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Data link Layer

The data link layer accepts the unstructured bit stream provided by the physical layer and
provides reliable transfer of data between two directly-connected Layer 2 entities. "Directlyconnected" means that the Layer 2 entities' communication path does not require another Layer 2
entity. However, this does not imply a dedicated path; in the case of Ethernet, many Layer 2
entities can be sharing a common (physical) medium such as a coaxial cable or a 10BASE-T hub.
Layer 2 functionality is limited in scope-delivery of messages over a local area. It could be
likened to an intra-office correspondence between co-workers; there is a need for reliability but
addressing is relatively simple. Local area networks (LANs) operate at Layer 2.
The data link layer is itself conceptually subdivided into two sub layers-medium access control
and logical link control-which more specifically define the primary aspects of data link layer
functionality. However, this conceptual partitioning by the IEEE 802 committee is somewhat
arbitrary and subject to debate.
Layer 2 of the OSI model provides the following functions:
Allows a device to access the network to send and receive messages
Offers a physical address so a device s data can be sent on the network
Works with a device s networking software when sending and receiving messages
Provides error-detection capability
Common networking components that function at layer 2 include: Network interface
Ethernet and Token Ring switches

Transport Layer
The Transport layer is the fourth layer of the OSI Model from top to bottom; its situated between
Session layer and the Network Layer. The transport layer shares information with the Session
layer above it and the Network layer beneath it. The Transport layer mainly target on transporting
service provide to messages or information. For that the Session layer tells to transport layer
This session wants to shift some information, Arrange a method for me to get it to its
destination. The Session layer does not care how the transport layer is going to do this task. But
all the responses are now hand over to transport layer. At the same time there does some more
session also want to move its information across the network? So this complicates things, because
of there are only a certain number of connections available. Therefore the transport manager has
to allocate who gets to use the routes without collisions taking place.

Some of the functions offered by the transport layer include:

Application identification
Client-side entity identification
Confirmation that the entire message arrived intact
Segmentation of data for network transport
Control of data flow to prevent memory overruns
Establishment and maintenance of both ends of virtual circuits
Transmission-error detection
Realignment of segmented data in the correct order on the receiving side
Multiplexing or sharing of multiple sessions

Session Layer
The Session layer has a beginning, middle, and an end. The Session manager ensures that
everything works smoothly and in a timely manner. In the world of networking, a session begins
when an application wants to make connection to a remote server the session layer opens a
temporary channel between the two. Using this session layer we can run more than one session
at the same time. For that, it should have proper management, such as, if I want to open a Word
Session and save my work, at the same time I can have a web browser open and are flicking
across the web. Each application wants the commands and data it is using to go to the right place
to my Word file ends up on the file server and the Web pages are displayed in my browser.
Session layer functionality includes:

Virtual connection between application entities

Synchronization of data flow
Creation of dialog units
Connection parameter negotiations
Partitioning of services into functional groups
Acknowledgements of data received during a session
Retransmission of data if it is not received by a device.

Presentation Layer
The presentation layer performs any necessary data transformations or formatting required by the
end applications. Functions provided by the presentation layer include data compression, file
formatting and encryption. Common data formatting is important because it allows the same
application file to be accessed by the application running on different computer platforms. This
book is itself the product of an application running on different platforms, with common files
being modified via these different platforms.
Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) is commonly used to specify data values in a way which
allows processors to communicate independent of their varying native integer sizes, bit orderings
(big or little ending), character sets, etc. ASN.1 is transfer syntax, a presentation layer formatting,
which appears frequently in the CDPD specification for unambiguous definition of network
management, accounting, limited size messaging and other functions.
Presentation layer functionality includes:
Encryption and decryption of a message for security
Compression and expansion of a message so that it travels efficiently
Graphics formatting
Content translation
System-specific translation

Application Layer
The application layer provides the services which directly support an application running
on a host. These services are directly accessible by an application via common wellknown application program interfaces (APIs), which can actually occur at many layers.
Examples of layer 7 services include FTP (file transfer protocol), Telnet and SNMP
(simple network management protocol). Most network management activities are based
on the services provided by layer 7 application entities, which in turn rely on lower layer
Services to be able to perform their functions:
application layer functionality include
Support for file transfers
Ability to print on a network
Electronic mail
Electronic messaging
Browsing the World Wide Web