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- Geometry
- Important Books for IIT
- Class 10 Math SA 1 Set MA2-021 2012
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- Review Test Vmc
- water
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- Data Sufficiency
- Jeep 214
- copy of 1819-geom-pre-test
- IFEM.Ch16_2
- Cbse Class 10 Mathematics Solved Question Paper 2017
- Grade 10 Course Outline for Mathematics 2019 - 2020
- MathB 1-10

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IX Mathematics

1. Sets :

o Introduction

o Methods of writing sets

o Types of sets

o Subset - Proper, Improper subset

o Super set

o Universal set

o Venn diagrams

o Operations on sets

o Relations between various operations

o Number of elements in the set and related results.

2. Real Numbers :

o Revision of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers and irrational

numbers

o Existence of irrational numbers and their representations on the number

line

o Every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line

and conversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real

number

o Properties of real numbers

o Definition of nth root of a real number

o Surds - Definition

o Forms of surds

o Operations and Laws of surds

o Rationalization of Surds

o Absolute value of real numbers

o Euclid's division Lemma

o Fundamental theorem of Arithmetic

3. Algebraic Expressions :

o Introduction to algebraic expression?

o Operations on algebraic expressions

o Methods of factorization of algebraic expression?

o Introduction to polynomials

o Operations on polynomials

o Value of polynomials

o Zeros/roots of polynomial

o Relation between zeros and coefficient of polynomials?

o Remainder theorem

o Factor theorem

4. Graphs :

o Cartesian coordinate system

o Understanding of graphs of lines parallel to axes

o Graph of line ax + by + c = o

5. Linear equations in two variables

o Solution of system of linear equations in two variables(Algebraic

methods)

6. Ratio, proportion and variation

o Introduction to ratio

o Properties of ratio

o Properties of equal ratios

o Theorem on equal ratios

o Percentage as a ratio

o Introduction to proportion

o Introduction to variation

o Revision of concepts based on Direct variation, Inverse variation

o Mixed variation

o Real life problems based on ratio, proportion and variation

7. Statistics :

o Collection of data

o Classification and tabulation of data

o Diagrammatic representation of data

o Graphical representation of data

o Mean, median, mode of ungrouped data

8. Lines and Angles :

o Introductions to line

o Basic terms and definitions related to line

o Introduction to Euclid's Geometry

o Plane separation axiom

o Introduction to angles in terms of rotation

o Directed angles, Sexagesimal system

o Types of angles

o zero angle, straight angle, coterminal angle

o Relation between angles

o Introduction to mathematical proofs

o Parallel lines

o Results on parallel lines and transversal

o Tests of parallel lines

o Results on perpendicular lines

o Distance of a point from a line

9. Triangles :

o Types of triangles

o Terms related to triangle

o Properties of triangle

o Exterior angles and corresponding interior opposite angles

o Results involving exterior angle and corresponding interior opposite

angles

o Similar triangles

10. Congruence of triangles :

o Theorem of an isosceles triangle and its converse

o Perpendicular bisector theorem

o Angle bisector theorem

o Properties of triangles based on inequalities

o Property of perpendicular drawn from a point outside the line.

11. Circle :

o Introduction to circle and related terms

o Circle passing through the given points

o One and only one circle passes through the three non collinear points.

o Congruence of circles

o Properties of chords of the circle

12. Quadrilateral :

o Properties of quadrilateral

o Properties of parallelogram

o Properties of rectangle

o Properties of a trapezium

o Properties of a rhombus

o Properties of a square

o Kite

o Tests for particular quadrilateral

o Theorem on midpoints of two sides of a triangle and its converse

13. Coordinate Geometry :

o Distance formula

o Section formula

o Area of a triangle

14. Geometric constructions :

o Basic construction perpendicular bisector of given segment.

o Construction of a triangle

Sum/difference of two sides and base angles is given

Perimeter and base angles are given

15. Trigonometry :

o Introduction to trigonometric ratios

o Trigonometric Ratios of angles 0o, 30o, 45 o, 60 o, 90 o

o Trigonometric identities for complementary angles

16. Mensuration :

o Area of triangle

o Area of regular hexagon, polygon

o Area of quadrilaterals

o If two parallelograms lie between two parallel lines and have the same

base then they have thesame area.

o If a triangle and a parallelogram have the same base and lie between the

same parallel lines, then the area of the triangle is half the area of the

parallelogram.

o Perimeter of triangle and quadrilateral

o Area of circle

1. Food (Biology)

1.1. Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement.

1.2. Use of fertilizers, manures.

1.3. Protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.

2. Materials (Chemistry)

2.1. Matter: All things occupy space, possess mass. Definition of matter,

characteristics of solids, liquids and gases e.g. shape, volume, density. Change

of state: freezing, melting, evaporation, condensation, sublimation. Cooling by

evaporation. Absorption of heat.

