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# Std.

IX Mathematics
1. Sets :
o Introduction
o Methods of writing sets
o Types of sets
o Subset - Proper, Improper subset
o Super set
o Universal set
o Venn diagrams
o Operations on sets
o Relations between various operations
o Number of elements in the set and related results.
2. Real Numbers :
o Revision of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers and irrational
numbers
o Existence of irrational numbers and their representations on the number
line
o Every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line
and conversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real
number
o Properties of real numbers
o Definition of nth root of a real number
o Surds - Definition
o Forms of surds
o Operations and Laws of surds
o Rationalization of Surds
o Absolute value of real numbers
o Euclid's division Lemma
o Fundamental theorem of Arithmetic
3. Algebraic Expressions :
o Introduction to algebraic expression?
o Operations on algebraic expressions
o Methods of factorization of algebraic expression?
o Introduction to polynomials
o Operations on polynomials
o Value of polynomials
o Zeros/roots of polynomial
o Relation between zeros and coefficient of polynomials?
o Remainder theorem
o Factor theorem
4. Graphs :
o Cartesian coordinate system
o Understanding of graphs of lines parallel to axes
o Graph of line ax + by + c = o
5. Linear equations in two variables

## o System of linear equations

o Solution of system of linear equations in two variables(Algebraic
methods)
6. Ratio, proportion and variation
o Introduction to ratio
o Properties of ratio
o Properties of equal ratios
o Theorem on equal ratios
o Percentage as a ratio
o Introduction to proportion
o Introduction to variation
o Revision of concepts based on Direct variation, Inverse variation
o Mixed variation
o Real life problems based on ratio, proportion and variation
7. Statistics :
o Collection of data
o Classification and tabulation of data
o Diagrammatic representation of data
o Graphical representation of data
o Mean, median, mode of ungrouped data
8. Lines and Angles :
o Introductions to line
o Basic terms and definitions related to line
o Introduction to Euclid's Geometry
o Plane separation axiom
o Introduction to angles in terms of rotation
o Directed angles, Sexagesimal system
o Types of angles
o zero angle, straight angle, coterminal angle
o Relation between angles
o Introduction to mathematical proofs
o Parallel lines
o Results on parallel lines and transversal
o Tests of parallel lines
o Results on perpendicular lines
o Distance of a point from a line
9. Triangles :
o Types of triangles
o Terms related to triangle
o Properties of triangle
o Exterior angles and corresponding interior opposite angles
o Results involving exterior angle and corresponding interior opposite
angles
o Similar triangles
10. Congruence of triangles :

## o Criteria of congruent triangles

o Theorem of an isosceles triangle and its converse
o Perpendicular bisector theorem
o Angle bisector theorem
o Properties of triangles based on inequalities
o Property of perpendicular drawn from a point outside the line.
11. Circle :
o Introduction to circle and related terms
o Circle passing through the given points
o One and only one circle passes through the three non collinear points.
o Congruence of circles
o Properties of chords of the circle
o Properties of quadrilateral
o Properties of parallelogram
o Properties of rectangle
o Properties of a trapezium
o Properties of a rhombus
o Properties of a square
o Kite
o Tests for particular quadrilateral
o Theorem on midpoints of two sides of a triangle and its converse
13. Coordinate Geometry :
o Distance formula
o Section formula
o Area of a triangle
14. Geometric constructions :
o Basic construction perpendicular bisector of given segment.
o Construction of a triangle
Sum/difference of two sides and base angles is given
Perimeter and base angles are given
15. Trigonometry :
o Introduction to trigonometric ratios
o Trigonometric Ratios of angles 0o, 30o, 45 o, 60 o, 90 o
o Trigonometric identities for complementary angles
16. Mensuration :
o Area of triangle
o Area of regular hexagon, polygon
o Area of quadrilaterals
o If two parallelograms lie between two parallel lines and have the same
base then they have thesame area.
o If a triangle and a parallelogram have the same base and lie between the
same parallel lines, then the area of the triangle is half the area of the
parallelogram.
o Perimeter of triangle and quadrilateral
o Area of circle

## SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Food (Biology)
1.1. Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement.
1.2. Use of fertilizers, manures.
1.3. Protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.
2. Materials (Chemistry)
2.1. Matter: All things occupy space, possess mass. Definition of matter,
characteristics of solids, liquids and gases e.g. shape, volume, density. Change
of state: freezing, melting, evaporation, condensation, sublimation. Cooling by
evaporation. Absorption of heat.
2.2. Elements, mixtures and Compounds: elements, compounds and mixtures as
types of chemical substances. Types of mixtures; Heterogeneous,
homogeneous, colloids, suspensions.
2.3. Combination of substances: Law of constant proportion, atomic and molecular
masses. Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and Molecules.
2.4. Mole Concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
Valency. Chemical formulae of common compounds.
2.5. Atomic Structure: Electrons, protons and neutrons. Atomic number and
atomic mass number. Isotopes and Isobars.
3. The World of the Living (Biology)
3.1. Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals: Basic issues in scientific
naming. Basis of classification, Hierarchy of categories/ groups. Plant
classification: Major Plant groups (salient features): Bacteria, Thalophyta,
Bryophyta,
Pteridophyta,
gymnosperms
and
Angiosperms.
Animal
Classification: Major groups of animals (salient features): Non- Chordates up
to phyla and non-chordates up to classes.
3.2. Smallest living unit of Life, Cell: Cell as a basic unit of life prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell
organelles, chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, Golgi apparatus. Nucleus,
chromosomes, basic structure, number. Tissues, organs, organ system,
organism Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues. (Four types in
animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).
3.3. Health
* Failure of health leading to disease.
* Disease and its causes.
* Diseases caused by microbes and their prevention: Typhoid, diarrhea,
malaria, hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, TB, Polio.
* Pulse Polio program.
3.4. Exchange of substances by living organisms with the external world:
Diffusion/exchange of substances between cells and their environment and
between the cell themselves in the living system; role in nutrition, water and
food transport, excretion, gaseous exchange.
1. Moving Things. People and ideas. (Physics)
Motion.

## 3.5. Motion: displacement, velocity, Uniform and non-uniform motion along a

straight Line, acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for motion
and uniformly accelerated motion. Equations of motion by graphical method.
Elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
3.6. Force and Newton's Laws: Force and Motion; Newton's Laws of Motion. Inertia
of a.body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary
idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
3.7. Gravitation: gravitation, universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the
earth (earth's gravity), acceleration due to gravity, mass and weight, free fall .
3.8. Work, Energy and Power: work done by a force, energy, power. Kinetic and
Potential energy, Law of conservation of energy.
3.9. Floating Bodies: Thrust and Pressure, Archimedes' Principle, Buoyancy. Idea
of relative density.
3.10.
Sound; Nature of sound and its propagation through different media,
speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound;
echo and SONAR Structure of the Human Ear. (Auditory aspect).
4. Natural Resources Understanding (Chemistry)
Ecosystem 4.1. Types of ecosystem - forest, grassland, desert, aquatic, costal, marine
4.2. Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an eco-system
4.3. Energy flow and its importance. Cycles of nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic
(fresh water and marine) ecosystems, nature's mechanism in maintaining
balance.
5. Waste Generation and Management (Chemistry)
5.1. Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, agricultural and commercial
5.2. Classification of waste: biodegradable non-biodegradable, toxic, non- toxic
biomedical.
5.3. Impact of waste accumulation - Spoilage of landscape, pollution, health
hazards, effect on terrestrial and aquatic (fresh water and marine) life.
5.4. Need for management of waste.
5.5. Methods of safe disposal of waste segregation, dumping, composting, drainage,
treatment of effluents before discharge, incineration, use of scrubbers and
electrostatic precipitators.
5.6. Need for reducing, reusing and recycling waste.
5.7. Legal provisions for handling and management of waste.

Mathematics X std.
1. Arithmetic Progression:
Introduction to Sequence
Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) and Geometric Progression (G.P.)
General term of an A.P. and G.P.
Sum of the first 'n' terms of an A.P. and G.P.
Arithmetic Mean and Geometric Mean.
Introduction to quadratic equations
Solutions of quadratic equations
Nature of roots based on discriminant
Relation between roots of the equation and coefficient of the terms in the
equation equations reducible to quadratic form
3. Linear equations in two variables
System of linear equations in two variables
Algebraic methods of solving linear equations in two variables
Graphical representation of different possibilities of solutions/Inconsistency
Graphical method of solving a system of linear equations
Determinant of order two
Cramer's rule
Consistency of pair of linear equations
4. Probability:
Introduction to probability and related terms
Classical definition of probability
Types of events
Equally likely outcomes
Probability of an event
Properties of Probability
Addition theorem (without proof)
5. Statistics:
Brief revision of Tabulation of data, inclusive and exclusive type of tables
Mean, median and mode of grouped data
Histograms, frequency polygon, frequency curve, pie diagram
Ogives (Cumulative frequency graphs)
Applications of ogives in determination of median
Relation between measures of central tendency
Introduction to normal distribution
Properties of normal distribution
1. Similarity:
Properties of ratios of areas of two triangles
Basic proportionality theorem
Introduction to similarity
Similar triangles

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## Areas of two similar triangles

