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AP Biology 2014-2015

Summer Assignment
Mrs. Pamela Griffin
pgriffin@spotsylvania.k12.va.us
Why is there a summer assignment?
The first topics of the year are chemistry and biochemistry. If you are a junior or senior, you were taught the majority of
this content in chemistry and biology. If you are a sophomore, then you may have learned some of these concepts in
middle school. The goal of the summer assignment is to review and/or learn these concepts prior to the first week of
school.
Reviewing this material over the summer will:
1. Allow us to spend more time on the content with which students are less familiar and did not experience in
introductory biology.
2. Require you to practice reading and interpreting the textbook.
3. Allow you to become familiar with the difficulty and design of AP Biology tests.

When is the summer assignment due?


The summer assignment is due the first day of school, September 2, 2014. No late work will be accepted.

What is the actual assignment?


The summer assignment covers chapters 2-5 of the text and consists of learning objectives, review assignments, and
practice tests.
For Chapters 2-5:
1. Review the attached objectives. These are NOT questions for you to answer, but you should use these to guide
your reading and use them as a checklist for self assessment.
2. Read each chapter thoroughly.
3. Review the key terms for each chapter.
a. It is recommended that you review the terms and their definitions. There is NO specific assignment for
the terms this summer. Recommended formats to learn the terms:
i. Flash cards (using colored paper/markers and adding pictures or diagrams to your cards can be
helpful)
ii. Two columns (place concepts on one side and definitions on the other so that the page can be
folded over for self quizzing.)
iii. Create practice matching tests for the vocabulary words (break the lists into groups of 5-7 terms
at once and make sure to answer the tests as well)
4. Complete the attached assignments specific to each chapter.
5. Complete the attached practice tests (you will write on the tests but make sure to also bubble in the scantron
sheets provided make certain each scantron is labeled correctly with the test name).
** The textbook covers greater detail than is necessary for you to know at this point. Therefore it is important for you to
focus mainly on the objectives and vocabulary specified by the summer assignment.

Just to double check, when is the summer assignment due?


The summer assignment is due the first day of school, September 2, 2014. No late work will be accepted.
Can I get help over the summer if I do not understand some of the material?
I can be contacted through email which I will check approximately once a week: pgriffin@spotsylvania.k12.va.us

CHAPTER 2: The Chemical Context of Life


Learning Objectives
Elements and Compounds
1. Distinguish between an element and a compound.
2. Identify the four elements that make up 96% of living matter.
3. Define the term trace element and give an example.
Atoms and Molecules
4. Draw and label a simplified model of an atom.
5. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms:
a. neutron and proton
b. atomic number and mass number
6. Explain how the atomic number and mass number of an atom can be used to determine the number of neutrons.
7. Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different.
8. Describe two biological applications that use radioactive isotopes.
9. Define the terms energy and potential energy. Explain why electrons in the first electron shell have less potential energy
than electrons in higher electron shells.
10. Distinguish among nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds.
11. Explain why strong covalent bonds and weak bonds are both essential in living organisms.
12. Distinguish between hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions.
13. Give an example that illustrates how a molecules shape can determine its biological function.
14. Explain what is meant by a chemical equilibrium.
Common Student Misconceptions:
1. The simplified models of the atom (Figure 2.4), electron shells (Figure 2.8), and covalent bonding (Figure 2.11) can confuse
students who take them too literally. It is important to make sure that you understand that:
Atoms do not have defined surfaces.
Electrons do not travel in planetary orbits around the nucleus of the atom.
Shared electron pairs are not paired spatially in covalent bonds.
Electron shells represent energy levels rather than the position of electrons.
2.

Students have difficulty fully grasping the concept of energy, and especially the concept of potential energy. Potential energy
can be misunderstood as a substance or fuel that is somehow stored in matter. Understand that potential energy is associated
with an objects ability to move to a lower-energy state, thus releasing some of the potential energy. Return to the concept of
potential energy in discussing electron shells, understand that electrons in different electron shells differ in potential energy
rather than in position.

