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I. Nhng hiu bit v h thng vi ba:


A, S lc v thit b:
H thng truyn dn Microwave m Sfone ang dng bao gm thit b truyn dn NECPasolink loi V.3 v V.4 hot ng trong di tn 7 v 15 Ghz. Thit b c s dng truyn
ti vi dung lng 8MB (4E1), 17MB (8E1), 34MB (16E1).
H thng 8Mb/s (42MB) s c s dng giao tip bn dng d liu tc
2,048 Mb/s (30 knh thoi) gia 2 trm.
H thng 17Mb/s (82MB) s c s dng giao tip tm dng d liu tc
2,048 Mb/s (30 knh thoi) gia 2 trm.
H thng 34Mb/s (162MB) s c s dng giao tip mi su dng d liu
tc 2,048 Mb/s (30 knh thoi) gia 2 trm.
Thit b hot ng trn cc Hops u hot ng vi cu hnh (1+1). Mng truyn dn viba
s dng phn mm PNMT v PNMS iu khin v gim st cnh bo thit b v cht lng
ng truyn dn gia cc BTS BTS, BTS- HUB, BTS-MSC vi nhau.
H thng c chia lm 3 phn chnh:
IDU: l khi thit b t trong nh, lm nhim v xen/rt lung 2Mb, iu khin h thng,
tch/ghp cc tn hiu trung tn, qun l gim st cc cnh bo
ODU: l khi thit b t ngoi tri, lm nhim v iu ch/gii iu ch tn hiu sng mang.
Antenna: l phn thit b th ng, c nhim v bc x tn hiu sng mang v thu tn hiu
cao tn.
Ngoi ra cn cc phn ph tr nh cc b g anten, cp Feeder, cc u connector

Gii iu ch tn hiu knh nghip v EOW v chuyn i tn hiu IF-RF


Tn hiu IF 850 MHz bao gm tn hiu knh nghip v, tn hiu gim st, tn hiu iu
khin v cnh bo v cc thnh phn tn hiu DC t IDU c tch bi b tch sng (SEP
FIL). i vi bng tn 7 GHz tn hiu knh nghip v i vo b gii iu ch ca n (EOW
DEM) iu ch tn hiu knh nghip v EOW. i vi bng tn 15 GHztn hiu knh
nghip v EOW c x l CPU v c dn n RX LEV MON jack. Cc thnh phn
mt chiu cp cho module chuyn i DC-DC CONV a ra in p DC c iu
chnh. Tn hiu IF 850 MHz i vo b trn MIX qua b khuch i iu chnh t ng li
AGC AMP.
B trng MIX trn tn hiu IF 850 MHz va n vi mt tn hiu ni b c to bi b
dao ng thch anh 10 MHz to ra tn hiu RF.
Cc hot ng ny xy ra bn pht.
Chuyn i RF-IF, IF-IF v iu ch tn hiu EOW
Tn hiu RF nhn c thng qua Antenna v c lc bi b lc bng thng BPF i vo
b trn th nht. B trng th nht s trn tn hiu RF va n vi tn hiu ni c to ra

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bi b dao ng ni tng hp a ra tn hiu trung tn IF th nht. tn hiu trung tn ny
c a n b trn th hai thng qua b lc bng thng. B trn MIX th hai trn tn hiu
IF va n vi tn hiu dao ng ni c to bi b dao ng ni tng hp a ra tn
hiu trung tn IF 70 MHz.
Tn hiu IF 70 MHz i qua mt b lc bng thng 70 MHz BPF, tn hiu IF 70 MHz
c a n b khuch i trung tn chnh (MAIN IF AMP). Tn hiu IF c khuch i
bi MAIN IF AMP vi b iu chnh t ng li AGC i qua b lc kt hp COMB
FILL m n kt hp tn hiu IF vi tn hiu EOW.
B, Phng thc bo v:
Mi on vi ba hot ng vi cu hnh bo v 1+1
Chuyn mch bo v lu lng chnh
Chuyn mch bo v trong h thng c thc hin bi RF CKTs ca cc ODU t u
pht. Tn hiu truyn dn song song c la chn bnh thng. u thu chuyn mch bo
v c thc hin bi chuyn mch Rx trn SW BOARD ca IDU. Vic iu khin RF
CKTs ca channel No 1 v No 2 ca IDU c thc hin bng vic iu khin chuyn mch
bng tay, iu khin t xa hoc t ng. Mc u tin ca vic iu khin chuyn mch
nh sau:

u tin 1 - iu khin chuyn mch bng tay

u tin 2 - iu khin chuyn mch t xa

u tin 2 - iu khin chuyn mch t ng

iu khin chuyn mch bng tay c thc hin bng vic chuyn cng tc OPR SEL sang
knh No1 hoc knh No2 trn IDU. iu khin chuyn mch t xa c thc hin bng cc
phm ca thit b kt ni bn ngoi. iu khin chuyn mch t ng c thc hin da trn
cc cnh bo c a ra trn ODU v/hoc IDU. iu kin chuyn mch c ch th bng cc
ch th Tx OPR 1, Rx OPR 1, Tx OPR 2, Rx OPR 2 trn IDU.
Chuyn mch bo v cho WS, ASC, DSC.
c thc hin bng vic chuyn mch trn SW BOARD ca IDU bn thu. Bnh thng
mi tn hiu pht song song c la chn bn thu. Khi knh No 1 hoc No 2 ca lu lg
chnh b li, mch ALM CONT trn IDU a ra tn hiu iu khin Rx SW la chn knh
khng b li. Tn hiu iu khin Rx SW gi n SW BOARD. Theo b la chn SEL trn
SW BOARD hot ng cho tn hiu qua.
C, Mo ta he thong quan ly giam sat PNMT:
PNMT la mot au cuoi quan ly mang truyen dan vi ba s
dung he thong Pasolink. Thc te no ch la mot laptop di ong
cha phan mem giao tiep va ieu khien thiet b viba noi tiep
vi tuyen truyen dan ngan. Va trong cach thong dung, ngi ta
thng dung PNMT e giam sat, x ly va ieu khien thiet b
tren tram hien hanh va tram oi dien. Da vao PNMT ngi van
hanh co the giam sat c loi, cac loai canh bao, bao dng
va duy tu he thong

* Giao tiep:
Giao tiep gia PNMT va thiet b viba co the la:
Thong qua LA PORT cua thiet b viba.
Thong qua DSC en mot node PM trong mang.
Giao dien LA PORT.
LA PORT cha connector loai DB15 va ket noi en PM c lap
at trong IDU thong qua mot si cap noi tiep en cong giao
tiep cua may tnh PNMT.
LA Port co cac thuoc tnh nh sau:
Cau hnh cong: RS-232.
Loai connector: Subminiature DB15 (Female).
Toc o bit/giay: 1200/2400/4800/9600/19200 (mac nh la
19200).
Stop bit:1
Chieu dai bit d lieu (Data bit length): 8
Parity: Khong co.
D, Van hanh.

Van Hanh.
Yeu cau ngi van hanh he thong Pasolink phai hieu ro c
cac van e sau:
Cac khuyen cao cua nha san xuat khi tiep xuc vi thiet
b.
Cac khuyen cao cua nha san xuat khi connect hoac
disconnect may o, LCT, connector t thiet b Pasolink.
Nam vng s o nguyen ly phan cng cua thiet b bao
gom ca IDU va ODU, nguyen tac hoat ong cua chung.
Nam vng cach au noi IDU va IDU, cach chnh phan cc,
cach au noi thiet b vao nguon ien
Nam vng s o au noi cua cac DDF vi thiet b Pasolink.
Nam vng phan mem van hanh thiet b, cach oc cac
thong so ky thuat hien th tren may giam sat, cach phan
tch cac so lieu cu the e xac nh cac van e can quan
tam.
S bo ben ngoai cua thiet b nh sau:

