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PROCESSING

Sanjay K. GHOSH

Professor of Civil Engg

IIT ROORKEE

email: scangfce@iitr.ernet.in

scanghosh@yahoo.co.in

ANALYSIS

Act of examining images for the purpose of identifying

objects and judging their significance

Image analyst studies the remotely sensed data and

attempts through logical process

detection,

identification

classification

measurement

Evaluate the significance of physical and cultural

objects, their patterns and spatial relationship.

Representation of Data.

Photograph

Image

The data is in digital form

where

the

area

is

subdivided into equal size

picture elements or pixels.

The

information

is

collected

in

narrow

wavelength range referred

as a BAND

INTERPRETATION

Visual - Human based

Digital - Computer assisted

COMPARISON

VISUAL ANALYSIS

Single band or as FCC

Subjective

Slow

Analyst Bias

DIGITAL ANALYSIS

Multi Image

Objective

Fast with many options

Free of Analyst bias

Black and White Tone

Color

Primary Elements

Stereoscopic Parallax

Size

Spatial Arrangement of Tone

& Color

Shape

Texture

Pattern

Based on Analysis

Primary Elements

of Height

Shadow

Site

Contextual Elements

Association

digitally identify and

classify pixels

supervised

unsupervised

Spectral pattern recognition

Digital image classification uses the spectral

information represented by the digital numbers in one

or more spectral bands, and attempts to classify each

individual pixel based on this spectral information

The resulting classified image is comprised of a mosaic of

pixels, each of which belong to a particular theme, and is

essentially a thematic "map" of the original image .

Supervised classification

Unsupervised classification

Supervised classification

Training areas

the

analyst

identifies

homogeneous representative

samples of the different

surface cover types

To determine the numerical

"signatures

Once the computer has

determined the signatures for

each class, each pixel in the

image is compared to these

signatures and labeled as the

class

it

most

closely

"resembles" digitally

Unsupervised classification

reverse

of

supervised

classification

Spectral classes are grouped

first

Then matched to information

classes

the analyst specifies how

many groups or clusters

It is iterative in nature

not completely without

human intervention

Comparison

With coarse resolution data, the occurrence of mixed pixels

had been intense, and it was thought that this aspect will

reduce with increase in spatial resolution.

However, this problem has remained same in magnitude

with increase in spatial resolution.

With coarse resolution, the chances of two or more classes

contributing to a mixed pixel were high but the number of

such pixels was small.

With improved spatial resolution, the number of classes

within a pixel has reduced but the number of mixed pixels

has increased.

In a way, the problem of mixed pixels remained, may be its

direction of impact has changed.

namely, water and land (Fig.1).

Two pixels belong to only one class, i.e., pixel 1 has

water and pixel 4 has land, and these are called as pure

pixels.

Pixels 2 and 3 has varying composition of land and

water, and are called mixed pixels.

A mixed pixel displays a composite spectral response

that may be dissimilar to the spectral response of each

of its component classes, and therefore, the pixel may

not be allocated to any of its constituent classes.

Therefore, an error is likely to occur in the

classification of the image.

Convention statistical based image classification (also

known as hard classification) which assumes that the

pixels contain pure information, would identify the

pixel to one and only one class.

Thus pixel 2 may be classified as water and pixel 3 as

land (Fig.1b).

Depending upon the proportion of mixed information,

it may result into a loss of pertinent information

present in a pixel and subsequently in an image.

Pixel 1

Pixel 2

Pixel 2

Land

Pixel 3

Pixel 4

Pixel 3

Water

(a)

Water

Land

Pixel 4

Water

Land

(b) Hard

classification

Pixel 1

Pixel 2

Pixel 1

Pixel 2

Pixel 3

Pixel 4

Pixel 3

Pixel 4

(ii) Land

(i) Water

1

(c)

Fraction Image

classification process in some way, by making use

of sub-pixel or soft classification methods based

on certain heuristic and logical reason has to be

adopted.

The output from these methods is a set of class

membership values for each pixel known as soft,

fuzzy or sub-pixel classification outputs which

represent the probability fraction or proportion

images (Fig.1c).

These soft outputs strongly relate to actual extents

of the classes on ground.

Spectral mixture analysis.

Fuzzy set theory.

Artificial neural network.

Widely used for the decomposition of the class proportion of

mixed pixels.

The method assumes that the spectral response of a pixel is a

linear sum of the mean spectral responses of the various land

cover classes weighted by their relative proportion on the

ground

The model can be mathematically expressed as

c

xi = f j Mij + ei

j=1

class spectral response of j th land cover class in the ith band,

f j are the proportions of j th land cover class in a pixel,

ei is the error term for ith band, which expresses the difference

between the observed spectral response and the model derived

spectral response of the pixel.