Similarity in right angled triangles
Pythagoras theorem and its converse
30o-60o-90o theorem and 45 o-45 o- 90 o theorem
Application of Pythagoras theorem in acute and obtuse angle.
Apollonius theorem
Circle:
Tangents and its properties
Theorem - Tangent at any point to the circle is perpendicular to the radius and
its converse
Number of tangents from a point to a circle
Theorem- The length of two tangent segments drawn from a point outside the
circle is equal
Touching circles
Introduction to an arc
Angle subtended by the arc to the center and to the point on the circle
Tangent - Secant theorem
Co-ordinate Geometry:
Slope of a line
Intercepts made by a line
Standard forms of equation of a line
General equation of a line.
Geometric Constructions:
Division of line segment in a given ratio
Basic geometric constructions
Construction of tangent to the circle from the point on the circle and outside
the circle.
Construction of tangent without using center
Construction of triangle If the base, angle apposite to it and either median
altitude is given
Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle
Trigonometry:
Angles in standard position.
Trigonometric ratios in terms of coordinates of point
Trigonometric Identities (with proof)
Use of basic identities and their applications
Problems on height and distance
Menstruation:
Length of an arc
Area of the sector
Area of a Circular Segment
Euler's formula

## Surface area and volume of cuboids Spheres, hemispheres, right circular

cylinders cones, frustum of a cone.
Problems based on areas and perimeter/circumference of circle, sector and
segment of a circle.
Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of
the following: cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/
cones
Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another.

## Science & Technology

2. Materials (Chemistry)
2.1 Acids and Bases: Acids, Bases and Salts: General properties, examples and
uses.
2.2 Chemical Reactions: Types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition,
displacement double decomposition, precipitation, and neutralization.
2.3 Oxidation and Reduction: Oxidation and Reduction in terms of gain and loss of
oxygen and hydrogen.
2.4 Metals and Non-Metals: Brief discussion on basic metallurgical processes.
Properties of common metals. Elementary idea about bonding.
2.5 Carbon Compounds: Elementary idea about bonding. Saturated hydrocarbons,
alcohols, carboxylic acids (properties only)
2.6 Common chemicals used in daily life: Soap, common salt, Washing soda,
Baking soda, bleaching powder, Plaster of Paris.
2.7 Classification of Elements: Brief historical account, Mendeleev's periodic table,
3. The World of the Living (Biology)
3.1 Life Processes: Definition of "Living things". Basic concept of nutrition,
respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
3.2 Control in the Living: Tropic movements in plants .Introduction to plant
hormones; control and coordination in animals; voluntary, involuntary and
reflex action, nervous system, chemical coordination, animal hormones.
3.3 Reproduction in the Living: Reproduction in plants and animals. Need for and
methods of family planning. Safe Sex vs-. HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and
women's health.
3.4 Heredity and Evolution: Heredity, origin of life- brief introduction, Basic
concepts of evolution.
4. Moving things. People and Ideas (Physics)
4.1 Electric Circuits: Potential and potential difference. Ohm's Law, Resistances in
series and parallel. Power dissipated due to current. Inter relation between P,
V, I and R.
4.2 Magnets: Magnetic field, field lines. Field due to a current carrying wire, coil,
solenoid. Force on current carrying conductor. Fleming's Left Hand Rule.
Electric motor, electromagnetic induction. Induced potential differences,

## induced current. Electric generator, principle and working. Direct and

Alternating current. Frequency of AC. Advantages of AC over DC. Domestic
Electric Circuits.
5. Natural Phenomena (Physics)
5.1 Light : Convergence and Divergence of Light.
5.2 Spherical Mirrors: Images formed by a concave mirror. Related concepts: centre
of curvature, principal axis, optical centre, focus, focal length.
5.3 Refraction: appreciation of the concept of refraction. Laws of refraction. Velocity
of light. Refractive index; twinkling of stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of
light.
5.4 Lenses: Images formed by a convex lens; functioning of the lens in the human
problems of vision and their remedies. Application of spherical mirrors and
lenses.
6. Pollution (Chemistry)
6.1 Types of pollution - air, water, (fresh and marine), soil, radiation, and noise.
6.2 Sources of pollution and major pollutants, oil spills
6.3 Effect of pollution on -environment, human health and other organisms
6.4 Abatement of pollution
7. Striving for a Better Environment (Chemistry)
7.1 Use of efficient and eco-friendly technology
7.2 Sustainable use of resources.
7.3 Enforcement of acts, laws and policies

SN
1
2
3

Class
VII
IX
X

No. of Weeks
32
32
32

Hrs/Subject
More than 100
More than 100
More than 100

Test Series
2 Full length test
2 Full length test
1 Full length test