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Delivering world class

methanol plant performance

Information contained in this publication or as otherwise supplied to Users is believed to be accurate and correct at time of going to press,
and is given in good faith, but it is for the User to satisfy itself of the suitability of the Product for its own particular purpose. Johnson
Matthey plc (JM) gives no warranty as the fitness of the Product for any particular purpose and any implied warranty or condition (statutory
or otherwise) is excluded except to the extent that exclusion is prevented by law. JM accepts no liability for loss or damage (other than
that arising from death or personal injury caused by JMs negligence or by a defective Product, if proved), resulting from reliance on this
information. Freedom under Patent, Copyright and Designs cannot be assumed.
2014 Johnson Matthey Group

KATALCOJM a commitment to excellence

For many years, methanol has been used primarily as a
chemical intermediate in manufacturing plastics and resins,
then more recently in the manufacture of methyl tertiary
butyl ether (MTBE). However, now methanol is being seen as
a product that can be introduced directly into the gasoline
pool by blending. This allows indigenous resources to be used
and provides a diversity of supply that can help to reduce
dependence on crude oil.
The methanol industry as we know it today is based almost
entirely around the technology and catalysts developed and
commercialized by ICI in the late 1960s. Since that time,
Johnson Matthey (having acquired the ICI catalyst business and
then Davy Process Technology now known as Johnson Matthey
Davy Technologies (JM Davy)) has invested enormous resources
in R&D to ensure that the technology has adapted to meet our
customers needs. KATALCOJMTM methanol catalysts are more
active, more selective and more robust, to give you the highest
plant rates, longest run time and the best value for money.

Within the methanol industry, Johnson Matthey is seen as the

world leader with the greatest depth and breadth of knowledge.
This position has been developed through a combination of its
own technology and catalyst development efforts alongside the
experience gained from the large number of plants that use
them. It has been further underpinned by operating experience
in the methanol plants formerly operated by ICI, which ensures
that Johnson Matthey understands your needs as a plant
operator better than any other catalyst or technology provider.
Our focus is on delivering the best plant performance in
the world. We have on-going development programmes
producing new and better catalysts and improving the process
technology for the methanol industry. Our applications
know-how and services enable the best performance to be
achieved from these products. The overall impact of Johnson
Mattheys new catalysts and technology can be to improve
methanol plant costs by millions of dollars every year.

The selection of catalyst and technology is just the start of the

process. We seek to develop close working relationships with
all users of our catalysts to gain a good understanding of your
operations. This allows our engineers to provide the best advice
on the operation of the catalysts within the methanol process.

Purification feed and syngas


Mercury removal


Organic sulphur
removal - HDS


3-in-1 sulphur removal


Chloride removal



Zinc oxide based H2S

removal absorbent




Syngas purification

Johnson Matthey offers our range of KATALCOJM

purification absorbents and catalysts, which ensures
optimized systems for meeting individual plant
requirements. In addition through our range of
PURASPEC JMTM catalysts and absorbents we can provide
mercury removal down to ppb levels, low temperature
H2S removal absorbents and ultrapurification down to
ppb levels of sulphur to protect even the most sensitive
of downstream catalysts, including pre-reforming and
methanol synthesis catalysts.

For methanol plants using a coal feedstock and gasification

technology, we can again offer KATALCOJM and
PURASPEC JM purification solutions to remove impurities
such as chloride and sulphur after the RECTISOLTM
or SELEXOLTM acid gas removal system, upstream of
methanol synthesis.
KATALCOJM 33-1 is the latest addition to our purification
range. It is a 3-in-1 total sulphur removal product, which
combines the functionality of organic sulphur conversion,
high capacity sulphur removal, and low level sulphur
polishing (ultrapurification) in a single product. The
versatility of KATALCOJM 33-1 allows it to be deployed in
methanol plants in numerous ways, as a single product or
in conjunction with conventional purification products.

By using KATALCOJM 33-1, the total

catalyst volume can be reduced while still
achieving the required life. Further savings
are also realized from much easier loading
and discharge, and no requirement for
presulphiding of the HDS catalyst or
reduction of the ultrapurification catalyst.