3.

Students should recognize that weak bonds play important roles in the chemistry of life, despite the transient nature of each
individual bond. Page 42 gives the example of the gecko, able to walk on ceilings because of the van der Waals interactions
between the ceiling and the hairs on the geckos toes. Know that strong and weak bonds are both important in the chemistry
of life, and be able to provide examples illustrating this.

Stems
an- = not (anion: a negatively charged ion)
co- = together; -valent = strength (covalent bond: an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons)
electro- = electricity (electronegativity: the tendency for an atom to pull electrons towards itself)
iso- = equal (isotope: an element having the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons)
neutr- = neither (neutron: a subatomic particle with a neutral electrical charge)
pro- = before (proton: a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge)

Key Terms for Chapter 2


anion
atom
atomic mass
atomic nucleus
atomic number
cation
chemical bond
chemical equilibrium
chemical reaction
compound
covalent bond
dalton
electron
electron shell
electronegativity
element
energy
energy level
hydrogen bond
ion
ionic bond
ionic compound
isotope
mass number
matter
molecular formula
molecule
neutron
nonpolar covalent bond
orbital
periodic table of the
elements
polar covalent bond
potential energy
product
proton
radioactive isotope
reactant
salt
structural formula
trace element
valence
valence electron
valence shell
van der Waals interactions

Chapter 2 Worksheet

1. Fill out the following chart for the major subatomic particles of an atom.
Particl
Charge
Mass
Location
e
Proton
Neutro
n
Electro
n
2. Distinguish between valence # and valence electrons. Also, explain the concept of the
octet rule in relation to valence electrons.

3. Diagram each of the following atoms:


# of
# of
# of
Valen
Atom
Proto Neutro Electro
ce #
ns
ns
ns

Diagram

Carbon

Hydrog
en

Oxygen

Nitroge
n

4. Distinguish between the following bonds:


Covalent

Ionic

Hydrogen

polar covalent:

nonpolar covalent:

Ch. 2 Chemical Context of Life Practice Test


1.
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be
essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up
approximately 96% of living matter?
a. carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
b. carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
c. oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
d. carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
e. carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium
2.
Trace elements are those required by an organism in
only minute quantities. Which of the following is a trace
element that is required by humans and other vertebrates?
a. nitrogen
b. calcium
c. iodine
d. sodium
e. phosphorus
3.
What is the approximate atomic mass of an atom with
16 neutrons, 15 protons, and 15 electrons?
a. 15 daltons
b. 16 daltons
c. 30 daltons
d. 31 daltons
e. 46 daltons
4.
Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and a mass
number of 16. Thus, the atomic mass of an oxygen atom is
a. exactly 8 grams.
b. exactly 8 daltons.
c. approximately 16 grams.
d. approximately 16 daltons.
e. 24 amu (atomic mass units).
5.
Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic
mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have
a. 20 protons.
b. 40 electrons.

c.
d.
e.

40 neutrons.
A and B only
A, B, and C

6.
Different atomic forms of an element contain the
same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
What are these different atomic forms called?
a. ions
b. isotopes
c. neutronic atoms
d. isomers
e. radioactive atoms

7.

One difference between carbon-12

carbon-14
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

and

is that carbon-14 has

two more protons than carbon-12.


two more electrons than carbon-12.
two more neutrons than carbon-12.
A and C only
B and C only

8.
Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential
energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a
possible result is that
a. an electron may move to an electron shell farther out from
the nucleus.
b. an electron may move to an electron shell closer to the
nucleus.
c. the atom may become a radioactive isotope.
d. the atom would become a positively charged ion, or cation.

e.

the atom would become a negatively charged ion, or anion.

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

c.
d.
e.

nitrogen
sulfur
phosphorus

Use the figure below to answer the following questions. .

9.

Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of

oxygen (
10.

O)?
Which drawing depicts the electron configuration of

nitrogen (
11.
of 6?

