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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT

FOR
PROPOSED PETROL FILLING STATION ON PARCEL NO.
MBETI/GACHOKA/3295, MBEERE COUNTY COUNCIL

Proponent:THOMAS MUTUGI KARUNJI,


P. O. Box 747-10300,
KERUGOYA

@October 2013

Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

The following experts visited the site and prepared this Environmental Impact
Assessment report.

FOR AND ON BEHALF OF PROPONENT

Mr.Thomas Mutugi Karunji

Date

PREPARED BY:

.
Tom Kimanzi

Date

EIA/EA Expert (Reg. No.0702)

Gentrix Wamalwa

Date

EIA/EA Expert (Reg. No.1358)

.
Alexander Ndungu Wanjiru

Date

EIA/EA Associate Expert (Reg. No.1119)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS............................................................................................................................ VII
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................VIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1
1.1 GENERALL OVERVIEW AND RATIONALLE FOR EIA.....................................................................1
1.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE .................................................................................................................1
1.3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT STUDY ......................................................................2

CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND INFORMATION............................................................. 3


2.1 LOCATION .....................................................................................................................................3
2.2 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................3
2.2.1 Climate ................................................................................................................................................3
2.2.3 Topography.........................................................................................................................................3
2.2.4 Geology and Soils................................................................................................................................4
2.3 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................................4
2.3.1Flora .....................................................................................................................................................4
2.3.2 Fauna ...................................................................................................................................................5
2.4 NEIGHBOURHOOD LAND USE CHARACTERISTICS ......................................................................5
2.5 INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES ...............................................................................................5
2.5.1 Roads ...................................................................................................................................................5
2.5.2 Electricity ............................................................................................................................................5
2.5.3 Water Reticulation .............................................................................................................................5
2.5.4 Sewer...................................................................................................................................................5
2.5.4
Storm water run-off ......................................................................................................................6
2.5.6 Solid Waste Disposal ..........................................................................................................................6
3.1 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................7
3.1.1 Screening Process......................................................................................................................7
3.1.2 Preliminary Meeting .................................................................................................................7
3.1.3 Scoping.......................................................................................................................................7
3.1.4 Questionnaires ..........................................................................................................................7
3.1.5 Site Assessment .........................................................................................................................8
3.1.6 Secondary Data..........................................................................................................................8
3.1.7 Draft Report Preparation..........................................................................................................8
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3.1.8 Evaluation of Findings...............................................................................................................8


3.1.9 Final Report Preparation ..........................................................................................................8

CHAPTER FOUR: ENVIRONMENTAL, LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY


FRAMEWORK .......................................................................................................................... 9
4.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................9
4.2 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN (NEAP) ..................................................................9
4.3 THE ENVIRONMENT (IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND AUDIT) REGULATIONS, 2003.......................9
4.4 THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION ACT (EMCA)-1999........................10
4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND CO-ORDINATION (WASTE MANAGEMENT)
REGULATIONS, 2006 LEGAL NOTICE NO.121 ..................................................................................10
4.5.1 LICENCES AND PERMITS..........................................................................................................10
4.11 THE PHYSICAL PLANNING ACT CAP 286..................................................................................12
4.13 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT CAP 265.........................................................................................13
4.15 PUBLIC HEALTH ACT (REVISED 1986) ....................................................................................13
4.16 THE WAY LEAVE ACT................................................................................................................14

CHAPTER FIVE: PROJECT ALTERNATIVES.....................................................................14


5.1 ALTERNATIVE SITE ....................................................................................................................15
5.2 THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVE .......................................................................15
5.3 RELOCATION ALTERNATIVE ......................................................................................................15
5.4 THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE .................................................................................................16
5.6 MITIGATION FOR THE PROPOSED ACTION ...............................................................................17

CHAPTER SIX: THE PROJECT DESCRIPTION..................................................................18


6.1 DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................18
6.2 LAND OWNERSHIP......................................................................................................................18
6.3 LAND SIZE ...................................................................................................................................18
6.4 SITE STATUS ...............................................................................................................................19
6.5 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS.........................................................................20
6.6 PROJECT ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................20
6.6.1 Construction Activities and Inputs..................................................................................................20
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6.7 PROJECT BUDGET .......................................................................................................................21


6.8 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES..................................................................................21
6.8.1 Planning ............................................................................................................................................21
6.8.2 Construction Process........................................................................................................................22
6.8.3 Completion........................................................................................................................................25
6.8.4 Operation Phase ...............................................................................................................................25
6.8.5 Description of the projects decommissioning activities.......................................................26

CHAPTER SEVEN: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION...................................................................28


7.1

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................28

7.2
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION .....................................................................................................28
7.2.1 Issues ...............................................................................................................................................28
7.2.2 Advantages........................................................................................................................................28
7.2.3 Provision of services ........................................................................................................................28
CHAPTER EIGHT: DECOMMISSIONING STAGE .................................................................................29
8.0 DECOMMISSIONING ....................................................................................................................29

CHAPTER NINE: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUGGESTED MITIGATION


MEASURES..............................................................................................................................30
9.1
CONSTRUCTION PHASE .......................................................................................................30
9.1.1
Positive Impacts ..........................................................................................................................30
9.1.2
Negative Impacts.........................................................................................................................31
9.2
Operation phase ..................................................................................................................34
9.2.1
Positive Impacts ..........................................................................................................................34
9.2.2
Negative Impacts.........................................................................................................................35
9.2.3
Positive environmental impacts of decommissioning activities .............................................35
9.2.4
Negative environmental impacts of decommissioning activities ............................................35

CHAPTER TEN: MITIGATION MEASURES AND MONITORING PROGRAMMES......37


10.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................37
10.2 CONSTRUCTION RELATED IMPACTS .......................................................................................37
10.2.1
Minimization of vegetation disturbance...............................................................................37
10.2.2
Controlling soil erosion..........................................................................................................37
10.2.3
Hydrology and water quality degradation ...........................................................................37
10.2.4
Increased runoff .....................................................................................................................38
10.2.5
Controlling oil spills during construction phase ..................................................................38
10.2.6
Noise pollution........................................................................................................................38
10.2.7
Air quality................................................................................................................................39
10.2.8
Construction waste.................................................................................................................40
10.2.9
Generation of exhaust emission ............................................................................................41
10.3 Operation Phase Impacts.........................................................................................................42
10.3.1
Fire Accidents/Hazard ...........................................................................................................42
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10.3.2
10.3.3
10.3.4
10.3.5

Ensuring efficient solid waste management.........................................................................43


Minimization of drain blockages ...........................................................................................44
Ensure efficient energy consumption ...................................................................................44
Ensure efficient water use .....................................................................................................44

10.4 Decommissioning Phase Impacts ............................................................................................44


10.4.1
Efficient solid waste management ........................................................................................44
10.4.2
Reduction of dust concentration ...........................................................................................44
10.4.3
Minimization of noise and vibration .....................................................................................44
10.5 SUMMARY OF POSITIVE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT ...........................................45
10.6 SUMMARY OF NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT ..........................................45
10.7 SUMMARY OF MITIGATION MEASURES ...................................................................................45

CHAPTER ELEVEN: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP).......................47


11.1 PLANNING PHASE EMP.............................................................................................................48
11.2 CONSTRUCTION PHASE EMP....................................................................................................49
11.3 OPERATION PHASE EMP ..........................................................................................................50
10.4 DECOMMISSIONING PHASE EMP..............................................................................................58

CHAPTER TWELVE: CONCLUSION AND RECCOMMENDATIONS...............................61


REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................62
APPENDICES ..........................................................................................................................63

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ACRONYMS
C

Degree Celsius

API

American Petroleum Institute

DPC

Dump Proof Courses

EHS

Environmental Health and Safety

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EMCA

Environmental Management Coordination Act

EMP

Environmental Management Plan

ERPS

Emergence Response Plans

HA

Hectare

IEA

Initial Environmental Audit

IK

Illuminating kerosene

KM

Kilometer

NEAPC

National Environment Action Plan Committee

NEC

National Environment Council

NEMA

National Environmental Management Authority

OHS

Occupational Health and Safety

PCC

Public Complaints Committee

PDS

Petroleum dispensing site

PMS

Petroleum motor spirit (premium gasoline)

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

PV

Permanent Vent

RC

Reinforced Concrete

SEM

Sustainable Environmental Management

SERC

Standard and Enforcement Review Committee

TOR

Terms of Reference

TPH

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

UPSS

Underground Petroleum Storage System

UST

Underground Storage Tank

WCC

Waste Collection Center

PM10

Particulate matter measuring 10m or less

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The proponent (Mr. Thomas Karunji Mutugi) proposes a Petrol filling and vehicle
service station on parcel of land referred to as Mbeti/Gachoka/3295 coordinates
(034N 3737E) along the Embu-Kiritiri Road, next to Muraru shopping centre, in
Mbeere South County. The proposed project area measures about 0.10 hectares. The
proposed site is currently being developed with an office block as part of the
developments on the approved designs.
Kenya like many other countries has taken necessary steps toward enhancing
sustainable environmental management, some of the steps being the adoption of
requirements for the Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit process to better
plan for and avoid adverse and costly environmental impacts through status review
and systematic assessment, this is aimed at identifying alternatives that may better
mitigate environmental and social impacts.
Pursuant to the prevailing legal requirements as envisaged in the EMCA and to ensure
sustainable environmental management, the proponent undertook this EIA study
report for the filling station; and incorporated substantial environmental aspects as
advised by NEMA. This EIA study report thus provides relevant information and
environmental considerations on the project proponents intention to seek approval
from NEMA for the development.
Scope Objective and Criteria of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
A team of NEMA registered Experts was appointed to conduct the Environmental
Impact Assessment study for the Proposed Petrol filling Station within Muraru
shopping centre area, Mbeere County. The scope of the assessment covered
construction works of the proposed development which included ground
preparation, masonry, and installation of service lines as well as the utilities required
by petrol filling station project. The output of this work was a comprehensive
Environmental Impact Assessment study report for the purposes of applying for an
EIA license.

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The consultant on behalf of the proponent conducted the EIA study by incorporating
but not limited to the following terms of reference:

The nature of the proposed project;

The proposed location of the project including the physical area that may
be affected by the project activities;

The activities that may be undertaken during the project construction ,


operation and decommissioning phases;

The design of the project;

The materials to be used , products and by products, including waste to be


generated by the project and the methods of disposal;

The potential environmental impacts of the project and the mitigation


measures to be taken during and after implementation o f the project;

An action plan for the prevention and management of possible accidents


during the project cycle;

An action plan to ensure the health and safety of the workers and
neighbouring communities;

The economic and socio-cultural impacts to the local community and the
nation in general;

The project budget; and

Any other information the Authority may require.

The proposed project will involve the installation of 3No. Storage tanks of the
capacity of 10,000litres, 6,000 and 6,000 for petrol, diesel and kerosene respectively,
a fully automated filling system, loading and offloading area, Office block and fire
fighting system.
Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Both positive and negative impacts are associated with the proposed project area
during the construction phase, operation phase and decommissioning phase. In
general the following positive and negative impacts are associated with the proposed
project.
Positive Impacts

Creation of employment opportunities

Improving growth of the economy

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Increased business opportunities

Provision of petrol service station facilities

Revenue to national and local governments amongst others

Negative Impacts

Noise pollution

Dust emissions

Disposal of excavated soil

Soil erosion

Increased water demand

Increased electricity consumption

Oil, Grease and Solid waste generation

Generation of exhaust emissions

Increased runoff from new impervious areas

Hydrology and water quality degradation

Oil spills

Workers accidents and hazards during construction

Increased pressure on infrastructure

The proponent is also keen to mitigate conflicts with the environment at the vicinity
during implementation and operational phases.
Dust emissions will be controlled by the following measures:

Watering all active construction areas when necessary.

Cover all trucks hauling soil, sand and other loose materials or require all
trucks to maintain at least two feet of freeboard.

Pave, apply water when necessary, or apply (non-toxic) soil stabilizers on


all unpaved access roads, parking areas and staging areas at construction
sites.

Sweep daily (with water sweepers) all paved access roads, parking areas
and staging areas at construction sites.

The following noise-suppression techniques will be employed to minimize the impact


of temporary construction noise at the project site.

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Install portable barriers to shield compressors and other small stationary


equipment where necessary.

Use quiet equipment (i.e. equipment designed with noise control


elements).

Co-ordinate with relevant agencies regarding all substation construction


activities in the residential areas.

Install sound barriers for pile driving activity.