Conventional purification
catalyst loading

Simplified catalyst loading

with KATALCOJM 33-1


Johnson Matthey has been associated with

pre-reforming catalysts since the 1960s and together
with JM Davy offers the CRG series of catalysts which
have been demonstrated to be the most active and
robust commercially available products. In methanol
plants, operating on natural gas feeds, the use of high
pre-reformer inlet temperatures allows the maximum
amount of heat recovery from the steam reformer flue
duct giving an economic benefit through improved
thermal efficiency of the process. In addition, by
transferring the maximum amount of reforming duty
into the pre-reformer, the size of the primary reformer
is reduced which results in a lower capital cost.
CRG LHR is a precipitated catalyst with nickel as
the active component. The catalyst is supplied in
the pre-reduced and stabilized form. The oxidized
form, CRG LH, is available as a special order.
CRG LHR pre-reforming catalyst is specially formulated
to deliver good performance at high pre-reformer inlet
temperatures (>500C), which cannot be attained
with many other catalysts. This allows the maximum
amount of heat recovery from the steam reformer
flue duct and hence increases the economic benefits
that can be obtained from the pre-reformer.

CRG LHR is available in two distinctive shapes.

The exceptionally high geometric surface area that
is produced by the small standard cylindrical pellet
delivers outstanding catalytic activity and allows
the construction of relatively small pre-reforming
reactors. However, where pressure drop must be
minimized, the unique microcloverleaf shape, CRG
LHCR provides low pressure drop characteristics
in combination with high pre-reforming activity.

CRG pre-reforming
technology delivered
increased production and
lower energy consumption
on a syngas plant.
Johnson Matthey offered the most effective
combination of CRG LHCR catalyst supply and
engineering capability to deliver a 15% increase in
capacity and a 5% reduction in energy consumption.
An element of engineering capability used was
CFD, as the new pre-reformer reheat coil needed
to be installed within an existing convection section,
adjacent to a 90 bend in the fluegas duct.
Johnson Matthey CFD modelling quickly showed
that the coil would work as designed.

Contours of Velocity
Magnitude (m/s)

Sep 11 2003, FLUENT 6.1

(2d, segregated, spe5, ske)

Steam reforming
KATALCOJM 23-4 series

Nickel oxide on
alpha alumina

KATALCOJM 57-4 series

Nickel oxide on
calcium aluminate

KATALCOJM 25-4 series

Lightly alkalized version

of 57-4 series

In this critical operating unit in the methanol production

train, the KATALCOJM combination of catalysts and
services ensures optimal operation at all times.
KATALCOJM catalysts are unique with the ability to
reform efficiently the full range of feedstocks from
light natural gases and refinery off-gases right up
to naphthas. Our QUADRALOBE TM catalyst range
employs a carefully designed shaped support offering
high surface area and high voidage with excellent
heat transfer performance. The resulting high
activity, heat transfer and low pressure drop gives a
combination of lower methane slip, high throughput
and longer tube lives for methanol plant reformers.
Johnson Matthey manufactures three main catalysts for
use in steam reformers using a natural gas feedstock:
KATALCOJM 25-series, 23-series and 57-series
catalysts. Johnson Matthey reforming catalysts
are made in a range of sizes, allowing optimum
reformer loading for each individual plant.

KATALCOJM 25-series:
This is a lightly alkalized nickel oxide on a calcium
aluminate support. The alkali prevents carbon formation
in the upper part of highly stressed reformers where
the heat fluxes are high and especially when the
feedstock contains heavier hydrocarbons, while
retaining the high activity of gas reforming catalysts.
KATALCOJM 23-series:
This catalyst is nickel oxide on an alpha alumina support.
KATALCOJM 57-series:
This catalyst is nickel oxide on a calcium aluminate support.
Selecting the right catalyst for your application is
essential for good reformer performance. Johnson
Matthey will make detailed recommendations based
upon your individual operating conditions ensuring
reliable optimal performance of your reformer.
For naphtha feedstocks Johnson Matthey also
manufactures KATALCOJM 46-series.

