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Geostatistical design

of infill drilling programs
G. Pan
Abstract -A geostatistical approach isproposedfor the
design of infill drilling progranrs. The method consists of the
folo~vingfour majorsteps: developing geological favorability
models, delineating mineralization and ore envelopes, classihing resource potentials, and designing infill drilling patterns. Geological modeling develops the permissible geological zones in which infill drilling is designed. Modeling
mineralization and ore envelopes establishes criteria on the
potential blocks to be drilled. The blocks that are included
within the ore envelopes are considered in the infill drilling.
The following four types of resource potentials are used in
this-analysis: measured, indicated, possible and barren.
Blocks in the indicated category are the top targets to be
confirmed in infill drilling. Blocks of possible resources may
be considered exploration rclrgets. The algorithms involved
in the analy.ris include indicator favorability analysis, indicator kriging and ordinary kriging. A case study on a gold
deposit of the Carlin type is presented to demonstrate the
methodology. The deposit was originally delineated by a
sparse drilling program with abour230p of average spacing.
The infill drilling design, based on the nenl method, suggests
a sigrlificant reduction on the number of holes from a
regular-grid infill drilling pattern.
Introduction
An exploration process normally consists of the following
four major phases: regional reconnaissance, detailed rnapping, sparse drilling and infill drilling. Regional reconnaissance identifies promising areas for a given type of
ore deposit by using geological, geochemical and geophysical data. Once one or more areas are selected, a detailed
mapping program is enacted to delineate drilling targets. This
may include detailed geochemical survey grids, trench sampling, structural mapping and high-resolution geophysical
mapping (e.g., IP and CSAMT). Sparse drilling (usually in a
regular grid) is designed first within top-ranked targets from
the detailed mapping. The goal is to detect unknown ore
deposits and roughly delineate the spatial extent of mineralization. This phase generates abundant detailed information
on geological control, mineralogy and the spatial variability
of ore elements. All of the above data are then used as the
primary inputs in feasibility studies to evaluate the economic
viability of mine development. If the deposits are financially
attractive, infill drilling programs will be developed to define
minable (provenlprobable) reserves for detailed mine plans.
Exploration history shows that infill drilling programs
play an important role in accurate reserve estimation and
optimum mine plans. One purpose of infill drilling is to
SOCIETY FOR MINING. METALLURGY. A N D EXPLORATION, INC.

confirm the continuity of mineralization in a deposit and
adequately delineates ore bodies, including high-grade veins
and narrow ore pods. Because ore bodies are often distributed
in preferential directions and locations, infill drill holes must
be- designed to take into account the geological models
derived from previous mapping and drilling.
A drilling pattern designed by geologists relies primarily
upon geological controls. A mine engineer uses the concept
of continuity to define minable reserves. Yet, the concepts of
continuity h a y differ between geologists and mine engineers. This difference may lead to different tonnage-grade
relations and mine plans. Drill-hole patterns, based on geological continuities, may not be sufficient for determining ore
continuities in reserve modeling and mine planning.
Conventional drilling plans have been designed in regular
or lateral-regular grids. This strategy has frequently resulted
in inefficient drilling; that is, some areas are overly drilled,
while other areas are under-drilled. The inefficient drilling
can incur more costs than what mining companies should
invest for the same or higher level of confidence. Unfortunately, the issue has not been loudly addressed by
explorationists and geostatisticians, although some quantitative design methods have been proposed, such as Gershon
(1983), Chou and Schenk (1984), Harris (1990) and Aspie
and Barnes (1990). In addition, the optimal sample spacing
also has been examined, including drill-hole spacing for
open-pit reserve estimation (Sims and Goodwin, 1992). underground exploration (Rendu, 1976) and blast-hole sampling (Barnes, 1989).
At a quick glance, the optimization of infill drilling appears to be academic overkill. A straightforward geological
call, however, does not necessarily lead to:
the minimal number of infill drill holes required for a
given level of confidence, or
the optimal spatial pattern of infill drill holes that
accurately reveals the grade variability and ore geometries.
It is my belief that quantitative methods provide unique
capabilities in achieving the above tasks. Insufficient attention has been given to the geostatistical methods for infill
drilling, because the effort is painful and time consuming.
G. Pan, member SME, is director of technical development with
Independence Mining Co., Englewood, CO. SME Preprint 95-142,
SME Annual Meeting, March 6-9, 1995, Denver, CO. Manuscript
Feb., 1995. Discussion of this peer-reviewed and approved paper is
invited and must be submitted, in duplicate, prior to Oct. 31, 1996.
TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1943

because infill drilling is usually designed along this direction through either sectional or plan maps. - - I C I Narrow ore bodies can be easilv missed bv sparse drilling patterns 1 r - I - - Estimation on complex ore bodies can be biased by a sparse drilling Fig. geological environments can be classified as favorable or unfavorable to the occurrence of mineralization.A I Large ore bodies can be well controlled by sparse drilling programs 5 Small and discrete ore bodies can only be estimated correctly by detailed drilling programs - . Of course. Relevant geological attributes serve as clear-cut evidence for the existence of mineralization. Continuity is also crucial. as well as indicator favorability analysis. The range along the major mineralization trend is important. When a grade is correlated in a large spatial distance. When an area is localized i n a SOCIETY FOR MINING. Variogram modeling has been widely TRANSACTIONS VOL. The continuity is said to be low when the grade becomes uncorrelated at a short distance. AND EXPLORATION. A case study is presented to demonstrate the implementation and usefulness of the method. An appropriate classification of resource potentials provides a solid ground on which local potentials arejudged in light of infill drilling. The major feature of the methodology is to integrate all data. Basic concepts Instead ofrushing into thecomplexity of methodology. meaning that the variability is anisotropic. Because of the complexity of grade distribution. I ). Pan. Based on previous drilling and geological interpretation.Sinclair and Vallee. The use of favorability analysis is predicated upon the need for defining favorable geological environments of blocks as being permissible for additional drilling. our interest in the continuity is the range and pattern of influence within which a drill hole may impact on resource definition. modeling geological environments establishes rules for the decision as to where one should or should not consider infill drilling. it is said that the mineralization is highly continuous. an introduction of some basic concepts related to continuity. Continuity is an important concept in reserve and resource calculations (Isaak and Srivastava. favorability and resource should serve as useful eye-openers. 1995). Another important factor that affects infill drilling plans is geological conditions. the continuity is understood as theextent of auto-correlations of mineralized grades in space. The absence of favorable geological environments would surely preclude the occurrence of mineralization. including the assays and geological codes acquired from previous exploration efforts. Consequently. each grid node represents a possible drillhole location in a regular grid drilling pattern. the additional endeavor can he readily justified simply because drilling is too expensive. Nevertheless. 1 -Various spatial characteristics of ore bodies that affect the drilling patterns. 1994. the continuity may vary with directions. METALLURGY. The study shows that a substantial number of drill holes can he reduced from a conventional regular inl'ill drilling plan. Different spatial characteristics of ore bodies ]nay require different drilling patterns (Fig. A geostatistical approach to the optimal inl'ill drilling design is proposed in this paper for a deposit that has been previously delineated by a sparse drilling program. Statistically. The technique is developed on the basis of a classification framework of the resource potentials. For infill drilling. Of course. 1989. because most infill drillingprograms attempt to confirm the spatial variability of ore grade. the range of drill-hole influence determined by variogranis represents only statistical averages. which provide a precursor for the decision of exploration. INC . unfavorable areas will be automatically excluded from the plan of infill drilling. The geostatistical procedure involves indicator kriging and ordinary kriging. 298 1944 accepted as a means for quantifying the spatial continuity of mineralization.

new drill holes will not be placed in the blocks that are classified as barren. A common feature of most modern reserve and resource classifications is the use of geostatistical concepts. hydrothermal alteration and structures. so are the potentials of a block. The first step necessary for infill drilling designs is to establish favorable geological envelopes. Hence. but they are located beyond the influence of existing drill holes. the defini tions by governmental agencies (USGS. If the block happens to SOCIETY FOR MINING. Diehl (1982). Infill drill holes are only designated to the blocks that contain the potentials of indicated and maybe possible resources. and geological favorability function G(x). The attributes for lithology and alteration are obtained from well logging. within which the potentials of blocks are classified. G(x) is used to filter out nonpotential blocks in infill drilling programs. form the data base for infill drilling designs. depending on the purpose of infill drilling. In addition. Classification of reserves or resources has been a difficult and controversial issue. indicated and possible resource potentials. Evidently. Quantifying the uncertainty of grade. These blocks must be localized in favorable geological environments. described below. 1988) serve the purpose of resource management and regulation. based on expected economic and engineering conditions. The blocks close to known drill holes are more statistically certain than those that are far away from the holes. geological attributes available for a sparsely drilled deposit usually include lithology. Possible: This category refers to the blocks having grades potentially exceeding a predefined threshold. alteration is reported by alteration types. which can exert an inordinate impact on subsequent mine designs. Barren: This category is self-explanatory. These blocks must be localized in favorable geological environments. Although geological environments are key for defining potential and nonpotential blocks. Instead. or a threshold for mineralization and barren. the first phase verifies the continuity of mineralization within major ore zones. whereas structural features are usually derived from geological interpretation and mapping. indicator lo(x. A necessary condition for the resource potentials of a block is that the block must be located inside a mineralization envelope. a necessary condition for a block tocontain reserves is that the block must be located inside an ore envelope. are less certain for a required level ofconfidence. but they are located beyond the influence of existing drill holes. which can be fully explained only by the synthesis of all relevant geological attributes. Structure attributes (including faults. in fact. fractures and folds) are difficult to quantify. This classification does not include reserves. In general. zo is either a cutoff for ore and waste. 