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Ingls

B1

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Ingls

NIVEL B1

INDICE B1

Grammar
Simple past
Comparatives and superlatives
Enough
Connectors
Vocabulary
The description
Give my opinion
Grammar
Can / Could / Be able to
Present perfect
Past simple Vs. Present perfect
How to express quantity
Vocabulary
Food
Express what you like or dont like
Grammar
Imperative
Reported Speech: Questions
Vocabulary
How to express my opinion
Ways of cooking

Grammar
Question tags
Modal verbs
Yet-already
To get + adjective
Prepositions of easy confusion
Vocabulary
Talking on the phone
Grammar
Past simple vs. past continuous
Present perfect vs. present continuous
Used to
Ever and never
Vocabulary
To travel
Boats
Activity
Make it count
Grammar
Questions: Basic rules
Vocabulary
Bedroom furnishings
Houses. Flats and rooms.
Activities
Dream house

Ingls

NIVEL B1

The bedroom
Grammar
Which vs. What
Open vs. Opened
Vocabulary
Wimbledon vocabulary
Bullfighting
Activity
Tennis
Grammar
Expressions with the verbs 'to come'
Things you might not know about the verb 'to be'
Vocabulary
Interesting facts
Forensics
Activity
Criminal Minds
Grammar
Reflexive and Ergative verbs
Delexical verbs: have, take, make, give, go and do
Vocabulary
Taboo words / Swearwords
Activity
Bad Words

Unit 1
B1

Ingls

NIVEL B1

B1 UNIT 1
1. PASADO SIMPLE

El pasado simple se usa en los siguientes casos:

Para hablar de acciones acabadas en un periodo de tiempo en el pasado.

I saw him yesterday. (Le vi ayer.)


Para narrar o describir hechos en el pasado.

They lived in the country; their house was very old.


(Vivan en el campo; su casa era muy vieja.)
Oraciones Afirmativas:

Para formar la oracin afirmativa en pasado, debemos tener en cuenta el verbo, que
puede ser Regular o Irregular:

Verbos Regulares: se forman aadiendo la terminacin ed al verbo. Si el


verbo termina en e aadimos solo la d.
I want > I wanted (Yo quiero > Yo quera).
She wants > She wanted (Ella quiere > Ella quera).
I love Paul > I loved Paul (Quiero a Paul > Quera a Paul).
Pero existen otros casos:

Los verbos monosilbicos acabados en una sola consonante precedida


por una sola vocal duplican la consonante final delante de -ed.

rob robbed
stop stopped
sin sinned
hug hugged

Los verbos de dos o ms slabas que acaban en una sola consonante


precedida por una sola vocal, duplican la consonante final si el acento
recae en la ltima slaba.
admit admitted
prefer - preferred

Los verbos acabados en consonante + y cambian la y por i y aaden ed, pero no los acabados en vocal.

occupy occupied
carry carried
study studied
play played
enjoy - enjoyed

Muchos verbos acabados en l o p duplican la consonante final


delante de ed aunque no cumplan la regla del acento.
travel travelled
worship - worshipped

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Verbos Irregulares: a continuacin mostramos la tabla.

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Spanish

be

was / were

been

ser

become

became

become

convertirse

begin

began

begun

comenzar

bring

brought

brought

traer

buy

bought

bought

comprar

come

came

come

venir

do

did

done

hacer

dream

dreamt/dreamed

dreamt/dreamed

soar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

conducir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

feel

felt

felt

sentir

find

found

found

encontrar

forget

forgot

forgotten

olvidar

get

got

got

tener, obtener

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

have

had

had

tener

keep

kept

kept

guardar

know

knew

known

saber

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

aprender

make

made

made

hacer

meet

met

met

conocer, encontrar

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

poner

read

read

read

leer

say

said

said

decir

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

speak

spoke

spoken

hablar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

take

took

taken

tomar

tell

told

told

decir

think

thought

thought

pensar

write

wrote

written

escribir

Ingls

NIVEL B1

El verbo to be tiene dos formas: was y were

I was

Yo era / estaba

You were

T eras / estabas

He was

l era / estaba

She was

Ella era / estaba

It was

Eso era / estaba

We were

Nosotros ramos/
estbamos

You were

Vosotros erais / estabais

They were

Ellos eran / estaban

Oraciones Negativas:

Para negar, no importa si el verbo es regular o irregular. Usamos la forma pasada de


do not (did not/ didnt) seguido del verbo en infinitivo.

I did not read / I didnt read

Yo no le/ lea

You did not read / You didnt read

T no leste/ leas

He did not read / He didnt read

l no ley/ lea

She did not read / She didnt read

Ella no ley/ lea

It did not read / It didnt read

Eso no ley/ lea

We did not read / We didnt read

Nosotros no lemos/
leamos

You did not read / You didnt read

Vosotros no lesteis/
leais

They did not read / They didnt read

Ellos no leyeron/ lean

Para negar el verbo to be, no necesitamos did not/ didnt. Negamos directamente con
el to be (was not/ wasnt were not/ werent).

I was not

I wasnt

Yo no era / estaba

You were not

You werent

T no eras / estabas

He was not

He wasnt

l no era / estaba

She was not

She wasnt

Ella no era / estaba

It was not

It wasnt

Eso no era / estaba

We were not

We werent

Nosotros no ramos/
estbamos

You were not

You werent

Vosotros no erais / estabais

They were not

They werent

Ellos no eran / estaban

Oraciones Interrogativas:

Usamos tambin el auxiliar did o did not (didnt), seguida del sujeto y el verbo en
infinitivo para formular preguntas.

Did I read?

Le/ Lea?

Did you read?

Leiste/ Leas?

Did he read?

(l) ley/ lea?

Did she read?

(Ella) ley/ lea?

Did it read?

(Eso) ley/ lea?

Did we read?

Leimos/ leamos?

Did you read?

Lesteis/ leais?

Did they read?

Leyeron/ lean?

10

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Exercise. Complete these sentences with the verbs between brackets:

a. My cousin buyed/bought (buy) a really bad book yesterday.


b. Did/does she sleep/slept (sleep) at home tonight?
c. I want/wanted (want) to eat something. I _was/were_ (be) hungry, so I
cook/cooked (cook) pasta.
d. You are not my friend anymore. You didnt tell/ not told (tell) me the truth.

Exercise. Write yes or no if the question is correct or no for these answers:

1.

Did you saw them?


No, I didnt see them.>

2.

When did you go th the disco?


Last Thursday night. >

3.

were did she be? >


She was at the train station.

4.

Where did you find it?


We found it lost in the forest.>

5.

Why did she leave the room?


Because she said that the film was very sad. >

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2. Formas Interrogativas del pasado simple

DID

ENGLISH

CASTELLANO

Did + subject + (infinitive of the verb)

Did + sujeto + (forma infinitiva del verbo)


(en castellano es distinto...)

play tennis

DID you study


French

DID
he
house

paint the

DID

she work

DID

It

DID

DID

yesterday ?

Jugaste al tenis

ayer?

yesterday
morning ?

Estudiaste francs

ayer a la
maana?

yesterday
afternoon?

Pint la casa

ayer a la
tarde?

last night ?

Trabaj

anoche?

last week?

Llovi

la semana
pasada?

in 1999?

Comenzamos la escuela

en 1999?

Nos visitaron

hace dos
das?

rain

we start school

they visit us

two days ago?

Exercise: now try to order the following


questions
At/ start / work/ time /what / did / you /yesterday?'I started at two.'

At/ time /bed/ did/ to / last/ go / night/ what / he? 'He went at midnight.'

in Italy /did/ where/ you/ stay?

'I stayed with some friends.'

12

Ingls

enjoy /show/ did/ they/ the?

NIVEL B1

'No, they didn't. They did not like it.'

when /your cousin /arrive/ did? 'He arrived at three I believe.'

do /did/ you/ what/ night/ last?

'I watched the news on television.'

who /you/ did/ stay/ yesterday/ with? 'I stayed with Sara.'
happened / last/ what/ month?

'The president resigned.

did /to/ school/ how/ come/ you/ yesterday? 'I came on foot as usual.
play /did/ you/ Tim/ with/ chess? 'Yes, he did. Tom is very good at it.

3. Pronunciacin de la Terminacin -ED de los Verbos en Tiempo Pasado


Bsicamente, existen en ingls tres formas de pronunciar la terminacin -ed de los
verbos cuando se enuncian en tiempo pasado. Vamos a ver cada uno:
Sonido [d]
Cuando el verbo termina en sonido vibrado (es decir, cuando al pronunciar la ltima
letra sientes que el sonido vibra en tu garganta), entonces, para pronunciar el pasado
en -ed, se utiliza el sonido vibrado [d]
listen

listened

[lsend]

study

studied

[stdid]

enter

entered

[nterd]

receive

received

[risvd]

memorize memorized [mmoraizd]


jam

jammed

[ymd]

rob

robbed

[rbd]

clog

clogged

[clogd]

13

Sonido [t]
Cuando el verbo termina en sonido sordo (es decir, cuando al pronunciar la ltima letra
el sonido no vibra, solo truena en la garganta o en los labios y dientes), entonces, para
pronunciar el pasado en -ed, se utiliza el sonido sordo [t]
walk

walked

[ukt]

talk

talked

[tkt]

stop

stopped

[stopt]

jump

jumped

[yompt]

laugh

laughed

[laft]

practice practiced [prctist]


match

matched [matcht]

watch

watched [utcht]

wash

washed

[usht]

close

closed

[clost]

Sonido [d]
Cuando el verbo termina en sonido [t] o en sonido [d] (observa que en los grupos
anteriores ninguno de los verbos termina en esos sonidos), entonces, para pronunciar
el pasado en -ed, se utiliza el sonido [d] , cuya vocal suena muy cerrada y breve.

repeat repeated [riprd]


invent invented [invntd]
wait

waited

[uird]

want

wanted

[untd]

decide decided [disidd]

14

Ingls

add

NIVEL B1

added

[dd]

include included [incldd]


need

needed

[ndd]

No consigues coger la pronunciacin de los verbos regulares en pasado? En este


artculo te dar algunas pistas que te ayudarn a conseguirlo.

Cules son las reglas?


Todos los libros de gramtica inglesa hablan de tres formas de pronunciar los verbos
que acaban en -ed .
Estos tres sonidos son /d/, /t/ y /id/.
Para saber cundo poner cada uno de estos sonidos hay que conocer el sonido que
antecede a -ed. La explicacin sigue: si acaba en /b, v, g, g, dz, etc (alfabeto fontico)
entonces el sonido es /d/; si acaba en /p, k, tf, etc. el sonido es /t/ y si acaba en /t/ el
sonido es /id/ .

La regla ms importante (que nadie te ha dicho nunca)


Hay una regla que nunca dice nadie y que es muy importante para los
hispanohablantes . Esta regla s la debemos recordar (adems es fcil recordarla).

LA REGLA MS IMPORTANTE:

No hay que pronunciar la e delante de la d. Ya s que en espaol suena e pero en


ingls hay que borrarla; es como si no existiese, no se pronuncia nunca, en ningn
verbo regular en pasado (o participio). O sea que jams deberemos decir loved
played , walked, talked, worked [guorked], tal y como se leen en espaol.
Nota: Esto es lo que hace la mayora de los estudiantes a los cuales doy clases;
ponerse pronunciar la e de los pasados porque es as como se lee.

15

Algunas pistas ms:

El ingls es un idioma en el cual predominan los sonidos de las consonantes puras


(sin una vocal al lado), es decir, decimos t o d (no te, de, ta, da, etc.). Insisto
un poco ms para que se quede la idea. Si en espaol vemos la letra t
automticamente pronunciaremos te, es decir, acompaaremos a la consonante t
de la vocal e porque el espaol es un idioma en el que predomina el sonido de las
vocales . En ingls, en cambio, si vemos la letra t podemos decir ti (alfabeto) o
simplemente t sin vocal. Repito: tttt (sin vocal).

Tras esta explicacin, doy tres pistas ms para aprender a pronunciar


correctamente los verbos acabados en -ed.

1. En principio escogemos entre pronunciar el sonido /t/ sin vocal el sonido /d/ sin
vocal. Nota: Respecto a id (el tercer sonido al que se refieren las explicaciones) decir
que la i es tan corta que casi la podemos asimilar a la d, as nos quedamos slo
con d" sobre todo cuando empezamos a aprender los sonidos. Ms tarde, con ms
practica, podemos intentar distinguir el sonido /id/.
2. La nica manera de saber cundo el verbo regular acaba en un sonido /t/ en /d/ (
/id/)es escuchar mucho ingls. Dejo unos enlaces para ir haciendo odo.

1.Write the verbs in past tense

1. clean
2. cook
3. dive
4. do
5. drive
6. eat
7. go
8. hit
9. live
10. pay
11. play
12. read

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Ingls

NIVEL B1

13. run
14. sit
15. speak
16. study
17. swim
18. think
19. type

2. Write what the people did yesterday

You cook dinner every day.


1. I clean my room after breakfast.
2. He dives in the sea.
3. We live in Salacgriva.
4. You cook very tasty meals
5. He eats salad for dinner.
6. It swims in the lake.
7. We speak three languages.
8. He sits at the window at his work.
9. She sits at the table.
10. We run in the park in the morning.
11. You hit the empty can in the street.
12. They run to work every morning.
13. He plays the guitar very well.
14. She drives a nice new car.
15. They swim in the river in summer.
16. You think about your future.
17. He lives in Latvia.
18. She reads different magazines.
19. We cook meals in the evening.
20. I have some bread on the table.
21. I have a pocket in my new jacket.
22. You have a candle on the table at the window.
23. They have a lot of candles in their room.
24. She has a little brother.
25. I have some friends in different countries
26. I work every day.
27. I have a black car.
28. I like black coffee.
29. I have a party in summer.

17

3. Now write the correct past forms of the verbs:

1. Yesterday I ..... (REMAIN) in the house. I ........ (COOK) dinner and ........ (DO) some
housework.
2. I ......... (REST), ......... (READ) books, ......... (WATCH) television and ........ (GO) to
sleep.
3. I ....... (BE) at school most of the day. I ............. (STUDY). I ........ (GO) to the gym
and ........... (WORK) out, ....... (WORK) in my computer, ......... (WATCH) a little TV.
4. I ............. (GO) to work in the morning and I ............ (GO) to school in the afternoon.
5. I ............ (teach) yesterday. I teach at school two days a week.
6. This morning I ........... (GET) up at eight and ............ (WATCH) news.
7. We ............. (walk) around the city.
8. Yesterday I ............. (ATTEND) a speech at Columbia University.
9. I .............. (GO) to my shrink.
10. I ............... (BE) pretty good at school.

18

Ingls

NIVEL B1

5 Now find the infinitive forms of the previous verbs in the wordsearch: ( 12
verbs )

19

COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS
Comparative adjectives Adjetivos comparativos
Utilizamos la forma comparativa de los adjetivos para describir y comparar
diferentes objetos o personas, necesariamente con dos elementos a comparar como
mnimo.
Tipos de comparaciones: (a) Inferioridad, (b) Igualdad y (c) Superioridad.
Algunos adjetivos tienen una forma de comparacin de superioridad irregular (ver
tabla).

Cmo se hace la forma comparativa de un adjetivo?


