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Bullying is a form of abuse. It involves repeated acts over time attempting to create or enforce one
person's (or group's) power over another person (or group), thus an "imbalance of power". The
"imbalance of power" may be social power and/or physical power. The victim of bullying is
sometimes referred to as a target. Bullying types of behavior are often rooted in a would-be bully's
inability to empathize with those whom he or she would target.
Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal and physical. It typically involves
astute methods of coercion such as psychological manipulation. Bullying can be defined in many
different ways. Although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, some US states have
laws against it.
Bullying ranges from simple one on one bullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may
have one or more 'lieutenants' who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his
bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse.
Bullying can occur in any context in which human beings interact with each other. This includes
school, church, family, the workplace, home and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor
in migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes and even between countries.
In fact on an international scale, perceived or real imbalances of power between nations, in both
economic systems and in treaty systems, are often cited as some of the primary causes of both
World War I and World War II. Put simply, historically and from this perspective, certain
international 'bullying' between nations is seen as having resulted in at least two very major and
costly international wars.
Some schools with bullying problems have addressed the issue by adding CCTV cameras.
Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt another person,
physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain
power over another person.
Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus defines bullying as when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and
over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons." He defines negative
action as "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through
physical contact, through words or in other ways".
Bullying behavior may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities,
exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion. Bullies may behave this way to be

"There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting out because they themselves are bullied. Mona O’Moore of the Anti-Bullying Centre at Trinity College in Dublin. Effects of bullying on those who are targeted The effects of bullying can be serious and even fatal. Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression such as shoving and poking. punching and kicking. whether child or adult. lies. It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide every year in the UK alone. who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide. combined with a strong need to control or dominate. throwing things. scratching. the silent treatment. Research on the self-esteem of bullies has produced equivocal results. beating. Characteristics of bullies and bully accomplices Research indicates that adults who bully have personalities that are authoritarian. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques. and mocking. has written. and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including the victim's race. saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event. Bullying can cause loneliness. lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. biting. bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim. giggling. Bullying leads to several suicides every year. refusing to socialize with the victim. depression. choking.perceived as popular or tough or to get attention. It has also been suggested that a disadvantageous view of subordinates can be particular a risk factor. scraping and pinching. arguing others into submission. Ross outlines other forms of indirect bullying which are more subtle and more likely to be verbal. manipulation. gossip/false gossip. rumors/false rumors. While some bullies are arrogant and . laughing at the victim. and indirect bullying which is also known as social aggression. Further studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. religion or disability). such as name calling. anxiety. USA National Center for Education Statistics suggests that bullying can be classified into two categories: Direct bullying. slapping. The children's charity Act Against Bullying was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills. staring. He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim into social isolation." Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. because they are being bullied. Suicide There is a strong link between bullying and suicide. pulling hair. stabbing. including spreading gossip.

it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support of the majority present that instills the fear of 'speaking out' in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group. concern with preserving self-image. energy. and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. coordination with others. there is research evidence. his or her related behavior patterns will often also mature. though it more often occurs in PE. recess. often the 'bully mentality' becomes an accepted norm within the group. The reversal of a 'bully mentality' within a group is usually an effort which requires much time. and usually the undertaking of a certain 'risk'. yet equally forceful forms of coercion. addiction to aggressive behaviors. and well planned attempts at character assassination. It can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building. In many cases. It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood. until somehow the bullying-cycle should eventually come to an end. as well as quickness to anger and use of force. Such a toxic environment often remains as the status-quo of the group for an extended period of time. yet equally effective adult level activities such as administrative end-runs. Unless the 'bully mentality' is effectively challenged in any given group in its earlier stages. there is a danger that it may become habitual. bullying occurs in all areas of school. but to a lesser degree than in the bully. Characteristics of typical bystanders Often bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. a steady stream of injustices and abuses often becomes a regular and predictable group experience." Bullies may bully because they themselves have been the victim of bullying. As a person who is inclined to act as a bully matures. the abuser him/herself feels empowered. on school buses . careful planning. Bystanders to bullying activities are often unable to recognize the true cost that silence regarding the bullying activities has to both the individual and to the group.narcissistic. There is also evidence that bullies have a much higher likelihood to be put in jail in the future. hallways. Indeed. others can use bullying as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self-esteem: by demeaning others. mistaking others' actions as hostile. Schoolyard pranks and 'rough-housing' may mature into more fine. Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depression and personality disorders. In such groups where the 'bully mentality' has been allowed to become a dominant factor in the group environment. bathrooms. A certain inability to fully empathize is also usually present in the typical bystander. or other less obvious. "If aggressive behavior is not challenged in childhood. to indicate that bullying during childhood puts children at risk of criminal behavior and domestic violence in adulthood. A combination of these factors may also be cause of this behavior. Types of bullying School bullying In schools.