1980. Each of these features may play different roles in the formation of different deposits. The decision of investment in a later exploration stage is based on the economic expectation of the deposits delineated in the earlier phases. The grade values. Some of them are hosts. zo) is used to define ore or mineralization envelopes inside favorable geological environments. It includes all blocks other than measured. while others are wall rocks. are frequently found in complex geological environments.Woberand Morgan (1993). For example. Lan (1 988). zo) (for ore or mineralization depending on the definition of zo). together with geological log information. The definitions of resource potentials. and Owens and Armstrong (1993). sample assays. AND EXPLORATION. and the third phase may verify high-grade zones. three attributes are fundamental: grade assay Z(x). In this analysis. possible resource and barren. Moreover. separation between the measured and indicated categories requires the information of uncertainties in grade estimation within mineralization envelopes. Io(x. ores. TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1945 . Similarly. some of which are favorable to the mineralization of interest. The following terms are used in this framework: measured resource.favorable geological environment. Other notable proposals on reserve definitions include Royle (1977). In the following definitions. Because metal gradedistributionsare typically stochastic. Indicated: This category refers to those blocks that contain resource potentials with grades exceeding a predefined threshold. whereas the later is determined exclusively through geological and statistical interpretation. Indeed. are by no means for the purpose of establishing standards for the mining industry and resource management. they are introduded merely for convenience in the design of infill drilling programs. however. the block is almost surely in the measured category. Favorable geological envelopes. For example. The multiple phases may also be motivated by the optimization of investment in the sequence of exploration programs. although their favorability to the mineralization can be readily judged by an expert geologist. The version proposed by Taylor (1994) may be suitable for mine development and planning. Lithology is usually recorded by rock types. is constructed from a set of selected geological attributes relevant to the mineralization of interest. The average grades are not less than a predefined threshold (zo) The spatial extent is confined within the ranges of spatial influence. the decision as to whether it should be drilled out depends upon other parameters described in a later section. is also a key to the optimal design of infill drilling plans. and different definitions have been motivated for different interests. because specific economic parameters'are not considered. there is no need to verify the blocks containing measured resources. particularly of precious metals. Function G. AIMM. Measured: This category of resource potential refers to those whose presence has been confirmed directly by a previous drilling. INC. the second phase may be conducted to expand the ore deposit by drilling out fringe areas. Similarly. called the favorability of geology function. be intercepted by a drill hole with grades greater than a predefined threshold. Therefore. a block that is classified as measured potentials has a high probability for the occurrence of measured resources. METALLURGY. Theoretical development For a given set of drill holes. indicated resource. The former may be derived from mine plans. infill drilling may constitute multiple phases. the threshold (zo) will refer to a grade value that separates mineralization from barren or ore from waste. Here.

such as the wcight ol'evidcnce ( Bonhi~rl~-C'artcr et itl.(x) = max{J.l a 3 ) T ia~vector of unknown coefficients for the three geological indicators at location x. assurllc that thc first s indicators are selected. The use of indicator kriging here is similar to that in Pan ( 1 994). an additional effort is required toestablish the distribution of block values. >C. Let J he a geological indicator. A subset ofthc Iithological indicators arc selected by the criterion that the posterior probabilities cxcccd a prcselccted probability threshold. a selection of important oncs is dcnianding for construction o f t'avorablc gcological envelopes. . Because thccvent of a blockoccurring insideoroutside of an cnvclope is probabilistic. Mineralization and ore envelopes. . 1991J.ation and wall rocks. respective11. it is straightforward to establish the point distribution of grade.> . The estimation in Eq. A combined lithology indicator is then created as: .. the goal is to find optimal coefficients I. An optimal estimate of the favorability function is that representing best the variability ofmineralization. >C..g. is given by In practice. Ore bodies are defined by geological. Pan. K. The iavorability of an attribute may be adequately assessed by qualitative judgment.. ith her canonical or indicator favorability estimators (Pan and Harris. The average in Eq. To establish the envelopes... within which infill drilling is designed. Hence. They arc denoted by K2 and Ki. 1992. (8) can be approximated numerically by the average of a finite number of point favorability estimates computed at selected locations within v. J. (3).= (la. For convcnicncc. indicator kriging is adopted to produce the probabilistic estimates (P*) of indicator lo. 1978.. cu~nbincdalteration and structure indicator.Because the number ol recorded gcological attributes can be large. However. Consider the cstirnation ol'a geological favorability valuc at estimation point xo by the following linear cornbination (see Pan.. Based on this quantity. Minerali~ationenvelopes forthe deposits withsharp boundariescan bedefined by geological constraints. Then a posterior odds can be cxpresscd as wilh j the san~plcmeasurement 01' J .. The use of the model nlay involve extensive computations. condilional upon the presence ofthe gcological indicator. rock types) are ranked by their posterior probabilities.. block estimates of lhvorability can be calculated as follows: wherc v is the volurnc of the block. Assume that the rank sequcncc isC.. mining and processing parameters. 1993) can be used to obtain G*. such that function G best describes I(... 