(a) Inferioridad: less than (menos que)
Rosi de Palma is less attractive than Elsa Pataki.
(Rosi de Palma es menos atractiva que Elsa Pataki)
(b) Igualdad: as as (tan como)
Rafael Nadal is as good as Roger Federer.
(Rafael Nadal es tan bueno como Roger Federer)
(c) Superioridad: se forma dependiendo de las slabas de un adjetivo. Para hacer una
oracin siempre es necesario poner than (que) detrs del adjetivo.
Adjetivos de 1 slaba:
Aadimos er al adjetivo:
cheap cheaper

high higher

(barato ms barato ,

rich richer .

alto ms alto ,

rico ms rico).

Cuando estos adjetivos acaban en vocal + consonante, se dobla la


ltima consonante:
hot hotter

fat fatter .

(caliente ms caliente , gordo ms gordo).


Adjetivos de 2 slabas acabados en y:
Cambiamos la y por i y despus se le aade er.
happy happier , funny funnier .
(feliz ms feliz , divertido ms divertido) .

Adjetivos de 2 slabas acabados en y , -er , -ow , -le: aadimos -er

20

Ingls

NIVEL B1

narrow narrower
gentle gentler

Adjetivos de 2 o ms slabas:
Ponemos more delante del adjetivo:
expensive more expensive , interesting more interesting.
( caro ms caro ,

interesante ms interesante ).

Superlative adjectives Adjetivos superlativos


Utilizamos la forma superlativa de los adjetivos para destacar la cualidad de un
objeto o persona sobre el resto; ya no son necesarios mencionar dos elementos como
mnimo como en la comparacin, sino que hablamos de un solo elemento.
La forma superlativa de un adjetivo se forma dependiendo de las slabas que tenga.
Siempre es necesario poner el artculo definido the delante del adjetivo, ya que
hablamos de algo/alguien en concreto.

Adjetivos de 1 slaba:
Aadimos est al adjetivo:
cheap the cheapest , high the highest , rich the richest.
(barato el ms barato , alto el ms alto , rico el ms rico)

Si acaba en y, cambiamos la y por i y despus se le aade est.


happy the happiest , funny the funniest .
(feliz el ms feliz , divertido el ms divertido) .

Adjetivos de 2 o ms slabas:
Ponemos most delante del adjetivo:
expensive the most expensive, interesting the most interesting.
( caro el ms caro ,

interesante el ms interesante ).

21

adjetivo

comparacin

superlativo

good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

far

further-farther

the furthest / farthest

old

older / eldest

the oldest / eldest

many/much

more

the most

little

less

the least

Estos son los adjetivos que tienen una forma comparativa y superlativa irregular:

Exercise5. choose the comparative form of superiority of these adjectives:


Ej. small - smaller

1. good: gooder/better
2. intelligent:
intelligenter/more
intelligent
3. old: older/old
4. bad: worse/ bader
5. large: larger/large

22

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Ejercicio6. Correct or no?

Ej. My flat isnt very big. - I want a bigger flat.

1. My motorbike isnt very fast. Id like a faster


2. My husband isnt very rich. I need a rich
3. His camera isnt very good. He needs one better
4. It isnt very hot today. It was hotter yesterday.
5. Im not very interested in football. Im more interested in tennis.

Ejercicio7. Complete these sentences with a superlative form:

Ej. Hes a very good footballer. Hes the best footballer in Europe at the moment.

1. Shes a pretty girl. Shes THE PRETTIEST/PRETTIEST girl in my class.


2. There are many exciting cities in North America, but I think New York is THE MOST
EXCITING/EXCITEST.
3. August is a hot month in Spain. Its usually THE HOT/ THE HOTTEST month of the
year.
4. I was so happy when I got married. My wedding day was THE BEST/BETTER day of
my life.
5. Its such an expensive restaurant. I think its THE MOST EXPENSIVE/MORE
restaurant in Madrid.
6. Its a very interesting book. Its one of THE MORE INTERESTING/THE MOST
INTERESTING books Ive ever read.

23

Comparing people...

:
Compare the following people:

Bob
28 years old
55 kilos
1.50 mt
Bob is

Homer
39 years old
80 kilos
1.55 mt
(YOUNG) than Homer.

Homer is

(OLD) than Alice.

Alice is

(SLIM) than Bob.

Bob is
Homer is
Alice is

(SHORT) than Homer.


(FAT) than Bob.
(SHORT) than Homer.

Homer is

(UGLY) than Alice.

Homer is

(SLOW) than Bob.

Bob is

Alice
9 years old
33 kilos
1.20 mt

(TIDY) than Homer.

Alice is

(BEAUTIFUL) than Bob.

Alice has got

(LONG) hair than Bob.

Homer can play the guitar


Alice can run
Alice draws
Bob is

(GOOD) than Alice.

(FAST) than Homer.


(BAD) than Bob.
(INTELLIGENT) than Homer.

24

Ingls

Homer is a

NIVEL B1

(INTERESTING) person than Bob.

Now, compare the following people:

Harry
32 years old
75 kilos
1.90 mt

Garfield
10 years old
60 kilos
0.57 mt

Sponge Bob
6 years old
3 kilos
0.20 mt

ex: Harry is older than Garfield. (OLD-YOUNG)


Write ONE word per gap
Garfield
Sponge Bob
Harry

Sponge Bob. (YOUNG-OLD)


Harry. (FAT-SLIM)
Sponge Bob. (SHORT-TALL)

Garfield

Harry. (SHORT-TALL)

Garfield

Harry. (FUNNY-BORING)
Harry's. (SMALL-BIG)

Sponge Bob's eyes


Harry

Garfield. (STRONG-WEAK)

Garfield
Bob Sponge

Harry. (BEAUTIFUL-HORRIBLE)
at sports

Garfield. (GOOD-BAD)

25

Much, far, etc with comparatives


We cannot use very with comparatives. Instead, we use, for example, much,
far, very much, a lot (informal), lots (informal), and no, rather, a little, a bit
(informal) and even.

Examples:
My boyfriend is much / far older than me. (NOT ..very older than me)
Russian is much / far more difficult than Spanish.
Very much nicer

Rather more quickly

A bit more sensible (informal)

She looks no older tan her daughter

A lot happier

A little less expensive

Is your mother any better? (Se encue tra


tu madre un poco mejor?)

Your cooking is even worse than Henrys.

Quite cannot be used with comparatives except in the expression quite better
meaning recovered from an illness. Any, no, a bit and a lot are not normally used to
modify comparatives before nouns.

There are much/far nicer shops in the centre. (BUT NOT a bit nicer shops)

1. Many more / less/ fewer


When more modifies a plural noun, it is modified by many instead of much.
Compare:
Much/ far/ a lot more money
Many /far / a lot of more opportunities
2. Much / by far / quite / etc. with superlatives
Superlatives can be modified by much and by far, and by other adverbs of
degree such as quite (meaning absolutely), almost, practically, nearly and
easily.

Hes much the most imaginative of them all.

Shes by far the oldest.

Were walking by far the slowest.

26

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Hes quite the most stupid man Ive even met.

Im nearly the oldest in the company.

This is easily the worst party I have been to this year!

3. Very with superlatives


Note the special use of very to emphasize superlatives and first, next and last.
Bring out your very best wine Michaels coming to dinner.
Youre the very first person Ive spoken to today.
This is your very last chance

Using the adjective modifiers that we have seen in this lesson, compare two of
the ideas given below:

Reading /
watching movies

Travelling /
staying at home

English / other
languages

Big city/ small


town

Paintings / photos

A computer/ a
tablet PC

Classical music/
rock music

Education/
experience

How do you want to be remembered?


After watching the movie answer the question below and come up with practical ways
in which we can be kind to other people in our everyday life.
Which characteristic the narrator says is BY FAR the most important. Do you agree?

http://vimeo.com/11083824#at=25

27

Listening 2:
http://vimeo.com/19890458

You are going to watch a short film about a single day in the life of Amar, a fourteen
year-old Indian boy. As you watch the film you should think how your daily routine is
similar or different to that of Amar. Use as many adjectives modifiers as possible.

Speaking:
The title of the film in Amar (All great achievements require time). What does all great
achievements require time mean?

ENOUGH BASTANTE/ SUFICIENTE


El adverbio enough significa bastante o suficiente y lo colocamos de la siguiente
manera:

- Antes de un sustantivo.

We dont have enough bread for tonight.


(No tenemos suficiente pan para esta noche.)

- Despus de un adjetivo, un adverbio o un verbo.

She doesnt have to worry; she is good enough.


(No tiene que preocuparse; es suficientemente buena.)

28

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Do you rest enough? (Descansas lo suficiente?)

Exercise8. Put enough in the right position:

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

The kitchen is (YES/NO ) clean (YES/NO ).


The supermarket doesnt have (YES/NO ) milk (YES/NO ) today.
My room isnt (YES/NO ) tidy (YES/NO )
This exercise is (YES/NO ) easily (YES/NO)
Is your car (YES/NO ) big (YES/NO)?
Does he (YES/NO ) eat (YES/NO)?

LOS CONECTORES

29

CONNECTORS:
1. Read the pairs of sentences below. Which pair expresses similar ideas? Which
pair expresses contrasting ideas?
similar ideas vs. contrasting ideas
1. Their team has got the best players. Moreover, their coach is
fantastic.
2. Their team has got the best players. Nevertheless, they lost the last
game.

2.Choose the correct connector:


CONNECTORS OF ADDITION: in addition, furthermore, moreover, as well as, also,
and
CONNECTORS OF CONTRAST: however, nevertheless, on the one hand / on the
other hand, in spite of / despite, although /even though, but

In addition;despite,however,but,as well as,nevertheless


1. Lorena seems to be quite clever. ......., she often gets low marks.

30

Ingls

NIVEL B1

2. The service at this restaurant is excellent. .........., the food is delicious.

3. I've never been to Argentina, .........having relatives there.

4. Jordi is a careful driver. .........., hes had several accidents.

5. Cristina loves playing sport, ........ shes not very good at it.

6. Anna is talented at music.......... art.

Some connectors have got similar meanings but are followed by different
structures. Despite and in spite of are followed by a noun phrase or a
gerund.
We did not wear coats despite the cold weather.
I tried to look happy in spite of feeling terrible.

Even though and although are followed by a clause.

My car constantly needs repairs even though its new.


My cousin and I arent very close, although were the same age.

Choose the correct connector.


1. We're studying now there's an interesting film on TV.
2. Id like to talk to you I know youre busy.
3. her efforts, she failed the exam.
4. we were having difficulties, we felt optimistic.
5. We didnt win the game all all our hard work

31

VOCABULARY:

La descripcin:

This is: esto/a es.

This is a house

That is: eso/a, aquel/la es

That is the orange house

These are: estos/as son

These are the English books

32

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Those are: esos/as, aquellos/as son

Those are the English books:

Appearance

I am / You are / He is / She is


Tall

small

33

El verbo To be es el verbo descriptivo ms utilizado

Character
I am / You are / He is / She is
shy
quiet
lively
active
easygoing
outgoing
nice
friendly
funny
happy
annoying
sad
aggressive
a pain in the neck
a little chatter box
overweight, fat
slim
young
old
years old.
beautiful / pretty ,
handsome
sun-tanned
pale

Con el verbo tener y haber TO HAVE tambin podemos utilizarlo para la


descripcin fsica

I have / You have / He has / She has (got)


blue / green / grey / brown eyes
freckles
a beard
a full beard
a moustache

34

Ingls

NIVEL B1

a goatee
a stubbly beard
blond hair
red hair
brown hair
black hair
dyed hair
blond highlights
short hair
long hair
straight hair
curly hair / curls
a bald head
a square / round / triangular / oval face
a big / small / long nose
big / small ears

Clothing and Accessories

I wear / You wear / He wears / She wears

glasses

contact lenses
I am wearing / You are wearing / He/She is wearing
earrings
a necklace
a wristband
a bracelet

35

a cap

a red scarf

a tie

Expressing Opinions
English Vocabulary
Below are some phrases that you can use to help express opinions. Some of these
phrases are more appropriate for written English such as giving your opinion in an
essay whereas some can also be used in spoken English.
Personal Point of View
We use these words and phrases to express a personal point of view:

In my experience
As far as I'm concerned
Speaking for myself
In my opinion
Personally, I think
I'd say that
I'd suggest that
I'd like to point out that
I believe that
What I mean is

36

Ingls

NIVEL B1

General Point of View


We use these words and phrases to express a point of view that is generally thought by
people:

It is thought that...
Some people say that...
It is considered...
It is generally accepted that...

Agreeing with an opinion


We use these words and phrases to agree with someone else's point of view:

Of course.
You're absolutely right.
Yes, I agree.
I think so too.
That's a good point.
Exactly.
I don't think so either.
So do I.
I'd go along with that.
That's true.
Neither do I.
I agree with you entirely.
That's just what I was thinking.
I couldn't agree more.

Disagreeing with an opinion


We use these words and phrases to disagree with someone else's point of view:

That's different.
I don't agree with you.
However
That's not entirely true.
On the contrary
I'm sorry to disagree with you, but
Yes, but don't you think
That's not the same thing at all.
I'm afraid I have to disagree.
I'm not so sure about that.
I must take issue with you on that.
It's unjustifiable to say that...

EXPRESSIONS YOU MAY USE

37

Introduce your opinion:


In my opinion

En mi opinion

I(personally)) think/I believe/

Personalmente creo que/no creo que

I feel/I dont feel that

Me parece/no me parece que

In my view/ In my point of view .

Bajo mi punto de vista

As I see it

Como lo veo yo

As far as Im concerned

En lo que a mi respecta

Its clear to me that

me parece evidente que

I agree/I dont agree that

Estoy de acuerdo en que/ No...

Sequence ideas:
To begin with

Para empezar ...

The first point is

El primer argumento es ...

First of all /First/Firstly,...

En primer lugar ... / Primeramente,...

Secondly/ Thirdly

En segundo lugar/ en tercer lugar

Finally/Lastly

Por ltimo

Add information
Furthermore,

Adems (formal)

Moreover, .

Adems (formal)

In addition,

Adems (less formal)

Besides,

Adems (the least formal)

What is more,

Es ms, ...

Also/...too

Tambin

As well as

al igual que

Apart from (that)

Aparte de (eso)

38

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Give a reason
Due to(+noun)/Due to the fact that(+sentence)
Owing to(+noun)/Owing to the fact that(+sentence)
Because(+sentence)

Debido a/Debido al hecho de que

porque

Because of(+noun e.g.: the rain)


lluvia)

a causa de / por ... (e.g.: la

Since/As(+sentence e.g.: he is the boss)


es el jefe)

ya que, puesto que(e.g.: l

Thats why ...

por eso ...