Khi van hanh, ngi van hanh nen biet cac ch th nh sau:
Bo ch th IDU sang khi:
- Dong d lieu cua chanel () t thiet b au cuoi b mat
- Nhan tn hieu AIS cua chanel () t thiet b au cuoi.
- Mat xung ong bo ong ho Tx/Rx bo phan x ly sot.
- Tn hieu AIS cua chanel () c gi i.
- Mat xung lng cc phat cua chanel () bo phan giao
tiep luong 2M
- Mat dong d lieu phat cua bo MUX () bo phan giao
tiep luong 2M
- T le loi bit cao (High BER) xau hn gia tr at trc (10 -3)
bo phan x ly so.
- BER xau hn gia tr c at trc bo phan x ly so
(10-3 ,10-4 ,10-5 ,10-6 trong bng la chn).
- ong bo khung b mat bo phan x ly so.
- ong bo VCO (Volt controlled Oscilator) b mat phan ma
hoa.
- Dong d lieu phat hoac tn hieu ong ho chu b mat
phan x ly so.
- Mat tn hieu IF phan giai ma.
Ch th ODU sang khi:
- Cong suat phat RF giam t 3-6 dB ODU.
- Mc thu giam bang gia tr at trc.
- Vong ieu chnh cong suat t ong cua bo giao ong
noi khong khoa.
- Mat tn hieu IF t IDU ODU.
Ch th MAINT sang khi:
- Trong qua trnh bao dng.
- Trong qua trnh loopback.

- S kien BER AIS.


- S kien ieu che song mang (MOD CW).
- S kien tat cong suat phat (MUTE).
Ch th PWR sang khi:
- Thiet b trong ieu kien van hanh bnh thng.
Ch th Tx ALM 1 (2)sang khi:
- Cong suat phat RF giam 3 en 6 dB so vi ieu kien bnh
thng ODU1 (2).
- Vong ieu khien cong suat t ong cua bo dao ong noi
khong khoa hoac mat tn hieu IF t IDU ODU1 (2).
- Dong d lieu phat hoac tn hieu ong ho chu b mat
phan x ly so (PDU) so 1 (2).
- Mat ong bo VCO bo MOD1 (2).
- Mat giao tiep gia CPU cua bo ieu khien CONT cua ODU1
(2)va CPU cua IDU.
Ch th Rx ALM 1(2) sang khi:
- Mc thu tn hieu vao giam bang gia tr at trc
ODU1 (2).
- Vong APC cua dao ong noi cua ODU1 (2) khong knh.
- Mat tn hieu IF bo DEM 1 (2).
- High BER xau hn gia tr at trc (10-3) PDU.
- BER xau hn gia tr at trc PDU 1(2).
- Mat ong bo khung PDU1 (2).
- Giao tiep gia CPU cua bo ieu khien ODU1 (2) va CPU
cua IDU b mat.
Mot so ky thuat can chu y trong qua trinh van hanh:
Khi click vao thanh Overal, xuat hien ca so sau:

Co cac Item sau:


- Tx Attenuation Gia tr suy hien thi hao ben trong tnh
bang dB, c thiet lap bi ngi van hanh trong IDU.
- Tx Frequency Tan so phat ang c s dung.
- Rx Frequency Tan so thu ang c s dung.

- Bit Rate Toc o bit ang c thiet lap.


- MAIN Trang thai bao dng hien thi.
- Frame ID Thiet lap Frame ID cho thiet b.
Thanh ODU Thng dung e xem trang thai thu, phat va giam
sat mot vai items cua ODU. Bao gom cac Item sau:
Cac Item sau c giam sat.
Phan phat:
Canh bao
IF INPUT: Giam sat tn hieu IF vao.
TX POWER: Giam sat cong suat phat.
TX APC: Giam sat bo phan ieu khien cong suat t ong.
TX Attenuation
TX Power
Phan thu.
Canh bao.
RX LEVEL: Giam sat mc thu.
RX APC: Giam sat bo phan ieu khien cong suat t ong.
Giam sat.
RX level: Hien th gia tr mc thu (dBm)
Phan chung.
Canh bao.
ng noi IDU-ODU
Giam sat.
Power Supply: hien th gia tr nguon cung cap (V).

