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Guava

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Guava ovate and 515 centimetres (2.05.9 in) long. The
(disambiguation).
owers are white, with ve petals and numerous stamens.
Guavas (singular guava, /w.v/)[1] are common
The genera Accara and Feijoa (= Acca, pineapple guava)
were formerly included in Psidium.

2 Etymology and regional names


The term guava appears to derive from Arawak
guayabo guava tree, via the Spanish guayaba. It has
been adapted in many European and Asian languages,
having a similar form.
Another term for guavas is peru, derived from pear. It is
common in countries bordering the western Indian Ocean
and probably derives from Spanish or Portuguese. In the
Indian subcontinent and Middle-East, guava is called amRipe apple guavas (Psidium guajava)
rood, possibly a variant of armoot meaning pear in the
tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropi- Arabic and Turkish languages.
cal and subtropical regions. Psidium guajava (common guava, lemon guava) is a small tree in the Myrtle
family (Myrtaceae), native to Mexico, Central America, 3 Ecology
and northern South America. Although related species
may also be called guavas, they actually belong to other Psidium species are used as food plants by the caterpillars
genera, such as the strawberry guava Acca sellowiana. of some Lepidoptera, mainly moths like the Ello Sphinx
(Erinnyis ello), Eupseudosoma aberrans, E. involutum,
and Hypercompe icasia. Mites, like Pronematus pruni and
Tydeus munsteri, are known to be crop pests of the ap1 Types
ple guava (P. guajava) and perhaps other species. The
bacterium Erwinia psidii causes rot diseases of the apple
guava.
Although the fruit is cultivated and favored by humans,
many animals and birds consume it, readily dispersing
the seeds in their droppings and, in Hawaii, strawberry
guava (P. littorale) has become an aggressive invasive
species threatening extinction to more than 100 other
plant species.[2][3] By contrast, several guava species have
become rare due to habitat destruction and at least one
(Jamaican guava, P. dumetorum), is already extinct.
Guava wood is used for meat smoking in Hawaii and is
used at barbecue competitions across the United States.
In Cuba and Mexico, the leaves are used in barbecues.
Apple Guava (Psidium guajava) ower

3.1 Fruit
The most frequently eaten species, and the one often
simply referred to as the guava, is the Apple Guava Guava fruits, usually 4 to 12 centimetres (1.6 to 4.7 in)
(Psidium guajava).. Guavas are typical Myrtoideae, with long, are round or oval depending on the species. They
tough dark leaves that are opposite, simple, elliptic to have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon
1

rind but less sharp. The outer skin may be rough, often
with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying between
species, the skin can be any thickness, is usually green
before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or green
when ripe. The pulp inside may be sweet or sour, and owhite (white guavas) to deep pink (red guavas). The
seeds in the central pulp vary in number and hardness,
depending on species.

3.2

Distribution

NUTRITIONAL VALUE

powder or a mix of spices (masala). It is known as the


winter national fruit of Pakistan. In the Philippines, ripe
guava is used in cooking sinigang. Guava is a popular
snack in Taiwan, sold on many street corners and night
markets during hot weather, accompanied by packets of
dried plum powder mixed with sugar and salt for dipping.
In east Asia, guava is commonly eaten with sweet and sour
dried plum powder mixtures. Guava juice is popular in
many countries. The fruit is also often prepared in fruit
salads.

Because of its high level of pectin, guavas are extensively used to make candies, preserves, jellies, jams, and
Guavas are cultivated in many tropical and subtropical
marmalades (such as Brazilian goiabada and Colombian
countries. Several species are grown commercially; apple
and Venezuelan bocadillo), and also for juices and aguas
guava and its cultivars are those most commonly traded
frescas or may be used in a marmalade jam on toast.
internationally.
Red guavas can be used as the base of salted products
Mature trees of most species are fairly cold-hardy and
such as sauces, substituting for tomatoes, especially to
can survive temperatures slightly colder than 25 F (4
minimize acidity. A drink may be made from an infusion
C) for short periods of time, but younger plants will
of guava fruits and leaves, which in Brazil is called chlikely freeze to the ground.[4] Guavas are grown in South
de-goiabeira, i.e., tea of guava tree leaves, considered
Florida as far north as Sarasota, on the west coast, and
medicinal.
Fort Pierce, on the east coast. However, they are a primary host of the Caribbean fruit y and must be protected
against infestation in areas of Florida where this pest is
5 Nutritional value
present.[5]
Guavas are also of interest to home growers in temperate
areas. They are one of the few tropical fruits that can
grow to fruiting size in pots indoors. When grown from
seed, guavas can bear fruit as soon as two years, or as long
as eight years.

Guavas are rich in dietary ber and vitamin C, with moderate levels of folic acid. Having a generally broad, lowcalorie prole of essential nutrients, a single common
guava (P. guajava) fruit contains about four times the
amount of vitamin C as an orange.[6]

Culinary uses

'Thai maroon' guavas, a red apple guava cultivar,


rich in carotenoids and polyphenols

In Mexico, the guava agua fresca beverage is popular.


The entire fruit is a key ingredient in punch, and the juice
is often used in culinary sauces (hot or cold), as well as artisan candies, dried snacks, fruit bars, desserts, or dipped
in chamoy. Pulque de guava is a popular blend of the
native alcoholic beverage.

Yellow-fruited Cherry Guava, (sometimes called Lemon Guava)


Psidium littorale var. littorale

However, nutrient content varies across guava cultivars.


