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47

INTRODUCTION

Y2 = A2eic t

(b)

and substituting in (a) lead to the following set of algebraic equations relating

the frequency, co, and the amplitudes, AI, A2:

2

(k1 + k 2 )A - k 2A2 = n1co A 1

2co

-k 2 Al + k 2A2 =

Characteristic-Value

Problems and

Quadratic Forms

)x

+ a,2x -2

)X2

kL + k2---

(2-1)

ax = Ax

(2-2)

or

(2-3)

(a

- 21 2)X

A1

inYZ1n

+ kjy 2 - k 2 (y2 - Y) = 0

is a hybrid of the

* Also called "eigenvalue" problem in some texts. The term "eigenvalue"

German term Eigenwerte and English "value."

46

712

nrz

A, +

k2

/'2

4A1

(e)

A-2 =A2

related to the natural frequencies and normal mode amplitudes by (d). Note

that the coefficient matrix in (e) is symmetrical. This fact is quite significant,

as we shall see in the following sections.

Y21

M2

k2

The values of 2 for which nontrivial solutions of (2-1) exist are called the

characteristicvalues of a. Also, the problem of finding the characteristic values

and corresponding nontrivial solutions of(2-) is referred to as a second-order

characteristic-value problem.*

The characteristic-value problem occurs naturally in the free-vibration

analysis of a linear system. We illustrate for the system shown in Fig. 2-1.

The equations of motion for the case of no applied forces (the free-vibration

case) are

m2 y 2 + k2 (y 2 - Y) = 0

m2

(d)

I

a 2 1x1 + (a2 2 -

)2

A = A 12,

A.2 = A 2

INTRODUCTION

(all

A2

We can transform (c) to a form similar to that of(2-1) by defining new amplitude

measures,*

1/1-1I1n

2-1.

for considering the characteristic-value problem is that results obtained for the

characteristic value problem provide the basis for the treatment of quadratic

* See Prob. 2-1.

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

48

SEC. 2-2.

CHAP. 2

Solving (a),

Al = +6

function (Chapter 3), the construction of variational principles (Chapter 7), and

stability criteria (Chapters 7, 18). This discussion is restricted to the case where

a is real. Reference 9 contains a definitive treatment of the underlying theory

and computational procedures.

= +1

(2)

-2

al

all -1]

x2 =

A1

;11,

2-2.

49

= +i

1

-I-

where i =

In what follows, we suppose the characteristic values are real. We consider

first the case where a = . Equation (2-4) becomes

(2-4)

a2 1 xl + (a2 2 -- )X 2 = 0

are possible only if the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes, that is,

I

I

Ia_l l

when

-U12

(2->)

Ia21

a22

(all -

- 0

22

(2-7)

f11 = all + a 2 2

al1 a2 2 - a

2 a2 1

al

2

1A + /32=

(all -

= (all - a 2 2)

+ 4(a 12)

l)(a2 2 -

1)

- a1 2 a21

X C~~1)

1 011

X(t)

(d)

-~~~~

_ all - A

a1 2

(I)

+

2511

+ 6= 0

By definition,

(a)

(e)

and the resulting column matrix, denoted by Q 1, is referred to as the charac

teristic vector for A1.

Example 2-1

- (2)(2)= 67

fI = 2

6

(2)(5) - (2)(2)

fl

(c)

Since this quantity is never negative, it follows that the characteristic values for a

symmetrical second-order matrix are always real.

= 0

(b)

Since only one equation is independent and there are two unknowns, the solu

tion is not unique. We define x(?, x21) as the solution for A = Al. Assuming*

that a 2 # 0, the solution of the first equation is

2

a 21

Al

This follows from the fact that the coefficient matrix is singular.

second eq. = (

(2-8)

The roots of (2-8) are the characteristic values of a. Denoting the roots by

il, A2,the solution is

(2-9)

42)2

A1 , 2 = (WIt + I-

2

A - 7

(a)

We let

pi - 4

-_

Expanding (2-5) results in the following equation (usually called the characteristic equation) for A:

\'-O

2

I-- o}

0

' - (all + a )A + (alla2 2 - a 2 1a 12 )

1f2

l)xl + al 2x

QTQ = 1

(2-10)

2

11

(2-11)

50

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

SEC. 2-2.

aQ =

Following the same procedure for

=

A2,

(1)

we obtain

1

[2

(2-13)

- 2b2}

=1 +

all -+-

-4x, + 2x 2 = 0

22

2x

Also,

Q2Q 2 = 1

2

(2-14)

These equations are linearly independent, and the two independent solutions

are

x(l) = {c 1 , 0}

(b)

X(2) = {0, C2 }

The corresponding characteristic vectors are

a 12

-A2)

{1,2}

= 2 = + 1, we find

and

(2)= c2{1, -}

2

1

Q2 = / {1, -} = -/5 {2, - 1}

aQj =2

i = 1,2

jQj

QIQ 2 = Q2Q 1 = 0

(2)

(all -- A,)(a

X1) = 2X(1 ) = 2c 1

Q, =

Repeating for

= 0

x( )= cl{1, 2}

(2-15)

the characteristic values are equal.

It is of interest to examine the product, QrQ2. From (2-10) and (2-13),

we have

- x

X(?) = C1

Then,

and

Q = {+1,0}

Q2

{0, + 1}

-c

i;2Q2

acteristic values will be equal only when al 1 = a22 and a1 2 = a21 = 0. Equa

tion (2-4) takes the form

(al - )xl + ()x 2 = 0

(a)

(0)x1 + (all - )x 2 = 0

QTQ2

= +

= 1 = + 6 are

at2

aQ

2]

A1 = +6

where

(i\2

a:[1

3]

The characteristic values and corresponding normalized solutions for this matrix are

21 = +5

(a)

2 = -1

15

{4 , - 1}

Q =

al

- 22 = -(a

22

) =

-a

1

all -

(b)

1

and we see that Q Q 2 = 0. This result is also valid when the roots are equal.

In general, QQ2 # 0 when a is unsymmetrical. Two nth order column vectors

U, V having the property that

UT V=VTU = 0

51

Example 2-2

(2-12)

Q1

c2 {1

Q2 =

CHAP. 2

Q

QTQ 2

-5

(3)

(2-16)

for the symmetrical case.

= +i

)2 = -i

We have included this example to illustrate the case where the characteristic values are

I IF PROBLEMS

A nrTRI .lTIC.A_\ A

rV,

52

CHAP. 2

SEC. 2-3.

I1v-., ,..

cI

(1 - i)xt - 2x 2 = 0

(1 + i)x 2 = 0

Note that the second equation is (1 - i) times the first equation. The general solution is

I-

Repeating for

= C2 {1, W

~~-~L'2

When the roots are complex, 22 is the complex conjugate of At,.Now, we take c2 = c.

(

Then, x(2) is the complex conjugate of x 1) We determine c, such that

2

(X( t))Tx( )=

QfQ 2 = Q2Q1 = 0

Also, by definition,

QtQ

Al,2-- +i

= QQ2 = 1

Q1 2-

In general, the characteristic values are complex conjugate quantities when the elements

of a are real. Also, the corresponding characteristic vectors are complex conjugates.

f

i

The characteristic vectors for the second-order system satisfy the following

relations:

(a)

aQ1 =AiQ1

aQ

=A 2 Q2

Q2] =

LQtJfI [Qt

q-1

2-3.

(2-19)

The matrix operation, p- ( )p where p is arbitrary, is called a similaritytransformation. Equation (2-19) states that the similarity transformation, q-l'( )q,

reduces a to a diagonal matrix whose elements are the characteristic values

of a.