Reformer services
Through KATALCOJM PERFORMANCE we want you to get
the most from our catalysts. We optimize each application
using our world-leading modelling capability and support
the operation of your reformers with a wide range of
services including process consultancy, mechanical design
consultancy and other engineering services that are used
to help solve customer problems.
Reformer modelling expertise is one of our key skills.
By using Aspen HYSYSTM, which includes our PRIMARY
reformer model, we can determine the full impact of
changing reformer conditions within a complete plant
flowsheet. This is typically used for:

revamp studies and revamp implementation

retube studies

reformer surveys

operational audits.

Results are immediately available allowing rapid

assessment of variations in conditions.
Other reforming services from Johnson Matthey include:

UNIDENSE TM reformer loading technique

LOTISTM laser optical tube inspection system

reformer surveys and operational audits

catalyst tube temperature measurement

managing the life cycle of reformer catalyst tubes

reformer consultancy

pressure drop measurement

combustion systems advice.

Autothermal reforming
KATALCOJM 23-8 series
KATALCOJM 28-4 series
KATALCOJM 54-8 series

The mechanical and physical requirements of an oxygen

blown secondary are the most arduous in the plant. Johnson
Matthey combines sophisticated Computational Fluid
Dynamic techniques and process modelling, calibrated
against data generated from its Syngas Generation (SGG)
pilot plant, to ensure the best performance from its state
of the art range of catalysts. Johnson Matthey offers
reactor technology including a proven burner design.
KATALCOJM 23-series and 28-series are nickel
on alumina catalysts which gives you high stability
and high activity.
KATALCOJM 54-8 series is nickel on calcium aluminate.
These catalysts give you high stability and high activity
allowing Johnson Matthey to offer the best mix of
activity, pressure drop and high temperature stability
for your application.
KATALCOJM 89-6 is a catalyst designed for use in the top
of autothermal reformers where the temperature and steam
partial pressure is high, a combination that can lead to
unacceptably fast volitilization of alumina and the problems
associated with this and its subsequent condensation. This
catalyst utilizes a refractory metal as the active component
on a stabilized high temperature ceramic support.


Ruby formation

reformer services
The performance of an autothermal reformer is related
not just to the catalyst performance but also the burner
and the mixing space above the catalyst bed as well as the
integrity of the refractory lining system of the reformer.

Pressure drop, kPa


We have the right combination of expertise and practical

experience to help our customers determine the cause
of any under performance and develop reliable systems.


Months on line





We have also combined our catalysis, CFD and

mechanical design skills to resolve autothermal
reformer and transfer main hot spot problems.
An example of this is our delivering improved plant
reliability to autothermal reformers which have
suffered from increased pressure drop due to ruby
formation, leading to hot spots. Our understanding of
the issue allowed us to apply leading catalysts such as
KATALCOJM 89-6Q to solve the problems eliminating
ruby formation and pressure drop increase.


Sour shift


The production of syngas using gasification or partial

oxidation differs considerably from that using catalytic
steam reforming. Depending on the feed and process
configuration, the raw syngas will have a high CO
content and, it is likely that it will also have high sulphur
content. This gas needs to be shifted and the excess
CO2 removed to achieve the desired hydrogen to
carbon oxides ratio, and this requires the use of a
sulphur tolerant shift catalyst. Johnson Matthey is the
worlds leading supplier of sour shift catalysts with the
KATALCOJM K8-11 series of products. These catalysts are
particularly robust and can withstand sharp temperature
changes, high steam partial pressures and the effect
of contamination from impurities in the raw gas.
The standard catalyst for sour shift is KATALCOJM K811,
which has been well proven in ammonia applications
downstream of several different types of gasifier. Other
variants of this standard catalyst are available to meet
specific client requirements which may place greater
emphasis on pressure drop or low-temperature activity.
An example of this is KATALCOJM K8-11HA which uses
a geometric shape with higher external surface and a
higher packed voidage and thus a lower pressure drop.


Johnson Mattheys experience in the application of

sour shift catalyst downstream of gasifiers puts us in an
ideal position to provide advice on the optimum system
configuration, including the appropriate number of
reaction stages, the use of bypasses, steam requirements
and heat recovery options. For instance, at large plant
capacities, the use of radial flow reactors may allow
the use of a single reactor instead of multiple parallel
axial reactors, so reducing installed plant cost. Johnson
Matthey is able to provide a sour shift catalyst customized
for radial flow applications (KATALCOJM K8-11R) along
with proven designs of internals for radial flow reactors.