Limit pickup trucks and other small equipment to an idling time when
necessary, observe a common-sense approach to vehicle use, and
encourage workers to shut off vehicle engines whenever possible.

In order to control exhaust emissions the following measures shall be implemented


during construction.

Vehicle idling time shall be minimized

Alternatively fuelled construction equipment shall be used where feasible

Equipment shall be properly tuned and maintained.

Conclusion
The team of EIA experts has given an in-depth analysis into the various aspects of the
proposed petrol filling station in Muraru shopping centre area, Mbeere County.
Where possible, we have provided annexes such as site maps, plans, and title deed to
support our findings or show the depth of our investigations. We have also provided
photos of the various aspects of the project.
From the findings, it is quite evident that the construction and operation of the
proposed petrol filling station project will bring positive effects in the project area
including petrol service related services, creation of employment and general
economic development of the area. However, negative impacts will also be
experienced hence the need to mitigate them, this has been provided for in the report.
On the basis of the above, it is our recommendation that the project be allowed to go
on provided the mitigation measures outlined in this report are adhered to and the
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is implemented to the letter.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERALL OVERVIEW AND RATIONALLE FOR EIA


The proponent (Mr. Thomas Karunji Mutugi) has proposed to develop a petrol filling
station on the parcel of land referred to as Mbeti/Gachoka/3295 along the EmbuKiritiri Road, next to Muraru shopping centre, in Mbeere South County. The proposed
project involves the installation of 3No. Storage tanks, a fully automated filling plant,
a canopy over pump island for (kerosene, diesel and petrol super tanks), loading and
offloading area, Office block, washroom for both men and women, and a fire fighting
system.
The facility is expected to occupy parcel of land measuring 0.10Ha.
More recently the oil industry, spurred on by regulators world over, has recognized
the need for change in order to safeguard the environment. In relation to this, the
Environmental concerns have now been integrated in the planning and
implementation processes of any proposed projects in Kenya.
This report is prepared in fulfillment of the requirements of the Environmental
Management and Co-ordination Act of 1999. It will assist the National Environment
Management Authority and other relevant agencies in the making of decisions
regarding the suitability of the project.
The proposed development will enhance the provision of fuel for both local and
regional motorists. It will optimize use of the land; hence increasing its utility.
Government revenue will increase as well as enhancement of Economic investment;
increasing national wealth.
1.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE
The team of consultants on behalf of the proponent conducted the study by
incorporating but not limited to the following terms of reference: Social considerations including:
o
Economic impacts of the proposed project and
o
Effect on human health

Landscape considerations including:


o
Visual impacts (features, removal of vegetation, etc); and
o
Compatibility with surrounding area(s)

Land use considerations including effects of proposed project on


current/surrounding land uses and land use potentials in the project area
Water- issues considerations including impact of project on water sources
(surface and groundwater)

Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

Assessment of the environmental legal framework in the context of the


operations of the proposed project
Description and assessment of the construction and operational procedures of the
proposed project including;
o Strategies and technologies to be employed in implementation of the
project
o Proposed project management arrangements

Public participation and consultation


Assessment of environmental impacts and risks of the proposed project
Effects on land/soil
Visual impact
Effects on water/hydrology
Impact on air quality
Impact on noise quality
Impact on the socio-economic environment
Design of mitigation measures and formulation of an Environmental
Management Plan (EMP)
1.3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT STUDY
Scoping was carried out by the Experts to evaluate the project in its entirety in order to
identify areas of concern and all the sources of potential environmental impacts that will be
associated with the projects development including future operations. The scoping exercise
subsequently led to the development of the Terms of Reference (TOR) for this study. Areas
identified in scoping of potential environmental impacts and subsequently analyzed in the
EIA study were:

The baseline environmental conditions of the area,


Description of the proposed project,
Provisions of the relevant environmental laws,
Identification and discussion of any adverse impacts to the
environment anticipated from the proposed project,
Appropriate mitigation measures,
Provision of an environmental management plan outline.

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CHAPTER TWO: BACKGROUND INFORMATION


2.1 LOCATION
The project site is located on parcel of land registered as parcel number
Mbeti/Gachoka/3295 situated along the Embu-Kiritiri Road, next to Muraru shopping
centre, in Mbeere South County. The area is characterized mainly by mixed farming
activities with the site being bordered by residential homes and agricultural farms.

Site
Muraru shopping centre
To Embu town

To Kiritiri Town

2.2 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


2.2.1 Climate
The area is generally dry and receives bimodal rainfall which falls from March to June
period for long rains and October to December for short rains. The rest of the months
are very dry. The annual rainfall is about 500mm and evapo-transpiration rate is in
the range of 5-6mm/day, the rains are low, erratic and unreliable.

2.2.3 Topography
The altitude of the area can be classified to the range of 500M asl in the lower part of
the district, 600-800M asl within the central area of the district, 500-1,200M asl in the
marginal coffee zone including Kanyuambora where the project is located.
Mbeere district covers an area of 2,097 square Kilometers. It covers uplands and
plains with slopes running North East to South East and is on ecological zone IV. The
altitude ranges from 1200m to 500m above sea level on the Tana River Basin. The
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slope is broken by some few hills these are Kiambere, Kiangombe and Kianjiru which
is the highest. The district has five rivers traversing it; these are Tana, Rupingazi,
Thuchi, Thiba and Ena draining south East into Tana River.
The project site and the general town area are gently sloping and the drainage is good
for the site, cases of water logging are therefore minimal.
2.2.4 Geology and Soils
The area is characterized by arrange of soils resulting from the weathering of
metamorphic rocks. The soils are varying from weathered red clay soils (ferrasols) to
sandy soils (aerosols) firm reddish clay to sandy clay soils (acrisols and luvisols).
2.2.5 Soil TPH content
The site has virtually been virgin agricultural land and as such the Total Petroleum
Hydrocarbons (TPH) levels are expected to be very low and insignificant. Two
samples were obtained from the proposed site from five locations forming a
rectangular sampling area at a depth of 1.5 m using an auger bit the samples mixed
and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) analyzed in a NEMA accredited
laboratory (University of Nairobi). The report from the soil analysis indicates the TPH
level of 55.6mg/kg for this soil which is slightly high, a typical level indication for
virgin soil. Future soil analysis could be compared to this baseline level and to action
levels from the National Environment Protection Council of Australia. These state that
for industrial facilities, soil having TPH levels of 28.450mg/kg require soil
remediation. A copy of the report for the analysis is annexed.
2.2.6 Water TPH Measurements
A water sample from a shallow well within the vicinity of the site was collected in a
sterilized bottle. The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) were then analyzed in a
NEMA accredited laboratory. The results from the analysis indicated that there were
no Hydrocarbons in the water. A copy of the laboratory analysis report is attached.
2.3 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
2.3.1Flora
The area has scanty vegetation with shrubs and thorny bushes this is mainly due to
the prevailing climatic conditions of the area, however the river valleys and hill slopes
are covered by dense bushes and isolated woodlands where there is little human
activity. There has been clearance of lots of natural vegetation for charcoal,
cultivation and development of pasture land thus limiting the extent of vegetation
cover. The area residents should therefore be encouraged to plant more trees.

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2.3.2 Fauna
The high levels of population increase and pressure on existing resources resulting to
clearance of natural vegetation have reduced the natural habitat for wildlife. Animal
population is therefore quite insignificant. The project site has been cleared and
excavated and therefore site is only a habitat to insects and occasional birds and
micro-organisms.
2.4 NEIGHBOURHOOD LAND USE CHARACTERISTICS
Mbeere South County is located in Eastern region; it shares common boundaries with
Embu District to the Northwest, Tharaka District to the North East, Meru South to the
North, Mwingi District to the South and South East and Kirinyaga to the West.
The site for the proposed project is adjacent to the Embu-Kiritiri tarmac road and 50
meters away from Muraru shopping centre. Developments in the immediate
environment are mainly commercial and residential homes. Land use in the area is
mainly for agro pastoral activities.

2.5 INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES


The property is located in an area that has adequate supply of basic infrastructure
and utilities. These include water, tarmac roads, electricity, and mobile networks.
2.5.1 Roads
The area is well served and linked to other areas of the town. The project site is
accessed off the Embu-Kiritiri tarmac road with the acceleration and deceleration (IN
and OUT) lanes having been proposed for motorists to access the site off the main
road.
2.5.2 Electricity
The area is connected to electricity supply from the Kenya Power and Lighting
Company with power lines running along the roads of access. The property under
consideration will be connected to the same. The proponent has also been advised to
consider solar energy as a substitute to electricity.
2.5.3 Water Reticulation
The plot is within the areas piped water supply by EWASCO (Embu Water And
Sewerage Company), the site is already connected to piped water supply. Water
demand is expected to increase significantly beyond the current consumption mainly
in the construction phase.
2.5.4 Sewer
The area is not serviced by the council sewerage system and disposal of human waste
is mainly through pit latrines. The proponent has however proposed septic tanks for
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the disposal of liquid wastes as indicated in the architectural drawings attached. This
study report recommends the construction of a three pit oil water interceptor tank,
where all runoff water will be directed to before being discharged into the main
drainage system.
2.5.4 Storm water run-off
All storm water drainage will be channelled into the peripheral open storm water
drain system which runs along the Embu-Kiritiri Road. There will be two oil
interceptors constructed on both ends of the project site bordering the main road
(See architectural drawings for details). All I.CS and manholes in the driveway and
parking will have heavy duty covers.

2.5.6 Solid Waste Disposal


Solid waste disposal services in the area are not defined as most wastes are normally
agricultural wastes and disposal is mainly through composting and burning. The
proponent is expected to generate considerate amounts of solid waste among them
Oil and grease cans.
Solid waste management will consists of dustbins stored in cubicles protected from
rain and scavenging animals within the project site. The waste will then be collected
by a private waste management company to be disposed off at designated waste
dump sites or/and to be composted, palletised or re-cycled depending on the waste
management strategy to be adopted.

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CHAPTER THREE: STUDY METHODOLOGY

3.1 METHODOLOGY
The preparation of an Environmental Impact Assessment study report is a
multidisciplinary process that requires use of various approaches and data collection
methods. Both scientific and social data collection methods were used.
The general steps followed during the assessment were as follows:
Environment screening, in which the project was identified as among those
requiring environmental impact assessment under schedule 2 of EMCA,
1999
Environmental scoping that provided the key environmental issues
Desktop studies and interviews
Physical inspection of the site and surrounding areas
EIA Public participation by the use of questionnaires
Reporting
3.1.1 Screening Process
Environmental screening was used to determine whether an Environmental Impact
Assessment was necessary. It was found that such an enterprise required
undertaking an Environmental Impact Assessment which has further necessitated a
full study considering the sensitivity and magnitude of the impacts of the project
activities.
3.1.2 Preliminary Meeting
A preliminary meeting was held between the proponent, the project architect and the
Environmental Impact Assessment experts. At the meeting, project details were
established and the procedure, time frame, responsibilities and other logistics agreed
upon.
3.1.3 Scoping
So as to determine the extent of the study, Scoping was done. This was preceded by
preliminary visits to the project site, reviews of the relevant statutory requirements
and consultations with some key stakeholders. Scoping helped in defining the scope
of the study and the terms of reference.
3.1.4 Questionnaires
Questionnaires were administered to the locals on the 25th August 2013 randomly to
seek their opinion on the proposed development. The questions to the respondents,
were open ended, the questionnaire were administered to adult members of
households in the immediate neighbourhood. The questions were asked and
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responses recorded by the interviewer. Sample of the questionnaires are attached in


the annex of the report.
3.1.5 Site Assessment
Field observations formed an integral part of the study as the experts gathered
considerable information through observations. This involved site visits and
recording the situation on the ground. Observations were also used as a tool for
verifying the facts that were gathered through interviews and questionnaires.
Photos were also taken to show the actual site of the proposed development,
neighbourhood activities and other amenities in place such as roads and electricity.
3.1.6 Secondary Data
The secondary data gathered were from such sources as;

Environmental Management and Coordination Act No. 8 of 1999.

Kenya gazette supplement Acts, Physical Planning Act, 1999.

Kenya gazette supplement No. 56. Environmental Impact Assessment and


Audit Regulations 2003.

Kenya gazette supplement Acts Local Authority Act (cap 265).

Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Waste Management)


Regulations, 2006 Legal Notice No.12

The Public Health Act, Cap 242

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 2007.

Noise and Excessive Vibrations Pollution Control Regulations 2009.

Local Government Act.

