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Weaving Norm

1.0

YARN CHARACTERISTICS FOR SHUTTLELESS WEAVING


Parameters
CV% for Count
Warp and Weft CSP
Single Thread Tenacity
CV% for Single Thread Tenacity
Elongation at Break(%)
CV% for elongation at break
Elongation at Break(%)
CV% for elongation at break
CV% for TPI
Uster Evenness%
The yarn hairs having length more than 3mm
Yarn imperfection/1000m

2.0

Up to 40s
Upto 1.2
3200(3000)
20g/tex
Less than 7
Above 5.5
Less than 7
Above 5.5
Less than 7
Less than 5
Less than 10%
3 per Metre
Less than 50

Above 40s
Upto 1.4
3000(3200)
20g/tex
Less than 7
Above 6
Less than 7
Above 6
Less than 7
Less than 5
Less than 11
3 per Metre
Less than 70

Above 100 ends/inch quality and loom running at the speed of above
500 ppm, the mill should go for 5% Uster norm for yarn.

Ring yarn elongation at breaks properties to be retained in


subsequent weaving preparatory processes.

WINDING
2.1 YARN BREAKAGE
Type of Machine
Autoconer

Yarn Breaks per 1,00,000 metres


Good
Average
Poor
20
30
40

These breakage consist of A4+B4+C4+D4+C3+D3


and highly objectionable classimat faults.
2.2 CAUSEWISE BREAK-UP OF END BREAKS IN WINDING
Type of yarn Fault
Embedded Fluff
Loose lint
Slubs
Singling and weak places
Piece-ups
Foreign matter/kitties
Other yarn faults
Total

% of Total Breaks
15
15
10
25
10
10
15
100

2.3 CLEARING EFFICIENCY(%)ON WINDING MACHINE


Type of Machine
Autoconer

2.4

Good
95

Clearing Efficiency (%)


Average
90

Poor
85

YARN CLEARING SETTING (ELECTRONICS YARN CLEARER)


Count
Yarn Clearer Setting

Upto 40s

-1-

Above 40s

Weaving Norm
(Electronic yarn Clearer)

N
DS
LS
DL
LL
-D
-L
C

7
2.2
2.0
1.3
25
20 to 25
40 to 60
1.4

7
2.6
1.6
1.4
25
25
60 to 90
1.4

The clearer setting decides the clearing efficiency.


The clearer is
intended to remove A4+B4+C4+D4+C3+D3 and highly objectionable
classimat faults.
2.5 WINDING SPEED
Type of Machine
Auto coner

Winding speed m/min


Upto 40s
Above 40s
1100 to 1300
900 to 1100

For yarns meant for high reed (above 100 ends/inch)sorts, the
winding speed is about 10%lower than above figures but in any case
not less than 900 mpm
2.6

WINDING MACHINE EFFICIENCY


Type of Machine
Autoconer

2.7

Good
90

Machine Efficiency (%)


Average
85

Poor
80

LOSS IN STRENGTH AND ELONGATION


When the yarn from wound package is tested, the loss in strength
and elongation at break should not exceed 5% of that the ring yarn.

2.8

SPLICE FAILURE
Machine Type
Autoconer*

Yarn Count
Good
3
5

Upto 40s
Above 40s

Splice Failure %
Average
Poor
7
15
10
18

The norms hold good for a minimum suction pressure level


given by the machine manufacturer.
2.9 SPLICE QUALITY
Splice dimension: 1.2 to 1.4 times the parent yarn diameter
SAG-Splice appearance grade (ATIRA) :

Length of Splice

3 to 3.5cm

Retain splice strength

Above 85%

Splice Breaking Ratio

Maximum 20%

2.10

TENSION ON YARN DURING WINDING

-2-

Weaving Norm

Tension on the yarn during winding


corresponding single yarn strength.

should

be

about

10%

of

2.11Wound yarn Package Variation : 0.2


2.12 Wound yarn package weight variation should be 0.5 to 1% of
normal weight.
2.13

WINDING MAINTENANCE COST


Machine Type

Maintenance Cost
(Rs./Spindle/Shift)
3.0

Autoconer
3.