Thanh IDU dung e giam sat cac trang thai va canh bao
cua IDU.
Cac Item sau c giam sat.

Phan phat:
Canh bao.
MOD: Giam sat bo phan ma
hoa.
TX DPU
MUX Alarm
Phan thu.
Canh bao.
DEM : Giam sat bo giai ma.
Low BER
High BER
BER Alarm
Frame Async
Phan chung.
Canh bao.
ng ket noi gia IDU-ODU:
TX CLK LOSS
RX CLK LOSS

Giao tiep WS:


Input
BP Output
AIS SEND
AIS RCV
ALARM INHIBIT
Channels (CH):
Input: Trang thai au vao cua
channel
BP Output
AIS SEND:
AIS RCV:
LB1: Trang thai loop-back au
gan.
LB2: trang thai loop-back au xa.
ALARM INHIBIT: trang thai cam
canh bao cua channel.

e set Loop-Back, ta lam theo th t nh sau:


Click chuot vao channel can loop back trong ca so IDU.
Tuy theo ngi van hanh muon loop back au xa hay au gan,
la chon LB1 hoac LB2 trong ca so ang hien hanh.
chon ON e kch hoat loopback. click OFF e xoa bo loopback.
Chu y.
Trc khi loop-back, che o Maintenance phai c bat
len ON.
Click vao [Execute] thc hien viec loop-back.
Click vao [Close] khi hoan thanh cong viec.

Canh bao Inhibit:


Trong trng hp cac channel khong c dung, thng se b canh
bao, do o e tranh roi khi khi van hanh, cac channel nay phai
c cam s dung. ieu nay cung ong ngha vi viec cam a
ra cac canh bao oi vi channel nay. e cam s dung mot
channel, ta lam theo cac bc nh sau:
Click vao channel o.
Click vao ON e cam cam canh bao hoac OFF e cho phep
s dung channel o.
Click vao [Execute] thc hien..
Click vao [Close] ket thuc.
Giam sat ng truyen.
Cac Item sau c giam sat theo khuyen ngh G.826.
ES : Errored seconds
SES : Severely errored second
UAS : Unavailable Seconds
BBE : Background Block Error
Trong man hnh giam sat ch th mau o xuat hien tc la Item
nay a vt ra ngoai gia tr ngng. Gia tr ngng co the c
thiet lap trong cua so thresould. V the ma cac gia tr co the
c reset bang nut [All Data Reset]. Khi muon xem d lieu chi tiet
hang ngay co the click vao nut [detail].
Giam sat ng truyen.
1. Click vao Link Performance Monitor trong thanh menu NEspecific.
Thiet lap gia tr ngng.

Click vao [Threshold (%)] trong Summary Link Performance


Monitor
Chon item can c thiet lap trong bang.
Thiet lap gia tr khi co canh bao xuat hien va khi phuc
hoi canh bao. Viec o ng truyen se cho ra trang
thai canh bao khi no phat` hien ra loi hoac a ra trang
thai xoa canh bao khi no tm thay gia tr c thiet
lap mi trong bang ngng.
Click vao [Execute] e thc hien viec cai at mi.
Click vao [Close] khi hoan thanh.

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II. Quy trnh x ly s co truyen dan


Gii thieu chung:
Mang truyen dan cua S-Fone gom co ba phan chnh:
-

Mang truc: s dung mang truyen dan quang vi cau hnh


mang vong Ring thiet b SMA-16 cua SIEMENS

Mang truyen dan trong thanh pho Ha Noi dung viba so


NEC.

Va cac ng kenh thue(leased line) thue cua ba nha


cung cap ng truyen VTN, Vietel va EVN.

oi vi hai nha cung cap ng truyen Vietel va EVN th co thiet


b at tai MSC cua Sfone con VTN th qua mang truc quang at tai
VTN a ve MSC.
Quy trnh x ly s co truyen dan:
Trong quy trnh nay ch e cap en s co cua cac ng kenh
thue(leased line)
A, Quy trnh x ly s co ng truyen kenh thue(leased
line)
Quy trnh x ly s co ng truyen kenh thue gom cac bc sau:
Bc 1: Giam sat phat hien s co:
-

Trong bc nay ngi trc ca giam sat mang thong qua he


thong BSM cua mang va phat hien s co.

