Está en la página 1de 5

Discussion Paper

Sleep Deprivation in the Intensive Care Unit


Jillian Delves

John Hunter Hospital, Manning Base Rural Referral Hospital, Hunter New England Area Health Service

Abstract

Objectives:

To review the literature on the detrimental effects of disordered sleep in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients;
To identify the causative factors and immunological consequences of disturbed sleep and strategies to diminish their
effects;
To appraise the drugs frequently used within the ICU for the purposes of sedation in relation to their detrimental effect on sleep.

In light of the evidence reviewed in this work, recommendations to extend the scope and address the limitations of
current nursing and medical practice and beliefs are made.
Method: A review of the literature was undertaken. A search of online journal databases for qualitative and quantitative
studies on sleep deprivation published from 2000 to present was undertaken.
Findings: Sleep is an essential function for survival in humans. Sleep disturbances are common in critically ill patients and
contribute to morbidity. Patients are known to have disturbed sleep patterns during their time in the ICU, irrespective of
their diagnoses.
Conclusion: Factors implicated in contributing to sleep deprivation in the ICU include light, frequent disturbances and
activity, and unfamiliar setting and anxiety. Although controversial mechanical ventilation is implicated as a factor in abnormal sleep patterns so are the use of sedatives and analgesics. Nurses are pivotal in implementing strategies to promote
sleep, recognising conditions which predispose patients to sleep disturbances and advocating for patients regarding the
appropriate use of pharmacological modalities that are known to hinder sleep.
Key Words: Intensive Care, Nursing activity, Sleep deprivation, Sleep.

INTRODUCTION
For over two decades sleep disturbance in critically ill patients
has been a recognised phenomenon (Cooper, Thornley, Young,
Slutsky, Stewart & Hanly, 2000). A sequela of sleep deprivation in the critically ill is a host of psychneuroimmunological
and physical consequences that can prove to be fatal.
Nursing activities in addition to routine administration of
sedative and therapeutic drugs as well as drug use prior to
hospitalisation have been implicated in contributing to this
occurrence. (Parthasarathy & Tobin, 2006; elik, ztekin,
Akyolcu & sever, 2005; Bourne & Mills, 2004; Mistraletti,
Donatelli & Carli, 2005; Society of Critical Care Medicine &
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2002). Despite this knowledge sleep deprivation remains an issue in
critically ill patients.
This review addresses the concept of sleep and the detrimental
effects of disordered sleep in the ICU patient. Immunological
consequences of disordered sleep are reviewed. The causative
factors specific to disturbed sleep in the ICU in conjunction
with strategies to diminish the effects are reviewed.
Drugs frequently used within the ICU for the purposes of sedation are appraised in relation to their detriment to sleep.
From the evidence reviewed in this work, recommendations
are made to address the limitations and extend the scope of
current nursing and medical practices and beliefs.

SEARCH STRATEGY
This review examines modern approaches to foundational

16

work on sleep deprivation in the ICU. The search range included the OVID and ProQuest online journal database and
the search engine METASearch. A total of seven search terms
were used related to sleep deprivation in the ICU, and to melatonin and its role in sleep and psychoneuroimmunology. The
publication years searched spanned 2000 to the present with
exceptions occurring for particularly relevant work because it
built the framework upon which current investigations rest.
Authoritative institutional websites such as the Fellowship
of the Royal College of Anaesthetists were also reviewed. An
objective assessment of the impact of the research was considered prior to inclusion of the work. The search methodology was limited to the OVID and ProQuest journal databases.
Only English or English translation articles were included.
Additionally the review was limited by the search terms and
years.

FINDINGS
The Need for Sleep
Sleep is a basic function for survival in humans and one third
of each persons life is spent asleep (Patel, Chipman, Carlin,
& Shade, 2008; De Gennaro, 2008). Sleep disturbances are
common in critically ill patients and contribute to morbidity
(Bourne & Mills, 2004). It is known that patients in the ICU
irrespective of their diagnosis have disturbed sleep patterns
during their time spent in ICU and up to one week following
(Orwelius, Nordlund, Nordlund, Edll-Gustafsson & Sjberg,
2008). An investigation of adult mechanically ventilated ICU
patients conducted by Cooper, Thornley, Young, Slutsky,
Stewart & Hanly (2000) concluded that none of the study participants demonstrated normal sleep patterns.