WARPING
3.1

DIRECT WARPING
3.1.1 MACHINE SPEED
Machine Type
Super High Speed i.e.
Hacoba or Benninger
Warping Machine

Machine Speed
For counts upto 40s-Warping speed
should not be less than 25% of maximum
speed
recommended
by
machine
manufacturer.
For counts above 40s Warping speed
should be 10% less the speed maintained
for upto 40s count yarn
For coloured yarn-It should be 5% less
than that of corresponding grey yarn

3.1.2 WARPING BREAKAGE


Machine Type
Super
High

Warping Stops/400ends/1000m
Good
Average
Poor
0.2
0.5
0.7

Speed

Warping Machine
3.2

SECTIONAL WARPING MACHINE


3.2.1 MACHINE SPEED
Machine Type
Super High Speed Sectional Warping
Machine

Machine Speed (mpm)


400

3.2.2 WARPING BREAKAGE

Super

Machine Type
High Speed Sectional

Warping Machine
3.3

Warping Stops/400ends/1000m
Good
Average
Poor
0.4
0.8
1.0

CONTRIBUTION OF SPINNING AND WINDING FAULTS

-3-

Weaving Norm
Machine Type
Super
High
Speed
Warping Machine

% Distribution of
Spinning Faults
Winding Faults
65
35

3.4

CAUSEWISE BREAK-UP OF END BREAKS IN WARPING

3.5

Type of causes
Related to Spinning
Thin end/soft end
Slub/bad piecing
Foreign fibre
Others
Sub Total
Related to Weaving
Splice
Package faults
Bunches
Wild yarn, fluffs
Other
Sub total
TENSION ON YARN DURING WARPING

% of total breaks
45
5
3
12
65
5
15
5
5
5
35

Tension on yarn during warping should be about 5% to that of


corresponding single thread strength of the yarn.
3.6

EFFICIENCY OF WARPING MACHINE


Machine Type
Super High Speed Warping Machine
Super High Speed Sectional Warping Machine
For coloured pattern set

3.7

Efficiency (%)
60-65
45-50
30-35

WARPING KNOT
The warping knot tail should have length of 5 to 6 mm.

3.8

WARPING MAINTENANCE COST


Machine Type
Super High Speed Warping Machine

4.

Maintenance Cost
(Rs/machine/Shift)
50.00

SIZING
4.1

MECHANICAL STRETCH:1.0%

4.2

OPTIMUM YARN TENSION DURING SIZING


% of Single Thread Breaking Strength of
Ring Yarn
At Creel
Between
At Head Stock
Finishing
Squeeze Roll to
First
Drying

-4-

Weaving Norm

Norms
tension

for

yarn

2-3

Cylinder
4-5

10-15

4.3

SIZED YARN RESIDUAL ELONGATION : 4.5%

4.4

NORMS FOR GAIN IN STRENGTH AND LOSS IN ELONGATION


AT BREAK OF SIZED YARN
Type of Yarn
Gain in Strength
Loss in Elongation
Upto 40s
>25
<15
Above 40s
15-25
<15
Polyester Blended Yarn
5 15
<15

Based on the single thread breaking strength and elongation


at break of ring yarn.

4.5

DEAD LOSS PERCENTAGE


Good
Average
Poor
15
25
35
Dead loss % is calculated on the basis of material issued from
stores.
Norms for (%) dead loss

4.6

VARIATION IN SIZDE PICK-UP


Norms for size pick-up variation

Good
1

Average
2

Poor
3

Deviation from nominal pick-up %


4.7

VARIATION IN SIZE PICK-UP IN PAIR OF BEAMS ON LOOM


Norms for size pick-up variation
between pair of beams on loom

4.8

1.5%

DROPPING
Norms for size dropping: 0.10% of the size pick up (by weight
basis)

4.9

MIGRATION OF ENDS(For cylinder sizing)


Count of yarn

No.of ends/1000 ends/1000m


Good
Average
Poor
Upto 40s
1
3
5
Above 40s
3
7
10
For coloured yarns, these values will have to be increased by 15%
4.10

LAPPERS

Norms for incidences of lappers in


sizing
4.11

SIZING MAINTENANCE COST

-5-

Lappers/1000 ends/1000m
Good
Average
Poor
0.2
0.4
0.8

Weaving Norm

Machine Type

Maintenance Cost
(Rs./Machine/Shift)
150.00

Sucker Muller, Jupiter Benninger

5.1

Drawing in production/pair of persons/8 hrs.:5500 ends

5.2

Knotter productivity

: 13000 ends/operative

LOOMSHED : Shuttleless Loom


6.1

LOOM SPEED
Count of Yarn
Upto 40s

Loom Speed
Weft insertion rate (metres per minute)
should be 10 to 15% less than that of
recommended by loom manufacturers
for that loom model.
Weft
insertion
rate
(metres
per
minute)should be 5 to 10% less than the
speed maintained for upto 40s yarn
Weft
insertion
rate
(metres
per
minute)should be 5 to 10% less than
that of corresponding grey yarn

Above 40s
For coloured yarn

6.2

WARP AND WEFT STOPS PER HOUR

Loom Type

PROJECTILE LOOM

6.