N)?

Which drawing is of an atom with the atomic number

12.
Which drawing depicts an atom that is inert or
chemically unreactive?
13.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

What does the reactivity of an atom depend on?


number of valence shells in the atom
number of orbitals found in the atom
number of electrons in each orbital in the atom
presence of unpaired electrons in the outer valence shell of the
atom
presence of hybridized orbitals in the atom

14.
What are the chemical properties of atoms whose
valence shells are filled with electrons?
a. They form ionic bonds in aqueous solutions.
b. They form covalent bonds in aqueous solutions.
c. They are stable and chemically unreactive or inert.
d. They exhibit similar chemical behaviors.
e. C and D only
Use the information extracted from the periodic table in the
figure below to answer the following questions.

15.
How many electrons does nitrogen have in its
valence shell?
16.
Based on electron configuration, which of these
elements would exhibit chemical behavior most like that of
oxygen?
a. carbon
b. hydrogen

17.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

What results from the chemical reaction?


a cation with a net charge of +1
a cation with a net charge of -1
an anion with a net charge of +1
an anion with a net charge of -1
A and D

18.
What is the difference between covalent bonds and
ionic bonds?
a. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between
atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons
between atoms.
b. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of neutrons between
atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons
between atoms.
c. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between
atoms, and ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction
between atoms.
d. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between
atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of neutrons
between atoms.
e. Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between
atoms, and ionic bonds involve the sharing of neutrons
between atoms.
19.
Which of the following is not considered to be a
weak molecular interaction?
a. a covalent bond
b. a van der Waals interaction
c. an ionic bond in the presence of water
d. a hydrogen bond
e. A and B only
20.
Which of the following describes any reaction that
has attained chemical equilibrium?
a. The concentration of the reactants equals the concentration of
the products.
b. The rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the
reverse reaction.
c. All of the reactants have been converted to the products of the
reaction.
d. All of the products have been converted to the reactants of the
reaction.
e. Both the forward and the reverse reactions have stopped with
no net effect on the concentration of the reactants and the
products.

Ch. 3 Water and the Fitness of Life


Objectives:
The Properties of Water
1. With the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are:
a. polar
b. capable of hydrogen bonding with four neighboring water molecules
2. List four characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding.
3. Define cohesion and adhesion. Explain how waters cohesion and adhesion contribute to the movement of water from the
roots to the leaves of a tree.
4. Distinguish between heat and temperature, using examples to clarify your definitions.
5. Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water:
Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas.
Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than air temperatures on land.
Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface.
If you slightly overfill a water glass, the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass.
If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water, the towel will draw in the water.
Ice floats on water.
Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days.
6. Distinguish among a solute, a solvent, and a solution.
7. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances.
The Dissociation of Water Molecules
8. Name the products of the dissociation of water and give their concentration in pure water.
9. Define acid, base, and pH.
10. Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
11. Using the bicarbonate buffer system of human blood as an example, explain how buffers work.
12. Briefly explain the causes and effects of acid precipitation.
Student Misconceptions
1. To understand the emergent properties of water and the importance of these properties to living things, you must fully
understand the structure of water and its ability to form hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules.
2. Some students think that water forms hydrogen bonds only in the liquid state. Recognize that frozen water molecules form a
crystalline lattice, with each water molecule forming four hydrogen bonds; H-bonds form in solid states of matter as well.
3. Recall the difference between physical and chemical changes. An ability to distinguish between these is important in
understanding many of the key properties of water, such as its role as a solute and its dissociation to form hydroxide and
hydronium ions.
4. Many students do not fully understand the exchange of protons between water molecules. An appreciation of waters
dissociation to form hydroxide and hydronium ions is crucial to understanding acid-base relationships, the effects of excess
OH- and H3O+ ions in solution, and the role of buffers.
Stems
-hydro - water;

-philos - loving;
-phobos -fearing (hydrophilic: having an affinity for water; hydrophobic: having an aversion to water)
-kilo - a thousand (kilocalorie: a thousand calories)

