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IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO.

2, APRIL 2014

181

A Complete Complementary Coded MIMO System and


Its Performance in Multipath Channels
Shuai Han, Member, IEEE, R. Venkatesan, Senior Member, IEEE, Hsiao-Hwa Chen, Fellow, IEEE,
Weixiao Meng, Senior Member, IEEE, Cheng Li, Senior Member, IEEE, and Pei-Yu Yang

AbstractIn this paper, we propose a new system architecture


using complete complementary (CC) codes for a multicarrier
MIMO CDMA system to combat multipath fading in wireless
channels. Unlike traditional MIMO systems, complementary
codes were designed at chip-level to achieve time and frequencyspreading for each antenna. We analyze the system performance
in multipath fading channels. A closed form expression of bit
error rate (BER) performance is obtained. Extensive simulations
were conducted to verify the analytical results. Our results
indicate that a CC coded MIMO system can effectively decrease
BER and take advantage of diversity gain.
Index TermsMIMO; space-time coding; complete complementary code.

I. I NTRODUCTION
PACE-TIME coding techniques have been widely used
in communication networks to improve their reliability
and performance, including space-time block codes (STBC)
[1] and space-time-trellis codes (STTC) [2]. Further research
effort has been conducted to enhance the performance of
space-time codes, such as the works on space-time complementary coding (STCC) in multiple-input-multiple-output
(MIMO) systems, where pairwise complementary code (PCC)
was used [3]. By utilizing space diversity, an MIMO system
can effectively improve its transmission rate, and thus enhance
system performance.
The design of traditional space-time codes was done mostly
at symbol-level without paying much consideration to multipath interference (MI). Although these codes perform well in
a flat-fading channel, their performance will degrade severely
in the presence of inter-symbol interference. Besides, traditional space-time codes will naturally lose their advantages in
fading channels where fading coefficients vary over a symbol
block. To overcome such disadvantages, various schemes have
been proposed, including space-time error correcting codes
[4], interference cancellation [5], and adaptive equalization

Manuscript received October 13, 2013. The associate editor coordinating


the review of this letter and approving it for publication was R. M. Buehrer.
This work was supported in part by the Fundamental Research Funds
from the Key Universities of China (Grant No. HIT.NSRIF.2014022), Taiwan
National Science Council grant (No. 102-2221-E-006-008-MY3), and Natural
Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada (Discovery
Grant 293264-12 and Strategic Project Grant STPGP 397491-10).
S. Han and W. Meng are with the Harbin Institute of Technology, China
(e-mail: hanshuai@ieee.org, wxmeng@hit.edu.cn).
H.-H. Chen and P.-Y. Yang are with the Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (e-mail: hshwchen@ieee.org,
taro737@gmail.com).
R. Venkatesan and C. Li are with the Memorial University of New
Foundland, Canada (e-mail: {venky, licheng}@mun.ca).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/WCL.2014.010414.130726

techniques [6]. All these methods, however, were still built


on the assumption of flat fading and slow fading channels.
The complete complementary (CC) codes were constructed
by extending the original complementary codes [7] with a
new criteria that the autocorrelation function must be zero
for all possible shifts except the zero shift and the crosscorrelation function (CCF) for any pair must be zero as
well [8]. The perfect orthogonality property of the CC codes
makes it a strong candidate to combat MI and multiple access
interference (MAI) in wireless communication systems.
In this paper, we propose a new system architecture using CC codes for multi-carrier code division multiple access (CDMA) MIMO systems. Chip level space-time coding
(CLSTC) is utilized to achieve the complete orthogonality
from different antennas and for different users. By applying
the CC codes to space-time coding at the chip level, we can
obtain not only a system with MI and MAI free operation,
but also a system that naturally performs better than those
using symbol-level coding. Due to the 3-dimensional (time,
frequency, space) metric of CC codes, it possesses superiority
both in frequency and time selective fading channels.
II. S YSTEM M ODEL
The transmitter and receiver architectures for the multicarrier MIMO CDMA system are shown in Figs. 1 and
2, respectively. The baseband signal of the k-th user after
spreading is represented as
mk (t) = Ck (t)sk (t),

(1)

where Ck (t) denotes a spreading code, which can be generated by using the method as shown in [9], and sk (t) denotes
the user data with normalized energy which is given by
sk (t) = b(k) p (t) ,

(2)

where b(k) {1, 1} denotes the original user data, and p(t)
is defined by


Eb
0tT
NT MN Tc ,
p (t) =
(3)
0,
else where
where Eb , NT , M , N , and Tc denote per bit energy,
total number of transmit antennas, total number of carriers for each antenna, code length of one subcarrier (subcode length), and
 the period of each chip, respectively.
Eb
For simplicity,
NT MN Tc is denoted by for the rest
of the paper. In Eqn. (1), Ck (t) consists of the spreading
codes used by each subcarrier of every transmit antenna,

c 2014 IEEE
2162-2337/14$31.00 

182

IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2014


NT 
L


Antenna 1

sk (t )

Fig. 1.