1993j whcrc TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1946 I. A preselected favorability threshold (go) is required to delineate geological envelopes. Implementation of indicator favorability analysis requires modeling o f a set of ordinary and cross variograms between gcological and mineralization indicators. modeling mineralization and ore envelopes must call for probability methods. but the workload is afk)rdable for a system including only a few geological indicators.. arc constructed.la2. METALLURGY. The a priori odds lilr the occurrence oimincralizalion ( l o ) is calculatc~lhy with io the sarr~plemcasurcment of I. lithology). the attributes (e. Goovaerts. Take lithology as an example. Some deposits exhibit clear cuts between mineraliz. by mcans 0 1 some statistical techniques. calculate the quantity where c(iolj) is the contrast of' the posterior probabilities. for cxal-riplc. the postcrior probability ol'mineralization.. Similar to kriging.. Mineralization envelopes of disscmiSOCIETY FOR MINING.Io(xo)]} (6) with [he constraint n 3 The condition reduces one degree of freedom in the parameter search space.. The connection of these block estimates will form the so-called I'avorablegeological envelopes. Based on known drill hole samples or composites. howevcr. while others do not have visible boundaries. and Hence. INC .. but it makes the estimates of the unknown parameters more robust.g... A rigorous selection method. 1994) and variable-sum method (Myers. (5) can be derived by favorability analysis. . The estimate oiG(v) for block v represents the quantity ol' favorable geological environments with respect to lo. 1988. 1982). Methods available for cross-variograrn modeling include linearcoregionalization (Journcl and Buijbregts. AND EXPLORATION. The attributes rnay hc ranked according to their relative irllportancc lo the mineralization.. Mineralization is delineated through a grade threshold and geological controls. 1x1J... m) be the n~ lithological binary indicators anti their postcrior contrasts are CLdefined in Eq. Supposc that geological attrihutt. Agtcrberg. (mineralization indicator) in the sense min{var[G*<xo) . the importance ot' gcological binary attributes can be ranked with respect to indicator I(). 2. For each category of gcological data (e. arc binary with valuc " I " for presence and "0" for absence. Mineralization and ore envelopes arc defined conditional upon the presence of the favorable geological zones. the followingposteriorprohabilitics arc calculated Finally. Js) (4) In the xanlc manner. The indicator favorability estimator will be used in the casc study presented in a later section. (k = 1 . can lead to a Inorc precise evaluation.

Let do and d l be the major and minor ranges of influence by each drill hole for the mineral! denote the point-set containized grades.... The blocksin Fare i n the measured category if the grades exceed threshold TRANSACTIONS VOL. The key is to consider all relevant maps superimposed upon the block probability map..... Indicated: P*(x) 2 p..... INC. map comparisons are envelopes..... straightforward and reliable........nated deposits are more of a function of threshold grade. These blocks are the top targets in designing infill drilling plans. By definition. Although the two indicators can be cokriged.. rather t han clear-cut geological limits... the spatial influence of a drill hole must be established in order to select drill hole locations. That is.. because they are mainly determined by economic factors.... The status of a block (inside or outside of the envelopes) can be evaluA 2 A ated by means of indicator kriging (Journey 1983). When the economics change. Z*(x) 2 z... envelopes for threshold z.. In addition to the classification of mineral potentials.. it is much easier to krige them separately.. For intill drilling. ordinary kriging estimates quantify the grade potentials and uncertainties of the grades.. Moreover... In sum. drill hole assay maps. the blocks in F have been supposedly "verified" by existing drill holes...Indicator kriging on a single indicator (either ore indicator or mineralization indicator) serves for the purpose. mineralizationand ore tically defined. n n n n n n n Block classification and infill drilling........... favorability estimates define the favorable geological zones based on threshold go...Sectional and plan views for spatial relations of geological......... 2 . Mineralization Envelope Ore Envelope Delineating mineralization and ore :....whereas indicator krigi ng estimates determine the mineralization or ore envelopes by p.... s2'.. METALLURGY... some of which are potentially convertible to the measured or indicated resources.J offers a measure for the reliability of grade estimates..(x) 2 s2........ these blocks will be excluded from consideration of furtherdrilling.. the major and minor axes are sufficient for measuring the ranges of influence. ore envelopes do not have a clear contrast to the surrounding rocks. whereas estimation variance (s2. The combination of the two quantities serves as an important criterion to the evaluation of resource potentials.... it is useful to use both indicators in defining the envelopes. requires a Plan View of Three Envelopes known probability threshold p.. Possible: G* (x) 2 g.rather than geological constraints.. Although these thresholds may be statisFig... The focus of infill drilling is those blocks containing the indicated resources........... SOCIETY FOR MINING..(x) < s2.... Let so be a preselected threshold for estimation variance. Figure 2 sketches the relations among the different envelopes. Barren: determined on the basis of the match between probability and G*(x) < g. Define the block-set as follows: where x is the center of a block...... Figure 3 sketches the relations of anisotropic ranges of influence and drill-hole locations.. we also need to estimate block potentials and uncertainties by ordinary kriging (OK)..... A N D EXPLORATION. the cutoff changes and so does the ore envelopes..... These blocks may contain ores with grades exceeding the economic cutoff. Z*(X)2 z.... Suppose that the infill drilling is designed along the major axis of mineralization trends. The secondary interest of infill drilling aims at the blocks in the possible category. let 2 ing all known drill-hole locations.... Nevertheless........ The purpose of defining ore or mineralization envelopes is to determine blocks that may contain the indicated reSectional View of Three Envelopes sources. s2. In addition to the envelopes defined above.... 298 1947 ........ Furthermore... The categories of resource potentials may be quantitatively described as follows: Measured: P*(x) 2 p.. The OK-grade estimate [Z*(x)] represents resource potentials........ but their grade values are yet to be verified....... because they are translatable into measured resources. In general. The threshold is P*(x) 2 p...