The petroleum Act, CAP 116

3.1.7 Draft Report Preparation


This report was then compiled and a draft report discussed with the proponent.
3.1.8 Evaluation of Findings
Thereafter, findings of the study were discussed among the proponent, the project
lead consultant and the EIA experts. This was necessary to appreciate the various
responsibilities and modalities of implementing the project.
3.1.9 Final Report Preparation
The final report was then prepared and submitted to the proponent for endorsement.
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CHAPTER FOUR: ENVIRONMENTAL, LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY


FRAMEWORK
4.1 INTRODUCTION
In order to ensure that the proposed project activities conform to existing policies
and laws, a number of key statutes were examined. This enabled the identification of
specific provisions of various relevant law that need to be adhered to. These include
the following;

Environmental Management and Coordination Act No. 8 of 1999.

Physical Planning Act, 1999.

Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations 2003.

Local Authority Act (cap 265).

Environmental Management and Co-ordination (Waste Management)


Regulations, 2006 Legal Notice No.12.

The Public Health Act, Cap 242.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 2007.

Noise and Excessive Vibrations Pollution Control Regulations 2009.

Local Government Act.

The petroleum Act, Cap116

4.2 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN (NEAP)


According to the Kenya National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP, 1994) the
Government recognized the negative impacts on ecosystems emanating from
industrial, economic and social development programmes that disregarded
environmental sustainability. Established in 1990, the plans effort was to integrate
environmental considerations into the countrys economic and social development.
The integration process was to be achieved through a multi-sectoral approach to
develop a comprehensive framework to ensure that environmental management and
the conservation of natural resources are an integral part of societal decision-making.
Under the NEAP process EIA was introduced and among the key participants
identified were the industrialists, business community and local authorities.
4.3 THE ENVIRONMENT (IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND AUDIT) REGULATIONS,
2003
Laid down by the Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources and Wildlife as the
Environment (Impact Assessment and Audit) regulations 2003 (EIA/EA Regulations)
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under section 147 of the EMCA. These regulations provide the framework for
carrying out EIAs and EAs in Kenya.
4.4 THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION ACT (EMCA)-1999
This is an Act of Parliament to provide for the establishment of an appropriate legal
and institutional framework for the management of the environment and for matters
connected therewith and incidental thereto.
Part VII on Environmental Audit and Monitoring section 58 specifically detail the
need to undertake Environmental Impact Assessment of all projects likely to cause
negative impacts to the environment as listed in the second schedule of the ACT.
Further, Part V of the Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations
2003; detail the guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment process. It is
therefore mandatory that an Environmental Impact Assessment must be undertaken
by all projects to ensure that the activities at their premises comply with all the legal
and institutional frameworks that are in place to safeguard the environment, health
and safety of the workers.
4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND CO-ORDINATION (WASTE
MANAGEMENT) REGULATIONS, 2006 LEGAL NOTICE NO.121
(1) No person shall dispose off any waste on a public highway, street, road,
recreational area or in any public place except in a designated waste receptacle.
(2) A waste generator shall collect, segregate and dispose such waste in the
manner provided for under these Regulations.
5. (1) A waste generator shall minimize the waste generated by adopting the
following cleaner production methods:
(a) Improvement of production process through(i)
Conserving raw materials and energy
(ii)
Eliminating the use of toxic raw materials; and
(iii) Reducing toxic emissions and waste;
(b) Monitoring the products cycle from beginning to the end by(i)
Identifying and eliminating potential negative impacts of the product;
(ii)
Enabling the recovery and re-use of the product where possible; and
(iii) Reclamation and recycling; and
(c) Incorporating environmental concerns in the design and disposal of a product.
4.5.1 LICENCES AND PERMITS
In order to manage the environmental quality standards, the EMCA requires that
project proponents apply to the NEMA for various types of permits depending on the
nature of the project once it becomes operational. These permits include:
Effluent Discharge License (for waste water discharges)
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Air emissions License (for air pollution)


Waste license (for transport, storage and disposal of all types of wastes)
4.6 NATIONAL POLICY ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND
DEVELOPMENT
It enhances a systematic development of water facilities in all sectors for the
promotion of the countrys socio-economic progress, and also recognizes the byproducts of these processes as wastewater. It, calls for development of appropriate
sanitation systems to protect peoples health and water resources from pollution.
4.7 THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND (WATER QUALITY)
REGULATIONS, 2006
These regulations set the standards of domestic water and wastewater. The
regulations are meant for pollution control and prevention and provides for
protection of water sources. Piped water supply in the area is from EWASCO, this water
has undergone chemical analysis and there are no traces of hydrocarbon as indicated by
the attached copy of water analysis report annexed to the report.
The proponent has proposed the use of septic tanks for liquid waste disposal and
interceptors for separating oils from waste water before draining.
4.8 THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, 2007
The Act makes provision for the health, safety and welfare of persons employed in
factories and other places of work. The provisions require that all practicable
measures be taken to protect persons in places of work from dust, fumes or
impurities originating from any process within the workplace. The provisions of the
Act are also relevant to the management of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes,
which may arise at a project site. The Act provides for all necessary safety
Precautions to ensure the health and safety of workers.
The proponent will appoint a reputable contractor who will be responsible in enforcing
the requirements during construction and subsequent repairs and maintenance after
project completion. The proponent will also provide PPE for the workers at the facility.
4.9 THE ENERGY ACT, 2006
The Energy Act, 2006 is the primary legislation in Kenya that regulates petroleum
operations. This Act, whose commencement date is December 30th, 2006, The Energy
Regulatory Commission stipulates the licensing requirements for all types of
petroleum installations. A key aspect under this piece of legislation is the
requirement for a petroleum project proponent to acquire an annual permit to store
petroleum products in bulk and to display it conspicuously at the petroleumdispensing site (PDS). The proponent will acquire this once the construction activities
are complete and has commissioned the opening of the station.
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4.10 THE PETROLEUM ACT, CAP 116


The petroleum act, Cap116 is the primary legislation in Kenya that regulates
petroleum operations. This Act whose commencement date is August 31st ,1948 is
fairly old and was last revised in 1972.The subsidiary legislation appended to the
main body of the Act known as the petroleum Rules stipulated the licensing
requirements for all types of petroleum installations. Key aspect under this piece of
legislation is the requirement for a petroleum project proponent to acquire an annual
permit to store petroleum products in bulk and to display it conspicuously at the
petroleum dispensing site.
4.11 THE PHYSICAL PLANNING ACT CAP 286
The physical Planning Act has provisions to control development and use of land in
particular areas, especially where a project may involve subdivisions or
amalgamation of land parcels, or located in an area otherwise reserved for other uses.
Under this Act, project proponents are required a Certificate of Compliance indicating
that the proposed development is in alignment with the physical development of the
government of Kenya. Due to the haphazard proliferation of numerous petroleum
dispensing sites in Kenya, the certificate of compliance is an important document for
any petroleum dispensing site. The proponent has applied for and obtained change of
use of the land from agricultural to commercial/industrial/filling station. This is as
indicated by the attached P.P.A 2 form attached dated 3rd of August 2012.
4.12 PHYSICAL PLANNING HANDBOOK
Proximity to other petrol service stations
The physical planning handbook requires that no petrol station should be sited
opposite each other along two- way traffic corridor. The study established that the
main road of access is a two way lane while the nearby filling station is 6Km away from
the site in Kiritiri town.
Land size
The planning standards outlined in the handbook also require that a petrol station
requires a minimum plot size of at least 0.1 hectares (Quarter acre) this is the exact
size of the project site hence it complies with provisions of the physical planning
handbook.
Acceleration and deceleration lines
It is also required that ingress (deceleration) and egress (acceleration) lanes of at
least 100m should be provided to the existing carriageways. The plot under
consideration is located in a fairly long stretch able to accommodate such lanes.
This is important to help easy and risk-free movement of traffic in and out of the
facility. This is important given that there is need to slow vehicles since the facility
fronts the main road. The entry and exit points will be clearly marked.
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4.13 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT CAP 265


The Act provides for the establishment of local authorities and grants them specific
mandates such as development control functions. Such powers include regulating
such developments as change of use and construction of buildings.
The Act also empowers local authorities to make by-laws in respect of suppression
of nuisances, imposing fees for any license or permit issued in respect of trade or
charges for any services. Local authorities are given power to control or prohibit all
developments which, by reason of smoke, fumes, chemicals, gases, dust, smell, noise,
vibration or other cause, may be or become a source of danger, discomfort or
annoyance to the neighbourhood, and to prescribe the conditions subject to which
such developments shall be carried on. In compliance, the proponent has submitted the
structural plans for the filling station to the council for consideration and approval
granted as indicated by the attached approved building designs dated the 27th June
2013; further an EIA project report has proposed potential mitigation measures in the
EMP and monitoring plan; and the environmental management Framework in the
report.
4.14 BUILDING CODE 2000
This provides the basic rules, guidelines and standards that must be observed during
construction. It is a comprehensive document, which every developer/proponent/
contractor should have.
The Act empowers the local authorities with the mandate to regulate zoning in
respect to use and density of development, consideration and approval of building
plans and subdivision plans while ensuring that land planning laws are complied
with, within their areas of jurisdiction.
4.15 PUBLIC HEALTH ACT (REVISED 1986)
Under this Act, every local authority or health authority is mandated to take all lawful,
necessary and reasonable practicable measures to prevent all injurious conditions in
premises, construction condition or manner of use of any trade premises. Nuisances
under this Act include any noxious matter or waste water, flowing or discharged from
any premises wherever situated, into any public street, or into the gutter or side
channel of any street or watercourse, or any accumulation or deposit of refuse or
other offensive matter. Every municipal council and every urban area council may
make by-laws as to buildings and sanitation. The proponent has included in the
project measures to ensure the public health standards are upheld in the design and
operation of the petrol station. The designs have further been submitted to the council
for consideration and approval granted by the district public health officer Mbeere
south district on the 27th June 2013,copy of approved designs are annexed to the report.

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4.16 THE WAY LEAVE ACT


The areas zoned for communication lines, sewer lines, power lines, water pipes etc
are known as way leaves. The way leave Act prohibits development of any kind in
these designated areas. Thus any developer is bound by this Act to see to it that no
development takes place in these areas.
4.17 NOISE AND EXCESSIVE VIBRATIONS POLLUTION CONTROL REGULATIONS
2009
PART II - General prohibitions
3.(1) Except as otherwise provided in these Regulations, no person shall make or
cause to be made any loud, unreasonable, unnecessary or unusual noise which
annoys, disturbs, injures or endangers the comfort, repose, health or safety of others
and the environment.
(2). In determining whether noise is loud, unreasonable, unnecessary or unusual, the
following factors may be considered(a) Time of the day;
(b) Proximity to residential area;
(c) Whether the noise is recurrent, intermittent or constant;
(d) The level and intensity of the noise;
(e) Whether the noise has been enhanced in level or range by any type of electronic
or mechanical means; and,
(f) Whether the noise can be controlled without much effort or expense to the person
making the noise.
(3)Any person who contravenes the provisions of this Regulation commits an offence.
Excessive vibrations
4. (1) Except as otherwise provided in these Regulations, no person
shall(a) Make or cause to be made excessive vibrations which annoy, disturb, injure or
endanger the comfort, repose, health or safety of others and the environment; or
cause to be made excessive vibrations which exceed 0.5 centimeters per second
beyond any source property boundary or 30 meters from any moving source;
(2). Any person who contravenes the provisions of this Regulation commits an
offence.
CHAPTER FIVE: PROJECT ALTERNATIVES
The consideration of alternatives is one of the more proactive sides of environmental
assessment. This process serves to enhance the project design through an
examination of potential options instead of only focusing on the more defensive task
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of reducing adverse impacts of a single design; this therefore calls for comparison of
feasible alternatives for the proposed project in terms of site, technology, design and
operation.
5.1 ALTERNATIVE SITE
The proponent considered carefully various factors before settling on purchasing the
proposed project site among them being;
Accessibility of the site by traffic

Size of land

Proximity to other petrol stations and developments in adjacent plots.