For this/that reason

por esta/esa razn

Express a consequence
Cosequently

en consecuncia

Therefore

por lo tanto

So

as que, por eso

As a result of

como consecuencia de

This means that

esto significa que

Introduce the conclusion


In short

en resumen

In brief

In summary

To sum up

In conclusion

en conclusin

To conclude

39

CONJUNCTIONS
According to - de acuerdo con / segn

Namely - a saber

After - despus que

Neither... nor - ni... ni

Although - aunque, si bien

Nevertheless - sin embargo, no obstante

And - y

Nor - ni

As - cuando, mientras, a medida que,


como

Notwithstanding - no obstante

As if - como si

Or - o

As long as - mientras, con tal que

Or else - sino

As soon as - en cuanto

Otherwhise - de otra manera, si no

As though - como si

Provided - siempre que , con tal de que

As well as - adems de

Providing - siempre que , con tal de que

Because - porque

Since - puesto que, ya que, desde que

Because of - debido a

So as to - para

Before - antes que

So as not to - para no

Both...and - tanto...como

So that - para que

But - pero

Still - sin embargo, no obstante

But - sino

Than - que ( en comparaciones )

Either... or - o... o

Therefore - por lo tanto

Even though - aunque

Though - aunque

Except - excepto, salvo

Unless - a menos que

For - porque

Until - hasta que

Furthermore - adems

Whenever - cada vez que, cuando

However - sin embargo

Whereas - siendo que, mientras

40

Ingls

NIVEL B1

If - si

Whether - si

In case of - en caso de

Whether... or - si... o

In order to - para

While - mientrar, mientras que, aunque

Moreover - adems, por otra parte

Yet - sin embargo, no obstante

More Expressions you can use to introduce an opinion

In my opinion, ...

In my eyes, ...

To my mind, ...
Speaking personally, ...

As far as I am concerned, ...

From my point of view, ...


say that ...

As for me / As to me, ...

I would say that ...


opinion that ..

It seems to me that ...

I am of the

My impression is that ...


impression that .

I am under the impression that ...

It is my

I have the feeling that ...

My own feeling on the subject is that ...

I have no doubt that ...

I dare

I am sure / I am certain that ...

I hold the opinion/ the view that ...

(I form / adopt an opinion.)

I guess that ...

It goes without saying that ...

My view / opinion / belief / impression / conviction is that ...


I think / consider / find / feel / believe / suppose / presume / assume that ...

41

1. Read the text about St. Patrick.

St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, was born in Wales around 385 AD. His
real name was not Patrick but Maewyn Succat. He had wealthy parents and
they had a good life in the country. When he was 16 years old he was captured
by pirates who took him to Ireland and sold him to a farmer.

He worked as a shepherd, tending sheep and pigs. He was very lonely and prayed all
the time. One night, after more than six years as a prisoner, Patrick heard a voice
which he believed to be Gods - telling him to escape. He walked for more than 200
miles until he reached the coast. He boarded a ship that took him to France where he
became a priest.

He went back to Wales but, several years later, another vision told him that he had to
return to Ireland to convert the Druid Irish people to Christianity.

St. Patrick lived and preached in Ireland for many years. Instead of disregarding
native Irish beliefs, he incorporated traditional customs and rituals into his lessons. He
used the shamrock, a three-leaf clover, to explain the Christian concept of God (Father,
Son and Holy Spirit).

According to a legend, St. Patrick drove all the snakes from Ireland. This is not true.
Ireland never actually had snakes.

Saint Patrick died on March 17 the day we now celebrate St. Patricks Day. Lots of
cities in Ireland and in the US have St. Patrick's Day parades. Most people wear
green and one of the fun Irish traditions is to pinch anyone who is not wearing green
on St. Patrick's Day.

42

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Complete the sentences.

1. St. Patrick's Day is an annual feast day celebrating the patron saint of
2. St. Patrick's Day is celebrated on
3. People wear something
4. A

on St. Patrick's Day.

is a three-leaf clover.

5. Several cities celebrate the holiday with a


6. If you do not wear green on St. Patrick's day someone might

you!

5. Have fun with a Crossword Puzzle. Use the picture clues.

1.

2.

5.

6.

3.

4.

7.

9.

43

8.

Across
1

3. St. Patrick is the patron saint of


______
8. The ______ has a pot of gold.
4

3
5

9. You must wear something ______


on St. Patrick's Day.

6
Down

1. The ______ is the Irish national


emblem.

2. The ______ is a three-leaf clover.


4. There is a pot of gold at the end of
the ______.
9

5. Leprechauns have a pot of


______.
6. Many cities celebrate St. Patrick's
Day with a ______.
7. St. Patrick's Day is celebrated on
______.

1. What do you think about this tradition?


2. Write a text about a tradition you know.

44

Ingls

NIVEL B1

CAN / COULD / BE ABLE TO

Can y could son formas invariables (no se conjugan) y aparecen siempre seguidas
de un verbo en infinitivo (sin to).

Can slo se utiliza en las oraciones en presente y could es su forma en las


oraciones en pasado, aquellas que implican un tono de cortesa o en oraciones
condicionales.

Estos son los principales usos de can y could:

Expresar capacidad para hacer algo:

She can swim very well. ([Ella] Sabe nadar muy bien).
She could swim very well. ([Ella] saba nadar muy bien).
Pedir algo de forma educada:

Can I have a beer, please? (Me pone una cerveza, por favor?).
Could I have a beer, please? (Me podra poner una cerveza, por favor?).
Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad de hacer algo:

I can give you her phone number. (Puedo darte su nmero de telfono).
I could give you her phone number. (Podra darte su nmero de telfono).
Expresar y pedir permiso:

Can I smoke here? (Puedo fumar aqu?).


Could I smoke here? (Podra fumar aqu?).

45

Forma negativa: se aade not detrs de can y could: cannot / could not.

I cannot / cant believe it! (No me lo puedo creer!).


We cannot / cant meet tonight. (No podemos quedar esta noche).
Forma interrogativa: El sujeto se coloca entre can/could y el verbo en infinitivo.

She can play the saxophone > Can she play the saxophone?
You can drink alcohol > Can you drink alcohol?

Exercise1. Complete the sentences with can or could. In some sentences you can use
both options although the meaning changes:

1. Mike can/could drive, but he doesnt have a car.


2. Smoking can/could be dangerous for your health and those around you.
3. When we were kids, we can not/could not go to bed very late.
4. Extreme rain could /cancause the river to flood the city.

Be able to corresponde a la expresin en espaol ser capaz de.

El verbo to be nunca aparecer en infinitivo, sino que se conjugar en cualquier


tiempo verbal y siempre de acuerdo con el sujeto de la oracin.

Despus de la preposicin to debe aparecer un verbo en infinitivo.

La negativa o interrogativa se hace segn el tiempo verbal usado del verbo to be.

It seemed difficult, but I was able to learn the list of irregular verbs.
(Pareca difcil, pero fui capaz de aprenderme la lista de verbos irregulares).

46

Ingls

NIVEL B1

I will be able to speak fluent English very soon.


(Ser capaz de hablar ingls fluido muy pronto).

She is not able to pronounce the word literature correctly.


(Ella no es capaz de pronunciar la palabra literature correctly).

Are you able to sing a song in English?


(Eres capaz de cantar una cancin en ingls?).

Debemos tener en cuenta que en muchos casos podemos usar tanto can como be
able to en una misma oracin. Como en espaol, la diferencia de significado de ambos
verbos es mnima.

Ejercicio2. Complete the sentences with can or be able to:

1. When Tom went to Wales, he can/was able to save a lot of money.


2. Can/are able to they play paddle well?
3. She was not able/ cant to not understand the plot of the film.
4. My girlfriend cannot come/ is not able to with us to the Rolling Stones concert.

PRESENT PERFECT
How do we make the Present Perfect Tense?
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
have

past participle

47

Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

have

seen

ET.

You

have

eaten

mine.

She

has

not

been

to Rome.

We

have

not

played

football.

Have

you

finished?

Have

they

done

it?

Contractions with the present perfect tense


When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject
and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.
I have

I've

You have

You've

He has
She has
It has
John has
The car has

He's
She's
It's
John's
The car's

We have

We've

They have

They've

Here are some examples:

I've finished my work.


John's seen ET.
They've gone home.

48

Ingls

NIVEL B1

He's or he's??? Be careful! The 's contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and
be. For example, "It's eaten" can mean:

It has eaten. [present perfect tense, active voice]


It is eaten. [present tense, passive voice]

It is usually clear from the context.


How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the
past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:
1. experience
2. change
3. continuing situation
1. Present perfect tense for experience
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are
not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
I have seen ET.
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
past

present

future

!!!
The action or state was in
the past.

In my head, I have a
memory now.

Connection with past: the event was in the past.


Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know
something about the event; I have experience of it.

49

2. Present perfect tense for change


We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
I have bought a car.
past

present

Last week I didn't have a


car.

Now I have a car.

future

John has broken his leg.


past

present

Yesterday John had a


good leg.

Now he has a bad leg.

future

Has the price gone up?


past

present

Was the price $1.50


yesterday?

Is the price $1.70 today?

future

The police have arrested the killer.


past

present

50

future

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Yesterday the killer was


free.

Now he is in prison.

Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present.


Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.

***Americans do not use the present perfect tense so much as British speakers.
Americans often use the past tense instead. An American might say "Did you
have lunch?", where a British person would say "Have you had lunch?"

3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation


We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a
state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue
into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this
structure.
I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?
past

present

future

The situation started in the


past.

It continues up to now.

(It will probably continue


into the future.)

Connection with past: the situation started in the past.


Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.

For & Since with Present Perfect Tense


We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.

We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.


We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January,
Monday.

51

for

since

a period of time

a point in past time


x------------

20 minutes

6.15pm

three days

Monday

6 months

January

4 years

1994

2 centuries

1800

a long time

I left school

ever

the beginning of time

etc

etc

Here are some examples:

I have been here for 20 minutes.


I have been here since 9 o'clock.
John hasn't called for 6 months.
John hasn't called since February.
He has worked in New York for a long time.
He has worked in New York since he left school.

For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.

52

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Exercises:

Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate word from the list below:
Present Perfect - 1

Has he eaten? Has she eaten? Hasn't he


eaten? Hasn't she eaten? Have I eaten? Have
they eaten? Have you eaten? Haven't we eaten?
Haven't you eaten? He hasn't eaten I have eaten
I haven't eaten She has eaten They haven't
eaten We have eaten We haven't eaten You
have eaten

EAT

Affirmative
Form

Negative Form

Interrogative
Form

Haven't I
eaten?

he

He has
eaten
She hasn't
eaten

she

Have we
eaten?

we
You haven't
eaten

you

they

Interronegative
Form

They have
eaten

Haven't they
eaten?

53

Present Perfect - 2

Has she written? Hasn't he written? Hasn't she written?


Have I written? Have they written? Have you written?
Haven't we written? Haven't you written? He has written
He hasn't written I have written I haven't written She has
written They have written They haven't written We have
written We haven't written You haven't written

WRITE

Affirmative
Form

Interrogative
Form

Negative Form

Haven't I written?

he

Has he written?
She hasn't
written

she

Have we
written?

we

you

Interronegative
Form

You have
written
Haven't they
written?

they

54

Ingls

NIVEL B1

What have you done today?


Simple Present Perfect gap-fill exercise

1. I
2. We
3. I

a shower today. (to take)


the newspaper today. (to read)
to my English teacher today. (to speak)

4. She

television today. (to watch)

5. He

two cups of coffee today. (to have)

6. They
7. He
8. I

four e-mails today. (to send)


a new friend today. (to make)
a film today. (to see)

9. She

two postcards today. (to write)

10. You

this test today. (to do)

55

PASADO SIMPLE VS. PASADO CONTINUO

Para formar el Pasado Simple debemos tener en cuenta si el verbo es Regular o


Irregular [ver Mdulo 1; apartado 2. Pasado Simple].

El Pasado Simple lo usamos en las siguientes situaciones:

Para hablar de acciones acabadas en un periodo de tiempo en el pasado. Puede ir


acompaado de algunos marcadores como: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last
night, last week, last month, last year, three years ago, in 1971

I called you yesterday. (Te llam ayer).


Did she come last night? (Vino ella anoche?).
They didnt work last year. (Ellos no trabajaron el ao pasado).
Para narrar o describir hechos en el pasado:

When I was a child I was really shy, I liked playing the guitar but I didnt
study too much. How were you?
(Cuando yo era pequea era muy tmida, me gustaba tocar la guitarra pero no
estudiaba demasiado. T cmo eras?).

Para formar las condicionales de segundo tipo:

If you were busy I would do it for you.


(Si t estuvieras ocupado, yo lo hara por ti).

If we had a car we could go to the beach.


(Si tuviramos un coche podramos ir a la playa).

El Pasado Continuo se forma con el verbo to be en pasado simple + verbo en ing.

I was watching a film. (Estaba viendo una pelcula).


Were you waiting for me? (Me estabas esperando?).

56

Ingls

NIVEL B1

She wasnt working in this company. (No estaba trabajando en esta empresa).
El Pasado Continuo lo usamos en las siguientes situaciones:

Para hablar de acciones en proceso que ocurrieron en un momento especfico del


pasado:

At 10 oclock she was waiting for the bus.


(A las 10 ella estaba esperando el autobs).

Para describir el contexto o el ambiente en el que se desarrolla una accin en el


pasado:

It was raining; I was watching a film and thinking about the problem.
(Estaba lloviendo; yo estaba viendo una pelcula y pensando en el problema).

Para describir una accin que se estaba desarrollando en el pasado y es


interrumpida por otra accin tambin en el pasado (pasado simple).

I was reading the newspaper when she called me.


(Yo estaba leyendo el peridico cuando ella me llam).

Para describir dos acciones que ocurren al mismo tiempo:

They were drinking and talking while I was cooking alone. (Ellos estaban
bebiendo y hablando mientras yo estaba cocinando sola).

Para hablar de acciones habituales en el pasado que son molestas para el hablante.
Normalmente usamos el adverbio always.

57

She was always talking in class. (Ella siempre estaba hablando en clase).
Existen algunas reglas ortogrficas para aadir la ing:

Normalmente aadimos la ing al verbo sin que se produzca ningn cambio;


tambin a los verbos que acaban en y :
listen > listening
go > going
read > reading

try > trying


lay > laying
fly > flying

Los verbos acabador en consonante + -e, omiten la e para aadir ing:


live > living
write > writing
behave > behaving

Los verbos monosilbicos acabados en una sola consonante precedida de una


sola vocal duplican la consonante final delante de ing:

Los verbos de dos o ms slabas que acaban en una sola consonante


precedida de una sola vocal duplican la consonante final si el acento recae en
la ltima slaba:

refer > referring


occur > occurring
Los verbos acabados en ie cambian la ie por y delante de ing:

stop > stopping


swim > swimming
run > running

die > dying


lie > lying

Muchos verbos acabados en una sola vocal + l o p duplican la consonante


finaldelante de ing, aunque no cumplan la regla del acento:
travel > travelling
worship > worshipping

58

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Exercise1. A group of people were staying in a hotel. One evening the fire alarm went
off. Choose the sentences saying what each person was doing at the time.

Example: (I / have/ a bath) I was having a bath.

1. (Rachel / write / a letter to her sister)


1. Rachel was writing a letter to her sister
1. Rachel were writing a letter to her sister

2. (Peter / get / ready to go out)


2. Peter were getting ready to go out
2. Peter was getting ready to go out

3. (Charles and Dennis / have / a drink)


3. Charles and Dennis were having a drink
3. Charles and Dennis was having a drink

4. (Tom / make / a phone call)


4. Tom was making a phone call.
4. Tom were making a phone call.

59

Exercise2. Choose the correct simple past or continuous sentences:

1.

(it be) easy to do the exercise?

2.

Sam (take) another cake while his mum was not looking.

3.

George (walk) his dog when he hear a strange noise.

4.

He (get) lots of presents for his birthday.