Johnson Mattheys experience

in sour shift applications means
optimum system configurations
for our customers.


Methanol synthesis





The KATALCOJM 51-series of catalysts is key to the

methanol technologies offered by Johnson Matthey
and JM Davy. KATALCOJM 51-1 and the LPM
process revolutionized synthetic methanol production
in the 1960s and have provided the majority of
the worlds production ever since that time. These
technologies currently account for an annual production
capacity of over 30 million tonnes of methanol.
KATALCOJM 51-1 was the first three-component
methanol synthesis catalyst comprising zinc oxide and
alumina as the support with copper as the active catalytic
component. Successive generations of KATALCOJM
51-series catalysts have been developed to give increasing
activity, selectivity and stability, so ensuring ever more
efficient operation whatever the source of syngas.


The latest in this series, KATALCOJM 51-9S, is particularly

suited to highly stressed duties with its activity, strength
and selectivity.
The high activity and stability of KATALCOJM 51-series
catalysts means that typically a charge lasts between
four and six years, but some charges have been in
operation for more than 8 years. Their strength enables
them to withstand the rigours of this extended operation
and as a result they show little change in pressure
drop and are easily discharged at the end of life.

methanol synthesis
methanol production









product available




Made on a new, state-of-the-art catalyst manufacturing

plant at Clitheroe, Lancashire, the catalyst offers:

roved efficiency
d imp



Ever since ICI turned synthetic methanol manufacture on its

head with the introduction the first copper-based methanol
synthesis catalyst and the LPM process, catalysts have
continued to develop organically. Until now that is. Johnson
Matthey has introduced its new methanol synthesis
catalyst, the KATALCOJM APICOTM range, which represents
the biggest single leap forward; bigger than the sum of all
the incremental improvements over the last 40 years.


Least by-products









excellent start-of-life activity to maximize production

following a change of catalyst

much higher thermal stability resulting in unparalleled

end-of-life activity, and giving increased plant efficiency,
extended (doubled) life, or a combination of the two
to maximize plant production and profitability

vastly improved selectivity with by-product formation

at half the level of the best current generation catalyst,
so increasing output by reducing waste in distillation
industry-leading strength so that the catalyst can
operate longer and maintain physical integrity
during loading, operation and discharge.

But the most significant change is that the catalyst is

pre-reduced and stabilized, all but eliminating the
time-consuming reduction that is required for
conventional methanol synthesis catalysts. An activation
step is still required, but your plant will be manufacturing
more methanol sooner, and for longer, by using


Leading edge syngas

Since the acquisition of JM Davy by Johnson Matthey in 2006,
we now have the most extensive portfolio of catalysts and
technologies for syngas preparation and methanol production.
Our complementary skills and capabilities allow us to provide:
world-class technology

Syngas generation technologies

With the wide range of expertise available
within Johnson Matthey, our portfolio of syngas
generation technologies is extensive.

Steam methane reformers (SMRs)

While this technology has been around for a long time,
conventional SMRs have been undergoing a continual
process of improvement. The largest methanol plant
in the world based on natural gas is the Methanol
Holdings (Trinidad) Limited M5000 plant. Based on LPM
technology, this plant started up in 2005, produces 5,000
tpd of methanol from a single SMR, and represents the
benchmark for future technology development in this field.

high performance catalysts

conceptual design and licensing

basic and detailed engineering

commissioning and start-up

on-going operational support.

Johnson Matthey offers the technology most suited to

customer requirements. Whether a client wants large or small
capacity in high or low cost gas areas, to build on a ship that
will access gas from remote fields, or to use syngas generated
from coal as a feedstock, the technology exists within Johnson
Matthey and JM Davy to meet these requirements.
Use of the Johnson Matthey LPM technology has increased
steadily over the years and it is the preferred methanol production
technology, with its unrivalled reliability and on-stream factor.

Autothermal reformers (ATR)

Johnson Mattheys 30+ years of experience was gained
on air and oxygen blown autothermal refomers (ATRs)
including the Coogee LCM plant in Australia. Our unique
design of ATR has proven its reliability and durability
over many years in both oxygen and air fired service.
All elements from the burner and distribution system,
through to the refractory lining, catalyst and refractory
support arch, deliver long term trouble-free performance.