Khi co canh bao mat luong (Link node fail) ngi trc ca
ngay lap tc goi ien thong bao cho nha cung cap ng
truyen thong bao s co.

Trong luc ben nha cung cap kiem tra trang thai ng
truyen ngi trc ca cung ong thi kiem tra tnh trang
thiet b cua tram va trang thai ien AC cua tram e loai
tr kha nang mat luong do mat ien hay do thiet b BTS.

Bc 2: Phan oan kiem tra phat hien s co:


-

Sau khi kiem tra ky bc 1 ngi trc ca phoi hp cung


nha cung cap ng truyen phan oan o phat hien loi.

Sau khi phat hien ra loi tai phan nao thong bao cho ngi
quan ly va ngi trc t xa i x ly s co.

Ngi trc ca thong bao cho lai xe va chuan b giay t

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thu tuc ra vao tram va cac thiet b d phong va dung cu.


Bc 3: X ly s co va lap bien ban:
-

Ngi trc ca phoi hp cung vi ngi trc t xa va nha


cung cap ng truyen x ly s co .

Sau khi x ly xong cho tram BTS phat song o kiem tra 30
phut (o inservice) neu ket qua tot th thong bao cho
ngi trc t xa ve.

Phoi hp cung nha cung cap lap bien ban.

Viet bao cao vao so trc ca.

B, Quy trnh x ly mang ring:


Quy trnh x ly s co mang RING gom cac bc sau: Mang Ring
gom 4 nut mang MSC, VTN, HUB va HPT.
Bc 1: Giam sat va phat hien s co:
-

Ngi trc ca giam sat man hnh quan ly NMS cua mang
Ring e phat hien cac canh bao s co co the xay ra.

Khi co canh bao xuat hien tren man hnh ngi trc ca
xac nh xem canh bao cua nut nao.

Truy suat vao nut mang o va kiem tra xac nh loi:

Thiet b SMA-16 co canh bao tren man hnh ngi trc ca


xem canh bao va xac nh loi.

Bc 2 : Phan loai s co:


-

Da vao canh bao t NMS ngi trc ca co the biet c


loi do phan nao.

Neu la s co nhe co the x ly tai cho th x ly ngay.

Cac s co nang ngi trc ca thong bao cho cap quan ly


c can bo ky thuat chuyen trach i x ly.

Bc 3: X ly s co:
-

Neu la s co thiet b th thong bao cho can bo chuyen


trach mang card d phong thay the.

Neu la loi do au noi va cap th tien hanh au noi lai


va thay the cap mi.

Sau khi x ly s co xong o kiem tra 30 phut neu ket qua


tot th can bo chuyen trach x ly c ra ve.

Ngi trc ca ghi bao cao vao so trc ca.

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Ngoai ra , hien nay theo chu trng cua lanh ao phong ve


viec nang cao chat lng mang th ngi trc ca cua bo phan
Transmisson can chu ong trong viec tm ra nhng luong chat lng
xau bang viec lay so lieu tren NMC e kp thi o va x l
trc gi ban.
X l luong chat lng xau:
Ngi trc ca yeu cau nha cung cap loop t iem xa nhat ve
va khi nhan c tn hieu loop th se tra toa o sau o dung may
o e o chat lng luong (may o at che o loop). Neu
luong khong b loi th bao lai nha cung cap nha loop va c ngi
cua mnh len tan tram kiem tra. Neu luong co chat lng xau th
ngi trc ca yeu cau nha cung cap loop tai iem gan hn e xac
nh oan b loi va yeu cau nha cung cap x l oan loi cho mnh.