All body systems require an adequate amount of sleep to


maintain proper function and any disruption in the sleep cycle
can significantly impair any or all of the body systems (Patel,
Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008). Experimental animal studies
have demonstrated that rats deprived of sleep for three weeks
die as a result (Kryger, Dement, & Roth, 2000).
Sleep disruption in critically ill patients has been recognised
as a serious problem for over two decades (Cooper, Thornley,
Young, Slutsky, Stewart & Hanly, 2000). Sleep disruption is
considered as reduced nocturnal sleep capability and altered
sleep patterns with an increase in wakefulness and Stage 1 non
rapid eye movement (NREM) in conjunction with reduced
slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
(Weinhouse & Schwab, 2006; Freedman, Gazendam, Levan,
Pack & Schwab, 2001; Cooper, Thornley, Young, Slutsky,
Stewart & Hanly, 2000). In addition, sleep distribution in the
critically ill has been demonstrated to be abnormal as up to
50% of the total sleep time occurs during the day (Freedman,
Gazendam, Levan, Pack & Schwab, 2001).
Normal patterns of sleep comprise two distinct phases, non
rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM)
(Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008). NREM is further divided into three stages; 1, 2 and N (Patel, Chipman, Carlin
& Shade, 2008). Stage 1 sleep is a drowsy state characterized
with high muscle tone and the presence of slow rolling eye
movements (Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008). Stage 2
sleep is characterized by a decrease in muscle tone and usually occupies 50% of the sleep period (Patel, Chipman, Carlin
& Shade, 2008). Stage N (also known as delta or stage 3/4
sleep or slow-wave sleep, SWS) is thought to be the most restful part of sleep (Cabello, Parthasarathy & Mancebo, 2007)
where during this stage an increase in growth hormone secretion and a decrease of body metabolism and cortisol secretion
occurs (Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008).
Parthasarathy and Tobin (2006) found that approximately
50% of total sleep time in critically ill patients occurs during
the day, with a marked diminution or complete absence of
circadian rhythm. Critically ill patients exhibit more frequent
arousals and awakenings than considered normal, and exhibit
a decrease in REM and SWS (Parthasarathy & Tobin, 2006).

Implications of Sleep Deprivation


Minimal changes in sleep affect health (Yang-Deok et al.,
2009). The physiological response to sleep deprivation is explained by the stress response (Lusk & Lash, 2005). The chief
result of activation of the stress response is the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex and aldosterone from the adrenal medulla giving rise to the phenomena of elevated blood
pressure and immunosuppression (Lusk & Lash, 2005). Shortterm partial sleep deprivation, defined as four hours per night
for six nights, imposed on a group of healthy subjects resulted
in an increase in cortisol levels and sympathetic nervous system activity in addition to decreased glucose tolerance (Ayas,
White, Manson, Stampfer, Speizer & Malhorta, 2003).

Immunological Consequences
Inadequate sleep induces a state of catabolism and impaired
cellular and humoral immunity, which in turn may lead to
delayed healing and increased susceptibility to infection
(Bourne & Mills, 2004; Gabor, Cooper, & Hanly, 2001). Sleep
deprivation has been reported to increase circulating levels of
inflammatory markers such as IL-6, tumour necrosis factor,

and C-reactive protein with significant elevations following


only one night of disturbed sleep (Irwin, Wang, Campomayor, Collado-Hidalgo, & Cole, 2006; Meier-Ewert, et al. 2004;
Vgontzas, et al. 2004).

