadstotheseparatedODEsd2Zdz2+h(z)Z=n2Z,d2Φdϕ2+g(ϕ)Φ=−m2Φ,ρddρρdRdρ

+[(n2+f(ρ)+k2)ρ2−m2]R=0.9.4.3.Writingψ(r,θ,ϕ)=R(r)Y(θ,ϕ),andnotingthatL2Y(θ,ϕ)=l(l+1)Y(θ,ϕ),L2=−1sinθ∂∂θsinθ∂

∂θ−1sin2θ∂2∂ϕ2,wehave(2+k2)ψ(r,θ,ϕ)=1r2∂∂rr2∂∂r−L2r2+k2R(r)Y(θ,ϕ),ddrr2dRdr+(k2r2−l(l+1))R=0.Theorderin

whichvariablesareseparateddoesn’tmatter.9.4.4.Separating1Rddrr2dRdr+(k2+f(r))r2=L2r2−g(θ)−h(ϕ)sin2θ=l(l+1)impliesddrr2

dRdr+[(k2+f(r))r2−l(l+1)]R=0,−sinθ∂∂θsinθ∂P∂θ−P[(g(θ)+l(l+1)]sin2θ+m2P=0,d2Φdϕ2+h(ϕ)Φ=−m2Φ.9.4.5.ψ=Aeik·r

obtainedfromseparatingtheCartesiancoordinatesgivesψ=ikψ,2ψ=−k2ψ,withkx=πanx,

c2.Thecasenx=ny=nz=1givestheanswerinthetext.

117.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1149.4.6.WritingL2=1sinθ∂∂θsinθ∂∂θ+1sin2θ∂2∂ϕ2with∂2eimϕ∂ϕ2=−m2eimϕforψ

eimϕPmlgivestheODEfortheassociatedLegendrepolynomials.9.4.7.(a)bψ−mk2x2ψ=−2mE2ψbecomesα2d2ψdξ2−α4x2ψ=−α2

λψ.(b)ψ(ξ)=y(ξ)e−ξ2/2impliesψ=ye−ξ2/2−ξye−ξ2/2,ψ=ye−ξ2/2−2ξye−ξ2/2−ye−ξ2/2+ξ2ye−ξ2/2,ande−ξ2/2(y+λy−2ξy−y)

=0,whichisHermite’sODEfory.9.5LaplaceandPoissonEquations9.5.1.(a)21r=−2r1r2−ddr1r2=0forr>0.SeeExample3.6.1.Oruse

,E=2k2/2m,k2=π2n2xa2+n2yb2+n2z

2f(r)=1rd2dr2rf(r)forf(r)=r,r>0.Forr=0thereisasingularitydescribedby21r=−4πδ(r).(b)Insphericalpolarcoordinatesz=rcosθ,so

ψ2=12rln1+cosθ1−cosθ.Forr=0,2ψ2=1r2sinθ∂∂θsinθ∂ψ2∂θ=12r3sinθddθsinθ−sinθ1+cosθ−sinθ1−cosθ=−12r3sin

θddθ2sin2θ1−cos2θ=0.

118.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS115Forr=0,r≤R2ψ2d3r=ˆr·ψ2=−R22R22π0dϕπ0sinθln1+cosθ1−cosθdθ=−π1−1

ln1+z1−zdz=0becauseln1+z1−zisoddinz.9.5.2.2∂∂zψ=∂∂z2ψ=0because2,∂∂z=0.9.5.3.Takingψtobethedierenceoftwo

solutionswiththesameDirichletboundaryconditions,wehaveforψaLaplaceequationwithψ=0onanentireclosedboundary.Thatcausesthe

left­handsideofEq.(9.88)tovanish;thefirstintegralontheright­handsidealsovanishes,sotheremainingintegralmustalsobezero.Thisintegral

cannotvanishunlessψvanisheseverywhere,whichmeansthatψcanonlybeaconstant.9.6WaveEquation9.6.1.Themostgeneralsolutionwith