Gold is hosted within carbonaceous and pyrite limestones o f ' ~ hOrdovician c Hanson Creek formation and as well within thc carbonaceous. In general. a new round of study is performed using both the previous information and the new drill-hole data. Deposit geology. Case demonstration A case study is given to demonstrate the use of the methodology for the in fill drill ing-design proposed in this paper. by a drill hole are important factors in choosing drill locations. define a subsel of 'nofor the blocks containing the indicated resources: E Set Y contains all blocks that are located within the favorable geological environments. The width of the sectional map should be approximately equal to 2d. do and d l . It is worthwhile to note. v F C} (10) Then. Drill-hole patterns are designed in sectional maps parallel to the major trends of deposit. AND EXPLORATION. Furthermore. The lower plate includes two major formations: the Robert Mountains formation and the Hanson Creek formation.. The task is to design an infill drilling program that determines the measured resources for the subsequent detailed mine development. that the decision process is not a black box. Then. the position of the blocks (internal or edge). The final pattern should be examined in plan maps and may be adjusted if necessary.. however. they are the top candidates in infill drilling plans. ". The methodology described above is summarized in Fig. Set %I only contains the blocks of thc indicatcd category. INC . The marked lithofacies transition between the upper and lower plates is expressed by the classic positioning of the Roberts Mountains thrust. for example. 1986). The lower plate. Sometimes a third round of analysis might he necessary to complete the infill drilling. pyrite calcareous horizons of the Devonian-Silurian Roberts Mountains formation. Set 9Io contains the targets of indicatcd resources as well as the exploration potentials of possible resources. is the host of gold. including 54 holes with approximately 230 ft of averaged drill hole spacing.and if the block is insidc an orc or mineralization envelope. The region is dominantly comprised of a complex sequence of upper-plate western facies lithologics.c.. silty. define a subset of Y h r the blocks with the potcntials of indicated or possible resources: E 3. The blocks containing the indicated resource potentials are drilled first. dcfine a set containing the blocks with resource potentials bascd on the geological fiivorability estimates: Y = {v(x)lG*(v) > go. v Y) (11) Moreover. FuFc=A where Fc is the complementary set of F. 4.Sectional view of the influence ranges of drillholes and potential infill drillhole locations. the entire design process should be conducted in an iterative manner. The deposit was delineated by a previous drilling program. TRANSACTIONS VOL. Other conditions should be taken into account. The average distanceof the drill holes along the major trend should not be less than 2do. 298 1948 The ranges of influence. Let A be the set of all block in the model. METALLURGY. Consider the blocks as being potential canditlates lo be drilled. In principle. locally exposed. = {v(x)lP*(v) > p. The method was applied to a gold deposit of the Carlin-type in northern Nevada. i. The lithofacies play acrucial role in controlling the localization of SOCIETY FOR MINING. 3 . The movement of low-angle structures has been observed along [he contact between the two formations (Birak. an infill drill hole should be assigned to a volume having a minimum of one block that contains the indicated resource potentials.Existing Drill Hole I I Influence Range - I Potential lnfill Drill Hole Locations Fig..