If a is symmetrical, the normalized characteristic vectors are orthogonal,

that is,

= .2, we find

X(2)

q-laq

{1, 2j}

x(l)

(2-20)

qT

Now, we let

Q2 1

= [Q1 Q21'

(b)

Example 2-3

(1)

1, ==

[2 2]

Q2]

q = [Q

,

modal matrix* for a. With this notation, (b) takes the form

aq = qk

(2-17)

2, = +6

Q1 =

- {(1,2}

normalized

A2 =

+1

Q2 =1

{2,-1}

(2-18)

* This terminology has developed from dynamics, where the characteristic vectors define the

normal modes of vibration for a discrete system.

p'

is called an

transformation. Note that an orthogonal transformation is also a similarity

transformation. Then, the modal matrix for a symmetrical matrix is orthog

onal and we can write

qTaq =

(2-21)

a[Q 1

53

We have shown that the characteristic vectors are always linearly indepen

dent when a is symmetrical. They are also independent when a is unsymA2. Then, ql # 0 except for the case where a is

metrical, provided that Al

unsymmetrical and the characteristic values are equal. If ql # 0, q-t exists

and we can express (2-18) as

xl-

=[A

q= [Q,

0]i= [+

+0

Q2 = ]= [ 2_ -1]

Q2

CHAP. 2

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

54

2rl

X2

/5

5 2

qTaq

-1]

-1

1]

I [I - 1 126

1 5 2a

_2

01 = [I

[0

5

= 6

0

1]

2-4.

-1|

1]

=

IL

rql//

+ a2 X,, = AX 2

+ a2 x 2

4/X/

[l/6

2//7

...

(2-22)

+ an,,,x, = Ax,

ax = Ax

(a -

(2-23)

n)x =

singular.

(2-24)

a - I,, = O

-1/17

Q= L//

1/J17

85-

al 2 x 1 + a2 2 x2 +

q 1. Actually,

+ alnXn = AX 1

L 4,- 1

Q2=

[O

allxl + a 2 X2 +

an 1 ,

Q1 =-A={2, + 1}

- 5

-1

J=-I

minling the characteristic values and corresponding nontrivial solutions for

1

A1, = +5

aq

PROBLEM

(2)

A

2

55

21

1 r

-1|

0

[5

5[0

2]1

21

I r2

v/

2] [1

-1][2

T I[

5[2

(Iq

SEC. 2-4

2 5/3]

- ,/1/31

(_)n

(n- _

3n-1

+ p 2,n -2 _

** + (1)

n) = O

where

(2-25)

0] = h

I1

q-aq=

q' 10

and /3j is the sum of all the jth order minors that can be formed on the diag,An denote the roots, and expressing the characteristic

onal.* Letting Al, A2,

equation in factored form, we see that

(3)

i -21

[=L+i

+ ,

fl = A1 + 2 +

+

... + An-1An

A21A

+

=

A21A

2

3

2

fn =

q= 2/3

al

i2 1

[-i

In this case, q involves complex elements. Since the characteristic vectors are complex

conjugates, they are linearly independent and q-' exists. We find q-', using the definition equation for the inverse (Equation (1-50)):

1I2 .i..

-Adj

Iqi

q= 3/4I +

We summarize below the theoretical results for the real symmetrical case.

The proofs are too detailed to be included here (see References 1 and 9):

1. The characteristic values A1, A2, ... , Ain, are all real.

. , Qn , are orthogonal:

2. The normalized characteristic vectors Q 1,Q,

QTQj = 6ij

1~lAdjq

I =

(2-26)

(2-26)

i,j = 1,2.

j2

* Minors having a diagonal pivot (e.g., delete the kth row and column). They are generally called

principal minors.

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

56

3.

CHAP. 2

qraq = .

q =

4) = 0

)2

= 3

23 = -1

22 =-3

Q1n

QtQ2 *

2)((1-

(3 -

it

where

57

QUADRATIC FORMS

SEC. 2-5.