5.

(He, work) on his computer at 5 oclock?

6.

(You, buy) a blue skirt yesterday?

7.

I (eat) and my brother was watching TV.

8.

He (have) a shower when the phone rang.

Write down the correct form (pronoun + verb).


Simple Past / Present Perfect Simple
I / open
he / write
they / do
you / swim
she / give

Use
When do we use which tense?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

'Already' is a signal word for ...


'Just' is a signal word for ...
'2 years ago' is a signal word for ...
'Yet' is a signal word for ...
'Yesterday' is a signal word for ...

60

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Positive Sentences
Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. Mary (win)

the lottery last year.

2. We (prepare / already)
3. James (find)
4. He (come / just)
5. They (buy)

dinner.
your ring in the garden yesterday.
home.

their car two years ago.

Negative Sentences
Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. I (see / not)

anyone yet.

2. Phil (go / not)

to the cinema last night.

3. We (be / not)

to the zoo so far.

4. She (arrive / not)

yet.

5. Emily (visit / not)

me last week.

61

62

Unit 2
B1

Ingls

NIVEL B1

B1 - UNIT 2
QUESTION TAGS

Son preguntas breves empleadas cuando el emisor necesita aprobacin por parte
del interlocutor o quiere comprobar que est escuchando.

Corresponden a la muletilla utilizada en espaol al final de la frase: no? / verdad?


Como en ingls son abreviaturas de una oracin interrogativa completa, se utilizan los
mismos verbos auxiliares y el mismo orden de palabras que en las oraciones
interrogativas completas:

These documentaries are very interesting, arent they?


(Estos documentales son muy interesantes, verdad?).

Its not snowing, is it? (No est nevando, no?).


Principales question tags:

Frase afirmativa + question tag negativa:

We are going to Morocco, arent we? (Vamos a Marruecos, no?)


Ralph is a bit shy, isnt he? (Ralph es un poco tmido, verdad?)

Frase negativa + question tag afirmativa:

You dont like vegetables, do you? (No te gusta la verdura, no?)


Alice cant drive, can she? (Alice no puede conducir, no?)

63

Otros tipos de question tags:

Con el imperativo (se utiliza el auxiliar will en la tag question y la orden o


invitacin del imperativo se convierte en una orden brusca):

Sit down, will you? (Sintate, quieres?).


Con someone / somebody (el sujeto de la tag question es they):

Someone has called all the customers, havent they?


(Alguien ha llamado a todos los clientes, no?).

Con Lets(la tag question de esta expresin es shall we):

Lets go home, shall we? (Vamos a casa no?).


Con varios auxiliares (en este caso la question tag debe hacerse con el primero
de ellos):

They shouldnt have told her, should they?


(No deberan habrselo dicho, verdad?).

Entonacin de las tag questions:

Entonacin descendente: el hablante est seguro de lo que dice, por lo que no hara
falta una respuesta de su interlocutor. Corresponde a la muletilla del espaol eh?

Frank is a clever boy, isnt he?


(Frank es un chico listo, eh? [El hablante da su opinin]).

Entonacin ascendente: el hablante no est seguro de lo que dice, por lo que la tag
question es una forma de pedir informacin a su interlocutor.

64

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Frank passed his exams, didnt he?


(Frank aprob los exmenes, no? [El hablante duda y pide informacin])

Ejercicio 1. Choose the correct question tag to complete the following sentences:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

You will send me a postcard from Llangollen, WONT YOU/ WILL YOU?
Somebody answered the phone when I was out, DIDNT THEY/ WAS I?
You are not older than me, ARE YOU/ ARENT YOU?
Rachel has gone to Brussels, HASNT SHE/ HAS SHE?
She is invited too, ISNT SHE/ IS SHE?
Lets have another drink, SHALL WE/ SHALL NOT WE?

You dont know who I am, DO YOU/ DONT YOU?

65

VERBOS MODALES
Los verbos modales sirven para hablar de obligacin, voluntad, posibilidad o
capacidad. Solo tienen formas de presente o de pasado, es decir, que no tienen ni
infinitivo, ni participio ni gerundio (excepto must y ought to, que solo tienen formas de
presente). La siguiente tabla muestra los verbos modales ms importantes:

VERBO

USO

EJEMPLOS

Expresar capacidad para hacer


algo.

She can swim very well.


Puede/ Sabe nadar muy bien.
Can I have some more coffee, please?

Pedir algo educadamente.

Me puedes poner ms caf, por favor?

Can
I cant go with you; Im not feeling well.
Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad

No puedo ir contigo; no me encuentro


bien.

Expresar y pedir permiso.

Can I open the door?


Puedo abrir la puerta?
It cant be raining. The ground is not wet.

En negativa: expresar deduccin.

No puede estar lloviendo. El suelo no


est mojado.

Expresar capacidad para hacer


algo en el pasado.

I could drive at the age of twelve.

Could you tell me the time, please?

Pedir algo educadamente.

Could

Yo saba conducir a los doce aos.

Podra decirme la hora, por favor?


The light was too bright. I couldnt open
my eyes.

Expresar imposibilidad en el
pasado.

La luz era demasiado brillante. No poda


abrir los ojos.

66

Ingls

NIVEL B1

We could have a drink in the pub.

Hacer conjeturas.

Podramos tomarnos una copa en el bar.

Pasado de Can en estilo indirecto.

They said they could do it again.


Dijeron que lo podan hacer de nuevo.
May I stay a bit longer?

Pedir permiso.

Puedo quedarme un poco ms?


You may play now.

Conceder permiso.

Ya podis jugar.
We may visit our friends on Monday.

May

Expresar posibilidad.

Puede que visitemos a nuestros amigos


el lunes.
She may still be asleep because the
room is dark.

Hacer conjeturas.

Puede que todava est durmiendo


porque la habitacin est oscura.

Expresar la posibilidad remota de


que algo ocurra.
Might

They might invite us to the party.


Puede que nos inviten a la fiesta.
They might have broken the window
while I was sleeping.

Hacer conjeturas.

Puede que rompieran/ hayan roto la


ventana mientras dorma.
You must go to school.

Expresar obligacin.

Must

Debes ir a clase.

You mustnt smoke in hospitals.

En forma negativa: expresar


prohibicin.

No se debe fumar en los hospitales.

67

They must be happy with the new


building.

Expresar deduccin afirmativa.

Deben de estar contentos con el nuevo


edificio.

I had to go to the doctor yesterday


because I didnt feel well.

Expresar obligacin.

Ayer tuve que ir al mdico porque no me


encontraba bien.

You dont have to buy anything; there is


plenty of food in the fridge.

Have to
En forma negativa: expresar
ausencia de obligacin.

No tienes que comprar nada; hay mucha


comida en la nevera.

Dar consejos.

You should do more physical exercise.


Deberas hacer ms ejercicio fsico.

Should

We should be more tolerant.

Expresar obligacin moral.

Deberamos ser ms tolerantes.

Criticar acciones pasadas


(seguidas de have + participio).

She should have been quiet.


Debera haberse callado.
Shall I open the window?

Hacer un ofrecimiento.

Abro la ventana?

Hacer sugerencias.

What shall we do tonight?


Qu hacemos esta noche?
I shall speak to the headmaster.

Expresar decisions.

Shall

Yo hablar con el director.

Dar instrucciones tajantes.

You shall be here at ten tomorrow.


Maana estars aqu a las diez.

68

Ingls

NIVEL B1

I will go to the fair tomorrow.

Para hablar del futuro.

Ir a la feria maana.

Will
Pass me the salt, will you?

Como pregunta corta a un


imperativo.

Psame la sal, quieres?


Would you like some tea?

Hacer un ofercimiento.

Quieres t?
Would you pass me the salt, please?

Pedir algo educadamente.

Podras pasarme la sal, por favor?

Como pasado de will en el estilo


indirecto.
Would
Solo en afirmativa: expresar
costumbres o rutinas en el pasado
(sola).

He said he would fix it the following day.


Dijo que lo arreglara al da siguiente.
When we were children we would go
fishing every weekend.
Cuando ramos nios, solamos ir a
pescar todos los fines de semana.

Los verbos modales tienen la misma forma verbal para todas las personas, es decir,
no se le aade s a la tercera persona del singular, por ejemplo.
En oraciones afirmativas y negativas, van siempre delante del verbo principal; en las
interrogativas, la estructura es: verbo modal + sujeto + verbo principal. Despus de un
verbo modal el verbo principal va si to.

She can walk very fast. (Ella puede caminar muy rpido).
Can she walk very fast? (Puede caminar muy rpido?).
Con los verbos modales no usamos auxiliar do/ does/ did.

Para negar, colocamos la partcula negativa not, detrs del verbo modal; la forma
contrada no la usamos en todos los modales.

69

can > cannot > cant


could > could not > couldnt
may > may not
might > might not > mightnt
must > must not > mustnt
have to > have not to > havent to
shall > shall not
should > should not > shouldnt
will > will not > wont
would > would not > wouldnt

I cant eat almonds. (No puedo comer almendras).


I wont cook for you tonight. (No te har la cena esta noche).
You shouldnt smoke so much. (No deberas fumar tanto).
You mustnt watch so much television. (No se debe ver tanta televisin).

Exercise1. Match these sentences:

1-Im tired; may I

a- please tell me your address and telephone

number?
2-She doesnt have to
3-Mrs. Clayton, would you
4- Shall we

b- go to my sisters house for dinner on Saturday?


c- translate the letter into English, only into German.
d- sit here?

70

Ingls

NIVEL B1

YET/ NOT YET

Yet tiene diferentes significados:

En la oracin negativa > Todava.

I havent started yet. (No he empezado todava).


En la oracin interrogativa > Ya.

Have you started yet? (Has empezado ya?).


Para responder de forma negativa a una pregunta con yet, usamos not yet >
Todava no.

Have you booked the flight yet? Not yet.


todava no).

(Has reservado el vuelo ya?

Normalmente yet aparece al final de la oracin, tanto negativa como interrogativa.

En la oracin interrogativa con yet, es ms comn usar el Present Perfect.

Has she come back yet? (Ha llegado ella ya?).

71

Exercise5. The following sentences are translated into English , but are they correct?:

1- Has visto la pelcula? No, todava no. No he podido ir al cine.


Have you seen the film? No, not yet. I havent been able to go to the cinema.

2- Habis entendido todo ya? Si, lo hemos entendido porque Pedro nos lo ha
explicado con muchos detalles.
Have you understood everything yet? Yes, we have understood it because Pedro has
explained it to us with many details.

3- Carmen y Teresa han ido ya a la playa.


Have Carmen and Teresa gone to the beach yet?

4- No han creado la nueva pgina Web an, han sido muy perezosos.
They havent created the new web site yet, they have been very lazy.

5- No hemos pedido una nueva impresora an, pero hemos tenido suerte porque nos
han prestado una.
We havent ordered a new printer, but we have been lucky because they have lent us
one yet.

72

Ingls

NIVEL B1

GET + ADJETIVO

Usamos get + adjetivo para expresar cambio de un estado a otro como resultado de
una accin. En este caso get funciona como un auxiliar.

to get angry (enfadarse)


to get hungry (entrarle a uno hambre)
to get married (casarse)
to get tired (cansarse)

She left the window open and the table got wet.
(Ella dej la ventana abierta y la mesa se moj).
[Una cosa es estar mojado (to be wet) y otra mojarse (to get wet). Con get nos
referimos al proceso].
You are going to get hungry during class if you don't have breakfast.
(Te va a entrar hambre durante la clase si no desayunas).
[Una cosa es estar hambriento (to be hungry) y otra es el proceso de entrarle a
uno hambre (to get hungry)].

Estos son algunos de los adjetivos ms utilizados con get (proceso de):

- get hungry

- get well

- get thirsty

- get dry

- get ready

- get dark

- get late

- get cold

- get serious

- get fat

- get hot

- get busy

- get anxious

- get angry

- get impatient

- get old

- get sick

- get thin

- get bald

73

Exercise7. Match the following sentences:

1-Those apples are not green, they are

a) getting deaf

2-Why does Yadira

b) got tired

3-Yesterday I was doing aerobics but I

c) getting mature

4-He works in a very noisy place, he is

d) get dry

5-If you put the skirt near the window now, it will

74

e) get angry?

Ingls

NIVEL B1

PREPOSITIONS OF EASY CONFUSION

TO/ FOR

Principales usos de las preposiciones to y for:

To

Im gointo to the beach.


a, hacia

Voy a la playa.
The snow came to the door.

LUGAR
a, hasta

La nieve llegaba a la puerta.


From one to six.

TIEMPO

hasta

Desde la una hasta las seis.


Its ten to five.

menos (para la hora)

Son las cinco menos diez


She gave them to me.

MODO

a (para introducir un
objeto indirecto)

Me los dio a m.
From one to five.

a, hasta

Del uno al cinco.


I work here to ear some Money.

para (intencin)

Trabajo aqu para ganar algo de dinero.

75

For

LUGAR

para, en direccin a

The bus for Cdiz.


El autobs para Cdiz.

durante

For one week.


Durante una semana.

TIEMPO

para, por

The camping is for the 3rd of July.


El camping es para el 3 de Julio.

desde hace

I dont smoke for months.


No fumo desde hace meses.

para (destino)

I bought something for her.


He comprador algo para ella.

por (intencin)

I eat for pleasure.


Yo como por placer.

MODO

por, a favor de

Hes for a change in the department.


l est a favor de un cambio en el
departamento.

por (causa)

I couldnt sleep for the heat.


No pude dormir por el calor.

76

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Exercise4. Elige la oracin correcta:

1. a. Im going to the cinema.


b. Im going for the cinema.

2. a. They are to a rise in the price.


b. They are for a rice in the price.

3. a. Its quarter for five.


b. Its quarter to five.

4. a. I dont see her for months.


b. I dont see her to months.

5. a. Im making an effort to stop smoking.


b. Im making an effort for stop smoking.

6. a. She cant hear me to the wind.


b. She cant hear me for the wind.

7. a. I bought it for fun.


b. I bought it to fun.

8. a. The cake is to tomorrow.


b. The cake is for tomorrow.

77

Exercise5. Completa con la preposicin correcta:

1. Take this notebook, its you!


2. John is goingthe market tomorrow
3. Gerard is waitinghis girlfriend.
4. I am very busy this morning; can you take the little boy... school today?
5. She always sleepsthirty minutes in the afternoon.
6. Dont talkRichard about the problem, he cant help you.
7. The museum is open from 9 a.m. 6 p.m.
8. She needs special tools making the new sculpture.
9. We use these books teach Spanish to the new students.
10. They are leavingBrazil next Sunday; they will stay there on holidays6
days.

Vocabulary:

Llamadas telefnicas / vocabulario telefnico


Telephone language and phrases in English
Answering the phone> responder al telefono

Good morning/afternoon/evening, council town speaking.


> buenos das/tardes/tardes noches ( a partir de las 18h), habla con el
ayuntamiento.
Who's calling, please?
> con quin hablo?

78

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Introducing yourself> presentarse


This is Paul Smith speaking.
> Soy Paul Smith
Hello, this is Paul Smith from Speakspeak International.
> Soy Paul Smith

Asking for someone> preguntar por alguien


Could* I speak to John Martin, please?
> Podra hablar con el Seor J.M, por favor?
* PASADO Y CONDICIONAL DE CAN: PODER

I'd like* to speak to John Martin, please.


