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Bi 3

Ni dung : Cc lnh tr gip cho qu trnh thit k trn


AutoCAD
1. Lnh

GRID ( To cc im li cho bn v )

2. Lnh

SNAP ( To bc nhy cho con tr )

3. Nhp d liu
4. Lnh
ng )

OSNAP ( Object Snap - Cng c truy tm i t-

5. Lnh

ORTHO ( t ch v trc giao )

6. Lnh FILL (in y cc i tng nh multilines,


traces, solids, solid-fill hatches, v b dy ca polylines )
7. Lnh QTEXT (Hin th, phn mnh ch v thuc
tnh i tng)
8. Lnh

BLIPMODE (Hin/n du + khi ch im v)

9. Lnh

GROUP (t tn cho cc i tng c lc chn)

10. Lnh ISOPLANE (chn mt phng trong khng


gian lm vic)
11. Lnh DDRMODES (Tp hp ca cc lnh ORTHO,
FILL, QTEXT, BLIPMODE, GROUP, SNAP, GRID,
ISOPLANE v HIGHLIGHT )
Lnh 'GRID
t cc im to li cho bn v
Trn thanh tnh trng , kch kp GRID
TI dng lnh, nhp grid
Tu chn
Grid spacing(X) or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect <0.5000>:

Grid spacing(X) or ON
Nhp khong cch li hoc li c hin th (c th s dng phm F7 thay
th)

OFF
Tt s hin th ca h li (c th s dng phm F7 thay th)

Snap
To bc nhy cho con tr, sao cho khi s dng cc lnh v con tr ch bt
c nhng im tI mt li nh dng cho con tr (xem lnh SNAP )

Aspect
Cho php thit lp khong cch gia 2 mt li theo 2 chiu X, Y l khc
nhau

Lnh 'SNAP
To bc nhy cho con tr
Trn thanh tnh trng , kch kp SNAP
TI dng lnh, nhp snap
Tu chn
Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspect/Rotate/Style <25.0000>: Khong cch hoc
La chn hoc

Snap spacing(X)
Mc nh khong nh v im v l 25 im nh, c th nhp lI
khong cch ny bng cch g s t bn phm.

ON
Ch t im v c tI cc im nh v (tng ng n phm
chc nng F9)

OFF
Tt ch Snap. C th t im v tI v tr bt k (tng ng n
phm chc nng F9)

Aspect
Thay i khong nh v im v theo X v Y.
Horizontal spacing <0.5000>:Khong cch theo phng X hoc
Vertical spacing <0.5000>: Khong cch theo phng Y hoc

Rotate
Xoay li theo mt gc nht nh. Gc xoay c php nm trong khong
-90 n 90 o.
Base point <0.0000,0.0000>:Ch im chun hoc
Rotation angle <0>: G tr s gc xoay hoc

Style
Chn kiu li. S hin dng nhc
Standard/Isometric <S>: G s hoc i hoc
Chn S l dng li chun, chn I l dng li v ng c.

Standard
Hin th mt li hnh ch nht (hai si tc ca con tr tr
lI bnh thng, vung gc vi hai trc X,Y)

Isometric
Isometric gip ta th hin i tng 3 chiu trong mt
phng nh hnh hp bn. Mt li Isometric m cc lnh
SNAP v GRID s dng s ph ln hnh hp. Cc bn v
Isometric ch l gi khng gian 3 chiu. Khi v bn
khng th nhn n t gc khc hay dch chuyn cc
ng n trong n. thc hin cc kh nng khc, cn s
dng h to ngi dng UCS v cc cng c v khng gian
3D.
Li Isometric c 3 trc chnh vi nghing 30,90,150 v 3
mt trI, phI, trn, mi mt gn vi hai trc. Lnh

ISOPLAN gip chn mt Isometric hin thi v cp trc to


hin thi.
Khi cn chuyn hng con tr chut (hng cc si tc ngangdc trn mn hnh) hy nhn ng thi cc phm Ctrl-E

Nhp d liu
1.Khi nim h trc to
-To cc
Biu din im trong mt phng di dng (X,Y)
Biu din im trong khng gian di dng (X,Y,Z)
Thng thng trong AutoCAD im gc (0,0) nm gc
di bn tri ca min v. thay i s dng lnh UCS
-To cc
Xc nh to im theo khong cch t im
ang xt n gc to (0,0) cng gc quay t im
so vi phng ngang (trc X). To cc ch dng
trong mt phng.. Cch biu din to im nh sau
M (C < A1)
Trong
C Khong cch t im M
ti gc to
A1 Gc quay trong mt
phng t trc X ti im M

-To cu
Dng xc nh v tr im trong khng gian 3
chiu. Cch biu din to im nh sau
M (C < A1 <A2)
Trong
C Khong cch t im M
ti gc to
A1 Gc quay trong mt
phng XY
A2 Gc quay t mt phng
XY ti im M trong khng
gian