The proposed site was more preferred as it is adjacent to the Muraru shopping
centre, Embu - Kiritiri road and most of the developments in the immediate
neighbourhood are rapidly change use from Agricultural to commercial. The
proponent also considered the distance of the site from other petrol stations in the
neighbourhood which is approximately 6kilometers. It was then decided that this site
would be better suited for the proposed petrol service station.
5.2 THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVE
The EIA Project report with the proposed project details will be presented to the
National Environmental Management Authority. This will help in evaluating and
examining the effects of the project on the environment. After the evaluation and
under the proposed development alternative, an Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) License would be issued. This way, NEMA would approve for the
implementation of the project. However, the development has to ensure that all
environmental measures are complied with during the construction period and
during occupation and operation. It is worth noting that the alternative consists of the
proponents/ applicants final proposal with the inclusion of the NEMA guidelines and
regulations and procedures. This is as stipulated in the Environmental Management
and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999, which aims at reducing environmental
impacts to the maximum extent practicable.
5.3 RELOCATION ALTERNATIVE
Relocation option to a different site is an option available for the project
implementation. The proponent has to look for the land if relocation is proposed.
Looking for land to accommodate the scale and size of the project and completing
official transaction on it may take a long period. In addition, it is not guarantee that
such land would be available. The project proponent would spend another long
period of time on design and approvals of the plans by the relevant departments. The
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Project design and planning before the stage of implementation would call for extra
cost; already encountered in the proposed development i.e. whatever has been done
and paid to date would be counted as a loss to the proponent. Assuming the project
will be given a positive response (after (say) relocation) by the relevant authorities
including NEMA, it (project) would have been delayed for a long period before
implementation. This would also lead to a situation like No action Alternative (as
explained below). The other consequence of this is that it would discourage both
foreign and local investors especially in the building sector. In consideration of the
above concerns and assessment of the current proposed site, relocation of the project
is not a viable option.
5.4 THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE
The No Action Alternative in respect to the proposed project implies that the status
quo is maintained. This option is the most suitable alternative from an extreme
environmental perspective as it ensures non-interference with the existing
conditions. This option will however, involve several losses both to the project
proponent/land owner and the Kenyan society and Government. The property will
remain economically underutilized. The No Project Option is the least preferred from
the socio-economic perspectives since if the project is not done:
It will hinder the growth of the proposed project site.
The economic benefits especially during construction i.e. provision of jobs for
skilled and non-skilled workers will not be realized
There will be no generation of income by the developer and the government.
The governments development policy may not be realized
The socio-economic status of Kenyans and the local people would remain
unchanged.
The local skills would remain under utilized
No employment opportunities will be created for Kenyans who will work in
the project area.
Discouragement for investors to produce this level of standard and affordable
developments.
From the analysis above, it becomes apparent that the No Project Alternative is not
the appropriate alternative to the Proponent, Kenyans, and the government of Kenya.

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5.5 ALTERNATIVE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES & CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Alternative modern construction materials and designs that yield less pollution to the
environment should be used. The proponent should ensure alternative modern
construction materials and designs are used and specifically those that are
environmentally friendly and dont cause harm to the environment and those whose
packaging yields minimal wastes. Proper budgets shall also be done to reduce surplus
wastes by procuring what is just enough. Other green technologies that should be
useful at the operational level of the project is to use solar energy for lighting and
minimizing of waste including use of toilet flashes that use high pressure and minimal
water.
5.6 MITIGATION FOR THE PROPOSED ACTION
Mitigation measures include proper handling of the waste material as generated
especially during clearing and preparation of the site. The application or adaptation
of standard construction management practices is fundamental. Conflicts arising from
the foreseen negative impacts will be solved through consultation with the
proponent, contractor and neighbours/public to arrive at appropriate mitigation
measures. In addition, the mitigation measures would be appropriately designed and
implemented to protect the environment and especially water, soil, drainage, flora
and fauna of the area/site. This is in accordance to the Environmental Management
and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999.

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CHAPTER SIX: THE PROJECT DESCRIPTION


6.1 DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE
The project proponent intends to build a filling station that is a Petrol Dispensing Site
(PDS) in order to provide motorists with fuel for their vehicle as well as provide
kerosene for the local community which is primarily used for lighting and as fuel for
domestic use.
In general, the design of the project will tend to essentially optimize the use of best
available technology to prevent or minimize potentially significant environmental
impacts associated with the project and to incorporate efficient operational controls
together with trained staff, to ensure high level business and environmental
performances. The technology used in the design and construction of the petrol
station will be based on international standards, which have been customized by
various petrol stations in Kenya.
The project will have the following components once complete: Fuelling points (pump islands) for Kerosene, diesel and petrol
Underground storage tanks of capacity 10,000 and two for 6,000litres for
petrol, kerosene and diesel respectively.
Petroleum station building block which will house a convenience store and
an office
Tyre centre block which will house a service bay and tyre centre,
Sanitary facility block which will include male and female toilets, changing
rooms and a laundry
Septic tank and oil interceptors
2 entry/exit points
Parking bays for cars and trucks
Landscaped gardens
6.2 LAND OWNERSHIP
The land is registered under the registration of titles Act, Cap 281 of the laws of
Kenya. The registered owner of the parcel of land Mbeere/Gachoka/3295 is
Mr.Thomas Mutugi Karunji ID/20538029 effective from the 18th July 2012.
6.3 LAND SIZE
The land to be developed measures approximately 0.10Ha.This is as indicated in the
title deed a copy of which is annexed to the report

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6.4 SITE STATUS


The site for the proposed filling station has an ongoing construction for the office
block, building materials; sand and gravel are also on site. Two underground fuel
storage tanks are also on the site. The site is currently open with no fence and gates of
entrance. The figure below shows the site for the proposed petrol filling station;
The figure below shows the site for the proposed developments;

Figure 2&3; A closer view and a wider view of the project site with construction of the
store and office block ongoing.

Figure 4; The Embu-Kiritiri tarmac road while in the background is the site for the
proposed petrol filling station with the construction of the office block ongoing.
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6.5 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS


The proposed filling station will be composed of the following details as shown by the
approved architectural plans and drawings attached:

Pump islands
UST of 10,000 and 6,000litres for petrol, super and diesel respectively
Petroleum station building block which will house a convenience store and
an office
Drive ways: walkways; acceleration and deceleration lanes

Fence along the plot boundary as necessary

Service Bay

Air filing area

Washrooms separate for men and women

Septic tanks

Oil /Water interceptor

Paved and landscaped grounds

Shop and Juggernaut supermarket

The buildings will be provided with storm water facilities from the roof top through
peripheral drainage systems storm water drainage system. Drainage pipes will be of
the pvc type and will either be laid under the buildings and the driveway or open
drains and will be encased in concrete. The buildings will be connected to a septic
tank system for discharge of sewage emanating from the projects operational
activities. The buildings will have adequate natural ventilation through provision of
permanent vents in all habitable rooms, adequate natural and artificial light, piped
water stored in underground and above ground tanks.

6.6 PROJECT ACTIVITIES


6.6.1 Construction Activities and Inputs
Inputs for the project will include the following among others:
Construction raw materials including sand, cement, stones, crushed rock
(gravel/ballast), ceramics, steel metals, roofing materials (roofing sheets) and
painting materials.
Machinery to be employed in the construction will include trucks, concrete
mixers, compressors among others
Labour is an important input in the construction process and will be a mix of
skilled and non-skilled manpower.
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Water supply is requisite for any construction undertaking. It will be sourced


from the councils piped water supply.
Power will be used in the construction process.
Steel (reinforcement, casement, wiring and fittings)
Glass
PVC materials (tiles, pipes, conduits, and fittings)
Concrete tiles and paving block
Paint
Plant materials grass, tree seedlings etc.

6.7 PROJECT BUDGET


The proposed petrol filling station is estimated to cost Ksh. 4,500,000(four million
five hundred thousand Kenya shillings).
Point to note: Environmental Impact Assessment licence-0.05% of the total cost of the
project to the minimum of Kshs 10,000 and maximum of Kshs 1,000,000.
Reference: Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit (Amendment) Regulations
2009 item 4
The 0.1% EIA licensing fee has been paid as indicated by the attached copy of the NEMA
receipt annexed to the report.
6.8 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES
The activities to be undertaken in the implementation of the project processes are
broadly grouped into three namely; planning (preparation), construction and
operation phases.
6.8.1 Planning
This is the initial phase of the project. The project is presently at this phase. This
phase is preparatory and its primary objective is to ensure that the project receives
all the necessary approvals before the commencement of implementation.
This phase includes the selection of the members of the various professional fields to
be involved in the implementation of the project. Such members are essential in the
design of the project as well as in undertaking consultations on the project.
Detailed architectural plans for the project, including site layout have been drawn and
submitted to the Council for consideration. Copies of the plans are annexed to this
report. The preparation of this project report and its submission to NEMA forms an
essential step in the project preparation phase.
The final steps of the planning stage will include the tendering of the construction
process, which will be followed by the signing of various construction contracts.
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6.8.2 Construction Process


This marks the beginning of the implementation of the project. It is at this stage
that the contractors come in to carry out the construction work. During the
construction, there will be regular inspections by the project architect, to ensure that
the implementation of the project abides by the set regulations as well as conforming
to the approved schemes.
Building materials will be stored on site in a temporary store. Bulky materials
such as rough stones, ballast, sand and steel will be carefully piled on site. To avoid
piling large quantities of materials on site, the proponent will order bulky materials
such as sand, gravel and stones in quotas. Materials such as cement, paints and
glasses among others will be stored in temporary storage structures which will be
constructed within the project site for this purpose. The various construction works
include:
6.8.2.1 Forecourt and customer parking
The design and construction of the forecourt and parking areas will be in accordance
with the loads anticipated at filling station. The top black cotton soil will be excavated
and disposed on approved dumpsite. The site will be backfilled with approved
hardcore fillings/stones compacted to form a tuff base. The area will be leveled and
an impermeable concrete slab will be laid furnished with interlocking/connecting
gabro blocks.
6.8.2.2 Office block
This will comprise of a permanent brick housing block for offices that will be used for
administrative work for the petrol filling station.
6.8.2.3 Service Bay
The service bay will offer services such as oil change, greasing, minor mechanical
repairs and checking. The bay will be able to accommodate both small and large
vehicles.
6.8.2.4 Excavations and foundation works
Excavation will be carried out to prepare the site for construction of foundations,
laying of tanks and drainage systems.
The proponent proposes two tanks with the capacity of 10,000litres and 6,000litres
for Diesel and Super respectively.
Depth of the excavations for the UST should comply with set standards. The following
basic requirements are to be attained;
At least 150 mm from the depth of the bedding layers.
At least 750 mm from the depth of the overlay.
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Width and depth as per tank dimensions plus clearance of at least 500 mm all
round.
Distance between tanks in a single excavation will be at least 500mm

6.8.2.5 Installation for the underground tanks


Installation of the underground fuel storage tanks should comply with requirements
of the occupational health and safety Services aid.
All tanks should be fitted with lifting tugs during manufacture. Suitable lifting
equipment will be used to comply with the regulations and procedures of the
Directorate of Occupational Health and safety services.
The tanks will be lowered gently into excavation. Rolling of the tanks should not be
allowed during transportation, off loading and installation.
6.8.2.6 Stability for the underground tanks
Backfill material will be used to ensure stability of the fuel storage tanks. Gravel, clean
and sieved subsoil and sand are the material the project proponent will use for
backfilling. The backfill material should be spread in layers with a thickness of 150
mm each. Each layer will be compacted to the required standard.
6.8.2.7 Pipe works and Fitting
Installation of pipe-work for water supply and distribution will be carried out within
the petrol station and associated facilities. In addition, pipe-work will be done to
connect petroleum tanks and fuel pumps, sewage from the premises to the septic tank
system, and for drainage of storm water from the rooftop into the peripheral storm
water drainage system. Plumbing activities will include metal and plastic cutting, the
use of adhesives, metal grinding and wall drilling among others.
The project proponent will use pipes made of black steel piping protected against
corrosion by a petroleum gaze wrapping, together with a PVC outer warp made of a
suitable non metallic material with at least 50% overlaps.
All steel piping complies with measurements of KS 259 for medium pressure rating.
6.8.2.8 Dispensing Hose
The dispensing hoses should be located in such a way that when the hose is fully
extended from any vamp leading down to a base mat, no fuel can flow from the nozzle
down the vamp.
6.8.2.9 Dispenser Pumps
The fuel dispenser pumps should be fitted to comply with set requirements from the
ground and the edge of the dispenser vamp. All the pumps for the different products
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should be located such that all accidental spillage effluents from the pumps and from
the fuelling vehicles would flow into the interceptors.
6.8.2.10 Suction Pipes
Suction pipes should be fitted with a non return valve fitted at the base and under the
Pump.
6.8.2.11 Oil Interceptors
The facility will be designed such that the driveway area around the diesel
dispensers/dispensing pumps where spillage might occur during the refueling as well
as ordinary runoff will not flow to the street, or into watercourses or into storm
water systems without first passing through a gravity separator.
The effluent should pass through the interceptor and from there to the septic tank.
Precautions are taken to ensure that rain water or spills do not flow into the septic
tank without first passing through a gravity separator.
Interceptors are constructed to take effluent containing emulsifiers and detergents
from potentially contaminated areas.
6.8.2.12 Rapid drainage system
The system will be designed such that it allows drainage of spillage from the filler box
to the relevant underground tank controlled by a suitable valve.
6.8.2.13 Sampling Chambers
A sampling chamber will be provided downstream to sample effluent before it enters
into the septic tank.
6.8.2.14 Fire protection/Emergency Response
These will be incorporated in the project mainly there will be provision of dry
chemical powder extinguisher; carbon dioxide type extinguishers and fire blanket,
which will be placed at strategic places within the stations premises.
The electrical system at the filling station will be connected to a centrally located
emergency stop switch to enhance power control in the event of an emergency a
switch that will shut off the electrical power of the entire project.