> Me gustara hablar co J.M, por favor
* SUJETO+ WOULD LIKE TO + INFINITIVO: SUJETO+ GUSTARA+ INFINITIVO

Could you put me through to John Martin, please?


> Podra pasarme con J.M

Could I speak to someone who


> Podra hablar ....

Explaining> explicar
I'm afraid Mr Martin isn't in at the moment.
> Lo siento pero el seor Martin no est en este momento

I'm sorry, he's in a meeting at the moment.


> Lo siento pero l est reunido en este momento

79

I'm afraid he's on another line at the moment.


> Lo siento pero est hablando por telfono

Putting someone on hold> poner en espera


Just a moment, please.
> un momento por favor

Could you hold the line, please?


> Un momento por favor

Hold the line, please.


> no cuelgue por favor

Problems> problemas
I'm sorry, I don't understand. Could you repeat that, please?
>Lo siento, no le entiendo. Puede repetir?

I'm sorry, I can't hear you very well. Could you speak up a little, please?
> Lo siento, no le oigo muy bien. Puede hablar ms alto?

I'm afraid you've got the wrong number.


>Lo siento, se ha equivocado.

I've tried to get through several times but it's always engaged.
> Lo he intentado varias veces pero est siempre ocupado.

80

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Could you spell that, please?


> Puede deletrearlo ,por favor?

Putting someone through> pasar la llamada


One moment, please. I'll see if Mr Jones is available.
> Un momento por favor. Ver si el Sr. Jones est disponible.

I'll put you through.


> le paso la llamada

I'll connect you.


> Le paso la llamada

I'm connecting you now.


> le paso la llamada ahora mismo.

Taking a message> tomar recado


Can I take a message?
> puedo coger el recado?

Would you like to leave a message?


> Quiere dejar un mensaje?

Can I give him/her a message?


> Puedo darle un mensaje?

81

I'll tell Mr Jones that you called


> Le dir al Sr. Jones que le ha llamado.

I'll ask him/her to call you as soon as possible.


> Le dir que le llame tan pronto como sea.

hang up: colgar


cut off: cortar
hold on: esperar
pick up: descolgar
call-ring back: volver a llamar
put trough: pasar la llamada
directory: gua telefnica
collect call: cobro revertido
switchboard operator: telefonista
directory enquirie: informacin telefnica
dialing: sonido telefnico
bad line: mala seal

Resumen llamadas telefnicas:


Cuando nosotros llamamos
1: Nos identificamos...
My name is ______. Mi nombre es........
This is _______ (here). Soy .............

2: Si preguntamos por alguien...


Could I speak to _____, please?: podra hablar con......

82

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Could you put me through to _______, please? Podra pasarme con......


Could I have extension 123, please?Podra pasarme con la extensin
I'd like to speak to ________ , please. Me gustara hablar con

3: Explicamos el motivo de la llamada...


I'm calling to ask about...: Llamo para preguntarle sobre......
I'm phoning to tell you about...: llamo para comentarle sobre.....

4. Si queremos dejar un mensaje...


Could you give ____ a message? . puede dejarle un mensaje?
Could you ask ___ to call me when he gets back? Puede decirle que me llame?

5. Agradecemos la atencin...
Thanks you very much for your help.: Muchas gracias por su ayuda
Thanks for the information.: Gracias por la informacin

6.Cierre de la llamada...Good bye.: adis

Telephoning Hablar por telfono


Hello?
Hola?
May I speak to Mr Peterman, please?
Podra hablar con el Sr Peterman, por favor?
Hold the line, please.
Espere en lnea, por favor.
Please dial the extension number.
Por favor disque el nmero de interno.
I was cut off.
Me cortaron.

83

Hang up, please.


Corte, por favor.
Can I take a message?
Quiere dejarle un mensaje?
The line is dead.
No se oye nada.
I'll call back later.
Llamar ms tarde.
This is an answering machine. Please leave a message after the beep.
Este es un contestador automtico. Por favor deje su mensaje despus de la seal.
I would like to make a collect call to...
Quisiera realizar una llamada por cobro revertido a...

PASADO SIMPLE VS. PASADO CONTINUO

Para formar el Pasado Simple debemos tener en cuenta si el verbo es Regular o


Irregular [ver Mdulo 1; apartado 2. Pasado Simple].

El Pasado Simple lo usamos en las siguientes situaciones:

Para hablar de acciones acabadas en un periodo de tiempo en el pasado. Puede ir


acompaado de algunos marcadores como: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last
night, last week, last month, last year, three years ago, in 1971

I called you yesterday. (Te llam ayer).


Did she come last night? (Vino ella anoche?).
They didnt work last year. (Ellos no trabajaron el ao pasado).
Para narrar o describir hechos en el pasado:

When I was a child I was really shy, I liked playing the guitar but I didnt
study too much. How were you?
(Cuando yo era pequea era muy tmida, me gustaba tocar la guitarra pero no
estudiaba demasiado. T cmo eras?).

84

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Para formar las condicionales de segundo tipo:

If you were busy I would do it for you.


(Si t estuvieras ocupado, yo lo hara por ti).

If we had a car we could go to the beach.


(Si tuviramos un coche podramos ir a la playa).

El Pasado Continuo se forma con el verbo to be en pasado simple + verbo en ing.

I was watching a film. (Estaba viendo una pelcula).


Were you waiting for me? (Me estabas esperando?).
She wasnt working in this company. (No estaba trabajando en esta empresa).
El Pasado Continuo lo usamos en las siguientes situaciones:

Para hablar de acciones en proceso que ocurrieron en un momento especfico del


pasado:

At 10 oclock she was waiting for the bus.


(A las 10 ella estaba esperando el autobs).

Para describir el contexto o el ambiente en el que se desarrolla una accin en el


pasado:

It was raining; I was watching a film and thinking about the problem.
(Estaba lloviendo; yo estaba viendo una pelcula y pensando en el problema).

Para describir una accin que se estaba desarrollando en el pasado y es


interrumpida por otra accin tambin en el pasado (pasado simple).

I was reading the newspaper when she called me.

85

(Yo estaba leyendo el peridico cuando ella me llam).

Para describir dos acciones que ocurren al mismo tiempo:

They were drinking and talking while I was cooking alone. (Ellos estaban
bebiendo y hablando mientras yo estaba cocinando sola).

Para hablar de acciones habituales en el pasado que son molestas para el hablante.
Normalmente usamos el adverbio always.

She was always talking in class. (Ella siempre estaba hablando en clase).
Existen algunas reglas ortogrficas para aadir la ing:

Normalmente aadimos la ing al verbo sin que se produzca ningn cambio;


tambin a los verbos que acaban en y :
listen > listening
go > going
read > reading

try > trying


lay > laying
fly > flying

Los verbos acabador en consonante + -e, omiten la e para aadir ing:


live > living
write > writing
behave > behaving

Los verbos monosilbicos acabados en una sola consonante precedida de una


sola vocal duplican la consonante final delante de ing:

stop > stopping


swim > swimming
run > running

86

Ingls

Los verbos de dos o ms slabas que acaban en una sola consonante


precedida de una sola vocal duplican la consonante final si el acento recae en
la ltima slaba:

refer > referring


occur > occurring
Los verbos acabados en ie cambian la ie por y delante de ing:

NIVEL B1

die > dying


lie > lying

Muchos verbos acabados en una sola vocal + l o p duplican la consonante


finaldelante de ing, aunque no cumplan la regla del acento:
travel > travelling
worship > worshipping

Exercise1. A group of people were staying in a hotel. One evening the fire alarm went
off. Choose the sentences saying what each person was doing at the time.

Example: (I / have/ a bath) I was having a bath.

1. (Rachel / write / a letter to her sister)


1. Rachel was writing a letter to her sister
1. Rachel were writing a letter to her sister

2. (Peter / get / ready to go out)


2. Peter were getting ready to go out
2. Peter was getting ready to go out

3. (Charles and Dennis / have / a drink)


3. Charles and Dennis were having a drink
3. Charles and Dennis was having a drink

87

4. (Tom / make / a phone call)


4. Tom was making a phone call.
4. Tom were making a phone call.

Exercise2. Choose the correct simple past or continuous sentences:

1.

(it be) easy to do the exercise?

2. Sam (take) another cake while his


mum was not looking.
3. George (walk) his dog when he hear
a strange noise.
4. He (get) lots of presents for his
birthday.
5. (He, work) on his computer at 5
oclock?
6.

(You, buy) a blue skirt yesterday?

- Sam took another cake while his mum


was not looking.
- He got lots of presents for his birthday.
- Did you buy a blue skirt yesterday?
- I was eating and my brother was
watching TV.
- George was walking his dog when he
hear a strange noise.
- He was having a shower when the
phone rang.

7. I (eat) and my brother was watching


TV.

- Was he working on his computer at 5


o'clock?

8. He (have) a shower when the phone


rang.

- Was it easy to do the exercise?

88

Ingls

NIVEL B1

EL PRESENT PERFECT VS. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUO

Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect Progressive

regular verbs: form of have + verb form -ed

form of 'have' + been + verb + ing

irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of


Example:

Example:

I / you / we / they have DRIVEN

I / you / we / they have been TALKING

he / she / it has DRIVEN

he / she / it has been TALKING

regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed


Example:
I / you / we / they have TALKED
he / she / it has TALKED
Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect Progressive

Result (what / how much / how often)

Duration (how long)

I have read 5 letters. / I have been to London

I have been read for an hour.

twice.

Certain verbs
The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the
progressive form).

state: be, have (for possession only)


Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks.

senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch


Example: He has tasted the cake.

brain work: believe, know, think, understand


Example: I have known him for 2 days.

89

DIFERENTES USOS DE USED TO


3.1. TO GET + USED + TO + -ING (ACOSTUMBRARSE A)

Utilizamos el verbo TO GET antes de la expresin USED TO para referirnos al


proceso de acostumbrarse a algo.

To get+ used + to + driving on the left. (Acostumbrarse a conducir por la izquierda).


Una vez conocemos los elementos de esta estructura y su posicin, debemos tener
en cuenta que para formar una oracin debemos utilizar obligatoriamente un sujeto y
asegurarnos que el verbo to get est conjugado en el tiempo verbal adecuado.

I got used to driving on the left. (Me acostumbr a conducir por la izquierda).
[En este ejemplo utilizamos el sujeto de primera persona singular (I) y el verbo to get
est conjugado en pasado, ya que explicamos algo que ocurri en tiempo pasado].

Para darle sentido negativo o interrogativo a una oracin, debe modificarse el verbo
TO GET siguiendo las reglas del tiempo verbal utilizado.

I didnt get used to driving on the left.


(No me acostumbr a conducir por la izquierda).

Did you get used to driving on the left?


(Te acostumbraste a conducir por la izquierda?).

[En estos ejemplos se utiliza la estructura con el pasado simple, por lo tanto el verbo
GET sufre las modificaciones establecidas por dicho tiempo verbal].

90

Ingls

NIVEL B1

3.2. TO BE + USED + TO + -ING (ESTAR ACOSTUMBRADO A)

Utilizamos el verbo TO BE antes de la expresin USED TO para referirnos al hecho


de estar acostumbrado a algo.

To be + used + to + driving on the left.


(Estar acostumbrado a conducir por la izquierda).

Al igual que con la estructura anterior, debemos tener en cuenta que para formar
una oracin debemos utilizar obligatoriamente un sujeto y asegurarnos que el verbo to
be est conjugado en el tiempo verbal adecuado.

I am used to driving on the left. (Estoy acostumbrado a conducir por la izquierda).


[En este ejemplo utilizamos el sujeto de primera persona singular (I) con su
correspondiente forma del verbo to be en presente simple, puesto que es el tiempo
verbal que utilizamos para hablar de hbitos en ese momento].

Para darle sentido negativo o interrogativo a una oracin, debe modificarse el verbo
TO BE siguiendo las reglas del tiempo verbal utilizado.

I wasnt used to driving on the left.


(No estaba acostumbrado a conducir por la izquierda).

Were you used to driving on the left?


(Estabas acostumbrado a conducir por la izquierda?)

[En estos ejemplos se utiliza la estructura con el pasado simple, por lo tanto el verbo
TO BE sufre las modificaciones establecidas por dicho tiempo verbal].

91

3.3 USED TO + VERBO INFINITIVO (SOLER en pasado)

Utilizamos la expresin USED TO para referirnos siempre a un estado o hbito del


hablante que se desarrollaba en un tiempo pasado y ya ha finalizado.

Hbito: I used to play the guitar when I was a child.


(Sola tocar la guitarra cuando era pequeo).

Estado: I used to live in London.


(Viva en Londres [pero ya no vivo all]).

Para darle sentido negativo o interrogativo a una oracin, la estructura debe incluir
los elementos de negacin e interrogacin del pasado simple.

I didnt used to play the guitar when I was a child.


(No sola tocar la guitarra cuando era pequeo).

Did you used to live in London?


(Estabas acostumbrado a conducir por la izquierda?)

[En estos ejemplos se utiliza la estructura con el pasado simple, por lo tanto el verbo
TO BE sufre las modificaciones establecidas por dicho tiempo verbal].

En las estructuras 2.1 y 2.2, el verbo terminado en ing viene introducido por la
preposicin to, que equivale a la preposicin en espaol a. No hay que confundir la
partcula to de infinitivo (to eat: comer) con la preposicin a, la cual requiere un verbo
terminado en ing.

To eat (comer) : to = marca de infinitivo


To get used to eating (Acostumbrarse a comer): to = preposicin a.
To be used to eating (Estar acostumbrado a comer): to = preposicin a.

92

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Recuerda!
TO GET USED TO + V-ing = Acostumbrarse a algo.
TO BE USED TO + V-ing = Estar acostumbrado a algo.
USED TO + V-inf = Soler hacer algo (pasado).

Las oraciones requieren un sujeto obligatoriamente.


El verbo debe conjugarse segn el sujeto y el tiempo verbal usados.

Exercise2. Complete these sentences with used to, get used to or be used to:

1-We ----------- go to school walking through the park when we were children.
2-They -----------getting up early everyday, they can meet you at 7:00.
3-Sarah and George will -----------living together very soon.I am sure.
4-Did Ins -----------do exercise last year? Now she never does any!
5-The puppy -----------sleeping in his kennel very soon after we brought him home.
6-My grandmother -----------having dinner late, so dont give her the pizza now, its too
early for her.

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EVER NEVER

Never significa nunca y lo usamos en oraciones donde el verbo va en forma


afirmativa para que no haya doble negacin. Es decir, ni el verbo ni el auxiliar se
niegan con la partcula not, sino que con never la oracin ya es negativa.

a.

My friends never go to the cinema. (Mis amigos nunca van al cine).

En el caso de una oracin en presente simple, la tercera persona singular he, she,
it, mantiene la s del verbo, puesto que el verbo no va en forma negativa.

She never travels alone. (Ella nunca viaja sola).


Ever tiene varios significados segn el uso:

Nunca > en oraciones negativas e interrogativas en las que aparece una partcula
negativa.

I dont ever eat meat. (Yo nunca como carne).


Dont you ever eat meat? (Nunca comes carne?).

Alguna vez > en oraciones interrogativas para preguntar por lo que se ha hecho
alguna vez. Usamos el Pretrito Perfecto.