2.2. Elements, mixtures and Compounds: elements, compounds and mixtures as

types of chemical substances. Types of mixtures; Heterogeneous,

homogeneous, colloids, suspensions.

2.3. Combination of substances: Law of constant proportion, atomic and molecular

masses. Particle nature, basic units: Atoms and Molecules.

2.4. Mole Concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.

Valency. Chemical formulae of common compounds.

2.5. Atomic Structure: Electrons, protons and neutrons. Atomic number and

atomic mass number. Isotopes and Isobars.

3. The World of the Living (Biology)

3.1. Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals: Basic issues in scientific

naming. Basis of classification, Hierarchy of categories/ groups. Plant

classification: Major Plant groups (salient features): Bacteria, Thalophyta,

Bryophyta,

Pteridophyta,

gymnosperms

and

Angiosperms.

Animal

Classification: Major groups of animals (salient features): Non- Chordates up

to phyla and non-chordates up to classes.

3.2. Smallest living unit of Life, Cell: Cell as a basic unit of life prokaryotic and

eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell

organelles, chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, Golgi apparatus. Nucleus,

chromosomes, basic structure, number. Tissues, organs, organ system,

organism Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues. (Four types in

animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).

3.3. Health

* Failure of health leading to disease.

* Disease and its causes.

* Diseases caused by microbes and their prevention: Typhoid, diarrhea,

malaria, hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, TB, Polio.

* Pulse Polio program.

3.4. Exchange of substances by living organisms with the external world:

Diffusion/exchange of substances between cells and their environment and

between the cell themselves in the living system; role in nutrition, water and

food transport, excretion, gaseous exchange.

1. Moving Things. People and ideas. (Physics)

Motion.

straight Line, acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for motion

and uniformly accelerated motion. Equations of motion by graphical method.

Elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

3.6. Force and Newton's Laws: Force and Motion; Newton's Laws of Motion. Inertia

of a.body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary

idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.

3.7. Gravitation: gravitation, universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the

earth (earth's gravity), acceleration due to gravity, mass and weight, free fall .

3.8. Work, Energy and Power: work done by a force, energy, power. Kinetic and

Potential energy, Law of conservation of energy.

3.9. Floating Bodies: Thrust and Pressure, Archimedes' Principle, Buoyancy. Idea

of relative density.

3.10.

Sound; Nature of sound and its propagation through different media,

speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound;

echo and SONAR Structure of the Human Ear. (Auditory aspect).

4. Natural Resources Understanding (Chemistry)

Ecosystem 4.1. Types of ecosystem - forest, grassland, desert, aquatic, costal, marine

4.2. Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in an eco-system

4.3. Energy flow and its importance. Cycles of nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic

(fresh water and marine) ecosystems, nature's mechanism in maintaining

balance.

5. Waste Generation and Management (Chemistry)

5.1. Sources of waste - domestic, industrial, agricultural and commercial

5.2. Classification of waste: biodegradable non-biodegradable, toxic, non- toxic

biomedical.

5.3. Impact of waste accumulation - Spoilage of landscape, pollution, health

hazards, effect on terrestrial and aquatic (fresh water and marine) life.

5.4. Need for management of waste.

5.5. Methods of safe disposal of waste segregation, dumping, composting, drainage,

treatment of effluents before discharge, incineration, use of scrubbers and

electrostatic precipitators.

5.6. Need for reducing, reusing and recycling waste.

5.7. Legal provisions for handling and management of waste.

Mathematics X std.

1. Arithmetic Progression:

Introduction to Sequence

Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) and Geometric Progression (G.P.)

General term of an A.P. and G.P.

Sum of the first 'n' terms of an A.P. and G.P.

Arithmetic Mean and Geometric Mean.

2. Quadratic Equations

Introduction to quadratic equations

Solutions of quadratic equations

Nature of roots based on discriminant

Relation between roots of the equation and coefficient of the terms in the

equation equations reducible to quadratic form

3. Linear equations in two variables

System of linear equations in two variables

Algebraic methods of solving linear equations in two variables

Graphical representation of different possibilities of solutions/Inconsistency

Graphical method of solving a system of linear equations

Determinant of order two

Cramer's rule

Consistency of pair of linear equations

4. Probability:

Introduction to probability and related terms

Classical definition of probability

Types of events

Equally likely outcomes

Probability of an event

Properties of Probability

Addition theorem (without proof)

5. Statistics:

Brief revision of Tabulation of data, inclusive and exclusive type of tables

Mean, median and mode of grouped data

Histograms, frequency polygon, frequency curve, pie diagram

Ogives (Cumulative frequency graphs)

Applications of ogives in determination of median

Relation between measures of central tendency

Introduction to normal distribution

Properties of normal distribution

1. Similarity:

Properties of ratios of areas of two triangles

Basic proportionality theorem

Introduction to similarity

Similar triangles

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Similarity in right angled triangles

Pythagoras theorem and its converse

30o-60o-90o theorem and 45 o-45 o- 90 o theorem

Application of Pythagoras theorem in acute and obtuse angle.