Respiratory Dysfunction
Gabor, Cooper & Hanly (2001) and Olson, Borel, Laskowitz,
Moore, and McConnell (2001) report that consequences of
sleep disturbance in ICU patients can cause respiratory dysfunction, noted by decreased respiratory muscle endurance
following 30 hours of sleep deprivation and as a consequence
potentially prolonging the need for mechanical ventilatory
support. In addition there are reports of decreased ventilatory
responsiveness to hypercapnia and development of increased
upper airway compliance (Bourne & Mills, 2004; Gabor, Cooper& Hanly, 2001).

Systems Breakdown
Sleep is a critical restorative process, with important circadian variations in protein synthesis and cellular division being present with peak activity occurring during sleep (Patel,
Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008). Experimental animal studies
inducing sleep deprivation have been associated with major
physical abnormalities including development of gastric ulcers, internal haemorrhage, pulmonary oedema, and systemic
bacterial invasion (Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008).
Everson and Toth (2000) report bacterial translocation and its
sequelae provide the mechanism by which sleep deprivation
is detrimental to health. Previous experimental animal studies
inducing sleep deprivation illustrated gradual deterioration in
health culminating in fatal opportunistic facultative anaerobes
generally ascribed as being of gut origin, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Corynebacterium jejeiku
(Everson & Toth, 2000). In isolation these organisms are not
associated with primary bacteraemia or life threatening consequence unless the host is immune-compromised (Everson
& Toth, 2000). Everson and Toth (2000) conducted animal experiments where the principal finding was early infection of
the mesenteric lymph nodes by bacteria translocated from the
intestine. This finding highlights the importance of instituting
early enteric nutrition in the ICU patient as opposed to total
parenteral nutrition due to reported mucosal atrophy and increased intestinal permeability, reflective of intestinal barrier
damage allowing for translocation of bacteria (Gatt, Reddy, &
Macfie, 2007).

Causes of Sleep Deprivation and Nursing Strategies


to Promote Sleep
There are a multitude of factors that contribute to disturbed
sleep in ICU patients (Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008;
Freedman, Gazendam, Levan, Pack & Schwab, 2001). A study
conducted in a Brazillian ICU monitored noise levels for a period of six days (Carvalho, Pedreira & de Aguiar, 2005). The
noise levels identified exceeded International Noise Council
recommendations, with the most significant noise level produced by staff (Carvalho, Pedreira & de Aguiar, 2005). Olson,
Borel, Laskowitz, Moore and McConnell (2001) further report
that noise levels in the critical care environment often exceed
recommendations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and have the potential to disrupt the normal sleep-wake sequence.

17

This finding is commensurate with Parthasarathy and Tobins


(2006) work where it is reported an approximately 20% of
arousals and awakenings are related to noise. Nursing efforts to reduce this phenomenon include the application of
earplugs to patients. A study conducted by Wallace, Robins, Alvord and Walker (1999) demonstrated utilisation of
earplugs increased REM sleep, and decreased REM latency,
however, the number of awakenings were not affected. Given
Parthasarathy and Tobins (2006) report of noise contributing
to 20% of arousals, earplugs are not a definitive method rather
an adjunct to sleep promotion in the ICU patient.
Additional environmental factors such as light, frequent disturbances and activity, and unfamiliar setting and anxiety are
implicated in contributing to sleep disturbance (Patel, Chipman, Carlin & Shade, 2008; Ugras & Oztekin 2007; Parthasarathy & Tobin, 2006; Olson,Borel, Laskowitz, Moore & McConnell, 2001).

Impact of Mechanical Ventilation


A controversial theme is the impact of mechanical ventilation
on sleep. Orwelius, Nordlund, Nordlund, Edll-Gustafsson &
Sjberg (2008) feel that mechanical ventilation has no significant influence on sleep disturbances. However Bosma et al.
(2007) and Ugras and Oztekin (2007) report mechanical ventilation has a significant impact on sleep because of ventilator dysynchrony. The study by Bosma, et al.,(2007) indicated
statistically significant results (p < 0.05), demonstrating less
arousals and fewer awakenings per hour and greater REM
and SWS in addition to fewer episodes of asynchrony during
proportional assist ventilation as opposed to pressure support
ventilation in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation.