Key Terms
acid
acid precipitation
adhesion
aqueous solution
base
buffer
calorie (cal)
Celsius scale
cohesion
evaporative cooling
heat
heat of vaporization
hydration shell
hydrogen ion
hydrophilic
hydrophobic
hydroxide ion
joule (J)
kilocalorie (kcal)
kinetic energy
molarity
mole (mol)
pH
polar molecule
solute
solution
solvent
specific heat
surface tension
temperature

Chapter 3
1. Complete the following chart for the properties of water.
Property
Explanation of Property
Example of Benefit to Life
Hydrogen bonds hold
molecules together and
adhere them to hydrophilic
surfaces

High Specific
Heat

Temperature changes in
environment and organisms
are moderated

Hydrogen bonds must be


broken for water to
evaporate

Water molecules with high


kinetic energy evaporate;
remaining molecules are
cooler

Ice floats

Most chemical reactions in life


involve solute dissolved in
water

2. Draw a collection of five (5) water molecules and label the diagram with the following
terms: hydrogen, oxygen, polar covalent bond, and hydrogen bond.

3. Complete the following table on pH (the first one is completed as an example).


[H+]

[OH-]

PH

Acidic, basic,
or neutral?

10-2

10-12

acidic

10

11

10-8

3
8

10-12
10-7

4. Explain how the bicarbonate buffer system works to regulate the pH of human blood.

5. Describe the causes and effects of acid precipitation.

Ch 3. Water and the Fitness of Life Practice Test

1.
The slight negative charge at one end of one water
molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another
water molecule. What is this attraction called?
a. a covalent bond
b. a hydrogen bond
c. an ionic bond
d. a hydrophilic bond
e. a hydrophobic bond
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because


oxygen has a valence of 2.
the water molecule is shaped like a tetrahedron.
the bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule
are polar covalent bonds.
the oxygen atom in a water molecule has a weak positive
charge.
each of the hydrogen atoms in a water molecule is weakly
negative in charge.

3.
What do cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion
have in common with reference to water?
a. All increase when temperature increases.
b. All are produced by ionic bonding.
c. All are properties related to hydrogen bonding.
d. All have to do with nonpolar covalent bonds.
e. C and D only
4.
Which of the following is possible due to the high
surface tension of water?
a. Lakes don't freeze solid in winter, despite low temperatures.
b. A water strider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
c. Organisms resist temperature changes, although they give off
heat due to chemical reactions.
d. Water can act as a solvent.
e. The pH of water remains exactly neutral.
5.
Water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of
the
a. small size of the water molecules.
b. high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
c. absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break
and form.
d. fact that water is a poor heat conductor.
e. inability of water to dissipate heat into dry air.
6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Which bonds must be broken for water to vaporize?


ionic bonds
nonpolar covalent bonds
polar covalent bonds
hydrogen bonds
covalent bonds

7.
Desert rabbits are adapted to the warm climate
because their large ears aid in the removal of heat due to the

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

high surface tension of water.


high heat of vaporization of water.
high specific heat of water.
buffering capacity of water.
dissociation of water molecules.
At what temperature is water at its densest?
0C
4C
32C
100C
212C

9.
a.

Why does ice float in liquid water?


The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus
support the ice.
The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice
from sinking.
Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat.
Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice
farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid
water.

b.
c.
d.
e.

The picture below illustrates a solute molecule surrounded by


a hydration shell of water. Use it to answer the following

question.

10.
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water
molecules, the solute molecule is most likely
a. positively charged.
b. negatively charged.
c. without charge.
d. hydrophobic.
e. nonpolar.