Combined reforming
Combined reforming incorporates the steam
methane reforming process and the ATR. The
technology is particularly applicable for use on large
capacity plants using light natural gas. Two versions
of this concept have quite different features.

M5000 reformer


Coogee LCM plant

in Australia

Combined reforming with SMR

Combined reforming with an SMR is a way of getting
beyond the limitations imposed on plant capacity by
the SMR alone. Around 40% of the reforming duty is
carried out by the SMR, while the balance is carried out
in the ATR. This combination of steam and autothermal
reforming can yield an ideal stoichiometric gas for
methanol production. The technology stretches the
maximum capacity upwards, with capacities in excess
of 10,000 tpd being possible with a single SMR the
size of the M5000 reformer and a single ATR.

Combined reforming with gas heated reforming (GHR)

The GHR is a heat exchanger with catalyst inside the
tubes and was originally developed by ICI in the 1980s
for use in the ammonia industry, with three units coming
into operation followed by the first methanol application
in 1994 (the Coogee LCM plant). To date, there are over 50
operating years of experience in four industrial scale units.

Used in a combined reforming process the outlet

from an ATR feeds the shell side of the GHR and is
forced to flow countercurrently to the feed natural
gas and steam flowing inside the tubes. It is the
most energy efficient process available with the
lowest CO2 emissions and water make-up rate.

in Alaska

Compact reformer
The compact reformer is similar to a conventional reformer
in that the chemistry is the same, but the primary heat
transfer mechanism is by convection rather than radiation.
However, this device significantly increases the process
intensity. The compact reformer is a preassemble modular
device that is less than a quarter of the weight and size
of a conventional reformer. The technology is particularly
suited to offshore use or remote locations where
transportation and/or site construction are difficult.

Coal gasification
Coal gasification is an established technology which, in
combination with sour shift, acid gas removal and syngas
purification, can be readily used to generate syngas for
methanol synthesis. Johnson Matthey has catalysts and
technologies in sour shift, purification and, of course,
methanol synthesis and distillation, and can work with
the licensors of the gasification technologies to deliver
an integrated coal to methanol production facility.

Like the compact reformer, the GHR generates little

steam and decouples the power system from the process,
so plant designers can choose something other than
steam turbines to drive rotating equipment. The use of
gas turbines, for example, can give further efficiency
benefits, reducing gas consumption and CO2 emissions.


Leading edge methanol

Methanol synthesis technologies

Radial flow steam raising converter

This steam raising converter is a radial flow reactor with
catalyst outside and steam inside the tubes. In the JM
Davy design, fresh feed gas enters at the bottom of the
reactor and into a central perforated-wall distributor pipe.
The gas then flows radially out through the catalyst bed.
Water from a steam drum enters at the bottom of
the vessel, and flows upwards through the tubes where
it is partially vaporized, removing the heat generated
by the reaction before returning to the steam drum.

A number of reactor designs and synthesis flowsheet

arrangements for methanol production can be utilized.
Tube cooled converter
The tube cooled converter is a simple reactor which uses
the feed gas to the reactor to control the temperatures
in the catalyst bed. Fresh feed gas enters at the bottom
of the reactor and is preheated as it flows upwards
through tubes in the catalyst bed. The heated feed gas
leaves the top of the tubes and flows down through
the catalyst bed where the reaction takes place.


The heat of reaction is removed by counter-current exchange

with feed gas which results in a temperature profile that
approximates to the maximum rate curve. Operated in this
manner the reactor achieves good catalyst utilization.

The reaction temperature is controlled by varying the steam

pressure inside tubes embedded in the catalyst bed.

Axial flow steam raising converter

The axial flow steam raising converter is a different
design in which the catalyst is contained within the
tubes with boiling water on the outside. As for the
radial reactor, the reaction temperature is controlled
by varying the steam pressure. This arrangement
gives excellent cooling of the catalyst bed and allows
steam to be generated at the maximum possible
pressure without overheating the catalyst.

The reactor does however require thick tube sheets

that limits the maximum capacity of the reactor to
around 1,500 tpd and requires a large number of
tubes to accommodate the catalyst. This tends to limit
the use of this type of reactor to those applications
where its high heat transfer performance is required,
e.g., in certain coal gasification based flowsheets.