-To tr

Dng trong khng gian ba chiu, n l s kt hp gia


to cc v to cc.
Cch biu din to im nh sau
M (C < A1, Z)
Trong
C Khong cch t im M ti gc to
A1 Gc quay trong mt
ph1/4ng XY
Z Khong cch t im M
ti mt ph1/4ng XY
Ch
-To tuyt i l to c tnh so vi gc c nh
nm trn bn v AutoCAD
-To tng i l to c tnh vi gc l im
dng hin thi (im cui cng c chn) s dng
cn thm @ vo trc to cn nhp
2.Nhp d liu
o

To tuyt i
L tr s thc c a vo t bn phm cho cc chiu, chng
hn mt im c to x = 3,5 ; y = 120,5
Ta nhp 3.5,120.5

To tng i
L to tng i so vi im va c ch nh ngay trc
. ch to tng i, ta vit du @ trc to . Chng
hn, im trc c to (100,70) th : @5.5, -15 s tng
ng vi to tuyt i (105.5,55)

To cc (tng i) :
Trong to cc ta thng k hiu ( r ,j ) ch bn knh
(khong cch) v gc. To cc tng i c cho bng : @ r
<j
V d : @ 68<35.5 c ngha l r = 68 n v v v c gc
nh hng 35o30 so vi im va c ch nh trc .

Lnh OSNAP (Object Snap)


ObjectSnap cho php bt chnh xc mt im c bit ca mt i tng. im
bt c bit no c bt l do chc nng ca Osnap.
1. Gi cng c truy tm i tng
S dng phm tt : Ctrl + Phm phI chut
Tracking - Xc nh giao im ca hai dy tc vung gc vi
nhau
From - Xc nh im c to tng i c nhp vo so vi to
im truy bt
Point Filtes - Cho gi tr X , Y , Z ca to truy bt
Enpoint - bt vo im u ca mt cung trn hay mt on
thng gn vi im chn i tng.
Midpoint - bt vo im gia ca mt on thng hay cung
trn.
InTersection - Bt vo giao im ca cc ng (ng thng,
cung trn, ng trn ).
Apparent InTersection - Bt vo giao im ca cc ng (ng thng, cung trn, ng trn ). Trong khng gian 3D xc nh
giao im ca i tng vi hnh chiu ca i tng khc trn mt
phng cha n.
Center - bt vo tm ca mt ng trn, cung trn
Quadrant - bt vo im cc gc phn t ca mt ng trn hay cung trn (cc gc 0o,
90o, 180o v 270o).
Tangent - bt vo mt im trn ng trn, cung trn sao cho ng ni t im ny
ti im hin thi s tip xc vi ng trn, cung trn c chn.
Perpendicular - bt vo mt im trn ng thng, cung trn, ng trn sao cho ng ni im ny vi im hin thi s vung gc vi ng thng, cung trn, ng trn
chn.
Node - bt vo mt im c v bng lnh point hoc lnh chia divide.
Insert - bt vo im t ca dng ch (Textline) hoc attribute, block, shape...
Nearest - bt vo im thuc yu t v, tI nI gn vi khung vung nm trn giao Im

ca si dy ch thp vi i tng.
None - Tt (loi b) cc chc nng Osnap t.
Quick - bt i tng nhanh bng cch dng ngay vic tm kim khi tm thy mt im
tha mn yu cu (c th khng phi l im gn con tr nht).
Osnap Settings... Thc hin lnh Osnap

2. t cng c truy tm i tng lu tr thng xuyn

Trn thanh cng c Object Snap, chn :


Trn thanh trng thi, chn OSNAP
T Tools Menu, chn Object Snap Settings
TI dng lnh, nhp Osnap

AutoCAD hin th hp hi thoI Osnap Settings

Select Settings
Chn mt s thuc tnh s dng thng xuyn mt s cng c truy tm i tng.
Selection point : im chn i tng cn truy bt
Snap point : im truy bt trn i tng
Truy bt Im cui ca ng thng, ng Polyline, cung trn...

Endpoint

Truy bt Im gia ca ng thng, ng Polyline, cung trn...

Midpoint

Truy bt tm ca cung trn, ng trn, ellipse...

Center

Truy bt im trn i tng.

Node

Truy bt im phn t ca cung trn, ng trn, ellipse.

Quadrant

Intersectio
n

Truy bt giao im ng thng, cung trn, ng trn, ellipse, polyline


vi ng thng, cung trn, ng trn, ellipse, polyline.

Truy bt im chn ca i tng Text, ca Block hoc thuc tnh.

Insertion

Perpendicul
ar

Truy bt im vung gc vi cung trn, ng thng, ng trn, ellipse,


polyline.