6.8.2.15 Steel canopy over Pump Island and Roofing


A structural steel canopy will be fabricated and erected at the proposed project. This
canopy will be designed by a qualified structural engineer and fabricated/installed by
a specialist.
Roofing activities will also include raising the roofing materials such as concrete, iron
sheet and structural timber to the roof and fastening the roofing materials to the roof.
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6.8.2.16 Electrical system


Electrical work during construction of the premises will include installation of
electrical gadgets and appliances including electrical cables, lighting apparatus,
sockets etc. In addition, there will be other activities involving the use of electricity
such as welding and metal cutting.
The electrical system at the filling station will be designed by a registered engineer
and in accordance with the electric power regulations in Kenya and other electrical
standards such as NFPA 70;National electric Code. The electrical system will include
power supply to the mechanical pump as underside of the steel canopy, the offices
and security systems. On completion of the electrical works, it is expected that KPLC
will approve the electrical works and issue a power connection certificate to the
proponent.

6.8.2.17 Landscaping
To improve the aesthetic value or visual quality of the site once construction ceases,
landscaping will be carried out by the proponent. This will include establishment of
flower gardens and flourishing grass lawns and will involve replenishment of the
topsoil. It is noteworthy that the proponent will use plant species that are available
locally preferably indigenous ones for landscaping.
6.8.2.18 Masonry, concrete work and related activities
The construction of the building walls, foundations, floors, pavements, drainage
systems, perimeter fence and parking area among other components of the project
will involve a lot of masonry work and related activities. General masonry and related
activities will include stone shaping, concrete mixing, plastering, slab construction,
construction of foundations, erection of building walls and curing of fresh concrete
surfaces. These activities are known to be labour intensive and will be supplemented
by machinery such as concrete mixers.
6.8.3 Completion
This phase will involve the finalization activities of the project. It will also involve
statutory inspections and certifications, installation of utility meters and issuance of
completion/commissioning certificates. This is necessary before the filling station is
commissioned.
6.8.4 Operation Phase
Once the construction is completed, the filling station will be ready for use. It is
expected to remain in good condition for a long time during which monitoring;
maintenance and waste disposal activities will take place. The operation phase will
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also be marked by periodic environmental audits. This will be undertaken to ensure


that the project remains environmentally friendly. The main activities in the
operation phase will include:
6.8.4.1 Commercial activities
Customers will visit the project site once its construction is complete to acquire
several commercial services. Operation will thus be accompanied by several activities
such as refueling, repair and general use of vehicles, car washing and serving amongst
other activities.
6.8.4.2 Solid, oil waste and waste water management
Operation of the petrol station will also be accompanied by the production of oil and
grease, solid and waste water wastes. Oil wastes emanating from the station will be
deposited or pumped into a specific storage tank located next to the service bays
whereby it will be stored until a licensed oil waste handler collects it. Oil interceptors
will be incorporated as indicated within the project design.
The proponent will provide facilities for handling solid waste generated within the
facility. These will include dust bins/skips for temporarily holding waste within the
premises before final disposal at the councils designated dumping site. Sewage
generated from the building will be discharged into a septic tank system, while storm
water from the project area will be channeled into the peripheral storm water
drainage system.
6.8.4.3 Cleaning
The proponent will be responsible for ensuring regular washing and cleaning of the
station shops/stores, pavements, car park, vehicle service bays etc. Cleaning
operations will involve the use of substantial amounts of water, disinfectants and
detergents.
6.8.4.4 General repairs and maintenance
The project and associated facilities will be repaired and maintained regularly during
the operational phase of the project. Such activities will include repair of building
walls and floors, repair and maintenance of electrical gadgets and equipment, repairs
of leaking pipes and tanks, painting, maintenance of flower gardens/grass lawns, and
replacement of worn out materials among others.

6.8.5 Description of the projects decommissioning activities


6.8.5.1 Demolition works
Upon decommissioning, the project components including buildings, pavements,
drainage systems, parking areas and perimeter fence will be demolished. This will
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produce a lot of solid waste, which will be reused for other construction works or if
not reusable, disposed of appropriately by a licensed waste disposal company.
6.8.5.2 Dismantling of equipment and fixtures
All equipment including electrical installations, furniture, finishing fixtures partitions,
pipe-work and sinks among others will be dismantled and removed from the site on
decommissioning of the project. Priority will be given to reuse of these equipment in
other projects. This will be achieved through resale of the equipment to other
building owners or contractors or donation of these equipments to schools, churches
and charitable institutions.
6.8.5.3 Site restoration
Once all the waste resulting from demolition and dismantling works is removed from
the site, the site will be restored through replenishment of the top soil and revegetation using indigenous plant species and other fast growing tree species.

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CHAPTER SEVEN: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION


7.1 INTRODUCTION
Interviews were carried out on 25th October 2013; the exercise was conducted by a
team of experienced registered environmental experts via administration of predesigned questionnaires and by interviewing neighbours surrounding the proposed
project site.
The main purpose for such interviews was to identify the positive and negative
impacts and subsequently promote and mitigate them respectively.
An advert was also put in the standard Newspaper dated the 25th July 2012 by the
proponent, this was in order to inform the wider public of the proponents intention
to change the use of the land from agricultural to a filling station (A copy of the advert
has been annexed to the report). It also helped in identifying any other miscellaneous
issues which may bring conflicts and enhance project acceptability in case project
implementation proceeds as planned.
7.2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
As part of the project the public opinion was sought concerning their judgment about
the project and also raises the level of acceptability of the project among the locals.
The people who were contacted are the ones who live in the immediate neighborhood
to the project and on adjacent plots. A list of those consulted is annexed to the report.
7.2.1 Issues
There were concerns from the neighbours interviewed over their health and safety,
pollution from oil spills and fire accidents that would result from implementation of
the project.
7.2.2 Advantages
Apart from the issues raised, most of the neighbours interviewed encouraged the
construction of the filling station citing the provision of jobs, suitability of the site as
its situated within a rapidly commercializing/developing area, making it necessary
for such facility to provide fuel.
The area has also dwindling returns on agriculture making most of the residents to
venture into other economic activities in this case most youth are riders.
7.2.3 Provision of services
The residents also welcomed the project citing the distance they have to walk over
6KM to get such services of filing station in Embu town or 6 km in Kiritiri. They
therefore support the location of the project in relation to their residential areas.

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CHAPTER EIGHT: DECOMMISSIONING STAGE

8.0 DECOMMISSIONING
Decommissioning is a controlled process used to safely retire a facility that is no
longer needed. During decommissioning, facilities or structures are cleaned or
secured so that the facility does not pose a risk to public health or the environment
now or in the future.
Following completion of the operation of the Project or the project phase, any areas of
land used for the project should be re-instated for sustainable future use. The
proponent should ensure;
Notification of all those to be affected
Termination of power supply to the development.
Termination of water connections.
Provision of Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) to the workers
who will participate in the demolition exercise.
Use of trucks and machinery in demolition
Excavation and removal of underground fuel storage tanks and pipes
Waste from the site to be disposed in an environmentally friendly
manner.
Rehabilitation of land by removing any unnecessary materials that shall
be covering land and preventing the natural biodiversity.
Landscaping and re-vegetation of all disturbed areas.
Building materials that cannot be recycled should be disposed off by a
registered waste handler recognized by NEMA in relation to
Environmental Management and Co-Ordination (Waste Management)
Regulations, 2006 Legal Notice No.121 and on council disposal sites.

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CHAPTER NINE:
MEASURES

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUGGESTED MITIGATION

The proposed project; petrol filling station is expected to have impacts on the
environment; the impacts can be positive or negative, direct or indirect, reversible or
irreversible. The extent of the environmental impacts is determined by its
significance and magnitude as well as whether temporary or permanent, long or
short term, localized or widespread.
The project was evaluated taking into account technical, socio-economic and
environmental considerations. Future environmental conditions were predicted with
an aim of avoiding or reducing any adverse impacts. Techniques used were mainly
past experience with similar projects within and outside the country and professional
judgment. Impacts prediction was based on:
The time at which the impact is expected
The extent or area over which it will have an effect
The magnitude of the impact
The significance of the predicted changes
The sensitivity/certainty of the prediction
Some impact mitigation has already been addressed in the proactive design and other
mitigations can only be guaranteed through active, management, helped by following
the guidelines in the project Environmental Management Plan outlined in the next
chapter.
The following are the main environmental impacts that have been identified through
the construction, operation and decommissioning phases of the proposed project:
9.1 CONSTRUCTION PHASE
9.1.1 Positive Impacts
9.1.1.1

Creation of employment opportunities

One of the main positive impacts during projects construction phase will be the
availability of employment opportunities especially to casual workers and several
other specialized workers. Employment opportunities are of benefit both
economically and in a social sense. In the economic sense it means abundant
unskilled labour will be used in construction hence economic production. Apart
from casual labour, semi skilled and unskilled labour and formal employees are
also expected to obtain gainful employment during the period of construction.
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9.1.1.2

Improving growth of the economy

Through the use of locally available materials during the construction phase of the
project including cement, concrete and ceramic tiles, timber, sand, ballast,
electrical cables etc, the project will contribute towards growth of the economy by
contributing to the gross domestic product. The consumption of these materials,
fuel oil and others will attract taxes including VAT which will be payable to the
government hence increasing government revenue while the cost of these raw
materials will be payable directly to the producers.
9.1.1.3

Increased business opportunities

There are usually several informal businesses which come up during the
construction periods of such projects. These include activities such as food
vending who benefit directly from the construction staff members who buy food
and other commodities from them. This will promote the informal sector in
securing some temporary revenue and hence livelihood.

9.1.2 Negative Impacts


9.1.2.1

Destruction of existing vegetation

Before the construction process begins clearing of some of the existing vegetation
cover and obstacles has to occur, especially within the areas where the buildings
and parking bays are to be constructed. It is recommended that the developer
should replace these with the planting of indigenous trees or other fast growing
trees and grass in strategic areas as part of the landscaping activities.
9.1.2.2

Soil erosion

The construction site once exposed by excavation works soil erosion is likely to
occur during construction especially during rainy and windy seasons. Considering
the land clearing, excavation and other construction processes, soil will be
exposed to erosion agents leading to soil/land degradation and hence impacting
negatively on the environment.
9.1.2.3

Siltation

Soil eroded from the site due to construction processes as mentioned above will
be washed down slope into Karigori stream and finally Tana River which flows in
the projects neighbourhood. This means that unless appropriate mitigation
measures are taken the project construction phase will lead to the deposition of
soil sediments into the River and hence increased sedimentation and turbidity
levels.
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9.1.2.4

Hydrology and water quality degradation

Project related excavation could lead to ground water quality degradation.