FOI& appear to be key for fluid focusing. a combined 2. overall gold distributions are determined by structural characteristics. lo. the items in each category were ranked according to their posteriorcontrasts.422 -0.al. The mineralization is quite continuous throughoutthedeposit.605 0.027 Post.315 -0.252 0. Ordinary Kriglng Gold Grade Fig.145 0.101 Wt. (-) -0.315 -0.e.iii Breciated lower plate rocks Meaning Oxidation Carbonaceous alteration Silification Decalcification Clay Prior 0. First. Geological A ftributes .145 0.691 0. modeling of the favorable TRANSACTIONS VOL.145 0. was determined frorn the cumulative probability plot of the original 5-ftinterval gold assays..01 1 -0. zo = 0. they create the following combined alteration-type indicator: K. (-) Wt.02 ozlt and " 0 for grades less than 0.02 oz11.145 Wt. contrast 0.386 0. Geological Envelopes Analysis Mineralization Indicator Envelopes Resource Classification . The mineralization indicator. e. However. Structural intersection allowed for localized high-grade mineralization. exhibiting isolated pods along the major structural contacts.573 0. INC The set of the rock items selected above is consistent to geological controls. Ores are best developed where structure cuts receptive lithofacies. METALLURGY. The high-grade pods are generally associated with structural intersections or intrusive dikes. three alteration items are chosen for further analysis. = max{a13. was then created with "I" for grades greater than 0.091 Wt. Variance work-flow diagram showing major components of the methodology for the optimal design of infill drilling patterns. The ranked order of the alteration items by their posterior contrasts is: From this sequence. dikes Hanson Creek formation i .521 -0.145 0.101 Post.The ranked order for rock lype is: The first three items were chosen and then combined into a rock code binary indicator.. Similar to rock types. Each of these items represents a binary indicator with "1" for presence and " 0 for absence.I. Therefore.510 0.] Variables K . Rock type RK1 RK2 RK3 RK4 RK5 Alteration type I AL1 AL2 AL3 AL4 AL5 Meaning Upper Plate formation Robert Mountain formation Intrusives. ore.145 0.399 0.. Using the weight of evidence method described early.145 0. SOCIETY FOR MINING.145 0. 4 -The . A N D EXPLORATION. and K re resent. the threshold of mineralization.510 0. allowing access for mineralizing solutions.266 0. rock codes and alteration codes were quantified.P binary favorable geolog~calfactor and a combined binary favorable alteration factor.008 -0.789 0.522 0. Based on well-logging data. respectively. al.1 D Processing Input Data Elrn Indicator Fav.Posterior probability contrasts for rock types and alteration types.02.105 -0.145 Prior 0. contrast -0. as summarized in Table 1. Structural data were not available in quantitative forms.252 0.902 -0.012 0. The weight of evidence was also applied to alteration types.032 0.281 -0. i.g.031 0. (+) 0. Target Reserves & Resources Kriging Ranges of Major & Minor Axes Ore Indicator n.145 0.048 Modeling geological envelopes. Drill Hole Location Points Set Average Grade & Est. 298 1949 . Table 1 . although high-grade ores are clearly discrete. (+) 0.1 12 0.

Tho threshold go = 0. All variogram niodcls are of sphcrical typc.15 was sclcctcd Variable Nugget Sill R1 R2 R3 (X Ij Y 1 through thc stack of I'avorahilily and drill-hole sectional maps. Fororc cnvelopcs.Fig. c . wcre dcvcloped by indicator kriging.053 oz/l.25 0.I\ calculated hy lion was based on dilatcd scarch ellipsoids. l=possible and O=barren). = 0. For each variable. The two thrcc-dimensional block models.ariogra~n\li)r the two conduct indicator kriging on thc mineralization indicator and gcological indicators and rhrcc cross variogran~sfor all pairs orc indicator.55 160 _ . A geological Iivorability v a l ~ ~<. Toprocccd favorability analysis.15 1. Samplc variograms calculated along three directions sclectcd by geology. With ~ h ccutoff. . determine a threshold I N 1 Table 2 .38 1. Two probby SO by 20 fl was thcn c. Thc cstlmatc W. K. The intcrpolato thc ccntcr ofcach block. was crcatcd with a valuc assignment 01'" I " for rock and alteration code\. was assigned tions of Lhc materials Por thresholds zo and 7 / . bccause this 0. 'The werc calculated in lhc dircclions bascd on gcological judgthrcc-tlirncnsional variogram modcls wcre thcn conslructed menl. using thc ncarhy samples includetl within the search cllipAccordingly.20 150 value closely marks {he boundaries of 120 90 0 0 220 200 0. INC ~ . Table 2.(x). and lo).89 K1+K2 the favorable rock types along the tlrill 90 0 180 150 200 0. soid.89 150 120 R2 R3 CL 1% I 100 80 80 70 90 90 -15 -15 0 0 S O C I E ~ YFOR MINING. 2=indicated.Variogram parameters of geological indicators the favorable geological envelopes. AND EXPLORATION. - 1 pi-p - Modeling mineralized and ore envelopes. 90 0 150 110 K2+10 0. 11. two ordinary variogr~irnswcrc modeled to modcled. inclucling two ordinary \. was dctcrmincd by expectcd economic paramctcrs and minc plans.29 1. Finally.95 0.21 0.14 200 160 100 90 0 0 90 0 0 100 130 K2 0.equcntly.32 1.22 1.rcalcd I)y the indicator llivorahility abilities werc assigned tocach block to represent rhe proporanalysis. The parameters arc shown in Tahlc 3.Variogram parameters of mineralization and ore indicators 0. [he singlc spherical typc. The thrcc-dimensional variogram modcls wcre then l'rom thc samplc oncs.76 K1+10 O I holes. I ! METALLURGY. which was artilicially dilarcd in ortlcr to I'ill i n all blocks one tor thc ~nincralizationcnvclnpcs and the other for thc ore insidc the drillctl area. The puramclers arc sumn~arizcdi n Sub. the grade curoff. z. one for the mincrali~ationindicaror and the other for the ore A thrcc-di~ncnsionalblock model with the I)lock s i x o f 50 indicator. All lhc variogram modcls arc of singlc derived from the samples oncs. samplc variograrns were of the thrcc indicators ( K . two probability thrcsholds werc selected. 5 -Two consecutive EW section maps showing classified block types and proposed infill drillhole locations (3=measured. a sctol variograrns wcrc In the ncxt step. geological cnvclopc\ is perforrlicd only on the hu\is ol' thc indicator. thc ore TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1950 -- - ~ ~ ! ~ 0 1 ! - Table 3 . thc gradc exceeding thc cutoff and "0''othcrwisc.