Duplicator

ck(1),1

cos(2S f1t )

ck( M,1 )

cos(2S f M t )

ck(1),NT

cos(2S f1t )

ck( M, N)T

cos(2S f M t )

nT =1 l=1



(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l + n (t)
(1)

dt

cos(2S f1t )

( n 1)Tb

Bandpass Filter
fM  W d f d fM  W

dt

t nTb

cos(2S f M t )

Antenna N R

dt

gk (t) =

nTb

6
( n 1)Tb

dt

Detector

rk (t )

NR 
NT 
M 
L


Ik (t) =

nTb

nR =1 nT =1 m=1 l=2

t nTb

cos(2S f M t )

(7)

The second term is the multipath interference, or

ck(1),NT

Bandpass Filter
fM  W d f d fM  W

N nT ,nR ,1 cos nT ,nR ,1 .

nR =1 m=1

t nTb

cos(2S f1t )

(6)

nR =1 m=1
l

Summation
( n 1)Tb

Bandpass Filter
f1  W d f d f1  W

Fig. 2.

nTb

(M )
k ,1

l +Tb
NR 
M

(m)
(m)
dk (t) =
ck,nR (t l ) rk,nR (t)dt.

where
l denotes estimated delay by the receiver, and we
assume that l equals 1 which is the first path.
The received signal given by Eqn. (6) consists of three parts:
signal term, multipath interference, and noise. The signal term
is
NR
M




(m)
(m)

ck(1),1

(5)

(m)

nTb

t nTb

(M)

where rk,nR (t) denotes received signal of the nR -th antenna,


the m-th subcarrier, and the k-th user, and n(t) denotes
additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The sum of signals
from all antennas after de-spreading is then given by

Antenna 1
( n 1)Tb

(2)

= [rk,nR (t) , rk,nR (t) , . . . , rk,nR (t)]T ,

Antenna NT

Transmitter architecture of CC coded MIMO multi-carrier system.

Bandpass Filter
f1  W d f d f1  W

(m)

nT ,nR ,l Ck,nT (t l ) sk (t l )

(M )
k , NT

1 +Tb

Receiver architecture of CC coded MIMO multi-carrier system.

(m)



(m)
(m)
nT ,nR ,l cos nT ,nR ,l

(m)

ck,nR (t 1 ) ck,nT (t l ) sk (t l ) dt.

(8)

1
(m)

denoted by Ck,nT (t), where nT = 1, 2, , NT and m =


(m)
1, 2, , M . Each Ck,nT (t) consists of N -bit chips and is
(m)
(m,0) (m,1) (m,2)
(m,N 1)
given by Ck,nT (t) = [ak,nT , ak,nT , ak,nT , , ak,nT
],
where a is the chip value of spreading codes. For a
given transmit antenna and user, we get Ck,nT (t) =
(1)
(2)
(M)
[Ck,nT (t), Ck,nT (t), , Ck,nT (t)]T , where []T denotes the
transposition operation.
In a Rayleigh fading channel, the channel impulse response
in its baseband equivalence model on the m-th subcarrier
between the nT -th transmitter antenna and the nR -th receiver
antenna is
L



(m)
(m)
h(m)
nT ,nR ,l exp jnT ,nR ,l (t l ), (4)
nT ,nR (t) =
l=1

(m)
nT ,nR ,l

where
denotes a uniformly distributed phase component for the m-th sub-carrier on the l-th path, where a
total of L paths exist. The complex attenuation factor for
(m)
(m)
the fading channel is nT ,nR ,l exp(jnT ,nR ,l ), which is a
(m)
complex Gaussian random variable and nT ,nR ,l follows a
Rayleigh distribution. l denotes multipath delay. The received
signal from the nR -th receive antenna after filtering out high
frequency components is given by
rk,nR (t) =

NT 
L

nT =1 l=1

(m)
nT ,nR ,l mk

(t l ) cos

(m)
nT ,nR ,l

The last one is the noise term expressed by


NR 
M 1 +Tb

(m)
k (t) =
ck,nR (t 1 ) n(t)dt.

