Está en la página 1de 62

Understanding HD: Frame Rates, Color & Compression

HD Format Breakdown
An HD Format Describes (in no particular order)
Resolution
Frame Rate
Bit Rate
Color Space
Bit Depth
Color Model / Color Gamut
Color Sub-Sampling
Compression

HD Format Breakdown
Examples
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2

Resolutions
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Standard HD Resolutions
1920x1080 pixels
1280x720 pixels
2k - 2048 x 1556 pixels
4k - 4096 x 2304 pixels

Resolution Sub-Sampling
Sub-Sampling to Compress Data
1920 x 1080
1440 x 1080
(HDCAM, HDV, XDCAM HD)
1280 x 1080
(DVCPRO HD)
1280x720
960 x 720 (DVCPRO HD)

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
US (NTSC / 60 hz) Frame Rates
59.94i (aka 60i) Interlace Fields per Second
29.97p (aka 30p) Progressive Frames per Second
23.98 (aka 24p) Progressive Frames per Second
24p - true 24 Progressive Frames per Second

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
60i US Standard = 59.94i = 29.97i (Confusing I Know)
Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

60 x Per Second

Even Field

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
30p = 29.97p = 29.97 PsF
First Frame

Second Frame

Third Frame

Fourth Frame
30 fps

v
Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

v
Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

60 fps

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Working with 23.98p
2-3 Pull Down to 59.94i
Visually 23.98 & Broadcast Ready
23.98 PsF (Progressive Segmented Frames)
48i Interlaced Fields per Second
Progress feed to recorders

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
24P = 23.976p 2:3 Pulldown into 60i
First Frame

Second Frame

Third Frame

Fourth Frame
24 fps

v
Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

v
Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

60 fps

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
24PA = 23.976p 2:3:3:2 Pulldown into 60i
First Frame

Second Frame

Third Frame
24 fps

v
Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

60 fps

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
23.98 PsF (Progressive Segment Frame)
First Frame

Second Frame

Third Frame

Fourth Frame
24 fps

v
Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

v
Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

Odd Field

Even Field

48 fps

Frame Rates
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Europe (PAL / 50 hz) Frame Rates
50i Interlaced Fields per Second
25p Progressive Frames per Second
Thats it!

Understanding HD - Frame Rates

Questions?

Understanding Color
How is color made in a digital camera?
What is color depth / bit depth?
What is a color space?
What is a color model?
What is a color gamut?
What is color sub-sampling?

Color: How is it made in camera?


3 Sensor Imager

All Digital Sensors are Black & White (Luminance Only)


Color is made in two different ways:
3 Sensors with a Prism
Single Sensor with a Color Mask
Both Produce Red, Green, and Blue Images

Bayer Mask Sensor

Color: 3 Sensor Color


3 CCD or 3 CMOS Sensors
Color is split by a prism into RGB Images
Used in most small sensor cameras
HVX200 and HPX170 (1/3)
Panasonic & Sony ENG (2/3)

3 Sensor Imager

Color: 3 Sensor Color

Color: Single Sensor Color


Single Sensor Color
Each Pixel is filtered for one color
Full RGB images is created by analysis of
the color pattern of the sensor
Most popular pattern is the Bayer Mask

Bayer Mask Sensor

Color: Single Sensor Color


Bayer Mask is used on most single sensor cameras
RED One & Epic
Arri Alexa
Sony F3 & FS100
Bayer pattern creates color with filtration
2x2 matrix has 2-green, 1-red, 1-blue
Invented by Dr. Bryce E. Bayer at Kodak

Bayer Mask Sensor

Color: Single Sensor Color


Other color patterns are used by different cameras
Sony F35 has a stripped sensor
Sony F65 has a special design
F65 Sensor

F35 Sensor

Color: The Pixel Image


1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Defining Color One Pixel at a Time
Each Pixel has its own brightness (luma) and color (chroma)
information

Im a Pixel

Color: The Pixel Image


1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Luma - Y - is strictly black and white information
Chroma - C - is strictly color information

Bit Depth
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Bit Depth AKA Color Depth
Defines the amount of
color variation available per
color channel per pixel
8-bit & 10-bit are very
common.