not for others. such as suing a school or teacher for failure to adequately supervise. proponents may argue they can coincide). The term can refer to either physical (sometimes violent) or mental (possibly degrading) practices. Anti-bullying programs are designed to teach students cooperation. Bystanders may participate or watch. However. a different social context may mean a same treatment is technically hazing for some.and waiting for buses. Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: There is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse (relational aggression or passive aggression). as it must be a ritual initiation. sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. Furthermore. abuse. including: . and may even derive enjoyment from it. even harmful abuse that should not even be tolerated if accepted voluntarily (serious but avoidable accidents do still happen. These bullies taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target. and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if it brings them joy on some level. American victims and their families have legal recourse. and there is a gray area where exactly the other side passes over into sheer degrading. classes that require group work and/or after school activities. the victims of some school shootings have sued both the shooters' families and the schools. It is a subjective matter where to draw to line between 'normal' hazing (somewhat abusive) and a mere rite of passage (essentially bonding. Targets of bullying in school are often pupils who are considered strange or different by their peers to begin with. or exclusion — even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies. more playful) application to passengers is not. there is some research suggesting that a significant proportion of "normal" school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do. Special education students who are victimized may sue a school or school board under the ADA or Section 504. in some traditions even rather often). or other civil rights violations. humiliation. as a form of peer support. racial or gender discrimination. e. Hazing has been reported in a variety of social contexts. a line-crossing ceremony when passing the equator at sea is hazing for the sailor while the extended (generally voluntary. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. or humiliation with requirements to perform meaningless tasks. One student or a group can bully another student or a group of students. In addition. making the situation harder for them to deal with.g. Hazing Hazing is an often ritualistic test which may constitute harassment. even deliberate abuse with similar grave medical consequences occurs. as well as training peer moderators in intervention and dispute resolution techniques. sometimes out of fear of becoming the next victim.

humiliating. cell phone and pager text messages. verbal abuse. Workplace bullying According to the Workplace Bullying and Trauma Institute workplace bullying is "repeated.S. Statistics also show that while only one employee in every 10.. to support deliberate. that is intended to harm others. school bands Secret societies and even certain service clubs. blogs. or rather their local sections (such as some modern US Freemasons. Such actions are not necessarily illegal and may not even be against the firm's regulations. even 'soft' and non-competitive ones (such as arts) The armed forces — e. hard hazing practices from World War I boot camps were introduced into colleges. defamatory personal Web sites. like fan clubs. workplace bullying is sometimes known as mobbing. in the U. instant messaging. or conduct which is threatening..         Sports teams Academic fraternities and sororities these practices are not limited to American schools. Bullies will even create blogs to intimidate victims worldwide. not traditional masonic lodges) Similarly various other competitive sports teams or clubs. .g. repeated. and hostile behavior by an individual or group.000 becomes a victim of workplace violence. the damage to the targeted employee and to workplace morale is obvious. or sabotage that interferes with work or some combination of the three. one in six experiences bullying at work. intimidating. healthharming mistreatment. It can also be known as "career assassination" in political circles.. Police forces (often with a paramilitary tradition) Rescue services. online games and defamatory online personal polling Web sites. Cyberbullying According to Canadian educator Bill Belsey. it: . Particularly when perpetrated by a group. workplace bullying often takes place within the established rules and policies of the organization and society. such as lifeguards (also drilled for operations in military style) In workplaces Hazing is considered a felony in several US states.involves the use of information and communication technologies such as e-mail." Statistics show that bullying is 3 times as prevalent as illegal discrimination and at least 1.. and anti-hazing legislation has been proposed in other states. however.600 times as prevalent as workplace violence. Unlike the more physical form of school bullying. Bullying is a little more common than sexual harassment but not verbal abuse which occurs more than bullying. Associated groups.

with threats of force. 'The extreme belief that your own country is always best. systematic bullying of lower-ranking.' This form of ultra-nationalistic rhetoric is sometimes a precursor to warfare. according to them. the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) defined bullying as: “. The alternative to paying such a 'protection-fee' to the local underworld figure is usually the threat of some form of costly vandalism. Also. Some argue that this behavior should be allowed because of a general academic consensus that "soldiering" is different from other occupations. The forceful methods used by various totalitarian regimes to secure and maintain their power have sometimes been described as merely highly organized and widespread forms of bullying. which is often shown in enthusiastic support for a war against another country. Political bullying and terrorism Jingoism is defined as.the use of physical strength or the abuse of authority to intimidate or victimize others. theft or even the bodily injury of the non-submitting business operator or his family. local businesses are forced to regularly pay a local underworld figure a certain portion of their profits.. Soldiers expected to risk their lives should. In some countries. In this scheme.” A review of a number of deaths by suicide at Princess Royal Barracks.. It is often a part of a campaign by one country to impose its will upon another country by various means of extraordinary coercion. International terrorism has been described by some as a form of political bullying. develop strength of body and spirit to accept bullying. the Russian army usually has older/more experienced candidates abusing – kicking or punching – less experienced soldiers. Bullied celebrities . while in others. ritual hazing among recruits has been tolerated and even lauded as a rite of passage that builds character and toughness. Intra-military bullying In 2000.Protection racket bullying One revenue generating scheme often employed by underworld figures is sometimes referred to as the "protection racket" scheme. young or physically slight recruits may in fact be encouraged by military policy. either tacitly or overtly. Deepcut by Nicholas Blake QC indicated that whilst a culture of bullying existed during the mid to late 1990s many of the issues were being addressed as a result of the Defense Training Review. or ultimately by force itself if all other means may be seen as unsuccessful. or to give unlawful punishments. and by others as a response to the international bullying attempts of existing nation-states.