Contaminated soil or ground water in the path of the project could be disturbed
by excavation resulting in a potential transfer of the contamination to such
waters. The excavated area, if linear could act as a conduit to extend groundwater
contamination to new areas. Spills of hazardous materials in excavated areas
during construction could introduce contaminants to ground water.
9.1.2.5

Storm water

Storm water runoff either from the site or from the neighbouring areas may run
into the site thereby causing interference to the construction operation.
9.1.2.6

Oil Spills

The machines on site contain moving parts which require continuous oiling to
minimize the usual corrosion or wear and tear. Likewise, moving vehicles on site
may also require oil change. Such oil spills due to accidental occurrences, leakages
or negligence have a high potential of causing soil and water contamination and
hence having detrimental effects on the surrounding environment.
9.1.2.7

Noise pollution

The construction works on site will most likely have noise operation due to the
moving machines (mixers, tippers, communicating workers), incoming vehicles to
deliver construction materials and other normal construction activities. This may
prove to be a potential source of disturbance to the surrounding neighbours and a
health hazard to the workers themselves. Such noise emissions should be
minimized as much as possible from the source point while workers should be
provided with appropriate personal protective wear.
9.1.2.8

Dust emissions

Particulate matter pollution is likely to occur during the site clearance, excavation
of the top soil and loading and transportation of the construction waste. There is a
possibility of PM10 suspended and settle-able particles affecting the site workers
and even neighbours health.
9.1.2.9

Increased water demand

Both the workers and the construction works will create an increased demand for
water in addition to the existing demand. Water will be mostly used in the
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creation of aggregates for construction works and for wetting surfaces for
softening or hardening after creating the formworks.
9.1.2.10

Generation of exhaust emissions

Exhaust emissions are likely to be generated during the construction period by


the various construction machinery and equipment. Motor vehicles used to
mobilize the work force and materials for construction would cause a potentially
significant air quality impact by emitting pollutants through gaseous exhaust
emissions.
9.1.2.11

Building materials and energy used

Several building materials will be required for construction of the petrol station
and associated facilities. These will include sand, ballast, hard core, timber,
cement, clay tiles, metal sheets, electrical gadgets, steel, plumbing materials, glass
and paints among others. Most of these materials will be obtained locally within
Embu town and surrounding areas.
The main sources of energy that will be required for construction of the project
will include mains electricity and fossil fuels (especially diesel). Electricity will be
used for welding, metal cutting/grinding and provision of light. Diesel will run
material transport vehicles and building equipment/machinery such as
bulldozers and concrete mixers. The proponent should promote efficient use of
building materials and energy through proper planning to reduce economic and
environmental costs of construction activities.
9.1.2.12

Waste management

Large amounts of solid waste will be generated during construction of the project.
These will include metal cuttings, rejected materials, surplus materials, surplus
spoil, excavated materials, paper bags, empty cartons, empty paint and solvent
containers, broken glass among others.
Solid wastes if not well managed have a potential of causing disease outbreaks
due to suitable breeding conditions for vectors of cholera and typhoid. Malaria
outbreak could also be exacerbated by the presence of open water ditches for
breeding of anopheles mosquitoes. The major vulnerable groups are children who
could be exposed to these conditions.
The construction workers will also generate faecal waste during their day-to-day
operations. The generated waste needs proper handling to prevent disease, such
as cholera, typhoid and diarrhoea outbreak on the site. Unless this is addressed, it
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can prove to be an environmental/health hazard. A pit latrine(s) or


temporary/mobile toilets should be established on site to avoid such health risks.
9.1.2.13

Increased runoff from new impervious areas

Construction of buildings and paved roads could result in additional runoff


through creation of impervious areas and compaction of soils. Impervious areas
and compacted soils generally have higher runoff coefficients than natural area,
and increased flood peaks are a common occurrence in developed areas.
9.1.2.14

Workers accidents and hazards during construction

During construction of the proposed project, it is expected that construction


workers are likely to have accidental injuries and hazards as a result of accidental
occurrences, handling hazardous waste, lack or neglect of the use of protective
wear etc. All necessary health and safety guidelines should be adhered to so as to
avoid such circumstances.
Workers are also likely to be exposed to diseases from contact with potentially
harmful building materials. It is therefore recommended that before the
construction commences, there is need for the materials to be well inspected and
harmonized to the occupational health and safety standards.
9.2

Operation phase

9.2.1 Positive Impacts


9.2.1.1

Provision of service station facilities

The project will provide a modern petrol and service station for clients. Due to the
multiple nature of the station i.e. service station, carwash, restaurant, convenience
store etc the project will have multiple benefits to customers.
9.2.1.2

Employment opportunities

Some people will be employed by the project as management agents, caretakers,


fuel attendants, cooks, security personnel among other activities.
9.2.1.3

Revenue to national and local governments

Through payment of relevant taxes, rates and fees to the government and the local
authority, the petrol filling station project will contribute towards the national
and local revenue earnings.

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9.2.2 Negative Impacts


9.2.2.1

Waste generation

The project is expected to generate substantial amounts of solid, oil and waste
water during its operation phase. If not disposed appropriately the wastes
especially oil and waste water may end up contaminating the soil and river water
on site or at their designated disposal sites.
Solid wastes on the other hand can be injurious to the environment through
blockage of drainage systems, choking of water bodies and negative impacts on
animal health. Some of these waste materials especially the plastic/polythene that
are not biodegradable may cause long-term injurious effects to the environment.
Even the biodegradable ones such as organic wastes may be injurious to the
environment because as they decompose, they produce methane gas, a powerful
greenhouse gas known to contribute to global warming.
9.2.2.2

Energy consumption

During operation, the station will use a lot of electrical energy in activities such as
pumping petroleum, lighting, cooking, running of air conditioning equipment,
running of refrigeration systems, carwash pressure hoses and running other
machines within the station. Since electricity generation involves utilization of
natural resources, excessive electricity consumption will strain the resources and
negatively impact on their sustainability.
9.2.2.3

Water use

The commercial activities during the operation phase of the project will involve
the use of substantial quantities of water in cleaning and consumption.
9.2.3 Positive environmental impacts of decommissioning activities
9.2.3.1

Rehabilitation

Upon decommissioning the project, rehabilitation of the project site will be


carried out to restore the site to its original status. This will include replacement
of topsoil and re-vegetation that will lead to improved visual quality of the area.
9.2.3.2

Employment Opportunities

For demolition to take place properly and in good time, several people will be
involved. As a result several employment opportunities will be created for the
demolition staff during the demolition phase of the proposed project.
9.2.4 Negative environmental impacts of decommissioning activities
9.2.4.1

Solid waste

Demolition of the project buildings and related infrastructure will result in large
quantities of solid waste. The waste will contain the materials used in
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construction including concrete, metal, drywall, wood, glass, paints, adhesives,


sealants and fasteners. Although demolition waste is generally considered as less
harmful to the environment since they are composed of inert materials, there is
growing evidence that large quantities of such waste may lead to release of certain
hazardous chemicals into the environment. In addition, even the generally nontoxic chemicals such as chloride, sodium, sulphate and ammonia, which may be
released as a result of leaching of demolition waste, are known to lead to
degradation of groundwater quality.
9.2.4.2

Dust

Large quantities of dust will be generated during demolition works. This will
affect demolition staff as well as the neighbouring community.
9.2.4.3

Noise and vibration

The demolition works will lead to significant deterioration of the acoustic


environment within the project site and the surrounding areas. This will be as a
result of the noise and vibration that will be experienced as a result of
demolishing the proposed project.

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CHAPTER TEN: MITIGATION MEASURES AND MONITORING PROGRAMMES

10.1 INTRODUCTION
This section highlights the necessary mitigation measures for the expected negative
impacts of the proposed project. The potential impacts and the possible mitigation
measures have herein been analyzed under three categories as done in Chapter six.
These are Construction phase, Operation phase and Decommissioning Phase.
References are made as to where decommissioning mitigation measures can be
sought.
10.2 CONSTRUCTION RELATED IMPACTS
10.2.1 Minimization of vegetation disturbance
Clearance of part of the vegetation at the project site to pave way for construction is
also likely to occur. However, the proponent will ensure proper demarcation of the
project area to be affected by the construction works. This will be aimed at ensuring
that any disturbance to flora is restricted to the actual project area and avoid
spillover effects on the neighbouring areas. In the same vein, there will be strict
control of construction vehicles to ensure that they operate only within the area to be
disturbed by access routes and other works.
Another important measure aimed at reducing disturbance of vegetation in the
project area will be preservation of individual trees within the site. In addition, the
proponent has committed himself to re-vegetation of some of the disturbed areas
through implementation of a well designed landscaping programme.
10.2.2 Controlling soil erosion
Soil erosion within the project site will be mitigated by applying several measures
such as leveling of the project site to reduce run-off velocity and increase infiltration
of storm water into the soil, ensuring that construction vehicles are restricted to
existing graded roads to avoid soil compaction within the project site and proper
planning of site excavation works such that a section is completed and rehabilitated
before another section begins. Construction of a retaining wall and building of
gabions should also be incorporated to reduce soil erosion effects.
10.2.3 Hydrology and water quality degradation
Several measures shall be put in place to mitigate the impacts that are likely to lead to
surface and groundwater quality degradation. The proponent will prepare a
hazardous substance control systems and emergency response plan that will include
preparations for quick and safe clean up of accidental spills. It will prescribe
hazardous-materials handling procedures to reduce the potential for a spill during
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construction, and will include an emergency response programme to ensure quick


and safe cleanup of accidental spills. The plan will identify areas where refueling and
vehicle maintenance activities and storage of hazardous materials, if any, will be
permitted.
Soil sampling and potholing will be conducted before construction begins and soil
information will be provided to construction crews to inform them about soil
conditions and potential hazards. If hazardous substances are unexpectedly
encountered during trenching, work will be stopped until the material is properly
characterized and appropriate measures are taken to protect human health and the
environment. If excavation of hazardous materials is required, they will be handled in
accordance with applicable regulations.
If suspected contaminated groundwater is encountered in the depths of the proposed
construction areas, samples will be collected and submitted for laboratory analysis of
petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile
organic compounds. If necessary, ground water will be collected during construction
contained and disposed of in accordance with all applicable regulations. Appropriate
personal protective equipment will be used and waste management will be
performed in accordance with applicable regulations. Oil absorbent material, taps and
storage drums will be used to contain and control any minor releases of engine and
other equipment oil.
10.2.4 Increased runoff
Increased runoff from paved grounds and expansive roofs causing extreme flooding
and overflows of drainage systems shall be mitigated. Surface runoff and roof water
shall be harvested and stored in underground reservoir for reuse or shall be directly
channeled storm water drains. A storm water management plan that minimizes
impervious area infiltration by use of recharge areas and use of detention and/or
retention with graduated outlet control structures will be designed.
10.2.5 Controlling oil spills during construction phase
The proponent will control the dangers of oil spills during construction by
maintaining the machinery in specific areas designed for this purpose hence might
not be a serious impact as a result of the construction.
10.2.6 Noise pollution
Significance of noise impacts depends on whether the project would increase noise
levels above the existing ambient levels by introducing new sources of noise. Noise
impacts would be considered significant if the project would result in the following:

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Exposure of persons to, or generation of, noise levels in excess of standards


established in the local general plan or noise ordinance, or applicable
standards of other agencies.
Exposure of persons to, or generation of, excessive ground-borne vibration
or ground-borne noise levels.
A substantial permanent increase in ambient noise levels (more than five
dBA) in the project vicinity above levels existing without the project.
A substantial temporary or periodic increase in ambient noise levels in the
project vicinity above levels existing without the project.

The proponents shall put in place several measures that will mitigate noise pollution
arising during the construction phase. The following noise-suppression techniques
will be employed to minimize the impact of temporary construction noise at the
project site.

Install portable barriers to shield compressors and other small stationary


equipment where necessary.
Use quiet equipment (i.e. equipment designed with noise control
elements).
Co-ordinate with relevant agencies regarding all substation construction
activities in the commercial areas.
Install sound barriers for pile driving activity.
Limit pickup trucks and other small equipment to an idling time of five
minutes, observe a common-sense approach to vehicle use, and encourage
workers to shut off vehicle engines whenever possible.

