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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple and powerful concept, which uses
transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the street light automatically. By using this
system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight
goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights under
illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR)
which senses the light actually like our eyes.
By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now-a- days the manually
operated street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not
switched on earlier before sunset. In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ
significantly which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuits or manual
operation.
This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to
switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an
electromagnetically operated switch.
Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself
detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then
automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the street
light gets OFF. The extent of darkness at which the street light to be switched on can also be
tailored using the potentiometer provided in the circuit.

CHAPTER 2
2. Block diagram of Embedded based customized wireless message circular system for
college, industries.
2.1.1 TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM:

POWER CIRCUIT DC 5V

LDR
TRANSISTOR

LM324
Comparator IC

Fig: 2.1 Block diagram of development board

CHAPTER-3
HARDWARE DETAILS
3.1 POWER SUPPLY
The Power Supply unit is used to provide a constant 5 volts Regulated Supply to
different ICs this is standard circuits using external 12 VDC adapter and fixed 3-pin voltage
regulator. Diode is added in series to avoid Reverse Voltage Protection.
BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig: 3.1 Block diagram of Power Supply


3.1.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:
When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be
stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. In our circuit the transformer of
230v/15-0-15v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V
AC across the secondary winding. One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to
be positive and the bottom negative. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse.
The current rating of the transformer used in our project is 2A. Apart from stepping down AC
voltages, it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries.

3.1.2 RECTIFIER UNIT:


In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode.
Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily in one direction at proper biasing
condition. As AC is applied to the diode, electrons only flow when the node and cathode is
negative. Reversing the polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow.
A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge
rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4*IN4007) are used to achieve full wave
rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will
conduct during the positive half cycle. The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals
of the bridge rectifier will be somewhat lass than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally one
alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities. Opposite ends of the transformer
will therefore always be 180 deg out of phase with each other.
For a positive cycle, two diodes are connected to the positive voltage at the top
winding and only one diode conducts. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts
for the negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward bias for
that diode. In this circuit due to positive half cycleD1 & D2 will conduct to give 10.8v
pulsating DC. The DC output has a ripple frequency of 100Hz. Since each altercation
produces a resulting output pulse, frequency = 2*50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC
and therefore filtration has to be done.
3.1.3 FILTERING UNIT:
Filter circuits which are usually capacitors acting as a surge arrester always follow the
rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypassing capacitor,
is used not only to short the ripple with frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the
frequency of the DC to appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a
reference to the ground is maintained. C1R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2R2 is used as a low
pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high frequency signals. The
load resistor should be 1% to 2.5% of the load.
1000f/25v

: for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating.

10f/25v

: for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side.O,

1f

: for bypassing the high frequency disturbances.

3.1.4 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATORS:


The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output
voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card
regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. The
voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation, Wi-Fi,
and other solid state electronic equipment. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages
and currents. The LM78XX series is available in an aluminum TO-3 package which will
allow over 1.0A load current if adequate heat sinking is provided. Current limiting is included
to limit the peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is
provided to limit internal power dissipation.
If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the
thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating. Considerable effort
was expanded to make the LM78XX series of regulators easy to use and minimize the
number of external components. It is not necessary to bypass the output, although this does
improve transient response. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from
the filter capacitor of the power supply. For output voltage other than 5V, 12V and 15V the
LM117 series provides an output voltage range from 1.2V to 57V.
Features:
Output current in excess of 1A
Internal thermal overload protection
No external components required
Output transistor safe area protection
Internal short circuit current limit
Available in the aluminum TO-3 package

Fig: 3.2 plastic Package of Voltage Regulator


3.1.5 THREE TERMINAL POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR:
These voltage regulators are monolithic integrated circuits designed as fixedvoltage
regulators for a wide variety of applications including local, oncard regulation. These
regulators employ internal current limiting, thermal shutdown, and safearea compensation.
With adequate heat sinking they can deliver output currents in excess of 1.0 A. Although
designed primarily as a fixed voltage regulator, these devices can be used with external
components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Output Current in Excess of 1.0 A

No External Components Required

Internal Thermal Overload Protection

Internal Short Circuit Current Limiting

Output Transistor SafeArea Compensation

Output Voltage Offered in 2% and 4% Tolerance

Available in Surface Mount D2PAK and Standard 3Lead Transistor

3.1.6 STANDARD APPLICATION

Fig: 3.3 MC78XX Voltage Regulator


A common ground is required between the input and the output voltages. The input
voltage must remain typically 2.0 V above the output voltage even during the low point on
the input ripple voltage.
XX- These two digits of the type number indicate nominal voltage.
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Cin- is required if regulator is located an appreciable distance from power supply filter.
CO- is not needed for stability; however, it does improve transient response. Values of
less than 0.1 mF could cause instability.