Distillation technologies
Dependent on the grade of methanol required, there
are different options for methanol distillation. To produce
DME or MTO-grade methanol, only a single column
is required to remove the dissolved gases and some
of the light by-products. To produce refined methanol
for chemical or fuel usage, for example Federal AA
and IMPCA grade methanol, a two or three column
refining system is used. The three-column system uses
the least heat so is preferred where energy costs are
high or the heat for distillation is not readily available.

Shenhua methanol


Further development
We continue to drive the improvement of our processes and
to develop new ones that will continue to lower the installed
cost, improve efficiency to make better use of the natural
resources and minimize the impact on the environment.
It is also important that catalyst and new technology
developments keep pace with one another to ensure that
the process can operate at its optimum efficiency and
maintain or increase the time between plant turnarounds.

China Blue
Chemical Company


Product realization:
From the laboratory to the plant
Catalysts and processes are developed in laboratory
reactors, semi-technical units and side-stream reactors
specifically designed to simulate accurately the important
features of operation in full scale plants. The catalysts
are then finally proven at commercial scale before being
incorporated into the Johnson Matthey KATALCOJM
and PURASPEC JM sales range.
New catalysts continue to deliver significant plant
improvements. Every catalyst activity improvement
enables a corresponding potential increase in plant rate,
and can also deliver a longer life before current end
of run conditions are achieved. Lower pressure drop
options enable plant rate and efficiency improvements.
For steam reforming catalysts, improved heat transfer
reduces the temperature of reformer tubes, extending
the time between costly renewal. Better poison pick-ups
extend absorbent lives and improve the performance of
downstream catalysts.

Johnson Matthey has teams focusing on the catalysts for

each plant reactor and targeting performance
improvements driven by customers
requirements. Each area
has a dedicated team of
experienced scientists.
Research and
development activities
in Johnson Mattheys
catalysis research,
technology and
engineering centre
at Billingham, UK,
benefit directly from
the close interaction of
chemists and physicists
with engineers who have
plant operations experience.
There is close co-operation between the
teams involved in fundamental research, catalyst
development, catalyst manufacture, and synthesis gas
production. Catalyst development is supported by the
most modern techniques in applied surface science.
Our new improved catalysts go through a range of
validation testing and small scale manufacturing runs as
part of the commercialization process. This ensures that
the catalyst we make in the laboratory is exactly the same
as the one supplied from full scale production. At every
point along this process the key performance parameters
of the catalyst are tested in our dedicated catalyst testing
facilities at Billingham, UK. This guarantees that the
benefits we see in small scale testing are transferred to
the customers operating unit.


The elements of sustainability

Sustainability is a core part of our business strategy. It is about the
way we do business using natural resources efficiently to make
products that improve the environmental performance of our
customers products and processes.
But our view of sustainability extends beyond this. Its also about
the health, safety and wellbeing of the people who work for us,
our customers and our communities. It means using resources
efficiently, innovatively and effectively, striving to achieve the
highest environmental standards in our own operations. At
the same time sustainability is about delivering value to our
shareholders and our customers in the most responsible way,
making sustainable long-term decisions to build a company and

plan its third century of business. Sustainability is about making

the right decisions for our people, our communities,
our shareholders and, most significant of all, for the planet.
As we progress towards 2017, we are managing sustainability
according to five elements:



Health and Safety





Responsitive operations
Beneficial products

Employment, development, wellbeing, recruitment

Safeguard reputation


Health and Safety

Employees, customers, communities
Beneficial Products

Well run business

Transparent reporting

Must be profitable to be sustainable
Align financial and sustainability targets

At least double earnings per share

Achieve a zero greater than three day accidents

safety target

Achieve carbon neutrality

Implement ISO 14001 at all major manufacturing

sites by 2010

Achieve zero waste to landfill

Reduce annual incidence of occupational illness cases

by at least 30% over the five years to 2013/14

Halve key resources consumed

per unit of output

Find out how we are progressing towards Sustainability 2017



Designed and produced by

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KATALCO, PURASPEC, STREAMLINE and TRACERCO Diagnostics are all trademarks of the Johnson Matthey group
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is a
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