10.2.7 Air quality


Controlling dust during construction is useful in minimizing nuisance conditions and
consequently health (respiratory and eye) complications. It is recommended that a
standard set of feasible dust control measures be implemented for all construction
activities. Emissions of other contaminants (Nitrogen oxides, Carbon dioxide, Sulphur
oxides, and diesel related Particulate Matter PM10) that would occur in the exhaust
from heavy equipment are also included.
The proponent is committed to implementing measures that shall reduce air quality
impacts associated with construction. All personnel working on the project will be
trained prior to starting construction on methods for minimizing air quality impacts
during construction. This means that construction workers will be trained regarding
the minimization of emissions during construction. Specific training will be focused
on minimizing dust and exhaust gas emissions from heavy construction vehicles.
Construction vehicles drivers will be under strict instructions to minimize
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unnecessary trips, refill petrol fuel tanks in the afternoon, and minimize idling of
engines.
Dust emissions will be controlled by the following measures:
Watering all active construction areas when necessary.
Cover all trucks hauling soil, sand and other loose materials or require all
trucks to maintain at least two feet of freeboard.
Pave, apply water when necessary, or apply (non-toxic) soil stabilizers on
all unpaved access roads, parking areas and staging areas at construction
sites.
Sweep daily (with water sweepers) all paved access roads, parking areas
and staging areas at construction sites.
Fast growing trees will be planted around the project area to act as a wind
breaker to reduce the particulate matter that lead to respiratory diseases.
10.2.8 Construction waste
It is recommended that land clearance/excavation and construction waste be
recycled or reused to ensure that materials that would otherwise be disposed of as
waste are diverted for productive uses. In this regard, the proponent is committed to
ensuring that construction materials left over at the end of construction will be used
in other projects rather than being disposed of. In addition, damaged or wasted
construction materials including cabinets, doors, plumbing and lighting fixtures,
marbles and glass will be recovered for refurbishing and use in other projects. Such
measures will involve the sale or donation of such recyclable/reusable materials to
construction companies, local community groups, institutions and individual
residents or home owners.
The proponent shall put in place measures to ensure that construction materials
requirements are carefully budgeted and to ensure that the amount of construction
materials left on site after construction is kept minimal.
It is further recommended that the proponent should consider the use of recycled or
refurbished construction materials. Purchasing and using once-used or recovered
construction materials will lead to financial savings and reduction of the amount of
construction debris disposed of as waste.
Additional recommendations for minimization of solid waste during construction of
the project include:

Use of durable, long- lasting materials that will not need to be replaced as
often, thereby reducing the amount of construction waste generated over
time.

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Provision of facilities for proper handling and storage of construction


materials to reduce the amount of waste caused by damage or exposure to
the elements.

Use of building materials that have minimal packaging to avoid the


generation of excessive packaging waste

Use of construction materials containing recycled content when possible


and in accordance with accepted standards.

10.2.9 Generation of exhaust emission


In order to control exhaust emissions the following measures shall be implemented
during construction.
Vehicle idling time shall be minimized
Alternatively fuelled construction equipment shall be used where feasible
Equipment shall be properly tuned and maintained

10.2.10

Worker accidents and hazards

Necessary health and safety rules shall be enforced by the site foreman to ensure that
all staff members adhere to these standards and are thus safe. Adequate collection
and storage of waste on site and safe transportation to the disposal sites and disposal
methods at designated area shall be provided. In addition covers for refuse containers
and appropriate personal protective equipments to be used by workers shall also be
provided by the proponent.
Workers accidents especially in deep trenching operations and from gas
accumulation in sewers and other confined spaces shall be mitigated by enforcing
adherence to safety procedures and preparing contingency plan for accident response
in addition safety education and training shall be emphasized.
10.2.11

Populations of disease vectors

Well designed waste management system and storm water drainage systems have to
be put in place so as to ensure that breeding grounds of disease carrying vectors are
such as rats, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches etc are effectively controlled. Complete
waste collection and handling service will be provided by the proponent.
10.2.12

Possible exposure of workers to diseases

Possible exposure of workers to diseases from building materials at construction site


shall be mitigated by occupational health and safety standards enforcement which
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encompasses the inspection of such raw materials to ensure required standards are
met.
10.3 Operation Phase Impacts
10.3.1 Fire Accidents/Hazard
10.3.1.1 Design and layout
The design and layout of the facility has been based on an elaborate fire risk analysis
and proper safety distances have been observed in relation to both onsite and offsite
facilities and areas in the vicinity that might act as sources of ignition.
Strict release prevention measures and safety distances from fixed sources of ignition
be observed in the equipment design and facility layout in relation to its vicinity and
operational practice.
The design will take into consideration the facilities in the vicinity and all possible
significant hazards originating from or directed at them.
Minimum separation distances from storage areas within the facility to ordinary
electrical equipment and open flames will be observed and has been incorporated in
the design of the electrical system.
All electrical machines to be located in hazard areas will be flame proof.
All the electrical equipment and systems will be checked and certified by an
authorized electrical engineer to ensure that the required standard is followed
strictly. Records of all electrical; equipment and their hazard classification will be
available.
Smoking near the facility will be forbidden as the petroleum products are highly
flammable.
Accumulation of loose or piled combustible material, weeds and long-dry grass near
Petroleum storage areas will be avoided.
Proper and safe distances will be strictly observed between flammable or
combustible materials.
10.3.1.2 Leakage
To mitigate this risk release prevention measures have been put in place interms
of valves and instrumentation for product control.
The design has also incorporated appropriate impoundment basins and liquid traps
in the drainage system for areas with release hazard potential in order to ensure that
accidental spill is contained and does not constitute fire hazard to other areas within
the site or off site.

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10.3.1.3 BLEVE Hazard


The bulk storage tanks ground condition design has incorporated measures to
avoid this extreme hazard in case of catastrophic fire at the facility.
Drainage has been designed such that incase of catastrophic spill and subsequent
fire the liquid will have a preferential flow away from the under-belly of any
storage tank or any other facility or work area and into an impoundment basin
where it will be contained.
This will prevent fire engulfment of storage tanks and hence avoid BLEVE hazard in
a major fire emergency. Drainage from bulk storage tanks or operational areas with
risk of significant spill is separated from the general site drainage.
10.3.1.4 Fire response plan
Adequate water supply (100m3 liter tank) has been provided enough to protect the
storage tanks and other facilities for one hour at a rate of 3 liters/min/m2.
A fire response strategy, fire fighting in this zone should be in place and will be reassessed from time to time.
This fire emergency plan involves all the stakeholders in the neighbourhood and
the councils Fire Department.
Staff will be trained on environmental health and safety legislation and their own
responsibilities in ensuring environmental health and safety for fellow employees,
neighbouring property and general public.
10.3.2 Ensuring efficient solid waste management
The proponent will be responsible for efficient management of solid waste generated
by the project during its operation. In this regard, the proponent will provide waste
handling facilities such as waste bins and skips for temporarily holding waste
generated at the site. In addition, the proponent will ensure that they are disposed of
regularly and appropriately. It is recommended that the proponent puts in place
measures to ensure that the station operators manage their waste efficiently through
recycling, reuse and proper disposal procedures.
All solid waste will be stored in skips and covered to avoid environmental pollution.
Recyclable materials like paper and plastics will be stored separately on
the site and sold to recycling agents. Metals will be sold as scrap for recycling.
All other non-recyclable wastes from the construction will be transported by NEMA
licensed waste contractors and disposed off to licensed disposal sites only.
Waste records for all the activities of the site will be kept at the office and the facility
manager will constantly monitor the waste management practice at the site.
In case mud is deposited on the tarmac by tipper trucks the contractor will undertake
to scrap it in order to avoid dust or surface runoff pollution.
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10.3.3 Minimization of drain blockages


The proponent will ensure that there are adequate means of handling the quantities
of sewage generated at the station. It will also be important to ensure that sewage
pipes are not blocked or damaged since such occurrences can lead to release of the
effluent, resulting in land and water contamination. Such blockages or damages will
be fixed expeditiously.
10.3.4 Ensure efficient energy consumption
The proponent shall plan and install an energy-efficient lighting system at the station.
This will contribute immensely to energy conservation during the operational phase
of the project. In addition, operators of the station will be sensitized to ensure energy
efficiency in their domestic operations. To complement these measures, it will be
important to monitor energy use during the operation of the station and set targets
for efficient energy use.
10.3.5 Ensure efficient water use
The proponent will install water-conserving automatic taps and toilets. Moreover,
any water leaks through damaged pipes and faulty taps will be fixed promptly by
qualified staff. In addition, the users of the station facilities will be sensitized to use
water efficiently.

10.4 Decommissioning Phase Impacts


10.4.1 Efficient solid waste management
Solid waste resulting from demolition or dismantling works will be managed as
described in chapter 9.
10.4.2 Reduction of dust concentration
High levels of dust concentration resulting from demolition or dismantling works will
be minimized as described in chapter 9.

10.4.3

Minimization of noise and vibration

Significant impacts on the acoustic environment will be mitigated as described in


chapter 9.

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10.5 SUMMARY OF POSITIVE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT


The proposed extensions/additions will have positive impacts to the society and the
environment in general. Some of the benefits include the following:
vThe optimal use of the land.
vEase access to Petroleum products
vCreation

of market for goods and services and especially construction inputs


which include raw materials, construction machinery and labour.

vJob

opportunities for Kenyans both during planning, construction and


operational phases of the project.

vIncrease in revenue for the government.

10.6 SUMMARY OF NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT


Against the background of the above positive impacts, there are a few negative
drawbacks that are anticipated mostly during the construction of the project. They
include the following:
v Waste water management and disposal
v Increased water demand
v Increased power demand
v Oil spills during construction &operation of the filling station.
v Dust emissions.
v Soil compaction, erosion and pollution
v Safety concern during construction and operation phases of the project
v Noise and vibrations.
10.7 SUMMARY OF MITIGATION MEASURES
One of the objectives of the environmental assessment has been to identify measures
to be taken by the proponent to mitigate environmental impacts. These will include:
v A code of practice to minimize construction noise, vibration, dust and
disturbance on the site.
v Recycling and reuse of appropriate materials.
v Provision of security measures to deter intruders and protect them from the
risk of injury; and fitting of noise mufflers on generator exhausts.
v Installation of oil/diesel separators to keep oils from storm runoff.
v predetermined route to the site, oil spillages will be minimized by using right
machinery that are regularly serviced and operators who are qualified and
follow the operations instructions strictly.
v The contractor and the proponent/management will ensure effective
wastewater management, maintain equipment to avoid leaks.
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v Drainage structures to be installed properly, loose soils to be compacted,


landscaping.
v After construction the proponent shall rehabilitate the land by removing any
unnecessary materials that shall be covering the land and preventing the
natural biodiversity.
v Sensitize drivers of construction machinery on effects of noise; billboards
should be suitably erected on the start of the project to psychologically
prepare the people in the vicinity.
v Signs must indicate and inform the public when the works starts and when it
will be completed, construction activities to be restricted to daytime to avoid
accidents and possible harm to construction crew.
v Install a project signboard as per Ministry of Works standards, approved by
council indicating names and addresses and telephone no. of developers
contractors and project consultants.
v Workers in the vicinity of high-level noise to wear safety and protective gears,
provide barriers such as walls around site boundaries to provide some buffer
against noise propagation.
v Vehicle speeds in the construction area will be limited to minimize dust in the
area, discourage idling of vehicles i.e. vehicle and equipment engines will be
turned off when not in direct use to reduce exhaust emissions.
v Regular maintenance of construction plant and equipment, engage sensitive
construction workers,
v Provide Personal protective Equipments such as nose masks to the workers on
site;
v The construction contractor will water the site with exposed soil surfaces
twice each day during dry weather.
v All residual waste materials to be recycled sold or disposed in an
environmentally friendly manner. Wastes should be properly segregated and
separated to encourage recycling of some useful wastes; dustbins to be
provided at the construction site.
v Liquid wastes to be disposed off into the septic tanks
v A fully equipped First Aid Kit should be provided within the site.
v Sanitary facilities will be provided for each gender
v Local individuals preparing food for the workers at the site will be controlled
to ensure that food is hygienically prepared.
v Construction crew at the site should be sensitized on social issues such as
drugs, alcohol diseases, ensure proper solid waste disposal and collection
facilities, ensure effective wastewater management.
v Provision of safe drinking water, contractor to take an insurance cover for
workers in case of major accidents on site.
v
Unauthorized persons should be restricted from construction site,
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CHAPTER ELEVEN: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP)


Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for developing projects is usually to provide
a logical framework within which identified negative environmental impacts can be
mitigated and monitored. In addition the EMP assigns responsibilities of actions to
various actors and provides a timeframe within which mitigation measures and
monitoring can be done. The EMP is a vital output of an Environmental Impact
Assessment as it provides a checklist for project monitoring and evaluation. The EMP
outlined in Table 2, 3 and 4 has addressed the identified potential negative impacts
and mitigation measures of the proposed petrol Station Project based on the section
of Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures of the Negative Impacts.

A schedule for the project implementation has been drawn that takes into
consideration all issues that could develop into serious risks to environment, health
and safety when the project operations start.
Finally management reviews and continuous improvement determines which of the
issues require to be revisited and at what times. Based on the policy guidelines and
development of the EMP, there are other recommended actions to be undertaken by
the management in the implementation of the project. These include:

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11.1 PLANNING PHASE EMP


Planning is a crucial phase that involves activities aimed at obtaining the necessary approvals before commencing developments. It
entails consultations with and commissioning of the various professionals to be involved in project implementation. These include
Architects, Physical Planners and Environmental Experts among others. The mitigation plan below highlights the likely
environmental issues at this stage and proposes mitigation measures.

PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

MITIGATION MEASURES

Planning Phase

Building Design

ACTORS

Building plans to be submitted to the

Project

County Council of Mbeere.

Architect

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Approval from the


council

Building plans to be submitted by a


registered Architect.

Environmental Impact

Assessment/

Undertake an Environmental Impact

NEMA and

Assessment study.

Registered

License

Approval of the EIA


Report

Environmental

Disaster preparedness
Establish

accidents

records
Establish Monitoring &
Evaluation system

Put in place an emergency preparedness

Experts
Proponent

procedure.

Contractor

Establish an incident log book to record

Contractor

Disaster records
Increase

in

the

accidents to effectively manage

number of accidents

environmental accidents.

on site.

Establish an environmental management

Proponent &

Monitoring

and

committee to oversee and assist in the

Contractor

evaluation

meetings

implementation of the EMP.

10,000

and activities

Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

11.2 CONSTRUCTION PHASE EMP


This phase will entail construction of the proposed filling station with its constituent components for efficient operation. The
Environmental Management Plan below highlights the anticipated environmental issues, monitorable indicators and proposes the
necessary mitigation measures.
Environmental Management Plan
PROJECT PHASE

ENVIRONMENTAL

MITIGATION MEASURES

ACTORS

IMPACT/ISSUE
Construction

Loss of Vegetation

phase

Cut only those trees that are directly

Proponent and

affected by the citing of the filling

contractor

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Monitoring

and

evaluation

station
Construction

Air pollution through

phase

dust

and

gaseous

emissions

Periodic watering of the non-paved

Proponent and

parts and the murrum roads of

contractor

10,000

Complaints

from

adjacent neighbours

access during dry seasons

Control speed and operation of


construction vehicles

Sensitize the construction workers


on the environmental issues
-

Health and safety of

Provide cleaning drinking water

the workers

Provide protective gear for instance


ear mufflers, helmets and aprons

Proposed petrol filling station Mbeti/Gachoka/3295

Proponent

20,000

Observation

for

compliance
-

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Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

Provide sanitary facilities for the


workers

Waste management

Garbage should be disposed off in

Proponent and

5,000 per

Observation

accordance to the councils

contractor

month

scattered waste

for

requirements
Noise pollution

Maintain plant equipment if

Proponent and

present/used

contractor

Complaint

from

neighbours

Construction activities to be
-

restricted to day time


Road safety

Appropriate selection of machinery

Enforce speed limits for

Proponent and

construction vehicles especially

contractor

Observation for the


presence of mitigates

along road links leading to the site.

Provide billboards the entrance to


notify motorists about the
development

11.3 OPERATION PHASE EMP


Once the construction is completed, the filling station will be ready for use. Once in use, periodic monitoring and maintenance will
be necessary to ensure that the facilities remain in good order. The developments are expected to remain in good condition for
several decades during which monitoring, maintenance and waste disposal activities will take place. This is called the operation
stage. The Environmental Management Plan for this phase is outlined below.

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Environmental Management Plan for the Operation Phase


PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

Operation

Air Emissions

IMPACTS

phase

MITIGATION MEASURES

Pollution to

Proponent

Engines are switched

the

off when waiting

environment

refueling.

ACTORS

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Presence of the
mitigate measures

Introduction of unleaded
oils and low sulfur diesel as
demand raises that has less
harm to the environment

Waste management

Pollution

to

environment

Provide refuse waste bins


at strategic points.

Recommend
disposal

Proponent

Waste
40,000

spills/littering,

suitable
methods

if

contracting a third party to


dispose off waste.

Encourage

waste

separation by the station


OPERATION

operators

in

different

coloured polythene bags.

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PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

PHASE

Waste management

IMPACTS

Pollution

MITIGATION MEASURES

ACTORS

Disposal of all liquid waste

Proponent

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

100,000

into septic tanks

the neighbours

Proper storage ,handling


and disposal of new oil and

Proponent

used oil and related wastes

Maintaining

plant

Evidence of oil

and

equipment to avoid leaks

Spills

Proponent

OPERATION
PHASE

Complaints from

Accidents and

Traffic Hazards.

incidents

Construction of 100 m

proponent

long acceleration and


deceleration lanes.

Clear marking of Exit


and Entry points.

Discourage roadside
parking along EmbuKiritiri highway

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Provide adequate

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Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE
Storm water

IMPACTS

Pollution to

MITIGATION MEASURES

surface water

Develop a storm water

ACTORS

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Proponent

drainage system and


linkage to natural drains.

COST

Observations for
40,000

Contractor

the presence of
mitigate measures.

Ensure efficiency of
drainage structures
through proper design and

maintenance

Complaints from

Construct drains to

neighbours of

standard specifications

water pollution

Regular inspection of oil


interceptors and drainage
channels for any leaks

Aesthetic beauty

Degradation of

the plot value

The buildings finishing

Proponent

should blend with the


existing environment

Proposed petrol filling station Mbeti/Gachoka/3295

Blend or clutter of
the building
30,000

Landscaping

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Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

IMPACTS

Energy

Increased

MITIGATION MEASURES

off

Provide

for

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

adequate

natural lighting in facility to


reduce consumption.

COST

electrical

appliances when not in use

energy
Demand

Switch

ACTORS

Proponent
-

Use energy saving bulbs

Amount of energy
consumed

including those for street


and security lights

Explore the use of solar


energy

Provide standby generator

70,000

for instances of power cuts

Presence of solar
panels

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PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

OPERATION

Health and safety

IMPACTS

Risk to workers

MITIGATION MEASURES

PHASE

ACTORS

Ensure all health and safety


requirements e.g. fire exits

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Proponent

Presence of
-

mitigate measure

and firefighting equipment


are installed.

Workers should be given


the appropriate protective
attire (aprons, dustcoats).

Provide First aid kit

All

wastes

properly

should

be

disposed

at

council designated sites

Employ cleaners to ensure


general cleanliness of the
premises

Workers should be trained


on

occupational

health

&safety and first Aid

Train staff on petroleum


product handling

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PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

IMPACTS

Fire

MITIGATION MEASURES

ACTORS

Outbreak of fire

COST

MONITORABLE

(KSHS)

INDICATORS

Underground fuel

Proponent

Presence of the

storage tanks fitted

mitigation

with leakage sensors

measures

Install No smoking

alert signs to avoid


accidental ignition of
fire.

Provision of three fire

60,000

extinguishers

Place fire outbreak


advisory notices at

strategic locations

Regular inspection of
fire extinguishers by a
registered agency

Windows on the
buildings should not be
fitted with grills

Undertaking periodic
fire drills for the
workers.

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PROJECT

ENVIRONMENTAL

PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

IMPACTS

OPERATION

Security

Robberies/

MITIGATION MEASURES
car

jackings

ACTORS

Water demand

INDICATORS

Lighting as well as security

Security records at

alarms should be installed

the site
Proponent

the site
water

(KSHS)
Provide security guards

in strategic positions within

Increased

MONITORABLE

PHASE

COST

demand

20,000

Recycling

of

wastewater

where appropriate.

Install water taps which


turn off automatically when
water is not in use.

Provide

on-site

Presence of the
Proponent

mitigate measures

water

storage tanks to harness


rainwater
reduce

and

demand

water sources

therefore
on

tap

100,000

especially

after the completion of the


development.

Put up notices advising


users on need to conserve
water e.g turnoff after use.

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11.4 DECOMMISSIONING PHASE EMP


With time, the structure will either partly or wholly need to be demolished to reflect changes in land use. This will depend on the
planning and developmental changes and priorities prevailing over time. The need to decommission the structures may also arise
from the deterioration of the state of the buildings due to age. Below is the decommissioning phase Environmental Management
Plan.
Environmental Plan for the Decommissioning Phase
ENVIRONMENTAL

PROJECT PHASE

MITIGATION MEASURES

IMPACT/ISSUE

DECOMMISSIONING
PHASE

ACTORS

MONITORABLE

(Kshs)

INDICATORS

As per

Changes in land

proponents

use

budget

plots overtime

Review the prevailing planning and


development policies.

Proponent

&

Registered

Sustainability of land use

COST

Review

the

neighborhood

development trends.

Planning
Consultant
Structural

Building

strength

and

stability

Ascertain the building suitability for

engineers and

human habitation.

Public Health

of

adjacent

Evidences
-

of

structural
weaknesses

officer
Develop a
decommissioning
framework

Proposed petrol filling station Mbeti/Gachoka/3295

Prepare a demolition plan.

Architect
proponent

&

50,000

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Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROJECT PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE
Stakeholder consultation

Safety and security

MITIGATION MEASURES

ACTORS
Proponent

Issue vacation notices.

tenants

Fencing/hoarding of the site

Disconnection

and

removal

contractor

&

COST

MONITORABLE

(Kshs)

INDICATORS

As per
proponents

budget
40,000

of

utilities e.g. water pipes, electricity


and telephone cables.

Remove

all

the

underground

contractor

50,000

facilities like water pipes, sewer


lines,

electricity

and

Presence

of

utilities

at

demolition time

telephone

cables

DECOMMISSIONING
PHASE

Water sprinkling or the use of


biodegradable hydrant.

Air Quality

Proponent

50,000

emission during demolition.

Proposed petrol filling station Mbeti/Gachoka/3295

Terrasorb polymer will reduce dust


Manual demolition of the structure

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Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROJECT PHASE

IMPACT/ISSUE

MITIGATION MEASURES

Use

of

serviced

ACTORS
and

greased

Proponent

not to interfere with night hours.

Demolition workers to be provided

PHASE

Building Debris disposal

INDICATORS

Reuse or sell the salvaged materials.

Disposal of waste at designated

Complaints
-

from

the neighbors

30,000

with ear mufflers.


DECOMMISSIONING

(Kshs)

Demolition work to take place


between 8.00am and 5.00pm so as

Noise

MONITORABLE

equipment to reduce noise.

COST

Complaints
Proponent

10,000

the

from

neighbors

authorities

council sites.

Observation
Aesthetic Beauty

Planting of vegetation at the site

Proponent

the

presence

for
of

mitigate measures.

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CHAPTER TWELVE: CONCLUSION AND RECCOMMENDATIONS


The Proposed Petrol Station Project in Muraru shopping centre area will have
numerous positive impacts including creation of employment; increase of petrol
station services and Increase in revenue among others as has been outlined within
the report.
The negative environmental impacts that will result from establishment of the
project which include increased pressure on infrastructure; air pollution; water
pollution, soil pollution and generation wastes among others which however can be
mitigated.
The proponent of the proposed project shall be committed to putting in place
several measures to mitigate the negative environmental, safety, health and social
impacts associated with the life cycle of the project. It is recommended that in
addition to this commitment, the proponent shall focus on implementing the
measures outlined in the EMP as well as adhering to all relevant national and
international environmental, health and safety standards, policies and regulations
that govern establishment and operation of such projects.
It is also recommended that the positive impacts that emanate from such activities
shall be maximized as much as possible. It is expected that these measures will go a
long way in ensuring the best possible environmental compliance and performance
standards.

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REFERENCES

Environmental Impact Assessment Study report-2013

Kenya gazette supplement Acts 2000, Environmental Management and


Coordination Act, Number 8 of 1999. Government printer, Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts, Building Code 2000 by government printer,
Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Land Planning Act (Cap. 303) government printer,
Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Local Authority Act (Cap. 265) government
printer, Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Penal Code Act (Cap.63) government printer,
Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Physical Planning Act, 1999 government printer,
Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Public Health Act (Cap. 242) government printer,
Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement Acts Water Act, 2002 government printer, Nairobi
Kenya gazette supplement number 56. Environmental Impact Assessment and
Audit Regulations 2003. Government printer, Nairobi
Mbeere District Vision and Strategy (2005-2015). Ministry of Planning and
National Development. Government printers, Nairobi
The Land Titles Act (Cap 282), Government Printers, Nairobi.
The Petroleum Act (Cap 116), Government Printers, Nairobi
The Registration of Titles Act (Cap 281) Government Printers, Nairobi.
The Wayleaves Act (Cap 292) Government Printers, Nairobi

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APPENDICES

Copy of Title deed

Copy of Approved architectural plans.

Copy of Advert on Standard Newspaper

Copy of Site Plan

A list of those consulted

Copies of questionnaires administered to neighbours

UoN Laboratory report for Analysis of soil TPH

UoN Laboratory chemical analysis report for water for TPH

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