ψ(x,0)=sinxisψ=Asin(x−ct)+(1−A)sin(x+ct);forthissolution∂ψ/∂tevaluatedatt=0is(1−2A)ccosx.Theconditionon∂ψ/∂trequiresthat

weset(1−2A)c=1,orA=(c−1)/2c.Thus,ψ(x,t)=c−12csin(x−ct)+c+12csin(x+ct)=sinxcosct+c−1cosxsinct.9.6.2.Givena

generalsolutionoftheformf(x−ct)+g(x+ct)werequiref(x)+g(x)=δ(x)andf(x)−g(x)=0,i.e.,f(x)=g(x).Thissecondconditionleadsto

g(x)=f(x)+constant,andthefirstconditionthenyieldsf(x)=g(x)=δ(x)/2.Therefore,ψ(x,t)=12δ(x−ct)+δ(x−ct).9.6.3.Byaprocesssimilar

tothatforExercise9.6.2,wehaveψ(x,t)=12ψ0(x−ct)+ψ0(x+ct).9.6.4.Thefunctionsf(x−ct)andg(x+ct)withtderivativesequaltosinxat

t=0are(apartfromaconstant)c−1cos(x−ct)and−c−1cos(x+ct).

119.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS116Thus,wemusthaveψ(x,0)=c−1[Acos(x−ct)−(1−A)cos(x+ct)];tomakeψ(x,0)=0we

takeA=1/2,soψ(x,t)=12ccos(x−ct)−cos(x+ct)=1csinxsinct.9.7HeatFlow,orDiusionPDE9.7.1.From1KTdTdt=1Rr2ddrr2dR

dr−L2YYr2=−α2,itfollowsthatdTdt=−α2KT,L2Y=l(l+1)Y,ddrr2dRdr+α2r2R=l(l+1)R.Bysphericalsymmetryl=0,Y=Y00=

1/√4π.Sol=m=0.9.7.2.Withoutz,ϕ­dependenceanddenotingλ=κ/σρwehave∂ψ∂t=λ2ψwithψ=P(ρ)T(t)sothat1λTdTdt=−α2=1Rρ

ddρρdPdρ.HencedTdt=−λα2T,ddρρdPdρ+α2ρP=0=ρd2Pdρ2+dPdρ+α2ρP.9.7.3.Equation(9.114)appliestothisproblem,asitis

forthe1­Dboundarycon­ditionthatψ→0atx=±∞andiswrittenintermsofthetemperaturedistributionatt=0.Thus,withψ0=Aδ(x),wehave

ψ(x,t)=1√π∞−∞Aδ(x−2aξ√t)e−ξ2dξ.Usingtherelationδ(at−b)f(t)dt=a−1f(b/a),wefindψ(x,t)=A2a√πte−x2/4a2t.Thishasthe

expectedproperties:att=0itiszeroeverywhereexceptatx=0;itapproacheszeroeverywhereatt→∞;forallttheintegralofψoverxisA.

120.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS1179.7.4.Thisproblembecomesnotationallysimplerifthecoordinatesoftheendsoftherodare

placedat−L/2andL/2,withtheendat−L/2keptatT=0andtheendatL/2keptatT=1.Wewritetheinitialtemperaturedistributionintermsof

thespatialeigenfunctionsoftheproblemasψ0=xL+12−jcjϕj(x),wherethejsummationistheexpansionofx/L+1/2intheeigenfunctionsof

nonzeroω.Thismodeoforganizationmakesexplicitthatallthetermsinthejsummustdecayexponentiallyint,leavinginthelarge­tlimitthe steady­statetemperatureprofilethatconnectsthefixedtemperaturesattheendsoftherod.Theϕjmustbechosensubjecttotheboundarycondition

thattheyvanishatx=±L/2;thoserepresentingtheexpansionof1/2mustbecosinefunctions,whilethosefortheexpansionofx/Lmustbesine

functions.Specifically,Expansionof1/2:ϕj=cosjπx/L,joddExpansionofx/L:ϕj=sinjπx/L,jevenMakinguseoftheorthogonalitypropertiesof

thesefunctionsandchangingtheindicestoaccountfortherestrictiontooddandevenvalues,wehave12=∞j=0c2j+1cos(2j+1)πxL,c2j+1=