Effect of Routine Nursing Care Activities


Routine nursing cares such as eye and mouth care, pressure
area care, dressing changes, and washing the patient all require an environment that is well lit, further increasing the
disturbance of sleep (elik, ztekin, Akyolcu & sever,
2005). Edwards and Schuring (1993) proposed a model of
care to limit sleep disturbances by suggesting that nursing
care activities be limited between 0100HRS and 0500HRS. The
suggested nursing activities for limitation included checking
of alarm parameters, position changes, bathing, and phlebotomy whilst simultaneously administrating medications
to induce sleep and decreasing light and sound levels (Edwards & Schuring, 1993). Some of the suggested limitations
are impractical given the acuity and specific care needs of the
ICU patient however the suggestions can be modified to work
within the ICU. The sound level of monitor alarms can be reduced over night. In addition promotion of dimmed lighting
in conjunction with noise reduction by means of closing the
entrance door to the patients room can be achieved in times
where care activities are not being undertaken. Currently at
the tertiary referral hospital in Hunter New England Area
Health Service it is customary for the night staff to perform
the patients wash. A feasible suggestion to minimise nocturnal disturbances would be to change this customary timing of
the wash.

Use of Sedative Medications


Sedatives are frequently administered to critically ill patients
to promote patient comfort, decrease anxiety and agitation
and promote amnesia and sleep (Parthasarathy & Tobin, 2006;

18

Mistraletti, Donatelli & Carli, 2005; Society of Critical Care


Medicine & American Society of Health-System Pharmacists,
2002). However, Bourne and Mills (2004) contend that sedative and analgesic combinations used to facilitate mechanical
ventilation are among the most sleep disruptive drugs.
Regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and sleep stages occurs by
a complex interplay of various neurotransmitters including
norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and gamma aminobutyric acid (Bourne & Mills, 2004).
Melatonin is an important neurohormone that regulates the
sleep-wake cycle in humans (Bourne & Mills, 2004). Biochemical markers signifying normal circadian rhythm are characterised by comparatively higher melatonin and lower cortical
excretion at night (Frisk, Olsson, Nylen & Hahn, 2004).
In what can only be described as a self-perpetuating cycle, a
range of treatments and conditions commonly found in the
ICU can cause delirium. (McGuire, Basten, Ryan & Gallagher,
2000) (See Figure 1). Delirium in turn is known to alter the
circadian rhythm of melatonin leading to sleep deprivation
(Mistraletti, Donatelli & Carli, 2005; Shigeta et al., 2001).
In a prospective cohort analysis study atypical sleep patterns
were demonstrated in critically ill patients receiving high doses of sedatives (Cooper, Thornley, Young, Slutsky, Stewart &
Hanly, 2000). Benzodiazepines and clonidine have been implicated in abolishing the circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion (Frisk, Olsson, Nylen & Hahn, 2004) whereas morphine is
reported as stimulating melatonin release (Mistraletti, Donatelli & Carli, 2005). Paradoxically narcotics, such as morphine,
can suppress REM sleep - the most restorative phase of sleep

Administration of benzodiazepines or
narcotics
Use of rectal or bladder (Foley)
catheters
Visual or hearing impairment
Use of central venous catheters
Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia
Hypothermia or fever
Use of physical restraints
Age > 70 years
Use of tube feeding or total parenteral
nutrition
Cardiogenic or septic shock
Serum urea nitrogen-creatinine
ratio >18
History of depression
History of cngestive heart failure
History of stroke or epilepsy
Drug overdose or use of illicit drugs
within preceding week
Transfer from nursing home
Alcohol abuse within preceding month
Malnutrition
Liver disease
Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism
Human immunodeficiency virus
infection