(9)

nR =1 m=1
1

III. M ULTIPATH E FFECT A NALYSIS


The multipath delay can be decomposed into l = il Tc +
l Tc , where il is an integer and l is uniformly distributed
between 0 and 1. For a bit duration of Tb , the multipath
interference is given by
Ik (t) =

NR 
NT 
M 
L


(m)

nR =1 nT =1 m=1 l=2
l


(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l

(k)

nT ,nR ,l bj1
(m)

(m)

ck,nR (t) ck,nT (t l ) dt


0

NR 
NT 
M 
L

nR =1 nT =1 m=1 l=2
Tb



(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l

(m)

(k)

nT ,nR ,l bj
(m)

(m)

ck,nR (t) ck,nT (t l ) dt.


l

(10)

Next, the cross correlation of sub-codes is needed in order


to
simplify Eqn. (10). Based on the spreading codes used for
+ n(t)
(m)
the m-th subcarrier at the transmitter and receiver, i.e., Ck,nT

HAN et al.: A COMPLETE COMPLEMENTARY CODED MIMO SYSTEM AND ITS PERFORMANCE IN MULTIPATH CHANNELS
(m)

and Ck,nR , respectively, the cross correlation of the sub-codes,


(nT , nR )
Rk,m
(q),

is given by
N1q
(m,p) (m,p+q)

ak,nT ak,nR , 0 q N 1

p=0
(nT , nR )
N1+q
(m,pq) (m,p)
Rk,m
(q) =
ak,nT ak,nR , (N 1) q 0

p=0
0,

otherwise

(11)

where q is the shift between the sub-codes. For received signal


where the original signal and the multipath signal are mixed
together, if a perfect synchronization is achieved and sampling
happens once during each chip time in baseband, the time
between two adjacent sampling points must be one bit duration
and l can be considered as zero. Based on Eqn. (11), the
interference component of the received signal becomes
NR 
NT 
L 
M




(m)
(k)
(m)
Ik (t) =
nT ,nR ,l bj1 cos nT ,nR ,l
n =1 n =1 l=2 m=1

T

R
(nT , nR )
(il N )
Rk,m

NR 
NT 
M
L 

nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1

(m)

(k)

nT ,nR ,l bj



(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l



(nT , nR )
(il ) .
Rk,m

(12)

To obtain bit error rate (BER) performance, we derive


the expectation and variance of multipath interference. The
expectation is given by
E [Ik (t)]

= E

NR 
NT 
L 
M


nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1

(m)
(k)
nT ,nR ,l bj1

(n

T,
Rk,m

nR )

(il N )

NR


+ E

NT




(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l
M
L 


n =1 n =1 l=2 m=1

R
T




(nT , nR )
(k)
(m)
(m)
nT ,nR bj cos nT ,nR ,l Rk,m
(il ) .

(13)

Assume that the signals are received with perfect synchronization. The estimated phase and delay time are then constant.
(m)
(m)
We have E[Ik (t)] = E[Ik (t)|nT ,nR ,l , il , nT ,nR ,l ]. Then,
removing the constant items, we have the expectation in
conditional mean as

(m)
(m)
E Ik (t)|nT ,nR ,l , il , nT ,nR ,l
=

NR


NT


M
L 


nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1

(m)

(k)

nT ,nR ,l E bj1

NR 
NT 
M
L 

nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1

NR 
NT 
M

L 
2
1 2 
(m)
nT ,nR ,l

2
nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1


(nT , nR )
(nT , nR )
Rk,m
Qk,m
, N, l ,

(17)

where we have


(nT , nR )
(nT , nR )
Rk,m
Qk,m
, N, l

2
(nT , nR )
(nT , nR )
= E Rk,m
(il N ) + E Rk,m
(il ) .

(18)

In order to obtain the characteristics of the correlation function


for each element, we conduct numerical analysis and the
results will be shown in Section V.
IV. B IT E RROR R ATE U NDER M ULTIPATH C HANNELS
In this section, we analyze bit error rate(BER) performance.
Given that the phase is a constant and from Eqn. (7), the
expectation of the signal component subject to Rayleigh fading
channel conditions is given by

(m)
g = E gk (t)|nT ,nR ,1
NR 
M


nR =1 m=1



(m)
(m)
N nT ,nR ,1 cos nT ,nR ,1 .

(19)

It is obvious that the noise has zero mean and the variance is
given by
(20)
2 = Var [k (t)] = N0 BW .
where N0 is the power spectrum density of noise, and BW
is the bandwidth. From Eqn. (15), the expectation of MI, and
from Eqn. (17), the variance of MI is
NR 
NT 
M

L 
2
1 2 
(nT , nR )
(m)
nT ,nR ,l Qk,m

2
nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1


Eb /NT 2
(nT , nR )
Rk,m
, N, l =
(21)
2 I ,
2(M N )

2
MI
=

where
NR
NT
L
M






(m)

nT ,nR ,l

(nT , nR )
(nT , nR )
Qk,m
Rk,m
, N, l .