11.
Which of the following solutions has the greatest
concentration of hydrogen ions [H+]?
a. gastric juice at pH 2
b. vinegar at pH 3
c. tomato juice at pH 4
d. black coffee at pH 5
e. household bleach at pH 12
12.
Which of the following solutions has the greatest
concentration of hydroxide ions [OH-]?
a. lemon juice at pH 2
b. vinegar at pH 3

c.
d.
e.

tomato juice at pH 4
urine at pH 6
seawater at pH 8

13.
Which of the following statements is true about
buffer solutions?
a. They maintain a constant pH when bases are added to them
but not when acids are added to them.
b. They maintain a constant pH when acids are added to them
but not when bases are added to them.
c. They maintain a constant pH of exactly 7 in all living cells
and biological fluids.
d. They maintain a relatively constant pH.
e. They are found only in living systems and biological fluids.
14.
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in
human blood is carbonic acid (H2CO3) Carbonic acid is a weak
acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a
hydrogen ion (H+) Thus,
H2CO3
HCO3- + H+
If the pH of the blood drops, one would expect
a. a decrease in the concentration of H2CO3 and an increase in
the concentration of HCO3-.
b. the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH-) to increase.
c. the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to increase.
d. the HCO3- to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the
formation of H2CO3.
e. the HCO3- to act as an acid and remove excess H+ with the
formation of H2CO3.
15.
Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage
living organisms by
a. buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams.
b. decreasing the H+ concentration of lakes and streams.
c. increasing the OH- concentration of lakes and streams.
d. washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil
solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth.
e. both B and C

Ch 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life


Objectives
The Importance of Carbon
1. Explain how carbons electron configuration accounts for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules.
2. Describe how carbon skeletons may vary, and explain how this variation contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic
molecules.
3. Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these molecules are hydrophobic.
Functional Groups
4. Name the major functional groups found in organic molecules. Describe the basic structure of each functional group and outline
the chemical properties of the organic molecules in which they occur.

Stems
carb- coal (carboxyl group: a functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen
atom and a hydroxyl group)
hydro- water (hydrocarbon: an organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen)
iso- equal (isomer: one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore,
different properties)
sulf- sulfur (sulfhydryl group: a functional group that consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen)
thio- sulfur (thiol: organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups)
Key Terms
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
amino group
carbonyl group
carboxyl group
functional group
hydrocarbon
hydroxyl group
organic chemistry
phosphate group
sulfhydryl group

Chapter 4 Worksheet
1. Describe the structure of carbon atoms and explain why they are able to function as
backbones for some many different molecules.

2. Fill in the following table on the functional groups.


Functional
Molecular
Names and characteristics of
Group
Formula &
organic compounds containing the
Structural
group.
Formula
-OH

Aldehyde or ketone; polar group, water


soluble, often found in sugars
(carbohydrates)

Carboxyl

-NH2

Thiols; cross-links stabilize protein


structure, often smelly compounds

Phosphate

Ch 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Practice Test


1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of


functional groups.
vital forces interacting with matter.
carbon compounds.
water and its interaction with other kinds of
molecules.
inorganic compounds.

2.
Which property of the carbon atom gives it
compatibility with a greater number of different elements than
any other type of atom?
a. Carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons.
b. Carbon has a valence of 4.
c. Carbon forms ionic bonds.
d. A and C only
e. A, B, and C

8.
Which is a functional group that helps stabilize
proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between
protein molecules?
9.

Which is a carboxyl functional group?

10.
Which is an acidic functional group that can
dissociate and release H+ into a solution?
11.
Which is a basic functional group that can accept H+
and become positively charged?
Use the molecules shown in the figure below to answer the
following questions.

3.
What type(s) of bond(s) does carbon have a tendency
to form?
a. ionic
b. hydrogen
c. covalent
d. A and B only
e. A, B, and C
4.
What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble
in water?
a. The majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon to
hydrogen linkages.
b. The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-tohydrogen linkages.
c. They are hydrophilic.
d. They exhibit considerable molecular complexity and diversity.
e. They are lighter than water.
Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

12.
Which molecule is water-soluble because it has a
hydroxyl functional group?
13.

Which molecule is an alcohol?