2(−1)jπ(2j+1),xL=∞j=1c2jsin2jπxL,c2j=(−1)j+1πj.Toformψ(x,t)wenowattachtoeachterminthesummationsthede­caying

exponentialfactorshowninEq.(9.101)andappendthetime­independenttermscorrespondingtoω=0:ψ(x,t)=xL+12−∞j=02(−1)jπ(2j+1)

cos(2j+1)πxLe−t[(2j+1)πa/L]2−∞j=1(−1)j+1πjsin2jπxLe−t(2jπa/L)2.9.8Summary(noexercises)

121.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS11810.Green’sFunctions10.1One­DimensionalProblems10.1.1.Thegeneralsolutionto−d2y/dx2

=0isy=c1x+c0;asolutionuwithu(0)=0isu(x)=x;asolutionvwithv(1)=0isv(x)=1.ThustheformoftheGreen’sfunctionmustbeG(x,t)

=Axforx<tandG(x,t)=Atforx>t.TofindAwenotethatforthegivenL,p=−1andthatA=p(t)[uv−uv]=(−1)[0−1]=+1.Werecoverthe

requiredformulaforG(x,t).10.1.2.(a)G(x,t)= −sinxcos(1−t)cos1,0≤x≤t,−sintcos(1−x)cos1,t≤x≤1.(b)G(x,t)=

−ex−t/2,−∞<x<t,−et−x/2,t<x<∞.10.1.3.Ourexpressionfory(x)isy(x)=x0sin(x−t)f(t)dt.Itsderivativesarey(x)=sin(x−x)f(x)+x0

cos(x−t)f(t)dt=x0cos(x−t)f(t)dt.y(x)=cos(x−x)f(x)−x0sin(x−t)f(t)dt=f(x)−y(x).Thisequationshowsthaty(x)satisfiesEq.(10.24)

andtheformulasfory(0)andy(0)showthatbothvanish.10.1.4.ThesolutionstothehomogeneousODEofthisexercise(thatwithf(x)=0)are

y1(x)=sin(x/2)andy2(x)=cos(x/2).Tosatisfytheboundaryconditionatx=0wetakeG(x,t)=sin(x/2)h1(t)forx<t;tosatisfytheboundary

conditionatx=πwetakeG(x,t)=cos(x/2)h2(t)forx>t.Toachievecontinuityatx=twetakeh1(t)=Acos(t/2)andh2(t)=Asin(t/2).Thevalue

ofAmustcause∂G/∂xtohaveadiscontinuousjumpof−1atx=t(thecoecientpoftheODEis−1).Thedierenceinthosederivativesis∂G(x,t)

∂xx=t+−∂G(x,t)∂xx=t−=−A2sin(x/2)sin(t/2)−A2cos(x/2)cos(t/2)−→−A2=−1,soA=2.

122.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS11910.1.5.WithL=xd2dx2+ddx+k2x2−1x,L=0hassolutionsJ1(kx)andY1(kx).Weuse

