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Curso de

Geomecnica de Reservatrios
Leonardo Guimares

Universidade Federal de Pernambuco


Laboratrio de Mtodos Computacionais em Geomecnica

http://lmcg0.ctg.ufpe.br/

http://lmcg0.ctg.ufpe.br/chair/

Recife, Setembro de 2014

Curso de Geomecnica de Yacimientos


Instructor: Leonardo Guimares

Pblico: Ingenieros, Gelogos y Geofsicos


Carga horaria: 8 horas
Descripcin:

El curso inicia presentando los elementos bsicos de la poro-mecnica. El objetivo es establecer las bases
para la formulacin de modelos que describan el comportamiento acoplado flujo-deformacin de
yacimientos petrolferos. A continuacin se presentan los elementos necesarios para un anlisis geomecnico
y aplicaciones describiendo los fenmenos a la escala de reservorio. El curso incluye los siguientes tpicos:
Fundamentos de la Poro-Mecnica: ecuacin de equilibrio, relacin tensin-deformacin, criterios de rotura
para rocas, reologa, acoplamientos con el flujo de fluidos.
Definicin de los elementos de un modelo geomecnico: aspectos geolgicos, tensiones in-situ,
determinacin de las presiones de poros, problemas en pozos.
Aplicaciones: compactacin de reservorios, subsidencia, fracturamento hidrulico, reactivacin de fallas
geolgicas.
Tpicos avanzados: integridad de las rocas frente a la inyeccin de fluidos reactivos, aspectos geomecnicos
relacionados con la inyeccin de CO2 en formaciones geolgicas.

Curso de Geomecnica de Yacimientos

Material del curso:

Servidor UFPE:

http://lmcg0.ctg.ufpe.br/geomecanica/

Algunas referencias:

- Petroleum Releated Rock Mechanics, Fjaer, E. et al. (2008).


- Reservoir Geomechanic, Zoback, M. D. (2007).
-The Finite Element Method in the Static and Dynamic Deformation and Consolidation of Porous Media,
Lewis & Schrefler (1998).
- Projetos de Poos de Petrleo: geopresses e assentamento de colunas de revestimento, Rocha & Azevedo (2007).

- Otros cursos, papers, tesis...

Curso de Geomecnica de Yacimientos


1 Introduccin

Definiciones y algunos desafos de la geomecnica de yacimientos.


Modelacin de fenmenos acoplados.

2 Leyes Constitutivas

Fundamentos de la Poro-Mecnica.
Comportamiento de las rocas.

3 Geomecnica de Yacimientos
Elementos de un modelo geomecnico y aplicaciones.

4 Tpicos avanzados

Integridad de las rocas frente a la inyeccin de fluidos reactivos.

Curso de Geomecnica de Yacimientos


1 Introduccin

Definiciones y algunos desafos de la geomecnica de yacimientos.


Modelacin de fenmenos acoplados.

2 Leyes Constitutivas

Fundamentos de la Poro-Mecnica.
Comportamiento de las rocas.

3 Geomecnica de Yacimientos
Elementos de un modelo geomecnico y aplicaciones.

4 Tpicos avanzados

Integridad de las rocas frente a la inyeccin de fluidos reactivos.

INTRODUCTION

Current state of Reservoir Simulation (Settari, 2003):


Simulation models are now considered tools with widespread use
Trend to increasing complexity
Emphasis on user friendliness, robustness
Understanding of the inner workings (and therefore limitations) is disappearing

Expectations on the part of users are high


Consolidation in the software industry left only a few players of mainstream
software

INTRODUCTION

Data integration...

L. C. Pereira (MSc, 2007)

INTRODUCTION

Sources of complexity in simulation (Settari, 2003):


Explosion in the sophistication of 3-D seismic, geological and petrophysical modeling
Use of stochastic methods for generation of reservoir properties
Ever increasing computing power and data handling capacity

Increasing understanding of complex, coupled processes in reservoir engineering

RESERVOIR GEOMECHANICS

INTRODUCTION
Complexity of physical processes (Settari, 2003):
Complexities related to fluid flow and heat transfer (in the reservoir and surface
networks) have been extensively studied and still evolving

Rock/soil behavior (geomechanics) is just as complex, but has been simplified in modeling
Other processes (geochemistry, solids transport,) may be important in special cases
Geomechanical aspects have been traditionally consider by drilling, completion and
production engineers in isolation from reservoir engineering
Coupled geomechanical modeling (Settari, 2003):
Simultaneous modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer (conventional simulation) and
stresses and strains in the reservoir AND its surroundings
Fracture mechanics modeling can be also considered
The physical coupling between all processes is accounted for