(Mistraletti, Donatelli & Carli, 2005). In addition clonidine is


reportedly responsible for a decrease in the REM phase and in
SWS (Bourne & Mills, 2004).
Benzodiazepines improve behavioural aspects of sleep. That
is, they decrease the time needed to fall asleep, decrease
awakenings, increase sleep duration and the efficiency of
sleep (the duration of sleep as a percentage of time in bed)
(Kress, Pohlman & Hall, 2002). However, benzodiazepines increase cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency at low
doses, decrease EEG amplitude and frequency in addition to
suppressing REM and SWS activity at high doses (Mistraletti,
Donatelli & Carli, 2005; Bourne & Mills, 2004). In summary, a
pharmacologically induced state of sleep may superficially resemble the natural state of sleep while not providing the same
physiological benefits associated with true sleep.
Cardiovascular, gastric mucosal protection medications,
along with anti-asthma, anti-infective, antidepressant and
anticonvulsant drugs are commonly used in the ICU and are
reported to cause a variety of sleep disorders (Bourne & Mills,
2004). In addition, a factor often over looked with regard to
sleep deprivation is the consequence of recreational drugs
used prior to ICU admission (Bourne & Mills, 2004). Among
an array of adverse affects are withdrawal from cannabis, alcohol, and amphetamines that can produce insomnia (Bourne
& Mills, 2004). This highlights the importance of being aware
of this issue and, where appropriate, attempting to ascertain
a drug use history.
An open, comparative, prospective, randomised study conducted in Sweden by Treggiari-Venzi, Borgeat, Fuchs-Buder,
Gachoud & Suter (1996) compared the impact of overnight
sedation using midazolam or propofol on factors including
sleep quality. They found that there was no difference in
sleep quality between two groups of nonintubated ICU patients receiving midazolam or propofol. However, there were
several limitations to this study. The dose prescribed and administered to the patients was not stated. Propofol is a general anaesthetic and while can be used in lowered doses for
monitored conscious sedation it is not described nor should
it be prescribed as an agent to induce sleep (MIMS Australia,
2003).

Excretion of Melatonin
Interestingly, urinary excretion of the melatonin metabolite,
6 - sulphatoxymelatonin is reported to exhibit marked abnormalities in septic patients when compared to non-septic patients in whom the secretion remains normal (Mundigler et
al. 2002). Equipped with this knowledge the nurse when caring for the septic patient should be aware they are more than
likely to be suffering sleep deprivation.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Nursing and medical staff need to be informed through
means of wider education on the importance and the physiological restorative benefits of sleep, especially in the critically
ill. There is a need for greater awareness of how routine care
activities are impinging upon sleep and the pharmacological
effects of therapeutic and sedative drugs routinely administered in the ICU.

CONCLUSION
It is imperative nursing and medical staff understand the im-

plications of sleep deprivation in critically ill patients. Furthermore nursing and medical staff need to be made aware of
factors implicated in contributing to sleep deprivation in the
ICU. It is crucial nurses receive education about this issue as
they are pivotal in implementing strategies to promote sleep,
recognise conditions which predispose patients to sleep disturbances and to advocate for patients in appropriate use of
pharmacological modalities that are known to hinder sleep.