J1(kx)asasolutionthatvanishesatx=0;weformalinearcombinationofJ1(kx)andY1(kx)thatvanishesatx=1.Theconstantπ/2comesfroman

evaluationoftheWronskianofthesetwosolutions,mosteasilyevaluatedfromtheirasymptoticforms,seeEqs.(14.140)and(14.141).G(x,t)= π2Y1(kt)−Y1(k)J1(kt)J1(k)J1(kx),0≤x<t,π2Y1(kx)−Y1(k)J1(kx)J1(k)J1(kt),t<x≤1.10.1.6.Listheoperatordefining

theLegendreequation.Thisequationhassin­gularpointsatx=±1andthereisonlyonesolutionthatisfiniteatthesepoints.Henceu(x)v(t)=

v(x)u(t)anditisnotpossibletoobtainadiscontinuityinthederivativeatx=t.10.1.7.ThehomogeneousequationcorrespondingtothisODEcanbe

solvedbyintegratingoncetogety+ky=Candthenrearrangingtotheformdy=(C−ky)dx.Weidentifythegeneralsolutiontothisequationas

y(t)=C(1−he−kt).LettingtheGreen’sfunctionbewrittenintheformG(t,u),wenotethattheonlysolutionfor0≤t<uthatsatisfiestheboundary

conditionsy(0)=y(0)=0isthetrivialsolutiony(t)=0.Foru<t<∞thereisnoboundaryconditionatt=∞,soG(t,u)canhavethegeneralform

G(t,u)=C(u)(1−h(u)e−kt),withC(u)andh(u)determinedbytheconnectionconditionsatt=u.Continuityatt=uleadsto1−h(u)e−ku=0,or

h(u)=eku,soG(t,u)hasfort>uthemoreexplicitformG(t,u)=C(u)1−e−k(t−u).TodetermineC(u)fromthediscontinuityinthederivativeof

G(t,u)wemustfirstfindthequantitypwhenthehomogeneousODEiswritteninself­adjointform.Thatvalueofpisekt,andourODEismodified

toddtektψ(t)=ektf(t).WenowdetermineC(u)from∂∂tC(u)1−e−k(t−u)t=u=kC(u)=1p(u)=e−ku.ThefinalformforourGreen’sfunction

isthereforeG(t,u)= 0,0≤t<u,e−ku−e−ktk,t>u,

123.CHAPTER3.EXERCISESOLUTIONS120andtheinhomogeneousequationhasthesolutionψ(t)=t0G(t,u)ekuf(u)du.Notethatwewould

havegottenthesameoverallresultifwehadsim­plytakenptobethecoecientofyintheoriginalequationandnotmultipliedf(u)bythefactor

neededtomaketheODEself­adjoint.Finally,withf(t)=e−t,wecomputeψ(t)=1kt0e−ku−e−kte(k−1)udu=1k1−1k−1ke−t−e−kt.

10.1.8.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.10.1.9.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.10.1.10.Theanswerisgiveninthetext.10.1.11.Theanswerisgiven

inthetext.10.1.12.Ifa1=0,thedierentialequationwillbeself­adjointandK(x,t)willbesymmetric.Cf.Section21.4.10.1.13.Startbyfindingthe

Green’sfunctionoftheODEwithouttheV0term.ThetruncatedODEhassolutionse±kr.Asolutionsatisfyingtheboundaryconditionatr=0isekr

−e−kr,equivalent(exceptforafactor2)tosinhkr.Asolutionsatisfyingtheboundaryconditionatr=∞ise−kr.TheWronksianofsinhkrande

−kris−k,sotheGreen’sfunctionisG(r,t)= −1ke−ktsinhkr,0≤r<t,−1ke−krsinhkt,t<r<∞.WenowtreatourODEasan

inhomogeneousequationwhoseright­handsideis−V0e−ry(r)/r.UsingtheGreen’sfunctiontoformitssolution,weobtaintheintegralequation

giveninthetext.NotethatG(r,t)oftheexerciseis−1timestheGreen’sfunction.10.2ProblemsinTwoandThreeDimensions10.2.1.Thisproblem

wassolvedinExample10.2.1.10.2.2.TheoperatorLisHermitianif,forallϕ(r)andψ(r)satisfyingthebound­aryconditions,ϕ|Lψ=Lϕ|ψ.To

showthis,usetheidentityf·U=·(fU)−f·U,recognizethatoneoftheintegralsiszerobecausefrom