= [iJj]

(1 - )x

+2x 2

2x

+(1 -

(a)

)x2

Example 2-4

(3 - i,)X 3

(1)

a

33

- 922 + 182 - 6 =

+0.42

+ 2.30

23,

+6.28

(1 - 2)X3 =

I=1,2,3

I - Aj

(2)

O-

j2

L+0.8

+0.68

-0.52

-0.84

+0.54

-0.10

{A2'

we

' }

{0,0,1}

xi

- -x

31)

Q3

x3' = 0

and

'

2,O]

This example illustrates the case of a symmetrical matrix having two equal characteristic

inde

values. The characteristic vectors corresponding to the repeated roots are linearly

roots.

repeated

the

for

I

rank

of

is

I13

pendent. This follows from the fact that a -

QUADRATIC FORMS

+ 2a12xlx2 + a2 2 x22

is called a quadratic form in x, x 2. Using matrix notation, we can express

F as

F =a

l lx

2 ral

La.2

.0

X3 = C2

2xl + 2x 2 = 0

2x, + 2 2 = 0

4x = 0

for 23 are

vector

characteristic

and

The general solution

2-5.

)x2

is

Solving the first and third equations for xt and x3 in terms of x2, the general solution

+0.50

Q2

=- 1,(a) reduces to

X2

-+0.22 +0.51

X2 = C1

= C1

Ql

2x 2

When

_-X = -(3

q = [QtQ2Q3

We see from (b) that (a - 213) is of rank 1 when 2 = 3. The general solution of (b) is

(5 - )x1

(- 2)x

(b)

By specializing the constants, we can obtain two linearly independent solutions for the

repeated root. Finally, the characteristic vectors for L = `2= 3 are

= +11 + 5 + 2= +18

,3 = 5(2) - (-2)(-2) - +6

,,

A,

2

= 0

(O)X3 = 0

2,

-2X2 =

2xt

il, fi2,

Since a is symmetrical, its characteristic values are all real. We first determine

25

+9

=

I

5 3+

using (2- ):

f() = 2,3

+2x

- 2x I

01

5 -2

3 - -2

0 -1 I1

a]

a22

{X

x2

xT

58

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

CHAP. 2

SEC. 2-5.

n

F =

k=1 j=1

ajkxjxk = x ax

(2-27)

=Fall

F

Lal2

where ajk = akj, for j =A k, is said to be a quadratic form in xl, x2 ,..., x,,.

If F = xTax is nonnegative (2 0) for all x and zero only when x = 0, we call

F a positive definite quadratic form. Also, we say that a is a positive definite

matrix. If F > 0 for all x but is zero for some x :A 0, we say that F is positive

semidefinite. We define negative definite and negative semidefinite quadratic

forms in a similar manner. A quadratic form is negative definite if F < 0 for

all x and F = 0 only when x = 0. The question as to whether a quadratic form

is positive definite is quite important. For example, we will show that an

equilibrium position for a discrete system is stable when a certain quadratic

form is positive definite.

Consider the quadratic form

2

F = blx + b 2x2 +

21 + 22 =

'. '

xlA

b2

...

X2

LO=0

... -"

(2-28)

12>0

(b)

Ai >0

A2 >0

(c)

a,

x,

= all

= a

a l la 2

al 2 a1 2

31> 0

b >0

Then, letting

y = qTx

x = qy

(2-29)

A =

(2-30)

It follows that F is positive definite with respect to y when all the characteristic

values of a are positive. But y is uniquely related to x and y = 0 only when

x = 0. Therefore, F is also positive definite with respect to x. The problem of

establishing whether xTax is positive definite consists in determining whether

all the characteristic values of a are positive.

(2-31)

2 > 0

(2-32)

f >

f22>

,, > 0

(2-33)

where flj is the sum of all the jth-order principal minors. Equivalent conditions

can be expressed in terms of the discriminants. Let Aj represent the deter

minant of the array consisting of the first j rows and columns.

F = xrax = yT[,iij]y

ai

The above criteria also apply for the nth-oder case. That is, one can show

that a is positive definite when all its invariants are greater than zero.