Have you ever been to Italy? (Has estado en Italia alguna vez?).
Siempre > en algunas expresiones.

- for ever

(para siempre)

94

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Exercise1. Complete con ever/never:

1-I havent ever/ never travelled to India


2-Have you never/ ever met my business partner?
3-We have never/ever worked before, we are only seventeen.
4-He hasnt ever / never spoken to me.
5-If you never/ ever want to learn German, call me and I will teach you.
6-We dont ever/ never deliver goods abroad.
7-I know this situation will go on forever/ never

95

TRAVELLING
Travel agency

Deseo un camarote de primera para ...

I want a first-class cabin (stateroom) to ...

Cunto cuesta?

How much is it?

Perfectamente, maana pasar a buscar el pasaje.

All right. I'll come for my ticket tomorrow.

Haga el favor de enviarme el pasaje al hotel.


All lo abonar el conserje.

Please send the tickets to the hotel.


The porter will pay for them.

Quisiera hacer un viaje de placer por ...

I want to take a pleasure trip to ...

Qu ciudades me aconseja visitar?

What towns do you advise me to visit?

Podra prepararme un viaje combinado hacia...?

Could you arrange me a combined journey to


... ?

Deseara hacer el viaje en micro, en autopullman


y hospedarme en hoteles de segunda clase.

I would like to make the trip by motor coach,


by pullman coach, and stay at second-class
hotels.

Quisiera visitar la regin ...

I would like to visit the ... region.

Resrveme dos plazas para el micro del da 10


de Diciembre.

Book me two seats on December 10's coach.

Tiene folletos tursticos?

Have you any tourist brochures?

Cunto le debo?

How much do I owe you?

En Inglaterra vacation se usa para las vacaciones de las universidades. En el resto de


los casos, holiday es la palabra ms corriente. En Estados Unidos vacation tiene un
uso ms generalizado.

No deben confundirse travel, journey y trip. El sustantivo travel es incontable y se


refiere a la actividad de viajar en general: Mark est interesado en los viajes. Mark is
interested in travels. Journey y trip se refieren a un viaje ya definido. Journey indica
slo el movimiento de un lugar a otro: Este viaje ha sido realmente largo. This journey
has been really long. Trip incluye tambin la estada: Cmo fue tu viaje a Buenos
Aires? How did your trip to Buenos Aires go?; Est en viaje de negocios. She is on a
business trip. Otras palabras que se usan para referirnos a viajes son voyage y tour.
Voyage es un viaje largo por mar: Magallanes es famoso por rodear el Cabo de
Hornos. Magellanes is famous for rounding Cape Horn. Tour es un viaje organizado
donde se va parando en distintos lugares: Jennifer har un viaje por Patagonia.
Jennifer will go on a tour around Patagonia.

96

Ingls

NIVEL B1

RAILWAY VOCABULARY - VOCABULARIO SOBRE TRENES


llevar retraso

to be late

perder el tren

to miss the train

reservar

to book

subir

to get on

bajar

to get off

reservar

to reserve

No asomarse por la
ventana

don't lean out of the


window

transbordarse

to change trains

terrapln

embankment

pasajero

passenger

tren de vapor

steam train

To get on : subir
To get off: bajar
Dont lean out of the window: No asomarse por la ventana
Pasajero: passenger
Dining car: coche restaurante
Ticket collector: revisor
First class: primera clase
Second class: segunda clase
Coach: vagn
Sleeper: coche cama
Ventanilla: window

97

Pasillo: corridor, aisle


Asiento: Seat
Asiento libre: free seat
Litera: couchette
Picar (billete): to date-stamp
To sit: sentarse
Maleta: bag, luggage
Vapor train: tren a vapor
Express train: tren rpido
Fast train: tren expreso
Local train: cercanas
Night train: tren nocturno
Compartimento: Compartment

98

Ingls

NIVEL B1

THE STATION - LA ESTACIN


cambiar de tren

change trains

el coche restaurante

dining car

procedente de

from

ventanilla de
informacin

information office

la consigna automtica left luggage lockers


la consigna

left luggage

puntual

on time

andn

platform

estacin

railway station

el revisor

ticket collector

ventanilla

ticket office

con destino a

to

va

track

sala de espera

waiting room

salidas

departures

llegadas

arrivals

Frases:

I'd like a room for the night.


Quisiera una habitacin para la noche
Would you like a single room, or a double room?
Quiere una habitacin individual o doble?

99

How much is the room?


Cunto cuesta la habitacin?
Here's your key. Your room number is 101.
Aqu est su llave. Su habitacin es la 101.
If you need anything, dial 0 for the reception area.
Si necesita cualquier cosa, marque el 0 para contactar con
recepcin
What's the daily (weekly) rate?
What time do I have to check out?
I would like a single (double) room
Is it a good hotel?
My room key please
Is it necessary to make a reservation?
What did he have to pay for?
At what time is dinner served?
Charge it to my bill
Please, send for a taxi
How long will you remain?
Serve my breakfast in my room, please
I have booked a room
Is there any letter for me?

100

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Vocabulario
Ingls

Espaol

porter

portero
camarero

waiter
bath room

cuarto de bao
llave

key
breakfast

desayuno

dinner

comida

supper

cena

menu

carta

luggage

equipaje

valet

botones

bill

cuenta

room number

habitacin nmero

arrival

llegada

bath

bao

bellboy

botones

booking

reserva

cancellation

cancelacin

101

departure

salida

double room

habitacin doble

elevator (US)

ascensor, elevador

floor

piso

front office

recepcin

front-office clerk

recepcionista

ground floor

planta baja

hall porter

conserje

housekeeper

ama de llaves

housekeeping staff

personal de habitaciones

ice-dispenser

surtidor de cubos de hielo

key

llave

key card

llave magntica

key clerk

encargado de llaves

laundry

lavandera

lift (GB)

ascensor, elevador

lobby

vestbulo

luggage

equipaje

mail clerk

encargado del correo

porter

portero

registration card

tarjeta de registracin

room service

servicio a la habitacin

single room

habitacin simple

safe

caja de seguridad

102

Ingls

NIVEL B1

shower

ducha

staff

personal

towel

toalla

twin beds

dos camas simples

vacancy

disponibilidad de habitaciones

voucher

cupn

wake-up call

despertador telefnico

to book

reservar

to check in

registrarse

to check out

registrar la salida

to deposit

depositar

to disturb

molestar

to do a room

hacer una habitacin

to stay

permanecer

American plan (US)

pensin completa

modified American plan


(US)

media pensin

European plan

habitacin solamente

bed and breakfast, B&B

cama y desayuno

guesthouse

casa de huspedes, pensin

half board (GB)

media pensin

room and board, R&B


(GB)

pensin completa

to stay

permanecer

103

la reserva

booking

la primera clase

first class

das festivos

public holidays

tarifa reducida

reduced rate

la reserva

reservation

billete de ida solamente

one way ticket

billete de ida y vuelta

return ticket

segunda clase

second class

billete de ida

single ticket

tarifa normal

standard rate

horario

timetable

das laborables

weekdays

104

Ingls

NIVEL B1

En el aeropuerto

1- Viajar en avion
flight - vuelo
flight number - numero de vuelo
take off - despegar
land - aterrizar
check-in desk - el sitio donde se hace el check-in
departure lounge - sala de salida
arrivals - sala de llegadas
baggage reclaim - recogida de equipaje
passport control - inspeccin de pasaportes
duty free - sin impuestos
boarding card - tarjeta de embarque
board - embarcar
boarding gate - puerta de embarcar
passengers in transit - viajeros en transito
car hire - alquilar de coches
short stay carpark - parking de estancia de corto estancia
long stay carpark - parking de larga estancia
drop off area - sitio de estancia de pocos minutos
customs - aduanas
nothing to declare - nada para declarar

Frases que se pueden usar en el aeropuerto


Where is the check-in desk for the flight to London? - Donde esta el check-in para el
vuelo a londres?
Did you pack your luggage yourself? - Hizo su equipaje usted mismo?
Have you left your luggage unattended at anytime? - Ha dejado su equipaje en algun
momento solo?
Which gate is the flight to London leaving from? - En que puerta sale el vuelo para
londres?

105

Airport & Planes (Aeropuerto & Aviones)


ESPAOL

INGLS

Aduana

Customs

Agencia de viajes

Travel agency

Billete

Ticket

Billete de ida

Single ticket

Billete de ida y vuelta

Return ticket

Bolsa de viaje

Travel bag

Carrito de equipajes

Luggage trolley

Cheque de viaje

Traveller's cheque (U.K.) / Traveler's


check (USA)

Consigna (equipaje)

Left-luggage office

Destino

Destination

Documentacin

Papers

Equipaje

Luggage

Equipaje de mano

Hand luggage

Equipaje permitido

Baggage allowance

Exceso de equipaje

Excess baggage

Frontera

Frontier ; Border

Gua (grupo turistas)

Guide ; Courier

Gua (libro)

Guidebook

Horario

Timetable

Itinerario

Itinerary

Llegada

Arrival

Maleta

Suitcase

Mapa

Map

Mquina expendedora de billetes

Ticket machine

Oficina de informacin

Information office

Pasajero

Passenger

Pasaporte

Passport

Precio del billete

Fare

Regreso ; Vuelta

Return

Reserva

Reservation

Retraso

Delay

Sala de espera

Waiting room

106

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Salida

Departure

Seguro de viajes

Travel insurance

Taquilla

Ticket office

Tarjeta de identidad

Identity card

Turismo

Tourism

Turista

Tourist

Viajante ; Viajero

Traveller

Viaje

Journey ; Trip

Viaje de ida

Outward journey

Viaje de ida y vuelta

Return journey ; Round trip

Viaje de negocios

Business trip

Viaje de novios

Honeymoon

Viaje de recreo

Pleasure trip

Viaje de turismo

Holiday

Viaje organizado

Organized tour

Visado

Visa

Visado de estancia

Permit to stay

107

VOCABULARY
BOATS

How many types of boats do you know? Heres a list with 10


of the most common boats!
First of all read them all out loud and then do the exercise so
that you can practice as much as possible.

Bote de remo

Rowing boat

/ruin(g)bout/

Velero

Sailboat

/silboutt/

Canca

Canoe

/kanu/

Bote salvavidas

Lifeboat

/lifboutt/

Lancha a motor

Speedboat

/sspidbout/

Barco

Ship

/shipp/

Barco de crucero

Cruise liner

/cruslinneer/

Yate

Yatch

/itt/

Ferry

Ferry

/frii/

Balsa

Raft

/rafttt/

Exercise:
Heres what you have to do: we have 10 people who always get seasick (se
marean por el mar). You need to come up with a sentence, using the vocabulary
above and sayind who gets seasick and where.

108

Ingls

NIVEL B1

Ex.: Shelly got seasick when she was on the ship!

Shelly

Barco

Peter

Bote salvavidas

Ashley

Transbordador/ Ferry

109

Natalie

Canoa

Nick

Lancha a motor

ACTIVITY Make it count

In this activity we will talk about life, inspiration and travel.


You are going to watch a short film in which the 10 quotes appear. As you watch the
film you should consider the following questions:

What is the story of how the film came to be made?


Which countries did the men visit?
How do the quotes relate to the narrative of the film?

http://vimeo.com/40004005
How can you make the most of your life / this year / this week / today / this class / this
moment?
And now, I would like YOU to plan a trip around your itinerary. You also have to decide
what youre going to do in each country. Then, you can write an essay about your trip.

110

Unit 3
B1

Ingls

NIVEL B1

B1 UNIT 3
QUESTIONS REVIEW: BASIC RULES
These rules apply to most written and spoken questions.

1.Auxiliary verb before subject: Have you?


In a question, an auxiliary verb normally comes before the subject.

When is Oliver leaving? (NOT: When Oliver is leaving?)


Have you received my letter of June 17? (NOT: You have received? )
Why are you laughing? (NOT: Why you are laughing?)
What are all those people looking at? (NOT: What all those people are looking
at?)
How much does the room cost? (NOT: How much the room cost?)

2.Do: Do you like?


If there is no other auxiliary verb, we use do, does or did to form a question.

Do you like Mozart? (NOT: Like you Mozart?)


What does periphrasticmean? (NOT: What means periphrastic)
Did you wash the car today?

3.Do not used with other auxiliaries


Do is not used together with other auxiliary verbs or with be

Can you tell me the time (NOT: Do you can tell me the time?)
Have you seen John? (NOT: Do you have seen John?)
Are you ready? (NOT: Do are you ready?)

4.Infinitive after do
After do we use the infinitive (without to)

What does the boss want? (NOT: What does the boss wants?)
Did you go climbing last week? (NOT: Did you went climbing last week?)

5.Only auxiliary verb before subject


Only auxiliary verb goes before the subject, not the whole of the verb.

Is your mother coming tomorrow? (NOT: Is coming your mother tomorrow?)


Is your daughter having a lesson today? (NOT: Is having your daughter?)

111

When was your reservation made? (NOT: When was made your reservation?)

This happens even if the subject is very long:

Where are the President and his family staying? (NOT: Where are staying the
President)

6.Who phoned / Who did you phone?


When who, which, what or whose is the subject (or part of the subject), do is not
normally used. Compare:

Who phoned? (who is the subject)


Who did you phone? (who is the object)
What happened? (what is the subject)
What did she say? (what is the object)

More examples:

Which costs more- the blue one or the grey one? (NOT: Which does cost
more?)
Which type of battery lasts longest? (NOT: Which type of battery does last
longest?)
How many people work in your office? (NOT: How many people do work in your
office?)

NOTE: Do can be used after a subject question word for emphasis, to insist on an
answer.

Well, tell us, what did happen when your father found you?
So, who did marry the princess in the end?

7. Prepositions: What are you talking about?


Prepositions often come at the end of wh- questions, separated from their objects.

What are you talking about?


Who did you buy the ticket from?
What did you clean the floor with?

112

Ingls

NIVEL B1

EXERCISE 1:
Ask questions for the following answers:
A:

Hello. Youd like to open a savings account with our bank, correct?

B:

Yes, thats right.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

Mark Abreu.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

A B R E U.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

441 Miami Gardens Drive, North Miami Beach.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

33168.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

Its a house.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

March 29, 1942.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

No, I dont. Im retired now.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

I was the manager of a large clothing store.

A:

________________________________________________?

B:

No, I never had an account with your bank before

113

EXERCISE 2 - READING

Adventure Tours
These questions and answers are from the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
page of a website for Adventure Tour Company. After you read them, answer the
questions on the next page.

Q. What type of person joins your trips and courses?

All sorts! Theres no typical customer profile. We have young people and older people,
men and women, and people from many countries.

Q. How large are your groups?


The groups are usually small -- between 4 and 12 people. On easy trips, there is a
ratio of 1 guide for every 2 people. On difficult trips, there is 1 guide for each person.
Q. Do I have to be especially fit?
Fitness is important for all aerobic activities like skiing, trekking, and climbing. If you
are not in top shape now, we recommend this: take regular aerobic exercise running, swimming, cycling - for 2-3 months before your holiday. On request, we will
send you more detailed information and sample training programs on CD-ROMs.

Q. What is included in the price?

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Our prices typically include all the fees for the guides and instructors and the
accommodations. Prices don't usually include travel, lift passes, lunches, personal
insurance, or rental of equipment.