III. May o:
Trong thi gian th viec va qua em co tiep xuc va c s
dung 4 loai may o gom co: May o luong E1, may o quang OTDR,
may o cong suat, may o luong 34M va STM-N.
A, May o luong E1:
Ta phi xc nh ch LINE INTERFACE khi tin hnh kim tra. TERM l ch thng
dng nht cho kim tra kiu out-of-service. Ch BRIDGE hoc MONITOR thng dng
o cc mch ang truyn d liu. Nu chn ch o sai, tt c cc kt qu o u v ngha. Khi
chn MODE, nu n CODE ERROR v n ERROR sng th dng nh ta chn sai ch .
Nu ta khng chc chn chn ng ch , chn cc ch khc n khi n bo li ngng
sng.
Sau y l s gii thch cho tng ch .
1, Monitor (im gim st bo v) ch ny c s dng khi tin hnh truy nhp gim st.
Tn hiu c ly ra t cng MON ca mt thnh phn mng E1. Thnh phn mng c cch
ly tn hiu MON vi tn hiu o hin ti vi cc in tr c tr khng cao. Thit b c mt mch
AGC b vo s ht in tr t -15dB n 30dB. Nu tn hiu ngun khng phi l tn hiu ra
MON chng suy gim, mch AGC c th s khng hot ng v kt qu l n CODE ERR
hoc cc n ch th li khc s sng.
Ch MONITOR l hu dng bi v n bo v tn hiu hin thi khi cc s xung t tn hiu
khc gy ra trong qu trnh kim tra. N cho php k thut vin gim st ng truyn trong khi
khch hng thc s ang s dng n v c th bit nu c li. Lu rng khng cn phi cm
jc vo ng TX ca thit b kim tra, sa cha kim tra trong ch ny v khng cn phi
xc nh mt mu kim tra pht i. Tuy nhin b phn pht trong thit b kim tra, sa cha
tra lin tc gi cc mu, khung, m v vng kim tra li kim tra la chn trong trng hp
him khi m n cn thit.

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2, Bridge ch ny tng t vi ch MONITOR. Tuy nhin trong ch ny thit b
kim tra dung cc in tr cch ly tr khng cao cho cc mch trong qu trnh tin hnh o kim
tra. Mch cch ly ny s bo v tn hiu khi bt k xung t no c th.
Nu mt kt ni c lp gia jc MON v mt thnh phn mng n thit b kim tra v nu
ang s dng ch BRIDGE, c th s c hai mch cch ly trn ng tn hiu. Trong trng
hp ny thit b kim tra s thong bo mt tn hiu v khng th thc hin mt php o no.
Khng cn thit phi cm ng TX vo thit b kim tra trong ch BRIDGE, v cng khng
cn phi xc nh mt mu kim tra pht i. Tuy nhin khi pht trong thit b kim tra ang
gi i cc mu, khung, m ng dy, m kim tra c la chn him khi trong trng hp
cn thit.
3, Term ch TERM c s dng khi ta mun gi v nhn mt lung E1. Thit b kim tra
cch ly tn hiu thu c bng b phn cch ly tr khng thp v i hi phi thong mch
kim tra. S dng mt jack BNC v jc 1.6/5.6 tr khng 75ohm. u ni BR2 v Bantam dung
tr khng 120ohm.
4, Loop ch ny c s dng cch ly tn hiu v loop n qua thit b kim tra. Tn hiu
n c cch ly, to li v c pht li qua ng TX.
B, My o quang OTDR: c dng o im suy hao ca si quang v tm ra v tr m si
quang b t hoc b gip, gy.
1. Kim tra cht lng dy u nhy: s dng my OTDR.
T kt qu trn my OTDR, xc nh xem dy c b dn nt hay khng.
Dng b lau u connector quang v sinh li u connector FC nu u connector quang
FC bn.
Nu si quang b dn nt, c kin vi Bu in tnh v thay th si khc.
Dy nhy quang FC-FC
OTDR
2.
Kim tra cp si quang ng trc: s dng my OTDR:
Tin hnh v sinh u connector FC ca dy ni quang Pigtail.
Tu si cp quang ng trc c bao nhiu si, ta ln lt tin hnh o tng si. Nu
pht hin si no c s c v dn nt hoc t, xc nh khong cch li, dng my hn quang
hn li ch nt hoc t sau dng my OTDR kim tra li cht lng mi hn.
Dy ni

Cp ng trc
OTDR