References
Ayas, N., White, D., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Speizer, F. & Malhorta, A. (2003). A
prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 163(2), 205-209.
Bosma, K., Ferreyra, G., Ambrogio, C., Pasero, D., Mirabella, L., Braghiroli, A., et
al. (2007). Patient-ventilator interaction and sleep in mechanically ventilated patients: pressure support versus proportional assist ventilation.
Critical Care Medicine. 35(4), 1048-1054.
Bourne, R. & Mills, G. (2004). Sleep disruption in critically ill patients pharmacological considerations. Anaesthesia. 59(4), 374-384.
Cabello, B., Parthasarathy, S. & Mancebo, J. (2007). Mechanical ventilation: let us
minimize sleep disturbances. Current Opinion In Critical Care. 13(1), 2026.
Carvalho, W., Pedreira, M. & de Aguiar, M. (2005). Noise level in a pediatric [sic]
intensive care unit. Jornal de Pediatria. 81(6), 495-498.
elik, S., ztekin, D., Akyolcu, N. & sever, H. (2005). Sleep disturbance: the patient care activities applied at the night shift in the intensive care unit.
Journal of Clinical Nursing. 14(1), 102-106.
Cooper, A., Thornley, K., Young, G., Slutsky, A., Stewart, T. & Hanly, P. (2000).
Sleep in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Chest.
117(3), 809-818.
De Gennaro, L. (2008). Neurobiology wakes up for research on sleep disorders: An
integration of basic and clinical research. Current Pharmaceutical Design,
14(32), 3384-3385.
Edwards, G. & Schuring, L. (1993). Pilot study: validating staff nurses observations
of sleep and wake states among critically ill patients, using polysomnography. American Journal of Critical Care, 2(2), 125-131.
Ely, E., Gautam, S., Margolin, R., Francis, J., May, L., Speroff, T., et al. (2001). The
impact of delirium in the intensive care unit on hospital length of stay.
Intensive Care Medicine, 27(12), 1892-1900.
Everson, C. & Toth, L. (2000). Systemic bacterial invasion induced by sleep deprivation. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Psychology, 278(4), 905-916.
Freedman, N., Gazendam, J., Levan, L., Pack, A. & Schwab, R. (2001). Abnormal
sleep/wake cycles and the effect of environmental noise on sleep disruption in the Intensive Care Unit. American Journal of Respiratory and
Critical Care Medicine, 163(2), 451-457.
Frisk, U., Olsson, J., Nylen, P. & Hahn, R. (2004). Low melatonin excretion during
mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. Clinical Science, 107(1),
47-53.
Gabor, J., Cooper, A. & Hanly, P. (2001). Sleep disruption in the intensive care unit.
Current Opinion in Critical Care, 7(1), 21-27.
Gatt, M., Reddy, B., & Macfie, J. (2007). Bacterial translocation in the critically ill
evidence and methods of prevention. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 25(7), 741-757.
Irwin, M., Wang, M., Campomayor, C., Collado-Hidalgo, A. & Cole, S. (2006). Sleep
deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic
markers of inflammation. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(16), 17561762.
Kress, J., Pohlman, A. & Hall, J. (2002). Sedation and analgesia in the Intensive Care
Unit. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166(8),
1024-1028.
Kryger, M., Dement, W. & Roth, T. (2000). Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine.
(pp. 382-285, 3rd ed.). Philadelphia, United States: Saunders.
Lusk, B. & Lash, A. (2005). The stress response, psychoneuroimmunology, and stress
among ICU patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 24(1), 25-31.
McGuire, B., Basten, C., Ryan, C. & Gallagher, J. (2000). Intensive Care Unit Syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(7), 906-909.
Meier-Ewert, H., Ridker, P., Rifai, N., Regan, M., Price, J., Dinges, D., et al. (2004).
Effect of sleep loss on C-Reactive protein, an inflammatory marker of
cardiovascular risk. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 43(4),
768-683.
MIMS Australia. (2003). Fresofol (propofol 1% w/v) injection. Retrieved January 01, 2009, from http://proxy8.use.hcn.com.au/ifmx-nsapi/mimsdata/?MIval=2MIMS_abbr_pi&product_code=7222&product_name=F
resofol+%28propofol+1%25+w%2fv%29+Injection
Mistraletti, G., Donatelli, F. & Carli, F. (2005). Metabolic and endocrine effects of
sedative agents. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 11(4), 312-317.
Mundigler, G., Delle-Karth, G., Koreny, M., Zehetgruber, M., Steindl-Munda, P.,
Marktl, W., et al. (2002). Impaired circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in sedated critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Critical Care
Medicine, 30(3), 536-540.
Olson, D., Borel, C., Laskowitz, D., Moore, D. & McConnell, E. (2001). Quiet time: a
nursing intervention to promote sleep in neurocritical care units. American Journal of Critical Care, 10(2), 74-78.
Orwelius, L., Nordlund, A., Nordlund, P., Edll-Gustafsson, U. & Sjberg, F.(2008).
Prevalence of sleep disturbances and long-term reduced health-related

19

UoN 2008/1446 | CRICOS Provider 00109J

quality of life after critical care: a prospective multicenter cohort study.