14.

Which molecules contain a carbonyl group?

15.
Which molecule has a carbonyl functional group in
the form of a ketone?
16.
Which molecule has a carbonyl functional group in
the form of an aldehyde?
17.

Which molecule contains a carboxyl group?

18.
Which molecule can increase the concentration of
hydrogen ions in a solution and is therefore an organic acid?
5.

Which is a hydroxyl functional group?

6.

Which is an amino functional group?

7.

Which is a carbonyl functional group?

Use the molecules shown in the figure below to answer the


following questions..

19.
Which molecule functions to transfer energy between
organic molecules?
20.
Which molecule contains an amino functional group,
but is not an amino acid?

Ch. 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules


Objectives
The Principles of Polymers
1. List the four major classes of macromolecules.
2. Distinguish between monomers and polymers.
3. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
Carbohydrates Serve as Fuel and Building Material
4. Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
5. Identify the elements that compose carbohydrates.
6. Identify examples of carbohydrates and describe their functions.
7. Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion.
Lipids Are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules
8. Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
9. Identify the elements that compose lipids.
10. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
11. Identify examples of lipids and describe their functions.
Proteins Have Many Structures and Many Functions
12. Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide.
13. Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids.
14. List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the
physical and chemical properties of the R group.
15. Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important.
16. Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined.
17. Name two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure.
18. Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure.
19. List four conditions under which proteins may be denatured.
Nucleic Acids Store and Transmit Hereditary Information
20. List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid.
21. Distinguish between:
a. pyrimidine and purine
b. nucleotide and nucleoside
c. ribose and deoxyribose
d. 5 end and 3 end of a nucleotide
22. Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA.
Student Misconception

1.

2.
3.

4.

Students may think that two-dimensional representations of organic molecules are accurate. These molecules are less
static than you imagine. Conveniently drawn as linear, monosaccharides usually form rings in aqueous solutions. There
may be considerable rotation around single bonds within organic molecules, unless their conformation is stabilized by
interactions between regions of the molecule. Understand that 2D drawings of organic molecules are convenient but
greatly oversimplified representations of molecular structure.
Students may not realize that every protein has primary, secondary, and tertiary structures and may think that any
particular protein is characterized only by one level of structure. Each level contributes to protein conformation.
The majority of students have difficulty visualizing the different levels of protein structure and the interaction of the
regions of the protein molecule. To fully understand levels of protein structure, you must be able to mentally construct
three-dimensional images of proteins. This can be very challenging. Try to construct your own 3-D models or look at
models online.
Students tend to define nucleic acids by the most familiar examples, DNA and RNA, rather than understanding the
structure of nucleotide monomers. This causes confusion when students encounter important molecules such as ATP and
cAMP and fail to recognize them as nucleotides. Take the time to understand the monomers building blocks- of nucleic
acids

Stems
con- together (condensation reaction: a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of
a small molecule, usually water)
di- two (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together)
glyco- sweet (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals)
hydro- water; -lyse 5 break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water)
macro- large (macromolecule: a large molecule)
meros- part (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules)
mono- single; -sacchar 5 sugar (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar)
poly- many (polysaccharide: many monosaccharides joined together)
tri- three (triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule)
Key Terms
alpha () helix
amino acid
antiparallel
beta () pleated sheet
carbohydrate
catalyst
cellulose
chaperonin
chitin
cholesterol
condensation reaction
dehydration reaction
denaturation
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
deoxyribose
disaccharide
disulfide bridge
double helix
enzyme
fat
fatty acid
gene
glycogen

glycosidic linkage
hydrolysis
hydrophobic interaction
lipid
macromolecule
monomer
monosaccharide
nucleic acid
nucleotide
peptide bond
phospholipid
polymer
polynucleotide
polypeptide
polysaccharide
primary structure
protein
purine
pyrimidine
quaternary structure
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
ribose
saturated fatty acid

secondary structure
starch
steroid
tertiary structure
triacylglycerol
unsaturated fatty acid
X-ray crystallography

Ch 5 Macromolecules WorksheetFor each of the macromolecules below: list the major functions, list and describe (or draw) the
monomers and polymers.