10

It may be noted that class proportions of a mixed

pixel are not negative and that the sum of all the

class proportions is equal to one, and can be

expressed as

c

= 1

j =1

The end member spectra matrix M represents the

spectral responses of classes, and may be calculated

by taking the average spectral response of that class

having pure pixels, or estimated from laboratory and

field measurements of the classes, or by performing

principal component analysis.

the linear mixture model approach assumes that endmembers can be frequently be recognized from the image

itself ('image end- members').

Disregarding theoretical considerations, such as the fact

that the model assumes a single-scattering approach, it is

the difficulty in locating end- member spectra that present

the main difficulty to the user.

Logic indicates that an end- member proportion can not be

negative and, if the model is properly specified, that the

sum of the proportions of end-members at a given point

must be less than or equal to unity.

11

mixture model so that the result derived for every

individual pixel satisfy these logical requirements.

It is, however, more practical to consider the

unconstrained model which simply computes, from a

library of end member spectra, the end-member

proportions at a given point.

If the model fits perfectly then there should be no endmember proportions less than zero or greater than

unity, and the sum of the proportions at a given point.

If the model fits perfectly then there should be no endmember proportion less than zero or greater than

unity, and the sum of the proportions should not

exceed 1.0.

any systematic pattern.

Only by using and unconstrained model is it possible

to check that these conditions are met.

One constraint imposed by linear unmixing is that the

number of end-members cannot exceed the number of

spectral bands available.

Even so, the selection of end-members which is

crucial to the successful application of the linear

mixing model in fraught with difficulties.

12

FCM is an iterative clustering method employed to

partition pixels of remote sensing images into different

class membership values.

The key is to represent the similarity that a pixel shares

with each cluster with a function (membership function)

whose value lies between zero and one.

Each pixel will have membership in every cluster.

Memberships close to unity signify a high degree of

similarity between the pixel and that cluster.

The net effect of such a function of clustering is to

produce fuzzy c-partitions of a given data.

A fuzzy c-partition of the data is the one which

characterizes the membership of each pixel in all the

clusters by a membership function that ranges from zero to

one.

The main motivation behind the use of PCM relates to the

relaxation of the probabilistic constraint of FCM.

Formulation of PCM is based on a modified FCM objective

function whereby an additional term called as regularizing term

is included.

It is similar to FCM as PCM clustering is also an iterative

process where the class membership values are obtained by

minimizing the generalized least-square error objective function

J m (U , V ) =

(

i=1 j =1

ij

)m xi v j

2

A

(i

j

j =1

ij )

i= 1

in the cluster j and is assumed to be proportional to the mean

value of the intra cluster distance

j

13

Artificial neural networks have the capability to generalize

the relation between the evidence (e.g., remote sensing

data) and the conclusion (e.g., landcover classification)

without developing any mathematical models.

Thus, unlike statistical parametric methods, they do not

assume that the data follows a distribution.

The neural network contains interconnected layers each

containing a number of units, symbolizing the biological

concept of a neuron.

The interconnections carry weights, which are adjusted in

an interactive learning process to provide neural network

solution.

The learning process may be supervised or unsupervised

depending on whether training data are required or not.

Accordingly, a number of supervised an unsupervised

neural network algorithms have been developed.

Os = Oi Wsj

net s = xi Wis

Typically, a supervised

neural network consists of

three layers; an input

layer, a hidden layer and

an output layer.

The input layer receives

the data (i.e., the multispectral remote sensing

image data).

Class 1

Band1

Class 2

Band2

Class 3

Band3

Class 4

Band4

Class 5

s

j

used for the classification.

Unlike input layer, hidden and output layers process the data.

The output layer produces the neural network results.

The number of units in the output layer is generally equal to the

number of classes to be mapped.

14

Therefore, the number of units in the input and output

layers are fixed by the application designed.

Selection of the number of hidden layers and their units is

a critical step for the successful operation of the neural

network.

Using too few units in the hidden layer may result into

inaccurate classification as the network may not be

powerful enough to process the data.

On the other hand, by using a large number of hidden

units, the computational time becomes large. It may also

result into the network being over-trained.

The optimum number of units in the hidden layer is often

determined by trial and error, though some empirical

relations do exist.

The BPNN is a generalized least squares algorithm that adjusts the

connection weights between units to minimize the mean square error

between the network output and the target output.

The target output is known from reference data.