Therefore, the mean of the received signal including three


components is given by
= g + I + n ,
(14)

As the user data are from the set {1, 1} with equal probability, the expectation of MI becomes zero, i.e.,
E [Ik (t)] = 0.

By plugging Eqn. (15) into Eqn. (16), and removing


(m)
nT ,nR ,l conditions, the variance becomes



(m)
(m)
(m)
Var Ik (t)|nT ,nR ,l = E Var Ik (t)|nT ,nR ,l , nT ,nR ,l

(22)

(m)
(k)
nT ,nR ,l E bj



(nT , nR )
(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l Rk,m
(il ).

(16)

nR =1 nT =1 l=2 m=1



(nT , nR )
(m)
cos nT ,nR ,l Rk,m
(il N )
+

The variance of the MI is given by




2
Var [Ik (t)] = E Ik 2 (t) E[Ik (t)] .

I2 =

183

(15)

NR 
M

nR =1 m=1



(m)
(m)
N nT ,nR ,1 cos nT ,nR ,1 ,

(23)

and the variances of the noise and the MI components are


1
2
2 = MI
+ 2 = 2 I2 + N0 BW .
(24)
2

184

IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, APRIL 2014

for each code, is a complete complementary code given in


[9]. In fact, the sub-code number is the same as M , which
is the number of carriers for each antenna in our system.
The bit rate is 100 Mbps and an obvious performance gain is
achieved when compared with the traditional STBC methods.
However, when compared with four-state STTC with QPSK
modulation, it is seemingly that the other schemes may have a
better performance, especially when Eb /N0 is small. However,
we have to mention that such a performance gain in that case is
from a 1/2 code rate four-state trellis-code whose theoretical
coding gain is 4.77 dB [11]. Additionally, the trace-back depth
of Veterbi decoding is set to 30 in order to obtain a trellis
coding gain. By excluding such gain, as depicted by the circle
marked line in the curve, we clearly see a better performance
of the proposed method. Obviously, we can also introduce
trellis-coded modulation into our scheme to further improve
the coding gain.

10

10

10

BER

10

10

10

CCCMIMO,NT=NR=2,M=4,BPSK

10

STBC,NT=NR=2,BPSK

12

10

STTC,rate 1/2,fourstate,QPSK
Theory BER under 16th diversity order,BPSK
CCCMIMOWithTCM,NT=NR=2,M=4,QPSK

14

10

16

10

Fig. 3.

8
10
Eb/No (dB)

12

14

16

18

Comparison of bit error probabilities when NT = NR = 2.

Assume that the error probability of the received signal follows


the Gaussian distribution. The probability density function
(pdf) of the received signal, f (x), is then given by
(x)2
1
e 22 .
f (x) =
2
The conditional error probability then becomes
0

 0

(m)

Pb x|nT ,nR ,l



=Q

f (x) dx =

(25)

(x)2
1

e 22 dx =
2


 

NR
M


 2
 2  
(m)
(m)

N nT ,nR ,1 cos nT ,nR ,1





nR =1 m=1

1 2 2
I
2

+ N0 BW

(26)

The average error probability is obtained by


=
taking a NR NT M -fold integral and let t
NR M
(m)
(m)

cos(
),
which
denotes
the
nT ,nR ,1
nR =1
m=1 nT ,nR ,1
sum of the fading gains. Because of the perfect compensation
(m)
of nT ,nR ,1 , Eqn. (26) can be re-written as


2 2


N

t
 (NT M N Tc )



Pb (x) =
Q

pt (t ) dt ,

NT
2
0

2 (NT M N Tc )

I + 1

(27)

where is Eb /(N0 BW ) and Q() is the Gaussian Q-function


[10].
V. N UMERICAL A NALYSIS AND S IMULATION R ESULTS
In Fig. 3, we compare the BER performance of the proposed
method with those utilizing STBC and STTC. The channel we
considered is a multipath frequency-selective fading channel
with its delay spread being N 1 chips. The total number
of paths is three, and the average path gains are 0.42, 0.33,
0.25, respectively. The doppler frequency is 167 Hz and bit
rate is 100 Mbps. The code, whose sub-code number is four

VI. C ONCLUSION
In this paper, we have proposed a CC coded CLSTC MIMO
system, where multi-carrier architecture is utilized for transmitting code matrices in time and frequency domains. System
performance in terms of bit error rate has been investigated
and compared using analytical method and simulations. It was
shown in the paper that the proposed method clearly outperforms typical STBC and STTC systems in fading channels.
Our future work includes the analysis of diversity order, a
systematic analysis of a multi-user CC coded MIMO-CDMA
and the generation of CC codes for large scale networks.
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