Truy bt tip tuyn ca cung trn, ng trn, ellipse, ng cong Spline.

Tangent

Nearest

Apparent
Intersectio
n

Truy bt im gn nht trn cung trn, ng thng, ng trn, ellipse,


polyline.
Bt vo giao im ca cc ng (ng thng, cung trn, ng trn ).
Trong khng gian 3D xc nh giao im ca i tng vi hnh chiu ca
i tng khc trn mt phng cha n.

Quick

bt i tng nhanh bng cch dng ngay vic tm kim khi tm thy
mt im tha mn yu cu (c th khng phi l im gn con tr
nht).

Clear All

Hu b ton b cc thuc tnh truy bt thng xuyn.


t kch thc ca vung truy bt i tng.

Aperture
size

Ch
-C th g trc tip cc ch hoa kch hot ch
bt dnh mong mun khi s dng
-Dng Shift + phm phi chut kch hot

DDOSNAP hay Tool / Object Snap


Settings kch hot ch bt dnh thng trc
-Dng lnh

- thay i kch thc vng truy bt dng lnh

APERTURE hay Tool / Object

Snap Settings / Aperture sizes


Lnh ORTHO
t ch v trc giao
Khi dng lnh Line, Trace, Pline cn v cc nt tuyt i thng th phI bt
ch trc giao.
T thanh trng thi, kch kp ORTHO
TI dng lnh, nhp ortho
Tu chn
Command: ortho
ON/OFF <OFF>: Nhp ON hoc OF, hoc

(tng ng
n phm F8)
Trong v d ny, mt ng thng c s dng ch bt ORTHO. To
Im th nht c xc nh v to Im th 2 l v tr nI
t ca con tr.
TI dng trng thI, nu hin ch Ortho l ang ch v trc giao,
mun v nt xin, mun xoay hnh mt gc bt k bng con chut th
phI n phm F8 tt ch v trc giao.

Lnh FILL
in y cc i tng nh multilines, traces, solids, solid-fill hatches, v b
dy ca polylines
TI dng lnh, nhp fill
Tu chn
ON/OFF <ON>: Nhp ON hoc OF, hoc

ON
Bt ch In y cc nt v c dy ca i tng v.

OFF
Tt ch In y.

Lnh QTEXT
Hin th, phn mnh ch v thuc tnh i tng
TI dng lnh, nhp qtext
Tu chn
Command: qtext
ON/OFF <OFF>: Nhp ON hoc OF, hoc

Lnh BLIPMODE
Hin/n du (+) khi ch im v

TI dng lnh, nhp blipmode


Tu chn
Command: blipmode
ON/OFF <OFF>: Nhp ON hoc OF, hoc

ON
Hin du + khi ch im v trn mn hnh

OFF
n du + khi ch im v trn mn hnh

Lnh GROUP
t tn cho mt nhm i tng c chn la
T tools menu, chn Object Group
TI dng lnh, nhp group
AutoCAD hin th hp hi thoI Object Grouping

Group Name
Hin th danh sch tn ca cc nhm hin c.

Selectable
+ yes : chn mt nhm bn ch vic chn mt i tng trong nhm
+ no : Ch thc hin la chn vi cc i tng c chn

Group Identification
Group Name
Hin th tn ca nhm c la chn.

Description
Hin th din t ca nhm c la chn.

Find Name

Cho bit tn nhm ca i tng c chn


trong bn v

Pick a member of a group : chn mt i


tng
Sau khi chn i tng AutoCAD hin th
hp hi thoI gm danh sch tn nhm
cha i tng c chn.

Highlight
Cho bit nhng i tng cng mt nhm
trn bn v.

Include Unnamed
nh r c nhng nhm cha t tn.

Create Group
New
To mt nhm gm cc i tng c la chn. Tn nhm
c t tI Group Name, din giI nhm t tI
Description.

Selectable
Ch r nI nhm mi c la chn

Unnamed
n tn ca nhm, hoc nhm khng tn. AutoCAD t
nh ngha tn *A cho mi nhm mi.

Change Group
Remove LoI b i tng c chn ra khi nhm.

Add

Thm i tng vo trong nhm

Rename i tn cho nhm hin ti. Tn mi c nhp tI Group Name.

Re-order
Thay i s th t ca cc i tng trong nhm, s th
t trong nhm bt u bng 0.
AutoCAD hin th hp i thoI Order Group

Group Name
Hin th tn nhm i tng.

Description
Hin th din giI ca nhm i tng.

Remove from position (0-n)


Ch r v tr hin tI ca i tng trong
nhm cn di.

Replace at position (0-n)


Ch r v tr chn i tng di chuyn.

Number of objects (1-n)


S lng i tng di chuyn.

Re-Order
Thc hin thay i v tr ca cc i tng trong nhm.

Highlight

Lm sng cc i tng c trong nhm hin


theo th t trn vng bn v.