The Critical Care Forum, 12(4), 1-11.
Parthasarathy, S. & Tobin, M. (2006). Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit. In M. Pinsky,
L. Brochard & J. Mancebo (Eds.). Applied Physiology In the Intensive Care
Medicine. (147-156). New York, Unites States of America: Springer.
Patel, M., Chipman, J., Carlin, B. & Shade, D. (2008). Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit
setting. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 31(4), 309-318.
Sethi, D. (n.d). Paediatric Sedation, Retrieved January 01, 2009, from http://
www.anaesthesiauk.com/Documents/105%20Paediatric%20sedation.
pdf#xml=http://www.frca.co.uk/SearchRender.aspx?pdf=on&DocId
=1008&Index=D%3a%5cdtSearch%5cUserData%5cAUK&HitCount=1
&hits=7e6+
Shigeta, H., Yasui, A., Nimura, Y., Machida, N., Kageyama, M., Miura, M., et al.
(2001). Postoperative delirium and melatonin levels in elderly patients.
The American Journal of Surgery, 182(5), 449-454.
Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2002). Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. American Journal of Health
System Pharmacy, 59(2), 150-78.

Treggiari-Venzi, M., Borgeat, A., Fuchs-Buder, T., Gachoud, J. & Suter, P. (1996).
Overnight sedation with midazolam or propofol in the ICU: effects on
sleep quality, anxiety and depression. Intensive Care Medicine, 22(11),
1186-1190.
Wallace, C., Robins, J., Alvord, L. & Walker, J. (1999). The effect of earplugs on sleep
measures during exposure to simulated intensive care unit noise. American Journal of Critical Care, 8(4), 210-219.
Weinhouse, G. & Schwab, R. (2006). Sleep in the critically ill patient. Sleep. 29(5),
707-716.
Ugras, G. & Oztekin, S. (2007). Patient perception of environmental and nursing factors contributing to sleep disturbances in a neurosurgical intensive care
unit. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 212(3), 299-308
Vgontzas, A., Zoumakis, E., Bixler, E., Lin, H.-M., Follet, H., Kales, A., et al. (2004).
Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance,
and inflammatory cytokines. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(5), 2119-2126.
Yang-Deok, L., Ju-Young, L., Ki-Ho, L., Yoon-Jin, K., Seong-Kyu, L., Ok-Soon, K., et
al. (2009). Melatonin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung
inflammation in sleep-deprived mice. Journal of Pineal Research, 46(1), 53-57.

If you want to improve your career prospects in


nursing and midwifery, a postgraduate degree from the
University of Newcastle will deliver what you need to
get you where you want to go.
Our postgraduate programs are available on campus, online or
by distance. Students are supported by continuous discussion
groups and regular email/phone contact with lecturers.

Master of Midwifery
Master of Applied Management (Nursing)
Master of Nursing (Nursing Practitioner)
Master of Nursing (Advanced Practice)
Master of Mental Health Nursing
Graduate Diploma in Midwifery

If you are an experienced clinician with a Bachelors degree (or equivalent), develop your knowledge
and skills as a clinician, scholar and critical reader of research. Up to 50 per cent academic credit can
be awarded for previous study and nursing or midwifery experience.
Master of Philosophy (M Phil)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Full-time or part-time programs designed for nurses and midwives interested in conducting
research. The minimum entry requirement into the M Phil is a Bachelors degree and two years
of practice and the PhD is a an Honours degree or Masters degree, with a research component.
A number of scholarships are available to well-qualied PhD students.
Apply now and get your career moving. For more information visit
www.newcastle.edu.au/study/graduate, call 02 4921 5000, contact
Gradschool.com toll free 1800 88 21 21 (Australia only) or visit www.gradschool.com.au

20