Q. What kind of accommodations do you use?


In Europe, you stay in double rooms in chalets or hotels with meals included. At high
altitudes, you stay in mountain huts with 4-8 people in your room. Our trips to Mount
Kilimanjaro and the Himalayas are camping trips with two people in one tent, with hotel
accommodation at the start and end of the trip.

Q. Who leads your trips?


Very experienced mountain guides and ski instructors. They all have specialized
training and have certificates from professional schools.

Q. Do you provide equipment?


We provide group equipment: ropes for climbing trips and camping gear for treks. If
you need other equipment we can recommend local rental shops.

Q. Do you offer group discounts?


We are happy to give discounts to groups. Contact us for further details.

Circle T if the statement is true and circle F if the statement is false according to
Adventure Tours FAQ.

1. T / F The company specializes in tours for women.


2. T / F Usually, there arent more than 12 people in a group.
3. T / F The company gives fitness classes at its offices.
4. T / F The price of the tour includes the plane fare.
5. T / F People on the tour stay in private rooms in five-star hotels.
6. T / F In Europe, on the mountains, people stay in cabins with several
other people.
7. T / F On Mount Kilimanjaro, people camp out in tents.

115

8. T / F The guides and instructors with the company are very well trained.
9. T / F The company provides the equipment that its customers use.
10. T / F If you are with a group, its possible that you can get a better price.

VOCABULARY
BEDROOM FOURNISHING
Mesilla de noche

Bedside locker

/bedsaidd_lka/

Lmpara

Lamp

/lamp/

Edredn

Duvet

/duvvei/

Funda de almohada

Pillow case

/pilu_keiss/

Albarnoz

Bathrobe

/bathrub/

Sbana

Sheet

/sshitt/

Cama de matrimonio

Double bed

/dabol_bdd/

Cama individual

Single bed

/ssngol_bdd/

Litera

Bunk bed

/bank_bdd/

Sof cama

Sofa bed

/ssofa_bdd/

Now pay attention to the following example:


The people in room 201 on the second floor want bigger bedside lockers

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EXERCISE:

Based on the pictures bellow and following our example, practice the vocabulary above
by creating the exact type of sentence as before.

EXAMPLE:

505 /5th
Mesilla de noche /
ms bonita
Answer: The people in room 505 on the fifth floor want nicer bedside lockers,

326 /3rd
Lmpara / ms
grande

117

702 / 7th
Edredn / ms ligero

632 / 6th
Funda de almohada
/ ms pequea

963 / 9th
Albornoz / ms
grueso

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865 / 8th
Sbana / ms
blanca

102 / 1st
Cama de matrimonio /
ms blanda

367 / 3rd
Cama individual / ms
grande

119

759 / 7th
Litera / ms alta

105 / 1st
Sof cama / ms cmoda

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HOUSES AND FLATS


A.Finding somewhere to live
Look at these notices on a university notice-board.
Useful collocations are in bold.
Are you l o oking t o mo ve i nt o a f l a t o r
hous e ne xt term? T he Harme r Agenc y
has a wid e ra nge of sui tabl e
acco mmo dati on.

Fully furnished flat available to rent from 1st of September. Quiet residential area.
800$ per calendar month. Tel: xxxxxx

Newly-built apartment. Available soon. Spacious accommodation, fully fitted


kitchen. Off-road parking. To let furnished or unfurnished. Would suit single
academic or mature student!

**Fully-fitted = kitchen that is already equipped with modern cooker, washing


machine, cupboards, etc.

Describing your house/flat/room


In these e-mails people are describing their living accommodation.
Hi Mave,
Luke and I have just moved into our dream home. It's a big old four-storey house. It's got a
spacious living room which has a wonderful view of the park, and a cosy study where we
can both work. And there are some lovely light, airy bedrooms which overiook the Barden. There
is a separate basement flat, which we might turn into a granny flat for my mother. And if we want
to add an extension there's room for that too. It needs to be completely refurnished, but Luke and
I have always wanted to do up an old house.
Come and visit.
Love, Julia
** to do up to repair

121

Hi Julia,
You're so lucky! I'd love to move out of my awful one room flat. It's in such a dilapidated
building. You go into a draughty hall down a chilly corridor and into this really cramped
room. I want to buy a place of my own but there's a shortage of affordable housing here and
I don't want to take out a big mortgage Id love to see your house. I hope youll invite me to
your house-warming party
Big hug.
Mave
Collocations with home

She left home to go to university, but moving away from her family
made her feel homesick.

Peter's back from a year abroad. His family are throwing a party to
welcome him home.

(To a guest who's just arrived) Come in and make yourself at home while I
finish getting dinner ready. [relax and make yourself comfortable]

I haven't lived in Oxford for long but I already feel at home there.

I'd like to buy a second home near the coast. [house used only for
weekends, holidays, etc.

1. Answer these questions using collocations from A.


1. What kind of accommodation would suit a student who has no furniture of his
own?
2. What kind of accommodation would suit someone who is only going to be in a
place for three months?
3. What part of town would you want to live in if you wanted to be somewhere where
there are lots of private houses and no factories or other work places?
4. What kind of accommodation would suit a young single person who would prefer to
live alone rather than to share?
5. If accommodation doesn't have its own garage, what else might it have to make life
easier for car-owning residents?
6. If you are moving into a new unfurnished house, but don't need to take a
washing machine, cooker or fridge with you, what does the house have?

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2 Look at B. Match the beginning of each sentence on the left with its ending
on the right.
1 We want to turn our garage into a
party.

house-warming

2 Jill has invited me to her

mortgage.

3 Next week I have to move out of

my own.

4 Karl makes a business out of doing up

granny flat.

5 Our bedroom overlooks

my flat.

6 Our house needs to be completely

the garden.

7 I hope that one day I'll have a place of

old houses.

8 The bank can help if you want to take out a

refurbished.

3. Correct the collocation errors in these sentences.


1. We live on a busy road, but we're lucky because we have off-road park.
2. Gemma has moved off from her old flat and has now got a new place in
Walville Street.
3. We're building an expansion to our house which will give us a bigger kitchen.
4. The flat is totally furnished, which is good because I have no furniture of my
own. .5 She had to get out a big mortgage as the house was very expensive.
6. There is no buyable housing for young people in this area; prices are
ridiculously high.
7.New people have entered into the house next door. I haven't met them yet.
8. It's a very spatial apartment with a huge living room and a big kitchen.
9. The flat is accessible to rent from the first of March onwards.
10. My brother and his wife live in a windy old cottage.

123

GRAMMAR:
Which and What: the difference
Which and what are often both possible, with little difference of meaning.

Which / What is the hottest city in the world?

Which / What train did you come on?

Which / What people have influenced you most in your life?

We prefer which when we have a limited number of choices in mind.

Weve got white or brown bread. Which will you have?

(more natural than What will you have?)

Which size do you want? small, medium or large?

When we are not thinking of a limited number o choices , what is preferred.

What language do they speak in Greenland?

(more natural than Which language.)

Whats your phone number? (NOT: Which is your phone number?)

2.Determiners: which and what


Before nouns, which and what can be used to ask question about both things and
people.

Which teacher do you like best?

Which colour do you want green, red, yellow or brown?

What writers do you like?

What colour are your babys eyes?

3.Which of
Before another determiner (e.g. the, my, these) or a pronoun we use: which of

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Who and what are not normally used with of

Which of your teachers do you like best? (NOT: Who / What of your
teachers.)

Which of us is going to do the washing up? (NOT: Who of us? )

Which of these coats is yours? (NOT: What of these?)

Exercise 1:
Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets using either which or what.
1

________ are you doing?

________ would you prefer, the onion soup or the prawn cocktail?

________ do we need to take for the picnic?

________ are you going to wear for the wedding?

________ dress shall I wear, the red one or the blue one?

________ sort of music do you like?

________ kind of films do like, horror films or thrillers?

________ are you taking on holiday?

________ dentist did you see, Dr Pain or Dr Deville?

10

________ is your favourite sport?

Exercise 2: Listening and writing


Watch the following video and then answer the following question: WHAT makes
YOU happy?
http://vimeo.com/62237573

125

1.OPEN VS. OPENED

We normally use open , not opened as an adjective.

I can read you like an open book! (NOT: .an opened book)

Are the banks open this afternoon? (NOT: Are the banks opened?)

Opened is used as the past tense and past participle of the verb open, to talk about
the action of opening:

She opened her eyes and sat up.

The safe was opened with dynamite.

2.When open is not used


Note that open is NOT the normal word to refer to the fastenings of clothes, or to
switches or taps.

I cant untie/undo this shoelace. (NOT: I cant open this shoelace)

How do you unfasten this belt?

Could you turn / switch the radio on? (NOT: .open the radio)

Who left the taps turned on? (NOT: Who left the taps open?)

Exercise 1:
Complete the text. For each of the missing words you have been given the initial
and the last letters. - open or opened?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

You left the bag o_________n


She o___________d

.
her eyes and saw she was alone.

Kevin has left the window wide o_______n

After nearly three hours of work the safe was o____________d


Are the banks o________n

this afternoon?

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Exercise 2
True or false (correct or incorrect):

Which of the statements is true?

After nearly two hours of work the safe was opened.

She open her eyes and saw she was alone.

Are the banks open this afternoon?

Kevin has left the window open.

You left the bag opened.

VOCABULARY

BULLFIGHTING
Being a Spaniard and not having to talk about bulls is almost impossible. As it is
something completely fascinating for foreigners, heres some useful vocabulary you
may need when you have to talk about this topic.
Los toros / tauromaquia

Bullfighting

Torero

Bullfighter / Matador

Capote

Cape

Espada

Sword

Traje de luces

Bullfighing costume

127

Banderilla

Spear

Plaza de toros

Bullring

Burladero

Barrier

Corrida de toros

Bullfight

Pitn

Horn

Exercise:

Apart from practicing the vocabulary above, heres an exercise that can also be
considered a review of the interrogative tense.
Imagine you are talking to an English friend of yours who doesnt stop asking you
questions about bullfighting.
Heres an example:
The bulls cuernos didnt touch the torrero - But why didnt the bulls horns
touch the bullfighter?

Now, its your turn. Do the same with all the sentences below:

1.Ive never been interested in los toros - But why..


2.Ive never been to a corrida de toros - But why.
3.The torero didnt use a capote - But why..
4.The matador didnt use a espada - But why
5.The toro didnt run at the burladero - But why.
6.Ive never heard of that torero - But why
7.The matador didnt have a banderilla - But why
8.Ive never been to a plaza de toros - But why..
9.The matador didnt wear a traditional traje de luces - But why..

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Wimbledon vocabulary

Saque directo

Ace

/iss/

Saque

Serve

/sservv/

Doble falta

Double fault

/dabol_folt/

Falta de pie

Foot fault

/futt_foltt/

Puntuacin

Score

/ssko/

Set

Set

/sstt/

Volea

Volley

/vvolii/

Revs

Backhand

/bkhhandd/

Raqueta

Racket

/rkitt/

Juez de silla

Umpire

/ammpaia/

Listening exercise:

For those of you who are into tennis, heres a video you might want to watch. After
watching it, answer the questions below:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=I6MK0tdAlYI

129

1.The club where the competition takes place every year is called
a)The Old England Club
b)The All England Club
c)The New England Club

2)The Wimbledon Tennis Tournament is played on


a)artificial turf
b)grass tennis courts
c)clay tennis courts

3)According to the video Wimbledon is


a)the most important tennis tournament in the world
b)the biggest tennis tournament in the world
c)the greatest tennis tournament in the world

Exercise 2:
You went to a friend of yours who lives in London. There is the Wimbledon Tournament
and you would like to go see it. You love tennis, whereas your friend is not very keen
on it, so he starts complaining about everything.
Use there are too many , there arent enough ..
Example:
Saque directo
rpido

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There are too many fast aces in this match, aren`t there?

Doble falta estpido

rbitro indeciso

Puntuacin alta

131

GRAMMAR
PHRASAL VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS WITH THE VERB TO COME

FOCUS POINT 1 :
WHEN IT COMES TO. - CUANDO SE TRATA DE , EN CUANTO A , EN LO
QUE SE REFIERE A

Translation exercise:

En cuanto a la economa, no suelo entender ni una sla palabra de lo que la


gente dice.

En cuanto a ftbol se refiere, es imposible callarle.

Cuando se trata de su familia, ella es muy cauta con todo lo que dice.

FOCUS POINT 2:
IF IT COMES TO THAT - EN TAL CASO , SI LLEGAMOS A ESO

Translation exercise 2:

Si llegamos a eso, tendremos que cancelar todo.

En ese caso tendrn que aceptar no estar de acuerdo.

Si llega a eso, es probable que le despidan.

FOCUS POINT 3:
COME TO THINK OF IT AHORA QUE LO PIENSO, PENSNDOLO BIEN

Translation exercise 3:

Ahora que lo pienso, me dijo que no iba a ir.

Pensndolo bien, s que estaba con su ex novio.

Ahora que lo pienso, deb estar borracho si dije eso.

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FOCUS POINT 4
COME TO + VERB llegar a hacer algo en el pasado
This expression is one that we normally used with a past tense.

Example: Its what we have come to expect from them. (Es lo que hemos llegado a
esperar de ellos)

Translation exercise 4:

Lleg a creer que todo el mundo iba en contra de ella.

Llegamos a sospechar que l fue el culpable.

FOCUS POINT 5
COME TO + PASSIVE VERB
Example: His attitude came to be seen as a problem for the whole team.

Translation exercise 5:

Cmo lleg Michael Jackson a ser conocido como Wacko Jacko?

No entiendo en qu momento llevar los vaqueros cados lleg a ser


considerado algo moderno.

THE VERB TO BE PROGRESSIVE FORMS

I AM BEING / YOU ARE BEING , ETC + ADJECTIVE / NOUN


We can use this structure to talk about actions and behavior, but not usually to talk
about feelings. Compare:

Youre being stupid ( Youre doing stupid things)

I was being very careful. (I was doing something carefully)

I am happy just now (NOT: I am being happy just now)

I was depressed when you phoned (NOT: I was being depressed when you
phones.)

133

*Note the difference between: Hes being sick (hes vomiting) and Hes sick. (Hes
ill)

BE WITH AUXILIARY DO
Normally, be is used without the auxiliary do

Im not often sick. (NOT: I dont often be sick)

But, do is used to make negative imperative sentences withbe (when we tell


somebody not to do something)

Dont be silly!

Dont be such a nuisance!

And do be can begin emphatic imperatives:

Do be careful!

Do be quiet, for Gods sake!

BE + INFINITIVE: I am to. You are to. Etc


1.Plans and arrangements: He is to visit Nigeria.
We use this structure in a formal style to talk about officials and other plans and
arrangements.

The president is to visit Nigeria next month.

We are to get a 10 per cent wage rise in June.

I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time.

2.fate: We were to meet again


Another use is to talk about things which are / were hidden in the future, fated to
happen:

I thought we were saying goodbye forever. But we were to meet again, many
years later, under very strange circumstances.

3.Orders: You are to do your homework


The structure is used to give orders, often by parents speaking to children.

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You are to do your homework, before you watch TV.

She can go to the party, but she is not to be back late.