55. within which infill drilling is evaluated. because the information acquired from previous exploration efforts may not be fully utilized. Conventionally. When blocks are outside the influence ranges. = 0. The new holes together with the original ones are shown in Fig. AND EXPLORATION. resulting in a total of 36 infill holes within the deposit. a geostatistical approach is proposed for infill drilling design.. Fifteen sections were examined across the deposit. The major axis in this deposit is in the EW direction with the range approximately equal to do = 70 ft. In this paper. = 0. 'This was done through map comparisons. indicator kriging and ordinary kriging. Sometimes. the definition also depends on the threshold values go = 0. Some of the shifts also represent the fact that the patterns designed on sectional maps did not depict three-dimensional pictures of the whole deposit.42. = 0. Of course. P* and Z*. infill drilling patterns are designed primarily by regular-grid methods. because of sparse drilling. The method. Similarly. because some of these are specified as angle holes. The mineralization probability threshold pa = 0. Infill drilling design." Figure 5 shows two consecutive section maps on which the existing holes are plotted together with the proposed infill holes.55 was the value that marks the match between the block probability of the ore indicator and the grades ( 2 z. they would be drilled by infill holes if their potential types are coded "2" or "1. The minor axis in the direction of NS has a range of d .053 ozlt) on the drill-hole maps. a qualitative judgment based on the deposit characteristics is necessary for the selection of do and d. Based on the estimates G*.each block is classified on one of the categories defined in a previous section. and p.42 was the value that marks closely the match between the block probability of the mineralization indicator and the grades (2 zo = 0. These data provide a precursor for the favorable geological environments. = 0. The class of the block is coded into the following patterns: designed within 110 ft between sections. Concluding remarks 3 for measured. Rock and alteration codes are typical geological data available when infill drilling is designed. = 55 ft.35.A Original Holes lnfill Holes 200 Feet Fig. Figure 5 shows two consecutive sectional maps containing the geological. p.02 ozlt) on the drill-hole maps. Infill holes were not SOCIETY FOR MINING. minerali~ationand ore envelopes. 6 . envelopes. the ore probability threshold P. Indicator favorability theory is used to determine the TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1951 . If so. The blocks within 70 ft of the existing holes were not considered for infill drilling. variogram modeling may not yield desirable results for the range of influence. INC Infill drilling is a crucial step for mine development of a deposit that is roughly delineated by a sparse drilling program. based on favorability analysis. and 0 for barren. Note that the infill drill-hole locations in the final plan map may not be identical to those indicated on the sectional maps. which are inefficient. 2 for indicated: 1 for possible. The infill drilling was designed by sectional maps along the EW direction.Plan map showing proposed infill drillhole locations together with the existing drillholes. 6. provides a means of synthesizing all data collected from previous drilling campaigns. METALLURGY. The main reason is that some locations were shifted a little bit around the designed points.

" Proc 21st APCOM. . Introduction to Applied Geostatisbcs. Agterberg. Canada. R M Unlv Press. pp. Royle. New York. London Academ~cPress..'Nonrenewable Resources.Mercur. its potential status is I'urthcr dccitlcd by building up the ore envelopes." Explor.." Math Geol. '"Princtples of a resourcelreserve classil~cationfor minerals. possihlc.D. 1989. Mlnrng Geol . "Est~mat~ny geodata and selecl~onof mineral exploration targets. 38-46 USGS. "Nonparametr~cestimation of spattal d~stributlons. 1988. Vol 296. England. R J. i t will he cxcludetl I'rom the consideration of inrill drilling.P." Proceed of Gold '86 Symposium. 544 pp Isaaks.E. W P . Vol 75. "A geostatlsttcal approach to operattonal sample deslgn lor orelwaste selecton In surface gold mlnlng."Math. 1989. and Wr~ght. p 292-31 1 . "Ore reserves -the fourCs. G C 1993. 95-108 Taylor. "Integration of geological dalasets lor gold exploratlon In Nova Scotia.. pp. J M . A hloch ia considered h ~ ~ v i nthe g indicated rcsourcc potentials only if it is locali~crlinside ore envclopc. 