DRAWING IN PRODUCTION

AIRJET LOOM

5.

Upto 40s Ne
Warp
Weft
stops/
Stops/
hr.
hr.
1.5
0.40

Sorts
Twill

Above 40s Ne
Warp
Weft
stops /
stops/
hr.
hr.
1.9
0.5

Denim

1.0

0.50

1.3

0.7

Plain

1.1

0.50

1.4

0.7

Poplin

1.8

0.45

2.3

0.6

Twill

1.6

1.5

2.0

1.6

Denim

0.8

1.3

1.0

1.4

Plain

1.4

1.3

1.8

1.4

Poplin

2.5

1.3

3.1

1.4

-6-

RAPIER
LOOM

Weaving Norm

6.3

Twill

1.2

0.70

1.5

0.9

Denim

1.1

0.75

1.4

0.9

Plain

0.7

0.75

0.9

0.9

Poplin

1.4

0.70

1.80

0.9

CAUSEWISE SNAP EFFICIENCY LOSSES %


Causes
Warp & Weft + Interference of

% Loss in Efficiency
7.5

Warp & Weft


Repair
Beams Gaiting/knotting
Lubrication & Cleaning
Other
Total
6.4

1.0
2.5
0.5
0.5
12.0

DROPPINGS
Norms for Loom Droppings = 0.30% of the size yarn weight.

6.5

TIMING FOR WEAVER ATTENDING FAULTS


Time in Min.
1.00
0.18

Attending warp stop


Attending weft stop
6.6

YARN TENSION DURING WEAVING


Tension on yarn during weaving should not exceed 30% of single
thread strength of ring yarn.

6.7

GAITING TIMING
Beam knotting Timing . . . . . . .. 12 min/1000 ends
Beam Gaiting without Sort Change:
Single Width Loom . . . . . . . . . 1-3 hrs depending upon the sorts
Double Width Loom. . . . . . . . .

3-8 hrs depending upon the sorts

Beam Gaiting with Sort Change:


Single Width Loom . . . . . . . . .

1 shift

Double Width Rapier Loom . . . 2 shift

-7-

Weaving Norm
- Sulzer Loom . . . 2 shift

6.8

MANPOWER IN SHUTTLELESS WEAVING SHED


Weavers Assignment

8-16 looms depending upon sort


particulars and loom width.
1 helper for 3 weavers

Helper Reliever
Material Handler (Weft
Carrier)
Fitter / Maintenance

&

Cloth

2 persons to 48 looms

Expected operatives per 100 loom


shifts
6.9

Projectile
Rapier
Air-jet
*depending upon machine model

Maintenance Cost
(Rs./loom/shift*)
35 65
50 90
50 100

Minimum Weaving Efficiency %


92
85
82 to 85

GREY FABRIC DEFECTS


System
4 Points system

6.13

20mm to 80mm per pick


40 to 20 ends in false selvedge
1.8%

WEAVING EFFICIENCY
Sort
Cotton Bottom Wear
Cotton Shirting
Coloured & Super Fine Sorts

6.12

45-50m sized yarn +25m Grey yarn


0.04 to 0.06% of sizing production
0.02% of sizing production

LOOM MAINTENANCE COST


Loom Type

6.11

23 to 32

HARD WASTE LEVEL


SIZING
Set change waste per set
Lapper
Bad beams/soft beams
LOOMS
For leno & false selvedge on loom
False selvedge
Total Hard Waste in Weaving

6.10

1 upto 48 looms

Acceptable level
20 points/100 sq.m.fabrics

WEFT PACKAGES

-8-

Weaving Norm
Steamed weft packages are found to give better performance
alongwith reduction in incidences of broken pick especially on air jet
looms.
IDEAL STEAMING CONDITION
Type of Chamber

: Vacuum Steam Chamber

Temperature (C)

: 90 to 100

Steam Pressure (kg/cm2): 0.5


Time (Min.)

: 20

The number of cycles depends on yarn count, TPI and package size.
In general two to three cycles are sufficient.
The steam packages should be kept under covering. The conditioned
packages should be consumed within 4 hours.
6.14

AIR CONSUMPTION ON AIRJET MACHINE


Loom Width
Air Consumption in Cubic feet/8 hrs.*
190 cm to 220 cm
12000 - 15000
* Depending upon the machine model and speed

-9-