Macromole
cule

Carbohydra
tes
C:H:O
1:2:1

Lipids
C, H, O

Nucleic
Acids
C, H, O, N,
P

List of Major
Functions

Monomers or
common
subunits

Structure of
subunits

Common
Polymers or
large molecules

Structure of Polymers

Proteins
C, H, O, N,
S

Chapter 4 and 5 Applications:


Below are structural formulas for several organic molecules. For each one, circle and
label each functional group present and identify the molecule as a carbohydrate, lipid,
nucleic acid or protein.
EXAMPLE
hydro
xyl

carbo
nyl

amin
o

carbo
xyl

PROTEIN

Ch 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Practice Test


1. Which of the following is not one of the four major groups
of macromolecules found in living organisms?
a. glucose
b. carbohydrates
c. lipids
d. proteins
e. nucleic acids
2. Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all
synthesized from monomers by which process?
a. connecting monosaccharides together (condensation
reactions)
b. the addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)
c. the removal of water (dehydration reactions)
d. ionic bonding of the monomers
e. the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers
3. Which of the following best summarizes the relationship
between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a. Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis
breaks down polymers.
b. Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and
dehydration reactions only occur in the digestive tract.
c. Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
d. Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions
break down polymers.
e. A and C are correct.
4. A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is
probably a
a. carbohydrate.
b. lipid.
c. protein.
d. nucleic acid.
e. hydrocarbon.
5. If 128 molecules of the general type shown in the figure
below were covalently joined together in sequence, the
single molecule that would result would be a

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

polysaccharide.
polypeptide.
polyunsaturated lipid.
monosaccharide.
disaccharide.

6. Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose


molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose
molecule. How is lactose classified?
a. as a pentose
b. as a hexose
c. as a monosaccharide
d. as a disaccharide
e. as a polysaccharide
7. Which of the following is true of both starch and
cellulose?
a. They are both polymers of glucose.
b. They are geometric isomers of each other.
c. They can both be digested by humans.
d. They are both used for energy storage in plants.
e. They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.
8. Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
a. the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of
cellulose is galactose.
b. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta

c.

glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha


glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha
glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta

d.

glycosidic linkages of cellulose.


humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive

e.

tract.
the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of
cellulose is maltose.

9. A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a


a. carbohydrate.
b. lipid.
c. protein.
d. nucleic acid.
e. hydrocarbon.
10. Triacylglycerol is a
a. protein with tertiary structure.
b. lipid made with three fatty acids and glycerol.
c. lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane.
d. molecule formed from three alcohols by dehydration
reactions.
e. carbohydrate with three sugars joined together by
glycosidic linkages.
11. Saturated fatty acids
a. are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.
b. have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty
acids.
c. have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do
unsaturated fatty acids.
d. are usually liquid at room temperature.
e. are usually produced by plants.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

starch molecule
protein molecule
steroid molecule
cellulose molecule
phospholipid molecule

15. The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit


different chemical and physical properties because of
different
a. carboxyl groups attached to an alpha
carbon
b. amino groups attached to an alpha
carbon
c. side chains (R groups).
d. alpha
carbons.
e. asymmetric carbons.

12. The molecule shown in the figure below is a

16. The chemical reaction illustrated in the figure below


results in the formation of a (an)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

polysaccharide.
polypeptide.
saturated fatty acid.
triacylglycerol.
unsaturated fatty acid.

13. The hydrogenation of vegetable oil would result in which


of the following?
a. a decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds
in the oil (fat. molecules
b. an increase in the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil
(fat. molecule
c. the oil (fat. being a solid at room temperature
d. A and C only
e. A, B, and C
14. What is the structure shown in the figure below?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

ionic bond.
peptide bond.
glycosidic linkage.
ester linkage.
phosphodiester linkage.