Apollonius theorem

Circle:

Tangents and its properties

Theorem - Tangent at any point to the circle is perpendicular to the radius and

its converse

Number of tangents from a point to a circle

Theorem- The length of two tangent segments drawn from a point outside the

circle is equal

Touching circles

Introduction to an arc

Angle subtended by the arc to the center and to the point on the circle

Cyclic quadrilateral

Tangent - Secant theorem

Co-ordinate Geometry:

Slope of a line

Intercepts made by a line

Standard forms of equation of a line

General equation of a line.

Geometric Constructions:

Division of line segment in a given ratio

Basic geometric constructions

Construction of tangent to the circle from the point on the circle and outside

the circle.

Construction of tangent without using center

Construction of triangle If the base, angle apposite to it and either median

altitude is given

Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle

Trigonometry:

Angles in standard position.

Trigonometric ratios in terms of coordinates of point

Trigonometric Identities (with proof)

Use of basic identities and their applications

Problems on height and distance

Menstruation:

Length of an arc

Area of the sector

Area of a Circular Segment

Euler's formula

cylinders cones, frustum of a cone.

Problems based on areas and perimeter/circumference of circle, sector and

segment of a circle.

Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of

the following: cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/

cones

Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another.

2. Materials (Chemistry)

2.1 Acids and Bases: Acids, Bases and Salts: General properties, examples and

uses.

2.2 Chemical Reactions: Types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition,

displacement double decomposition, precipitation, and neutralization.

2.3 Oxidation and Reduction: Oxidation and Reduction in terms of gain and loss of

oxygen and hydrogen.

2.4 Metals and Non-Metals: Brief discussion on basic metallurgical processes.

Properties of common metals. Elementary idea about bonding.

2.5 Carbon Compounds: Elementary idea about bonding. Saturated hydrocarbons,

alcohols, carboxylic acids (properties only)

2.6 Common chemicals used in daily life: Soap, common salt, Washing soda,

Baking soda, bleaching powder, Plaster of Paris.

2.7 Classification of Elements: Brief historical account, Mendeleev's periodic table,

gradation in properties.

3. The World of the Living (Biology)

3.1 Life Processes: Definition of "Living things". Basic concept of nutrition,

respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

3.2 Control in the Living: Tropic movements in plants .Introduction to plant

hormones; control and coordination in animals; voluntary, involuntary and

reflex action, nervous system, chemical coordination, animal hormones.

3.3 Reproduction in the Living: Reproduction in plants and animals. Need for and

methods of family planning. Safe Sex vs-. HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and

women's health.

3.4 Heredity and Evolution: Heredity, origin of life- brief introduction, Basic

concepts of evolution.

4. Moving things. People and Ideas (Physics)

4.1 Electric Circuits: Potential and potential difference. Ohm's Law, Resistances in

series and parallel. Power dissipated due to current. Inter relation between P,

V, I and R.

4.2 Magnets: Magnetic field, field lines. Field due to a current carrying wire, coil,

solenoid. Force on current carrying conductor. Fleming's Left Hand Rule.

Electric motor, electromagnetic induction. Induced potential differences,

Alternating current. Frequency of AC. Advantages of AC over DC. Domestic

Electric Circuits.

5. Natural Phenomena (Physics)

5.1 Light : Convergence and Divergence of Light.

5.2 Spherical Mirrors: Images formed by a concave mirror. Related concepts: centre

of curvature, principal axis, optical centre, focus, focal length.

5.3 Refraction: appreciation of the concept of refraction. Laws of refraction. Velocity

of light. Refractive index; twinkling of stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of

light.

5.4 Lenses: Images formed by a convex lens; functioning of the lens in the human

problems of vision and their remedies. Application of spherical mirrors and

lenses.

6. Pollution (Chemistry)

6.1 Types of pollution - air, water, (fresh and marine), soil, radiation, and noise.

6.2 Sources of pollution and major pollutants, oil spills

6.3 Effect of pollution on -environment, human health and other organisms

6.4 Abatement of pollution

7. Striving for a Better Environment (Chemistry)

7.1 Use of efficient and eco-friendly technology

7.2 Sustainable use of resources.

7.3 Enforcement of acts, laws and policies

SN

1

2

3

Class

VII

IX

X

No. of Weeks

32

32

32

Hrs/Subject

More than 100

More than 100

More than 100

Test Series

2 Full length test

2 Full length test

1 Full length test

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