Resistor
Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by
the ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a
particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are
omnipresent in electronic circuits.
An electric resistor is a two-terminal passive component specifically used to oppose and limit
current. A resistor works on the principle of Ohms Law which states that voltage across the
terminals of a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it.
The different value of resistances are used to limit the currents or get the desired voltage
drop according to the current-voltage rating of the device to be connected in the circuit. For
example, if an LED of rating 2.3V and 6mA is to be connected with a supply of 5V, a voltage
drop of 2.7V (5V-2.3V) and limiting current of 6mA is required. This can be achieved by
providing a resistor of 450 connected in series with the LED.
Resistors can be either fixed or variable. The low power resistors are comparatively smaller
in size than high power resistors. The resistance of a resistor can be estimated by their colour
codes or can be measured by a multimeter. There are some non linear resistors also whose
resistance changes with temperature or light. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC),
positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and light dependent resistor (LDR) are some such
resistors. These special resistors are commonly used as sensors. Read and learn about internal
structure and working of a resistor.
Pin Diagram:

Capacitor
Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a capacitor is
the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it. Capacitors offer
infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC components or
bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive cycle of charging and
discharging in AC circuits where the voltage and current across it depends on the RC time
constant. For this reason, capacitors are used for smoothing power supply variations. Other
uses include, coupling the various stages of audio system, tuning in radio circuits etc. These
are used to store energy like in a camera flash.
Capacitors may be non-polarized/polarized and fixed/variable. Electrolytic capacitors are
polarized while ceramic and paper capacitors are examples of non polarized capacitors. Since
capacitors store charge, they must be carefully discharged before troubleshooting the circuits.
The maximum voltage rating of the capacitors used must always be greater than the supply
voltage. Click to learn more about working of a capacitor along with its internal structure.

Diode
A Diode is the simplest two-terminal unilateral semiconductor device. It allows current to
flow only in one direction and blocks the current that flows in the opposite direction. The two
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terminals of the diode are called as anode and cathode. The symbol of diode is as shown in
the figure below.

The characteristics of a diode closely match to that of a switch. An ideal switch when open
does not conduct current in either directions and in closed state conducts in both directions.
The characteristic of a diode is as shown in the figure below.

Ideally, in one direction that is indicated by the arrow head diode must behave short circuited
and in other one that opposite to that of the direction of arrow head must be open circuited.
By ideal characteristics, the diodes is designed to meet these features theoretically but are not
achieved practically. So the practical diode characteristics are only close to that of the
desired.

Application:
Diodes are used in various applications like rectification, clipper, clamper, voltage multiplier,
comparator, sampling gates and filters.
1.
Rectification The rectification means converting AC voltage into DC voltage. The
common rectification circuits are half wave rectifier (HWR), full wave rectifier (FWR) and
bridge rectifier.

Half wave rectifier: This circuit rectifies either positive or negative pulse of the
input AC. The figure is as shown below:

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Full wave rectifier: This circuit converts the entire AC signal into DC. The
figure is as shown below:

Bridge rectifier: This circuit converts the entire AC signal into DC. The figure
is as shown below:

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2.
Clipper- Diode can be used to clip off some portion of pulse without distorting the
remaining part of the waveform. The figure is as shown below:

3.
Clamper A clamping circuit restricts the voltage levels to exceed a limit by shifting
the DC level. The peak to peak is not affected by clamping. Diodes with resistors and
capacitors are used to make clamping circuits. Sometimes independent DC sources can be
used to provide additional shift. The figure is as shown below:

Characteristics:

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The current that flows through a diode is given by the equation:

where ID - diode current. (Positive for forward and negative for reverse)
IS - constant reverse saturation current
V - applied voltage. (Positive for forward and negative for reverse)
- factor dependent upon the nature of semiconductor. (1 for
germanium and 2 for silicon)
VT - volt equivalent of temperature which is given by T/11600. (T is
Temperature in Kelvin)
When a forward voltage is applied at the terminals of a diode, the diode begins to conduct.
During conduction, the cut in or threshold voltage exceeds the applied forward voltage. The
threshold voltage for a germanium diode is 0.3V and for silicon diode is 0.7V. The forward
current (miliampere range) initially increases linearly and then increases exponentially for
high currents.
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When a a reverse voltage is applied, a reverse saturation current flows through the diode. The
diode continues to be in the non conducting state until the reverse voltage drops below the
zener voltage. As the reverse voltage approximates the peak inverse voltage a breakdown
called as the Avalanche breakdown occurs. During the breakdown, the minority charge
carriers ionize the stable atoms which are followed by a chain ionization to generate a large
number of free charge carriers. Thus the diode becomes short circuited and gets damaged.
Note: When diodes are connected in series their equivalent peak inverse voltage is increased
while in parallel connection the current carrying capacity is increased.
As the temperature increases, the electron pairs generated thermally also increases thereby
increasing the conductivity in both directions. The reverse saturation current also increases
with the increase in temperature. The change is 11% per C for a germanium diode and 8%
per C for a silicon diode. On the other hand the diode current is doubled for every 10C rise.
With increase in voltage, the firing voltage in forward characteristics is reduced while peak
reverse voltage is increased.
Note: The peak inverse voltage can be reduced by increasing the doping level. The same
concept is used to design zener diodes.
BC547
BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is
commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at
collector & emitter terminals.
BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current
gain of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549.
The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its
characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the
transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is
amplified and taken at the emitter. BC547 is used in common emitter configuration for
amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching
applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In
the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.

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A BC547 transistor is a negative-positive-negative (NPN) transistor that is used for many


purposes. Together with other electronic components, such as resistors, coils, and capacitors,
it can be used as the active component for switches and amplifiers. Like all other NPN
transistors, this type has an emitter terminal, a base or control terminal, and a collector
terminal. In a typical configuration, the current flowing from the base to the emitter controls
the collector

current. A short

vertical

line,

which

is

the

base,

can

indicate

the transistorschematic for an NPN transistor, and the emitter, which is a diagonal line
connecting to the base, is an arrowhead pointing away from the base.
There are various types of transistors, and the BC547 is a bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
There are also transistors that have one junction, such as the junction field-effect transistor, or
no junctions at all, such as the metal oxide field-effect transistor (MOSFET). During the
design and manufacture of transistors, the characteristics can be predefined and achieved. The
negative (N)-type material inside an NPN transistor has an excess of electrons, while the
positive (P)-type material has a lack of electrons, both due to a contamination process called
doping.
The BC547 transistor comes in one package. When several are placed in a single package, it
is usually referred to as a transistor array. Arrays are commonly used in digital switching.
Eight transistors may be placed in one package to make layout much easier, for example.

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3.1.7 TRANSFORMER:

Fig: 3.4 Transformer

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of
power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity
is AC.
Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most
power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage
(230V in UK) to a safer low voltage.

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The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There
is no electrical connection between the two coils, instead they are linked by an alternating
magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of
the circuit symbol represent the core.

Fig: 3.5 Step Down Transformer


Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note
that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.

The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines the
ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary

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(input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns
on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig: 3.6 Circuit Diagram Of Power Supply


3.1.8 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:
The +5 volt power supply is based on the commercial 7805 voltage regulator
IC.This IC contains all the circuitry needed to accept any input voltage from 8 to 18
volts and produce a steady +5 volt output, accurate to within 5% (0.25 volt). It also
contains current-limiting circuitry and thermal overload protection, so that the IC won't
be damaged in case of excessive load current; it will reduce its output voltage instead.
The 1000f capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input
voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. The two rectifier
diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line
voltage, and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between
charging pulses.

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The 10f and .01f capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output
voltage constant when load conditions change. The electrolytic capacitor smooths out
any long-term or low frequency variations. However, at high frequencies this capacitor
is not very efficient. Therefore, the .01f is included to bypass high-frequency changes,
such as digital IC switching effects, to ground.
The LED and its series resistor serve as a pilot light to indicate when the power
supply is on. I like to use a miniature LED here, so it will serve that function without
being obtrusive or distracting while I'm performing an experiment. I also use this LED
to tell me when the reservoir capacitor is completely discharged after power is turned
off. Then I know it's safe to remove or install components for the next experiment.

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