Although the strawberry guava (P. littorale var. cattleianum) has only 25% of the amount found in more
common varieties, its total vitamin C content in one serving (90 mg) still provides 100% of the Dietary Reference
Intake.[7]

5.1 Phytochemicals

In many countries, guava is eaten raw, typically cut into


quarters or eaten like an apple, whereas in other coun- Guavas contain both carotenoids and polyphenols like
tries it is eaten with a pinch of salt and pepper, cayenne (+)-gallocatechin and leucocyanidin.[8][9] As some of

Strawberry Guava, Psidium littorale var. cattleianum

these phytochemicals produce the fruit skin and esh


color, guavas that are red-orange tend to have more
polyphenol and carotenoid content than yellow-green
ones.[10]

Folk medicine

Since the 1950s, guavas particularly the leaves have


been studied for their constituents, potential biological
properties and history in folk medicine.[11] In Trinidad
and Brazil, a tea made from young leaves is thought to be
useful for diarrhea, dysentery or fever.[12]

Footnotes

[1] Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
[2] Price J (14 June 2008). Strawberry guavas hold has
proven devastating. Honolulu Star Bulletin. Retrieved
7 December 2014.
[3] Leveling the Playing Field in Hawaiis Native Forests.
Conservation Council for Hawaii. 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
[4] Julian W. Sauls (December 1998).
home fruit
production-guava. Texas A&M Horticulture program.
Retrieved 2012-04-17.
[5] Boning, Charles R. (2006). Floridas Best Fruiting Plants:
Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota,
Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 99. ISBN 1561643726.
[6] Nutritiondata.com. Nutrition facts for common guava.
Retrieved August 17, 2010.
[7] Nutritiondata.com.
Nutrition facts for strawberry
guava. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
[8] Identication of (+)-gallocatechin as a bio-antimutagenic
compound in Psidium guava leaves. Tomoaki Matsuo,

Shedding bark of Guava tree

Norifumi Hanamure, Kayoko Shimoi, Yoshiyuki Nakamura and Isao Tomita, Phytochemistry, Volume 36, Issue 4, July 1994, Pages 1027-1029, doi:10.1016/S00319422(00)90484-9
[9] Polyphenols of the leaves of psidium guavaquercetin,
guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. T.R. Seshadri and Krishna Vasishta, Phytochemistry, Volume
4, Issue 6, 1965, Pages 989-992, doi:10.1016/S00319422(00)86281-0
[10] Wrolstad (2001)

[11] Gutirrez et al. (2008)


[12] Mendes 1986), p. 65

References

EXTERNAL LINKS

Manosroi, J.; Dhumtanom, P. & Manosroi, A.


(2006): Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil
extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and
P388 cell lines. Cancer Letters 235(1): 114
120. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.021 PMID 15979235
(HTML abstract)

Chen, Kuan-Chou; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, ChiungChi; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Huang,
Kuan-Dar & Peng, Robert Y. (2007): Brain derived
metastatic prostate cancer DU-145 cells are eectively inhibited in vitro by guava (Psidium gujava L.)
leaf extracts. Nutr. Cancer 58(1): 93106. HTML
abstract

Mendes, John (1986). Cote ce Cote la: Trinidad &


Tobago Dictionary. Arima, Trinidad.

Gutirrez, R.M.; Mitchell, S. & Solis, R.V. (2008):


Psidium guajava: a review of its traditional uses,
phytochemistry and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol. 117(1): 127. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.01.025
(HTML abstract)

Oh, W.K.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, M.S. et al. (2005):


Antidiabetic eects of extracts from Psidium guajava. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96(3): 411415.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.041 (HTML abstract)

Hassimotto, N.M.; Genovese, M.I. & Lajolo, F.M.


(2005): Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(8): 2928
2935. doi:10.1021/jf047894h (HTML abstract)

Ojewole, J.A. (2006): Antiinammatory and analgesic eects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae)
leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice. Methods and
Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
28(7): 441446. doi:10.1358/mf.2006.28.7.1003578
(HTML abstract)

Healthaliciousness.com [2008]: Nutrient facts comparison for common guava, strawberry guava, and
oranges. Retrieved 2008-DEC-21.
Jimnez-Escrig, A.; Rincn, M.; Pulido, R. &
Saura-Calixto, F. (2001): Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary
ber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
49(11): 54895493. doi:10.1021/jf010147p (HTML
abstract)
Kaljee, Linda M.; Thiem, Vu Dinh; von Seidlein,
Lorenz; Genberg, Becky L.; Canh, Do Gia; Tho,
Le Huu; Minh, Truong Tan; Thoa, Le Thi Kim;
Clemens, John D. & Trach, Dang Duc (2004):
Healthcare Use for Diarrhoea and Dysentery in Actual and Hypothetical Cases, Nha Trang, Viet Nam.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 22(2):
139-149. PDF fulltext
Mahattanatawee, K.; Manthey, J.A.; Luzio, G.; Talcott, S.T.; Goodner, K. & Baldwin, E.A. (2006):
Total antioxidant activity and ber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(19): 73557363.
doi:10.1021/jf060566s PDF fulltext
Mahfuzul Hoque, M.D.; Bari, M.L.; Inatsu, Y.;
Juneja, V.K. & Kawamoto, S. (2007): Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)
extracts
against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 4(4): 481488.
doi:10.1089/fpd.2007.0040 PDF fulltext

Mukhtar, H.M.; Ansari, S.H.; Bhat, Z.A.; Naved,


T. & Singh, P. (2006): Antidiabetic activity of an
ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae). Pharmazie 61(8): 725
727. PMID 16964719 (HTML abstract)

Wrolstad, Ronald E. (2001): The Possible Health


Benets of Anthocyanin Pigments and Polyphenolics. Version of May 2001. Retrieved 2008-DEC21.

9 External links
Fruits of Warm Climates: Guava
California Rare Fruit Growers: Tropical Guava
Fruit Facts

10
10.1

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