Reverse Order
o ngc s th t cc i tng trong nhm
hin ti.

Description
Cp nht din giI cho nhm i tng.

Explode
Ph b nhm, cc i tng tr lI tnh cht ban u.

Selectable
TI Selectable thay i gia Yes/no
+ yes : chn mt nhm bn ch vic chn mt i tng trong nhm
+ no : Ch thc hin la chn vi cc i tng c chn

S dng trn dng lnh


Nu trn dng lnh, bn nhp
nhc nh sau:

-group th bn nhn c li

?/Order/Add/Remove/Explode/REName/Selectable/<Creat
e>: chn hoc

Create
To mt nhm mi.
Group name (or ?): t tn nhm mi hoc
Sau , bn la chn cc i tng cn t vo trong nhm.

? -- List Groups
Hin th danh sch tn v s din t ca cc nhm trong bn v.
Groups(s) to list <*>: Nhp danh sch tn hoc

Order
Thay i v tr ca cc i tng c trong nhm

Add
Thm i tng vo nhm hin ti.
Group name (or ?): Nhp tn hoc
Select objects: chn i tng cn thm vo nhm

Remove
LoI b i tng ra khi nhm.
Group name (or ?): t tn nhm mi hoc
Select objects: chn i tng loI b ra khi nhm.

Explode
LoI b tt c cc i tng ra khi nhm, ng thi nhm b xo.
Group name (or ?): Nhp tn hoc

REName
i tn nhm.
Old group name (or ?): Cho tn nhm cn i tn
New group name (or ?) : Nhp tn mi cho nhm

Selectable
Group name (or ?): Cho tn nhm
This group is selectable. Do you wish to change it? <Y>
chn N hoc
Chuyn i gia ch chn theo nhm v chn theo i tng.
Lnh ISOPLANE
S dng li v ng c

:TI dng lnh, nhp oplane


Left / Top / Right / <Toggle>: Nhp chn
la hoc
Li ng c gip ta th hin i tng 3 chiu trong mt phng nh
hnh hp bn. Mt li ng c m cc lnh SNAP v GRID s dng s
ph ln hnh hp. Cc bn v ng c ch l gi khng gian 3 chiu.
Khi v bn khng th nhn n t gc khc hay dch chuyn cc ng n trong n. thc hin cc kh nng khc, cn s dng h to
ngi dng UCS v cc cng c v khng gian 3D.
Li ng c c 3 trc chnh vi nghing 30,90,150 v 3 mt trI,
phI, trn, mi mt gn vi hai trc. Lnh ISOPLAN gip chn mt
ng c hin thi v cp trc to hin thi.

Toggle
Chuyn ti mt tip theo, theo th t mt trI ti mt nh, ti mt
phi.

Left
Chn mt trI, c nh ngha nghing t 90 ti 150 .

Top
Chn thao tc lm vic tI mt trn. nh ngha t 30 - 150 .

Right
Chn thao tc lm vic tI mt bn phi. nh ngha t 90 - 30 .

Lnh DDRMODES
To li cho bn v thng qua ca s hi thoi
T Tools menu, chn Drawing Aids
TI dng lnh, nhp ddrmodes
AutoCAD hin th hp hi thoI Drawing Aids

Modes
S khc nhau ch chun.

Ortho

Bt/tt ch v ng thng trc giao.

Solid Fill

Bt/tt ch in y cc i tng nh multilines, traces, solids, solidfill hatches, v b dy ca polylines

Quick
Text

Bt/tt ch phn mnh ch v thuc tnh i tng

Blips

Hin/n du (+) khi ch im v

Highlight Bt/tt ch lm sng i tng khi c la chn.


Groups

Bt/tt ch la chn theo nhm.

Snap
t cc thng s cho s truy bt im

On

Bt/tt ch t ng thc hin Snap.

X
Spacing

Nhp khong cch bc nhy con tr theo phng X

Y
Spacing

Nhp khong cch bc nhy con tr theo phng Y

Snap
Angle

Nhp gc ca bc nhy con tr, li c xoay tng ng vi bc nhy.

X Base

To c s theo phng X ca li.

Y Base

To c s theo phng Y ca li.

Grid
t cc thng s cho im li.

On

Bt/tt ch t ng thc hin Grid.

X
Spacing

Nhp khong cch gia hai im li theo phng X

Y
Spacing

Nhp khong cch gia hai im li theo phng Y

Isometric Snap/Grid
t ch lm vic trn li ng c.

On

Chuyn i gia ch v ng c vi ch v chun.

Left

Chn mt trI, c nh ngha nghing t 90 ti 150 .

Top

Chn thao tc lm vic tI mt trn. nh ngha t 30 - 150 .

Right

Chn thao tc lm vic tI mt bn phi. nh ngha t 90 - 30 .