Now, to establish whether xrax is positive definite, we first reduce a to a

diagonal matrix by applying the transformation, q-'( )q, where q is the orthog

onal normalized modal matrix for a. We write

(a)

f2 >

A, >0

= (XTq)[.ijijy](qX)

(d)

> 0.

b >0

(a)

Jai

al = alla22 - a 2 > 0

Since a > 0, it follows from the second requirement in (d) that a2 2

Therefore, (d) is equivalent to (b). We let

or

b 2 > 0"

all >0

0

#3I>o0

A2 =

bl

are equivalent to

According to the definition introduced above, F is positive definite when

b2 > 0,"

al 1 a2 2 -

+ bx,

,

= all + a2 2

A;l2 =

bl

al2

a2

XJ

bl > 0

59

[XIX ...

=

QUADRATIC FORMS

al1

a1 2

:j12

22

alj

c2j

..

atj

a2

.*

(2-34)

ajj

The conditions,

ik,

N,

I

A1 > 0 A 2 > 0

are sufficient for a to be positive definite.*

* See Ref. 1 for a detailed proof. Also see Prob. 2-15.

A,, >0

(2-35)

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

60

CHAP. 2

7. NOBLE, B.: Applied Linear Algebra, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1969.

Example 2-5

(1)

9.

London, 1965.

10. FADDEVA, V. N.: Computational Methods of Linear Algebra, Dover Publications,

New York, 1953.

+1

11.

A2 = 2 -1 = +1

A3 = 1(6-4)- 1(3 -2)

12.

13.

PETERS, G., and J. H. WILKINSON: "Eigenvalues of AX = BX with Band Symmetric

A and B," Comput. J., 12, 398-404, 1969.

+ 2 + 3 = +6

P2 = (2 - 1) +-(3 - 1) + (6 - 4) = +5

PROBLEMS

f3 = A3 = +1

(2)

1

L

1

Since

A2

+ 1(2-2) = +1

Since all the discriminants are positive, this matrix is positive definite. The corresponding

invariants are

=

8.

1

12 2

1 2 3

A1 =

2-1.

b = pTap = p- ap

B = bTb

= pTaTp = p ap

(2-36)

ax = AX

(2-37)

2-2. Let xl, x2 be two nth-order column matrices or column vectors and

let c1, c2 be arbitrary scalars. If

Clxi + C2 X2 = 0

Now, b and a have the same characteristic values.* This follows from

I,)p = la - I,

(2-38)

definite character of a matrix is preserved under an orthogonal transformation.

that x1 and x2 are linearly dependent when one is a scalar multiple of the other.

Using (2-10) and (2-13), show that Q1 and Q2 are linearly independent when

;il

= 212-

2-3.

REFERENCES

1. HILDEBRAND, F. B.: Methods of Applied Mathematics, Prentice-Hall, New York,

1952.

2. BODEWIG, E.: Matrix Calculus, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1956.

3. SMIRNOV, V. I.: LinearAlgebra, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass.,

1964.

4. TURNBULL, H. W., and A. C. AITKEN: An Introduction to the Theory of Canonical

Matrices, Dover Publications, New York.

5. HADLEY, G.: Linear Algebra, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass., 1961.

* See Prob. 2-5.

(b)

AI, = p-'(a -

(a)

By

B can be expressed as (see Prob. 1-25)

lb-

Ay =

-2

61

PROBLEMS

(a)

(b)

r3 21

2

0

0 5 0

3 0 2

2-4. Following the procedure outlined in Prob. 2-1, determine the charac

teristic values and modal matrix for

12y, + 12y 2 = 4y,

12y + 63y2 = 9y2

CHARACTERISTIC-VALUE PROBLEMS

62

2-5.

b = p-'ap

Then,

Il = la - )1,l

lb -

(a) Deduce that

(b) = ,(a)

values of a are distinct, one can show that (see Ref. 1)

F(a) =

where 0 is an nth-order null matrix. That is, a satisfies its own characteristic

equation. This result is known as the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

(a) Verify this theorem for

r2 1

k= 1,2,..., n

3(a)

/3(b) =

Note: F(a) = a2 -

Demonstrate for

x82,

1r -2

- 1

P=

'1

(b)

Show that

a-

(a)

(b)

2-10.

qTaq = -

for n

ia + /3

2 3)

- 4x1 x 2 + 6xjX 3

F = 3xf + 5X2 + 6

8x 2x

:finite is

dc

a=2

2-11. If a = 0, ax = 0 has a nontrivial solution, say x. What is the

value of x'ax ? Note that 2 = 0 is a characteristic value of a when a is singular.