Data provided to input unit are multiplied by the connection weights

and are summed to derive the net input to the unit in the hidden layer.

net s = x iW is

i

response of pixel),

Wis is matrix of the connection weights between ith input layer unit and

sth hidden layer unit.

Each unit in sth hidden layer computes a weighted sum of its inputs,

and passes the sum via an activation function to the units in the j th

output layer through weight vector Wsj.

15

hidden layer unit to an output layer unit. These include pure linear,

tangent, hyperbolic, sigmoid functions , etc.

Although, the use of these functions may lead to difference in

accuracy of classification. Generally, sigmoid function has been

widely used, and may be defined as

Os = 1 /[1 + exp nets ]

where is the output from the sth hidden layer unit, and is a gain

parameter that controls the connection weights between the hidden

layer unit and the output layer unit .

Outputs from the hidden units are multiplied with the connection

weights, and are summed to produce the output of the j th unit in the

output layer

O j = O sWsj

where Oj is the network output for the j th output unit (i.e., the land

cover class) and Wsj is the weight of the connection between sth hidden

layer unit and j th output layer unit.

outputs and network outputs, is minimized iteratively. The

process continues until E converges to some minimum value, and

the adjusted weights are obtained.

c

E = 0 .50 (T j O j ) 2

j =1

vector, and c is the number of classes.

The target vector is determined from the known class allocations

of the training pixels, which are coded in binary form. For

example, a pixel belonging to class 3 shall be coded as 0 0 1 0 0 at

the five output units.

The collection of known class allocations of all pixels will form

the target vector.

16

Class Allocation

Band 1

0

Band 2

1

Band 3

0

Band 4

0

Input Layer

Input Layer

Output Layer

Parameter

/ issue

Comment

Number

of hidden

unit & layers

general, large network may learn more accurately but have poorer

generalization ability than a small network. Larger networks are

also slower to train. How many hidden units and layers should be

used?

Learning

algorithm

Backpropagation is the most widely used but can be slow and

faster variants, which make assumptions about the error surface,

are popular. Which should be used.

Learning

parameters

(e.g momentum and learning rate) that mush be selected. These

can significantly influence the performance of a network. What

values should be selected and should be they be varied in training.

17

Data input

and scaling

variable but other approaches may be used. Also the data input t o the

neural network generally have to be rescaled for the analysis,

typically to a 0 to 1 or -1 to 1 scale. What method should be used to

achieve this and what allowance should be made for data to extend

beyond the range observed in the training set?

Number of

training

iterations

training iterations. The accuracy of generalizations may be nonmonotonically related to the intensity of training: typically the

accuracy of generalization increases as the network gradually learns

the underlying relationship with greater accuracy but will eventually

decline as the network becomes over trained. How many iterations of

the learning algorithm should be used?

When/how to There is a need to ensure that the network has learnt to correctly

terminate

identify class membership from the training data but is not

training

overtraining and so has acceptable generalization ability. How is this

to be assessed? Should verification sets be used?

Initial weights The initial weight settings of the pre-trained network can significantly

influence network performance. Typically, these are generally set

randomly, but within what range?

CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

ASSESSMENT

The accuracy assessment is a critical step in any mapping process, and

thus is an essential component that allows a degree of confidence to

be attached to maps for their effective use.

Traditionally, the accuracy of classification has been assessed using

error matrix based measures.

Here, each pixel in the image is assumed pure, containing one class

per pixel on the ground.

Thus, in essence, the continuum of variation found in the landscape is

divided into a finite set of classes such that pixels representing these

classes became pure, and the error matrix based measures may be

used.

However, these classes become less separable as the class mixture

increases, and therefore, the error matrix based measures may be

inappropriate.

Alternate accuracy measures are, therefore, sought to evaluate the

accuracy of soft classification which represents the class mixture in a

meaningful way.

18

CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

ASSESSMENT

Euclidean distance

L1 distance

the cross-entropy

correlation coefficients

fuzzy error matrix (FERM)

All these measures may be treated as indirect methods of

assessing the accuracy of soft classification because the

accuracy evaluation is interpretative rather than a

representation of actual value as denoted by the traditional

error matrix based measures.

Correlation Coefficient CC

The correlation coefficient CC may also be used to indicate the

accuracy on individual class basis estimated from a soft classification

output and a soft reference data.

The higher the correlation coefficient, the higher is the classification

accuracy of a class.

CC =

Cov ( 1 ij , 2 ij )

ij

ij

where

Cov( 1 ij , 2 ij ) is the covariance between the two distributions (i.e. the soft classified

1 , 2 are the standard deviations of both the distributions.

ij

ij

19

THANK

YOU

20

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