INTRODUCTION

Reservoir into geomechanical model: huge volume of rock is considered

Coupled geomechanical modeling (Settari, 2003):


Simultaneous modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer (conventional simulation) and
stresses and strains in the reservoir AND its surroundings
Fracture mechanics modeling can be also considered
The physical coupling between all processes is accounted for

INTRODUCTION
Why consider Geomechanics in reservoir simulation? (Settari, 2003)
Majority of the reservoir material is rock or soil (skeleton), not fluids!
Rock/soil deformation can have a large effect on recovery - coupling exists between solid
and fluid mechanics
Conventional (uncoupled) modeling which ignores the complexity of the skeleton
behavior can be inadequate or misleading
Coupled modeling can answer questions
beyond classical reservoir engineering
(opportunity for integrated reservoir
management)

Coupled Reservoir,
Stress and Fracture
Mechanical Model

Applied Geomechanics
Soil Mechanics

Rock Mechanics

(earth dams, retaining walls, soil foundation...)

(tunnels, mining, rock foundation...)

Geomechanics: studies the behavior of soil and rocks subjected to mechanical


loads and conditions imposed by the physical environment.

Theoretical
Geomechanics

Continuum Mechanics
Fracture Mechanics
(Schlumberger, 2008)

Applied Geomechanics
Soil Mechanics

Rock Mechanics

(earth dams, retaining walls, soil foundation...)

(tunnels, mining, rock foundation...)

Geomechanics: studies the behavior of soil and rocks subjected to mechanical


loads and conditions imposed by the physical environment.

Theoretical
Geomechanics

Continuum Mechanics
Fracture Mechanics

Understand and predict phenomena such as:


- Fault reactivation

RESERVOIR
GEOMECHANICS

- Fracturing of cap rock


- Reservoir compaction and subsidence
- etc

The role of Geomechanics in field development:

(GMI, 2005)

Durante a fase de explorao: facilita a previso da presso de poros, altura da coluna de hidrocarbonetos
e potencial selante das falhas geolgicas;
Durante a fase de desenvolvimento: possibilita a estabilizao dos poos pela determinao de trajetrias
timas; peso de uido de perfurao adequado e prediz a anisotropia da permeabilidade em reservatrios fraturados;
Durante a fase de produo: ajuda na metodologia de completao dos poos, na predio das alteraes do
desempenho do reservatrio durante a depleo e melhora a recuperao nal dos uidos;

Durante a recuperao secundria ou terciria: viabiliza melhores esquemas de injeo de gua/CO2 e vapor.

INTRODUCTION

Stress Sensitive Reservoirs candidates for geomechanical engineering (Settari, 2003):


Unconsolidated sands (oil sands, aquifer zones for disposal,)
Loose sands (Diatomite, Gulf of Mexico, compacting reservoirs ...)
Chalk reservoirs (often naturally fractured)

Low permeability rock (in particular microfractured)


Coal seams (cleat systems are stress sensitive)

Other candidates:
-Very shalow or very deep reservoirs
- Sand production or fine migration
-HP/HT injection
- Highly depleted reservoirs
- Reservoir crossed by faults

Shales
Hydraulic
fracturing
in shale gas

Example: shale gas


1) Bombeamento a altas presses de um lquido (fluido
de fraturamento), atravs de um poo em uma formao
subterrnea para causar a propagao de fraturas na
rocha e permitir a extrao de petrleo e gs natural. O
lquido mais comum a gua, que misturada com
alguns produtos qumicos, para que tenha sua
consistncia aumentada.

(Cachay, 2004)

2) Uma fratura induzida hidraulicamente mantida aberta pela presso


aplicada pelo fluido e para mant-la aberta aps a interrupo do
bombeamento, introduz-se um material granular conhecido como
material de sustentao ou propante, criando um canal de fluxo de alta
permeabilidade estvel no interior da formao e conectado ao poo.

3) A ltima etapa consiste na limpeza do poo, onde


normalmente ocorre uma baixa produo de
material de sustentao (proppant flowback) devido
presena de propante no poo logo aps o
tratamento da fratura.

Example: shale gas


(Source: The Old Speak Journal, 2011)

Contamination of an aquifer caused by hydraulic fracturing


Enviromental Geomechanics:
Geomechnics is often dealing with enviromental problems

INTRODUCTION
Coupling between reservoir flow and rock or soil mechanics (Settari, 2003):
Volume Coupling
Rock matrix (skeleton) elastic moduli and volume changes are functions of
stress state and temperature
Pore volumes changes in the reservoir mode must be the same as
those computed in the solid modeling by volumetric strain
and bulk volume changes

Flow Properties Coupling


Permeability function of stress state
Larger changes after failure, develops anisotropy
Creation of dual porosity system in-situ affects krl
Induced fractures

INTRODUCTION
Coupling between reservoir flow and rock or soil mechanics:
PHYSICAL COUPLING

NUMERICAL COUPLING
(Fleming, P. D., 2004)

(Gutierrez, M. and Lewis, R. W., 1998)

Multiphysical Approach!!