1995. o l t h e S Alrrcan lnstrtute olMining 8 Metallurgy. Ore cnvclopcs nrcdelincatcd on the hahis o f a higher grade cutol'l'.D P. A hloch will not he c o n i d c r c d as an infill drilling location i l ' i l i \ outsidc the mineralization cnvclopes constructed hascd or1 the minerali/:~~ion threshold. M . 1983. hccause i t adds decisive rule hy which the potcntial of:^ hlock is judgctl. F. pp. G F Agterberg. preprtnl 92-192." CIM Bulletrn.H. Vol 54. METALLURGY. Goovaerts. pp.. F P 1992. J C 1992. Australia. Vol.. d. preprlnt 83-63 . "The optimtzatlon of sample spactng In South Afr~cangold mlnes.." SME. 'Eflic~ency of ore zone delineation by exploratlon d r ~ l l ~ nMercur g. . 1991.P. it will hc considcred as the sccontlarq targets in inl'ill drilling."Malh Geol Vol 26.SME.. gold d~strict. 1994. and Davld.lavorahlc geological block\. Mining Geol. 1585-1592. 197-204. D J 1986. NV. "On a controversial method for model~nga coreglonalizat~on. 600 PP Lane. Vol. "Classlficat~onof ore reserves based on geostatst~caland economic parameters. "Ore reserves. a favorabil~tyfunclton for the lntegratlon of Pan. V o 2. 1990. "Exploration and geologtc development 01 the Jerrilt Canyon gold deposits. 1916-1924. 1993. 915-932 . Gershon. "Combin~nglnd~catorpatterns in we~ghtsof evtdence model~ngfor resource evaluat~on. Vol 22. 5 pp.. preprlnt 84-62 Diehl. g preclous metal reserve Pan. Exploration Decision Analysis.. 1988. R J . G C 1994. 3. UT. Vol. 24. 1976. 561 pp . pp 262-274 .. and Goodwln." SME. Vol 1. 1990. Toronto. "Optlmal dr~llholelocatton using geostatistics" SME. G C. pp 39-50 AIMM. 1982. A J . A C 1977. Vol 15. and Barnes.. I f a hlock is c1assil'icd as thc mcasurcd resources. Pan. M . Whcn the hlock i \ inside a mincral envelope. February. "Probability-asslgned constralned k r ~ g ~ nfor modeling.. and Schenk. INC . Las Veyas. K F. G C . Rendu. The hasi5 ol' the ncw methodology is a classil'ication framcwork of rcsourcc potentials. D. Thc ihllowing k)ur types ol' potentials arc nanicd: m c ~ ~ s u r cindicated. P 1994. 8 pp Asp~e. Geol. pp 177-202. pp. no 1. 1982. Oxford . Sydney. 1978. P. "Australas~ancode lor reporting of tdentlfled mineral resources and ore reserves. .J. which offer anolher control o n Ihc potentials ol'hlochs. arc not considcrcd hy ini'ill drilling." Math. 1980. Jan. Vol. NV..' CIM Bulletin. mlnlng and profit. Chou.. pp 392-399 . Blrak. and Srlvastava. London." Repon o l the Joint Cornrn o l t h e Australasian Ins olMining and Metallurgy 8 Ihe Australran Mtning Council. pp 445-468 Journey A G . Harr~s.." Transact~ons. "lnhll-sarnpl~ngdes~gnand the cost of classlftcation errors. a n d Huljbregts." Photogrammetry a n d Rernole Sensing.." US Geologtcal Survey Clr 831.' CIM Bulletin." Explor. This provides a rule i f a hlock should hc included in the sct o l ' p o ~ c n ~ i alocations l to hc drilled. The final drill-hole patterns are reconciliated in plan rnaps. pp 49-52 . 86. pp 488-496 TRANSACTIONS VOL 298 1952 SOCIETY FOR MINING. Vol 14. Bonham.'Math Geoi.D. and Harr~s.and Arrnstrong. . Vol 87. Aprll. "Matr~xlormulatlon of cokr~ging. 0 . Journey A G 1983. "lndlcator favorab~l~ly theory for mlneral polenttal mapping. Mining Geostatlsttcs. References . The conccpl ol' mincralizalion envelopes i \ crucial for drilling design. pp. H. September. M. Wiley. "Rev~ew~ng continuity: An essential element of qualtty conlrol for depos!?and reserve est~mat~on. of course.. WorldMinrng. Feb pp 127-136. "Class~flcatlono l ore reserves/resources based on geostat~st~cal methods. D E. pp.Carter. and Vallee. Elko Counly. It is rcconimcnded that infill drilling he dcsigricd along sectiorial maps parallel to the major axis oSrni~~cr:~li/ation trends.. Another important concept lor inl'ill drilling is the range of influence hy adrill hole. Min~ng Journal Books. 249 257 Owens. S ~ m s J. and barren. "Practtcal Issues of yeoslat~stical reserve esl~matlonIn the mlnlng ~nduslry. and Morgan. Both nrincraliration and ore c n v e I ~ p c arc \ dclineatetl l ~ yindicator kriging." Nonrenewable Resources.R . The EconornrcDelmitionolOre. "Selecting optimal drilling locations by groups. E. "How to use geostatlstlcs In ore class~f~cation. Inl'ill drilling locuscs on the hlocks containing Ihc indicatcd resources. D. H K." pp 52-55 . S~ncla~r.'CIM Bulletrn (In press).. 149 PP Myers. AND EXPLORATION.H. Ifa hlock contain5 [he possihlc resources.. C J. Pan. 73-76 Barnes. Barren hlocks." J. Wober. 1984. 2. 1993.. P .D F 1988. Geol. 1994.