2-12. Let C be a square matrix. Show that CTC is positive definite when

0 and positive semidefinite when CI = 0.

|CI

(Hint: Start with F = xT(CTC)x and let y = Cx. By definition, F can equal

zero only when x = 0 in order for the form to be positive definite.)

2-13. Consider the product CTaC, where a is positive definite and C is

square. Show that C7aC is positive definite when CI # 0 and positive semidefinite when C I = 0. Generalize this result for the multiple product,

7l

2

aa

2

a 3 = aa

aar =

= aar-1

aa'

If fal # O,a-

(a2 -

2-9. Determine whether the following quadratic forms are positive definite.

la -+ 212.

2 31

..

63

PROBLEMS

CHAP. 2

a-lar = ai' -l

(b) Let Ai be a characteristic value of a. Show that ,' is a characteristic

value of ar and Qi is the corresponding characteristic vector.

arQi = XrQi

Hint: Start with aQi = iQi and premultiply by a.

2-8. A linear combination of nonnegative integral powers of a is called a

polynomial function of a and written as P(a). For example, the third order

polynomial has the form

3

P(a) = c0 a

a22

ca

C Cn-

laC ,,-1

m x . Consider the product,

b = CT aC

Show that b is positive definite only when the rank of C is equal to n. What

can we say about b when r(C) < n?

2-15. Consider the quadratic form

all

F[X1 X2

x]L

12

al

a

a1 2

a22

..

' xi

a2n

X2

ann-

X,

+ c2 a + c3 In

+

aln

a2n*

,u

knrlxv

64

o A rTI:ITl'.-\ALuIE

?[ IV

I L- IV

65

PROBLEMS

CHAP. 2

PROBLEMS

.......

We partition a symmetrically,

(pxp)

r[All

[X 1X2 AT

F

x

(qp)

(pxq)

(p

A1 2

(q

1)

form

where q = n - p. The expansion of F = XTaX has the

F = X A, 1 X

3 0 0

0 2 1

0 0 5 21

matrices,

2-18. Suppose we express a as the product of two quasi-triangular

for example,

2

X2

A22

(q x q)

1)

+ 2XTA 12 A2 + X2A 2 2 X

(pxp)

(nxn)

Fp = XTA 1X1

G 21

p = 12,...,n

that it

are necessary conditions for a to be positive definite. Note

conditions.

remains to show that they are also sufficient

(b) Discuss the case where Ap = 0.

2-16. Refer to Prob. t-25. Consider a to be symmetrical.

product of nonsingular

(a) Deduce that one can always express a as the

positive definite.

is

a

when

matrices

triangular

lower and upper

(b) Suppose we take

bll = b22 =

bn,,

+1

j = 1,2,...,n

gjj > 0

and positive semi-definite when

j =1, 2,. . . , n

gjj > 0

(c)

Suppose we take g = b. Then,

GIlI B IIJ

and

i\ =

lb 2 .

= bb 1=22

11

(qxp)

Since /A l1 is equal

For Fp > 0 for arbitrary X 1, All must be positive definite.

that A lll must be

to the product of the characteristic values of All, it follows

positive.

(a) By taking p = 1,2,..., n, deduce that

Ap = IAlll > 0

[G

b2PP

when a is

Show that the diagonal elements of b will always be real

positive definite.

partitioned, the

2-17. If a quasi-diagonal matrix, say a, is symmetrically

that

Establish

matrix.

submatrix All is also a quasi-diagonal

i, j = 1, 2, . . , N

a = [Ai

positive definite.

is positive definite only when Ai (i = 1, 2, . ., N) are

where p

(pxq)

G 2 2j

B1 2

B2 2 J

(qxq)

q = n. We take

B2 2 ' Iq

B 11 = Ip

for arbitrary p when

Show that the diagonal submatrices of g are nonsingular

a is positive definite.

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