Multiphysical Approach
In the development of numerical tools to analyze engineering
problems involving geomaterials there has been a strong trend
towards coupled formulations incorporating an increasing number of
phenomena.
The aim is to account for the full range of interactions between the
various processes occurring simultaneously in the same problem.

Relevant
phenomena

HM FORMULATION

Wellbore stability

Problem domain:
Coupled hydro-mechanical
analysis of deformable
porous media

Compaction and
subsidence

Fault reactivation
...
Hydraulic
fracturing

HM FORMULATION
1) Mastering the physics of the HM problem
(conservation and constitutive equations)

Requirements for this


type of analyses

M
H

v K h
h

HM FORMULATION
1) Mastering the physics of the HM problem
(conservation and constitutive equations)

Requirements for this


type of analyses

High level of physical coupling

High level of
numerical
coupling

HM FORMULATION
1) Mastering the physics of the HM problem
(conservation and constitutive equations)

Requirements for this


type of analyses
2) Discretization technique FEM
M: (u)
b 0

' p f I

' D

H: (p)
( s )
t
q

q s u 0
kk r

~
g

Formulao
C
T
Q

u -p :

0 d u K


S dt p 0

u f

p q

u displacement
p pressure

Fault Reactivation
HM Problem
(Geological Survey of Canada, 2006)
Seismic image

In oil reservoirs with fault reactivation


possibility, coupled hydro-geomechanical
analysis is a important tool in the definition
of maximum bottom hole pressure of the
injectors as it takes into account the main
phenomena and material parameters
involved in the physical problem.
MAXIMUM BHP?

Relevant phenomena:
shearing, dilatation,
increase of permeability,
pressure propagation,
fracturing of cap rock

FEM mesh

Wellbore Stability (Breakout)


HM Problem

Thermal Oil Recovery


THM Problem
(Dusseault and Collins, 2008)

Geomechanical effects:
Shearing, Dilation, and
Mechanical Damage of the Rock

Stress Changes in Advance of a Steam Chamber (e.g. SAGD)

SAGD

Shear Dilation of an Unconsolidated Sandstone

THM Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

THM Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

Physical and Chemical Stability of Shales

water flow

water flow

water flow

Swelling Pressure Development

Chemically induced water


flow in shale formations

q l k l hl k l s o
(van Oort, 2003)

THMC Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

THMC Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

THMC Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

THMC Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

d ' D d + Lds + PdT + HdC

THMC Problem
RELEVANT PHENOMENA

d ' D d + Lds + PdT + HdC

q l k l hl k l s o

Coupled THM and Reactive Transport Problem

Multiphase multispecies approach

The species are:


G AS

L IQ U ID

mineral (-) : main mineral


water

(w) : as liquid or evaporated in the gas


phase

air

(a) : dry air, as gas or dissolved in the


liquid phase

chemical species : interacting (reactive) species


The three phases are:

gas

(g) : mixture of dry air and water vapour

liquid (l) : water + air dissolved +


dissolved chemical species
S O L ID

solid (s) : main mineral + absorbed cations +


precipitated minerals

CHEMICAL RELEVANT PHENOMENA

PORE WATER:
H2O, Ca2+, SO42-

Solute migration

Cation exchange
reactions
Ca2+

Ca2+

GYPSUM =
CaSO4.2H2O(s)
Dissolution and

CLAY MINERAL

Precipitation of
minerals

New Brazilian Pre-Salt Carbonate Reservoirs


(ultra-deep waters reservoir):
Reservoir and cap rocks integrity
(geomechanical and chemical)

Reservoir properties
(coupled HMC phenomena)
CO2 injection
(multiphase multispecies modeling)
300km from coast
(optimazed management)

Tupi Reservoir

Mount Everest

CO2 underground geological storage:


Carbonate reservoirs: new deformational
mechanisms can take place in the medium
CO2 + H2O = HCO3- + H+
(water acidification)

CaCO3(s) + H+ = Ca2+ + HCO3(calcite dissolution)

Waterweakening
Chemo-mechanical
mechanism

Coupled Analysis of Real Problems

How to solve real


coupled problems?

- Select the relevant phenomena


- Perform experiments
- Formulate constitutive laws

- Develop a numerical tool

VALIDATION at field and experimental scales

Real
problem

Modelling

w
l

S l g S g

Relevant
phenomena

Laboratory
tests

w
l

jg