Bit Depth - 8 Bit


1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Bit Depth Variations
8-Bit Color
28 = 256 per channel (RGB)
3 Channels x 8 bits = 24 Bits total
16,777,216 colors available

Bit Depth - 10 Bit


1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Bit Depth Variations
10-Bit Color
210 = 1024 per channel (RGB)
3 Channels x 10 bits = 30 Bits total
1,073,741,824 colors available

Bit Depth - 12 Bit


1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Bit Depth Variations
12-Bit Color
212 = 4096 per channel (RGB)
3 Channels x 12 bits = 36 Bits total
68,719,476,736 colors available

Bit Depth - Banding


10 bit Image

8-bit Image (no dither)

Bit Depth - Dither


8-bit Image (no dither)

8-bit Image (with dither)

What is Color Space?


Color Space is defined by two parameters:
Color Model
Color Gamut (footprint)
Popular Color Spaces
REC 709 / DCI P3
Adobe RGB sRGB

Color Model
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
A Color Model is a mathematical model describing colors as
a set of numerical values (usually in 3 or 4 values)
Examples
RGB
YCbCr / YPbPr
CMYK (used in print)

Color Model
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
RGB - Red / Green / Blue
R = Red Chroma & Luminance
G = Green Chroma & Luminance
B = Blue Chroma & Luminance

Color Model
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Y Cb Cr (digital) / Y Pb Pr (analog)
Removes redundant Y information
Y = Luma only information
Cb = Blue-Difference Chroma information
Cr = Red-Difference Chroma information

Color - The Pixel Image


In Y Cb Cr - Each pixel contains 1 Y values and 2 Chroma values
In R G B - Each pixel contains 3 Y values & 3 Chroma values

What is Color Gamut?


Defining Color the way HUMANS see it
CIE 1931 Color Space
International Commission of Illumination
1931 Study which became CIE RGB
Later Modified to CIE XYZ Color
Space
All Color Gamuts are based on limitations of
the CIE XYZ Color Space

Color Gamut
ITU-R Recommendation BT.709 (REC709)
Used in HDTV Universally
Defines primaries and limits of what colors
can be shown in REC709 video.
The full spectrum is CIE XYZ
REC709 has limited color options (in triangle)
D65 is that white point

Color Gamut
Other Color Gamuts
Video Gamuts

Computer Gamuts

F65
Print Film
F35 (S-Gamut)
DCI
ITU-709

Visible Color

Color Space
Color Space is defined by:
Color Model - RGB, YCbCr, CMYK
Color Gamut - Location of Primaries

Color Sub-Sampling
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Color Sub-sampling is a reduction in Color Resolution
Reducing color also reduces data rates, and it is not easily visible to
our eyes.
Works in Y Cb Cr
Does not work in RGB

Chroma Sub-Sampling - 4:4:4


4 Luminance Samples
4 Color Samples

YC YC YC YC

4 Color Samples

YC YC YC YC
Y = Luma
C = Chroma

Chroma Sub-Sampling - 4:4:4


4 Luminance Samples
4 Color Samples

YC YC YC YC

4 Color Samples

YC YC YC YC
Y = Luma
C = Chroma

Chroma Sub-Sampling - 4:2:2


4 Luminance Samples
2 Color Samples

2 Color Samples

Y
Y = Luma
C = Chroma

Chroma Sub-Sampling - 4:1:1


4 Luminance Samples
1 Color Sample

1 Color Sample

Y
Y = Luma
C = Chroma

Chroma Sub-Sampling - 4:2:0


4 Luminance Samples
2 Color Samples

0 Color Sample

Y
Y

Y
Y
Y = Luma
C = Chroma

Understanding HD - Color

Questions?