17. Which bonds are created during the formation of the


primary structure of a protein?
a. peptide bonds
b. hydrogen bonds
c. disulfide bonds
d. phosphodiester bonds
e. A, B, and C

18. Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha


and the beta
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

helix

pleated sheet structures of proteins?

hydrophobic interactions
nonpolar covalent bonds
ionic bonds
hydrogen bonds
peptide bonds

19. A strong covalent bond between amino acids that functions


in maintaining a polypeptide's specific three-dimensional
shape is a (an)
a. ionic bond.
b. hydrophobic interaction.
c. van der Waals interaction.
d. disulfide bond.
e. hydrogen bond.
20. At which level of protein structure are interactions between
the side chains (R groups. most important?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. all of the above
21. What would be an unexpected consequence of changing one
amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino acids?
a. The primary structure of the protein would be changed.
b. The tertiary structure of the protein might be changed.
c. The biological activity or function of the protein might be
altered.
d. Only A and C are correct.
e. A, B, and C are correct.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

transmit genetic information to offspring.


function in the synthesis of protein.
make a copy of itself, thus ensuring genetic continuity.
act as a pattern or blueprint to form DNA.
form the genes of higher organisms.

26. Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of


molecules known as nucleotides?
a. a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
b. a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
c. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose
sugar
d. a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil
e. a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine
27. Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the
pyrimidine type?
a. guanine and adenine
b. cytosine and uracil
c. thymine and guanine
d. ribose and deoxyribose
e. adenine and thymine
28. Which of the following statements best summarizes the
structural differences between DNA and RNA?
a. RNA is a protein, whereas DNA is a nucleic acid.
b. DNA is a protein, whereas RNA is a nucleic acid.
c. DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA
nucleotides.
d. RNA is a double helix, but DNA is single-stranded.
e. A and D are correct.

22. All of the following molecules are proteins except


a. hemoglobin.
b. transthyretin.
c. collagen.
d. lysozyme.
e. glycogen.

29. If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases


5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have
the sequence
a. 5'TAACGT3'.
b. 3'TAACGT5'.
c. 5'UAACGU3'.
d. 3'UAACGU5'.
e. 5'UGCAAU3'.

23. What is the term used for a change in a protein's threedimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of
hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, or ionic bonds?
a. hydrolysis
b. stabilization
c. destabilization
d. renaturation
e. denaturation

30. The element nitrogen is present in all of the following


except
a. proteins.
b. nucleic acids.
c. amino acids.
d. DNA.
e. monosaccharides.

24. What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in
the proper folding of other proteins?
a. tertiary protein
b. chaperonin
c. enzyme protein
d. renaturing protein
e. denaturing protein
25. Of the following functions, the major purpose of RNA is to

The following questions are based on the 15 molecules illustrated below. Each molecule may be used once, more than once, or not at
all.

31.Which of the following combinations could be linked together to


form a nucleotide?
a. 1, 2, and 11
b. 3, 7, and 8
c. 5, 9, and 10

d.
e.

11, 12, and 13


12, 14, and 15

32. Which of the following molecules contain(s) an aldehyde type


of carbonyl functional group?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

1
4
8
10
1 and 4

33. Which of the following molecules act as building blocks


(monomers) of polypeptides?
a. 1, 4, and 6
b. 2, 7, and 8
c. 7, 8, and 13
d. 11, 12, and 13
e. 12, 13, and 15
34. A fat (or triacylglycerol) would be formed as a result of a
dehydration reaction between
a. one molecule of 9 and three molecules of 10.
b. three molecules of 9 and one molecule of 10.
c. one molecule of 5 and three molecules of 9.
d. three molecules of 5 and one molecule of 9.
e. one molecule of 5 and three molecules of 10.
35. Which of the following molecules has (have) a functional
group that frequently is involved in maintaining the tertiary
structure of a protein?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 9
d. 11
e. 9 and 11