4.Be + passive infinitive: It is not to be removed


Be + passive infinitive is often used in notices and instructions
am/ are/is (not) to be + past participle
Sometimes only the past infinitive is used

To be taken three times a day after meals (on a medicine bottle)

Some other common expressions with be+infinitive

Theres nothing to be done!

She was nowhere to be found!

I looked out of the window, but there was nothing to be seen!

BE AND HAVE
1. Physical conditions: hunger, thirst, etc
To talk about experiencing hunger, thirst, heat, cold and other common physical
conditions, we normally use be or feel + adjective and NOT have + noun.
Note the following expressions:

Be hungry (NOT: have hunger)

Be thirsty

Be warm

Be hot

Be cold

Be sleepy

Be afraid

Note also: be right / be wrong (tener razn / no tener razn), be lucky (tener
suerte)

135

2. Age, height, weight, size and colour


BE is also used to talk about age, height, weight, size and colour.

Im nearly thirty! (NOT: I have nearly thirty)

She is nearly my age.

He is six feet tall.

I wish I was ten kilos lighter.

What size are your shoes?

The room is ten meters long.

What colour are his eyes?

She is the same height as her father.

*be heavy is not usually used in measuring expressions.

It weights 37 kilos (NOT: Its 37 kilos heavy)

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VOCABULARY
INTERESTING FACTS:
The word gymnasium comes from
the Greek word
gymnazein
which means
to exercise naked

Mini fact I: The first two letters of the Greek alphabet alpha and beta- have given us
the word alphabet
Mini fact II: Greek is one of the few European languages where the word no does
not have an n sound
Mini fact III: Greeks consume more olives per person than any other group of
people

The word checkmate in chess comes


From the Persian phrase
shah mat, which means
the king is dead

Mini fact I: The new pawn (peon) move, where pawns were allowed to advance two
squares on its first move instead of one, was introduced in Spain in 1280
Mini fact II: The number of possible, unique game is far greater than the number of
electrons in the universe

Goodbye comes from God bye which came


from God be with you

137

Mini fact I: The substitution of God for good in Goodbye was also because of the
influence of the phrases good day and good night
Mini fact II: The word ciao in Italian means both hello and goodbye, although it
originally meant servant in Venetian
Mini fact III: Hello is a very new word in English. It didnt appear until the 1830s.

VOCABULARY FORENSICS

Autopsia

Autopsy

Alterar

Tamper with

Evidencia

Evidence

Escna del crimen

Crime scene

Sospechoso

Suspect

Cmplice

Accomplice

Coartada

Alibi

Corazonada

Hunch

Mvil

Motive

Testigo

witness

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USEFUL VOVABULARY:
We need to get to the bottom of this (Necesitamos llegar al fondo de esto)

Some examples:
We havent figured out his motive yet. We need to get to the bottom of this. (No
hemos descubierto cul era su mvil an. Necesitamos llegar hasta el fondo de esto)
His alibi doesnt match the witnesss testimony. We need to get to the bottom of
this. (Su coartada no coincide con el testimonio del testigo. Necesitamos llegar hasta
el fondo de esto)
The evidence will help us get to the bottom of the issue. (La pruebas nos ayudarn
a llegar hasta el fondo del asunto)

Exercise:
Now, imagine you are the head of the Police Department and you need to get to the
bottom of each of the cases below.
Following the example, do the same with the rest of the sentences:

Necesitamos una
autopsia

We need to get to the bottom of this. We need an autopsy.


Necesitamos confirmar
su coartada

139

Alguien alter las


pruebas

Tengo una
corazonada

Hay que despejar la


escena del crimen

Debemos descubrir
cul fue su mvil

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Necesitamos encontrar
al sospechoso y al
cmplice

Necesitamos encontrar
al testigo

141

GRAMMAR
Reflexive and ergative verbs

To begin with, you might be wondering what an ergative verb is.


Well, an ergative verb is a verb that can be both transitive and intransitive - it can be
used with an object or without. For example:

I woke up at 6.00. [no object = intransitive]


I woke him up at 6.00. [with an object = transitive]

Reflexive verbs
1 The reflexive pronouns (see pronouns) are:
Singular:

myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself

Plural:

ourselves; yourselves; themselves

We use a reflexive pronoun after a transitive verb when the direct object is the
same as the subject of the verb:
I am teaching myself to play the piano.
Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.
These are the verbs most often found with reflexive pronouns:

cut
dry
enjoy
hurt
introduce
kill
prepare
teach

Some verbs change their meaning slightly when they have a reflexive pronoun as
direct object:

amuse
apply
busy
content
behave
blame

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distance
express
find
help
see

Would you like to help


yourself to another drink?

Would you like to take another


drink?

I wish the children would


behave themselves.

I wish the children would behave


well.

He found himself lying by


the side of the road.

He was surprised when he


= realised that he was at the side of
the road.

I saw myself as a famous


actor.

I imagined that I was a famous


actor.

She applied herself to the


job of mending the lights.

She worked very hard to mend the


lights.

He busied himself in the


kitchen.

= He worked busily in the kitchen.

I had to content myself with


I had to be satisfied with a few
=
a few Euros.
Euros.

The verb enjoy always has an object:


We all enjoyed the party.
I really enjoyed my lunch.
If enjoy has no other object, we use a reflexive pronoun:
They all enjoyed They all enjoyed themselves.
I really enjoyed I really enjoyed myself.
NOTE: We do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people
usually do for themselves:
He washed in cold water.
He always shaved before going out in the evening.
Michael dressed and got ready for the party.
We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:
He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.
Shes old enough to wash herself.

143

Ergative verbs
1. Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive:

Peter closed the door

Transitive: N + V + N

The door closed

Intransitive: N + V

I boiled a pan of water

Transitive: N + V + N

The pan boiled

Intransitive: N + V

2. Common ergative verbs are:

begin
break
change
close
drop
crack
dry
end
finish
grow
improve
increase
move
open
shake
start
stop
tear
turn

I broke the glass.


I dropped the glass and it broke.
The referee blew his whistle and started the match.
The match started at 2.30.
We grew some tasty potatoes.
The potatoes were growing well.
The wind shook the trees.
The trees shook in the wind.
3. Many verbs to do with cooking are ergative verbs:

bake
boil
cook

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defrost
freeze
melt
roast

You should roast the meat at 200 degrees centigrade.


The meat was roasting in a hot oven.
I always defrost meat before I cook it.
I am waiting for the meat to defrost.
Melt the chocolate and pour it over the ice cream.
The chocolate was melting in a pan.
4. Verbs to do with vehicles are often ergative:

back
crash
drive
fly
reverse
run
sail
start
stop

Im learning to fly a plane.


The plane flew at twice the speed of sound.
He crashed his car into a tree.
His car crashed into a tree.
5. We use some ergative verbs with only a few nouns:

catch: dress, coat, clothes, trousers etc.


fire : Gun, pistol, rifle, rocket.
play: guitar, music, piano, violin, CD, DVD etc.
ring: bell, alarm

She caught her dress on a nail.


Her dress caught on a nail.
He fired a pistol to start the race.
A pistol fired to start the race.

145

EXERCISE 1:

Read the sentences and choose a verb from the box above that fits into both of
the sentences: improve, crack, ring, turn, freeze, tear, play, begin, sail, change,
fire, boil

a)At about half past three the tide started to.


b)Whats done is done. You cant the clock back.
Answer:

a)Lets open a bottle of champagne and celebrate.


b)Weve been questioning him for 12 hours now. I think hes beginning to
Answer:

a)After moving to the countryside, his health definitely started to


b)She did much tothe condition of low-paid workers.
Answer:

a)I dont.much now that I have sold the boat.


b)You.her for a while, Perkins, while I go below for a rest.
Answer:

a)When the water starts to, turn it down.


b)Hes so bad in the kitchen he doesnt even know how to.an egg.
Answer:

a)..the bell and see if anyones at home.


b) I wonder how she is. Why doesnt she?
Answer:

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a)The weather forecast says its going to .tonight.


b)If you cant eat it all, we can alwaysit.
Answer:

a)That building is a disgrace. I think they should the place down.


b)Be careful with that paper. It tends to very easily.
Answer:

a)He never did a decent days work . Im surprised they did nothim a long time
ago.
b)Without warning the soldiers started to
Answer:

a)I really like her now. Its funny how people


b)Id like to .these trousers, please. Theyre too small.
Answer:

a)Ive got so much to say. Where do I .?


b)Let me..my speech by thanking everyone for coming today.
Answer:

a)Liverpool are going toArsenal on Saturday.


b)Hello, Mrs. Philip? Can Chris come out to?
Answer:

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GRAMMAR 2
Delexical verbs: have, take, make, give

We often use common verbs like have and take with nouns like a shower, a drink:
I took a shower. = I showered.
She had a drink. = She drank something.
We call these delexical verbs because the important part of the meaning is taken out
of the verb and put into the noun.
We often put adjectives in front of the noun:
I took a cold shower.
She had a nice, refreshing drink.
The verbs used most frequently in this way are:
have

take

make

give

HAVE
We use have with:
Food and drink: a meal, breakfast, lunch, dinner, a snack, a cup of tea
Talking: a chat, a conversation, a discussion, a talk
Washing: a bath, a shower, a wash, a scrub
Resting: a break, a holiday, a rest
Disagreeing: an argument, a dispute, a fight, a quarrel
I had a good breakfast before I left home.
We had a long talk about the problem.
The kids should have a bath before they go to bed.
She generally had a short holiday in July or August.
They had a serious quarrel about their fathers will.
We also use have with nouns formed from verbs:
I think you should have a look at this.
She had a bite of the cake.
Im thirsty. Im going to have a drink of water.
I had a listen to that new CD in the car.
They are going to have a swim.

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Exercise 1 :
Use the correct expressions with 'have' to complete the sentences:
Have an argument / have a look / have a shower / had a nice chat / having dinner /
have a holiday

1.Can you phone back in half an hour? Were just..


2.I met up with an old friend last night and we ..about our school days.
3.In the morning I like to go for a long run and then
4.I dont usually in the summer. Its our busiest time at work.
5.How was the party?
It was fun. Rob and Greg about football, as usual.
6.We took some great photos in Egypt. Would you like to?

TAKE
We use take with:
Washing: a bath, a shower, a wash
Resting: a break, a holiday, a rest
I always take a cold shower in the morning.
You look tired. You need to take a break.
and with these words:
care

a turn

trouble

a chance

a decisin (also
make a decision)

care of

turns

the trouble

a risk

a photograph

We took hundreds of photographs on holiday.


Jane always takes a lot of trouble with her homework.
We also use take with some nouns formed from verbs:
I think you should take a look at this.
Lets take a walk.
They are going to take a swim.

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Exercise 2:
Use the correct expressions with 'take' to complete the sentences: take care / take
risks / take some great photo / take a break / take a hot bath / decision to take
1.Sometimes I like to..at the end of the day. The hot water helps me relax.
2.Ok, lets. Well start again in half an hour.
3.Im going to the bathroom. Can you.of my bags for a moment?
4.If you want to succeed in business, you have to be ready to.
5.Going to work in another country was a difficult..
6. We .in Egypt. Would you like to have a look?

GIVE
We use give with:
Noises: a cry, a laugh, a scream, a shout, a whistle
Facial expressions: a smile, a grin, a look, a glance
Hitting: a kick, a punch, a slap, a push, a knock, a blow
Affectionate actions: a hug, a kiss, a stroke
Talking: some advice, an answer, some information, an interview,
a lecture, some news, a report, a speech, a talk, a warning
She gave a loud laugh.
John gave a happy smile.
He gave me a nasty kick on the leg.
She gave the children a goodnight kiss and put them to bed.
I have to give a speech at the meeting tomorrow.
Exercise 3:
Use the correct words to complete the expressions with 'give' in the sentences.
Some advice / a smile / an answer / a scream / a hug / a push
1.Dont look so sad, said the photographer . Give me
2.Its lovely to see you again, my grandmother said. Give me.!
3.I know its not really mu business, but do you mind if I give you?
4.My car wont start. Will you give me.?
5.Thats an extremely good question. Ill give you .in the next lesson.
6.When she saw the spider, she gave .and ran from the room.

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NIVEL B1

MAKE
We use make with:
Talking and sounds: a comment, an enquiry, a noise, a point,
a promise, a sound, a speech, a suggestion
Plans: arrangements, a choice, a decision, a plan, plans, an appointment, a date
Try not to make a noise.
They made arrangements to meet the next day.

Exercise 4:
Complete the sentences with the right expression:
1.Shh! Dont The babys asleep.
2.Cant we visit mum tomorrow?
No. We .to call on her today
3.My brother asked me to..at his wedding. Im terrified!
4.Can I.? Why dont we ask Phill if he can help us?
5.Sorry, I cant meet you this weekend. Ive already..
6.Hello, Id like to to see the doctor, please.

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VOCABULARY

TABOO WORDS AND SWEARWORDS


A.TABOO WORDS
Many languages have words which are considered dangerous, holy, magic or shocking
and which are only used in certain situation by certain people. For instance, in African
tribes the name of dead chiefs must not be said!
The following are some of the most common English taboo words, with explanations of
their literal meaning where necessary. Their approximate strenght is shown by stars:
one-star words like hell, damn or balst (which are scarcely taboo in modern
English) will not upset many people, while a three-star word may be very shocking.
Religion:

Damn* (condemned to hell)

Blast* (strike with divine punishment)

Hell*

God*

Jesus*

Christ*

Sexual activity:

Bastard** (child of unmarried parents)

Lavatory:

Piss***

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NIVEL B1

2.SWEARWORDS
All of the words listed above, and a few others, are used in swearing. The meaning of a
swearword is always different from its literal (taboo) meaning
a)Exclamation of annoyance

Damn (it)!

God damn it!

God damn!

Hell!

My God!

Jesus!

Christ!

Jesus Christ!

Examples of use:

Damn it! Cant you hurry up?

Christ! Its raining again!

Exclamation of surprise:

(My)God!

Jesus!

Well, Ill be damned!

Son of a bitch! (mostly American English)

Examples of use:

My God! Look at that!

Well, Im damned! What are you doing here?

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c)surprised questions

Who/What/Why etc. the hell?

Example of use:

What the hell do you think youre doing?

d)Insult
Note that these nouns generally have no real meaning. They simply express a strong
emotion such as hatred, anger, envy or contempt.

Bastard

Shit

Examples of use:

You bastard!

e) insult (imperative verb + object)

Damn..!

Examples of use:

Damn that child!

f)insulting request to go away

Piss off!

Examples of use:

If Andy comes asking for money tell him to piss off!

*In British English pissed means drunk and pissed off means fed up

Im getting pissed off with London!

*In American English pissed is annoyed, angry

Im pissed at him because of what hes been saying about me.

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NIVEL B1

g)Expression of unconcern (meaning : I dont care)

I don`t / couldnt give a damn

Examples of use:

They can come and arrest me if they want. I dont give a damn!

h)Intensifying adjective/adverb

damn(ed)

bloody

goddamn

Examples of use:

That cars going damn(ed) fast!

Wheres the bloody switch?

Its bloody raining again!

*When these words are used before verbs, the word well is often added in British
English:

I damn well hope you never come back!

Its bloody well raining again!

Just for your entertainment, heres a video you full of taboo and swearwords, in case
you want to watch it! (AWARNING: IT CAN GET A BIT BLOODY)
http://www.watchsouthparkonline.net/season-5/episode-2-it-hits-the-fan/

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