Bit Rate
1920 x 1080 23.98P 10-bit Uncompressed YCbCr 4:2:2
Bit Rate AKA Data Rate
The rate at which video data is transmitted or recorded
Uncompressed video = 1.485 Gb/s (59.94i)
23.98 = 1.19 Gb/s
About 8 Giga Bytes per minute

Bit Rate - Compressed Rates


Compressed Data Rates
ProRes 422 HQ - 220 Mb/s
AVC-Intra 100 - 100 Mb/s
DVCPRO HD - 100 Mb/s
XDCAM 422 - 50 Mb/s
XDCAM EX - 35 Mb/s
AVC HD - 24 Mb/s

Bit Rate - Compressed Rates


Compressed Data Rates
AJA Data Rate Calculator
Free Online Calculators
Lossless vs Lossy Compression
Lossless = Uncompressed
Lossy = Compressed
Higher Data Rate does not equal Higher Quality

Bit Rate - Compressed Rates


DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) Blocks
An average of frequencies
Used to compress parts of an image
Increasing Compression

Bit Rate - Compressed Rates


DCT Blocks
Used in MPEG2 and MPEG4
(small blocks)

Compression
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2
Compression Types
MPEG-2
DVCPRO HD
HDCAM / HDV
XDCAM HD / 422 / EX
Digital TV & DVD

Compression
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2
Compression Types
MPEG-4
HDCAM SR
AVC-Intra 100 / 50
AVC HD / AVCCAM
H.264 & Other Web Compressions

Compression
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2
Long GOP and I Frame
I-Frame compressions every frame individually
Long GOP (Group of Pictures)
Compresses over 15 frames GOP
I Frames (every 15th frame) are individually compressed
B & P Frames are stored as differences

Compression
Long GOP - 15 Frames
I-Frame

B-Frame

P-Frame

Compression
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2
Compression Types
Intermediate Formats
ProRess 422 HQ / 422 / LT / Proxy
DNX HD / DNX
CineForm
High bit rate, low compression

Compression
1280 x 720 59.94P 8-bit DVCPROHD (100 Mb/s) YCbCr 4:2:2
Compression Types
Redcode - Red RAW Compression
JPEG2000 (wavelet based)
Color Channels compressed individually
Four flavors in Red One 28MB/s (224mbit/s) 36MB/s
(288mbit/s), and 42 MB/s (336 mbit/s)

Recording Media

Codec Comparisons in 1080


HDCAM SR - 1920 x 1080 12 / 10 bit 4:2:2 / 4:4:4
YCbCr / RGB I-Frame at 440 Mb/s or 880 Mb/s
Apple ProRes 4444 - 1920 x 1080 12 / 10 bit 4:4:4
YCbCr / RGB I-Frame at 330 Mb/s
Apple ProRes 422 HQ - 1920 x 1080 10 bit 4:2:2
YCbCr I-Frame at 220 Mb/s

Codec Comparisons in 1080


AVC-Intra 100 - 1920x1080 10 bit 4:2:2 YCbCr
I-Frame at100 Mb/s
XDCAM 422 / Canon XF / NanoFlash - 1920x 1080 8 bit 4:2:2
YCbCr Long GOP at 50 Mb/s
HDCAM - 1440x1080 8 bit 4:2:2 YCbCr I-Frame at 144 Mb/s

Codec Comparisons in 1080


XDCAM EX - 1920x1080 8 bit 4:2:0 YCbCr
Long GOP at 35 Mb/s
DVCPRO HD - 1280 x 1080 8 bit 4:2:2 YCbCr
I-Frame at 100 Mb/s
AVCHD / AVCCAM - 1920x1080 8 bit 4:2:0 YCbCr
Long GOP at 24 Mb/s

Codec Comparisons in 1080


XDCAM HD - 1440 x 1080 8 bit 4:2:0 YCbCr
Long GOP at 35 Mb/s
Canon SLR H.264 - 1920 x 1080 8 bit 4:2:0 YCbCr
Long GOP at 40-50 Mb/s
HDV - 1440 x 1080 8 bit 4:2:0 YCbCr
Long GOP at 25 Mb/s

Understanding HD - Compression

Questions?