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EE988 Power Systems and Wind Integration

Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) SIMULINK Laboratory


Dr. Olimpo Anaya-Lara
Ms Kamila Nieradzinska
Mr Juan Carlos Nambo-Martinez

Main objective:
To familiarise with the typical components in a variable-speed DFIG wind turbine and to implement
in Simulink a simple electric system for control design purposes and dynamic performance
assessment.
The laboratory includes the following major components:
1. Building and simulating the test system under steady-state conditions (10%)
a. Familiarise with turbine components and control schemes
b. Solid theoretical background on machine operation
2. Assessment of DFIG behaviour under different wind speed operating scenarios (15%)
a. Explore control regions in the power curve
b. Understanding power relationships in the DFIG
c. Clear identification of generator torque control and pitch control
3. Reactive power control capabilities and performance (25%)
a. Theoretical background
b. Create the chart of reactive power capabilities for this DFIG
c. Numerical calculation of reactive power flows in stator and rotor
4. Performance under network faults (25%)
a. Theoretical background including machine protection and Grid Code requirements
b. Investigation of impact of different fault types
c. Calculation of critical clearing times for different fault conditions
5. Implementation of additional control loops for power system operation support (e.g. provision
of synthetic inertia and system damping.) (25%)
a. Theoretical background
b. Implementation and analysis of simple mechanism to provide synthetic inertia
c. Implementation and analysis of simple mechanism to provide damping

Final Report: A formal report on the lab exercise is to be prepared and submitted to Myplace by
Friday 27st February 2015.
Weighting: The final report is worth 20% of the EE988 mark.

Additional time: The DFIG SIMULINK lab is available at all times on the lab computers. Please use
the lab outside of the supported time.

Contacts: If there are problems specific to the lab please contact: Kamila Nieradzinska
kamila.nieradzinska@strath.ac.uk or Dr. Olimpo Anaya-Lara olimpo.anaya-lara@strath.ac.uk

Report style: The report should be written as a technical engineering report. The level of the report
should be such that it is understandable by other 5th year / masters engineering students who are not
familiar with the DFIG but understand engineering principles. Do not copy the questions into your
report. Everything in your report should be written by you. Your answer to each question
should make sense without having to read the question itself.

DFIG SIMULINK - LAB Exercises


1. Building the DFIG model in Simulink
Objective: To identify the DFIG components and familiarize with the use of Simulink/Matlab

DFIG
Pout
Wind

Ps

Generator Vs

Vout

Network

Gearbox
Vr

Turbine

CB

VSC1

VSC2

CB

Pr
Three-phase
fault

Crowbar

Qs
wr

RSC
GSC
Qout
Control Vdc Control

Figure 1. DFIG

Procedure and tasks:


Open the file called DFIG01.xls with matlab.
With the blocks provided in the file DFIG01.xls build the circuit shown in Figure 1.
Note: The circuit in Figure 1 is a single-line representation of a three-phase system. The model in
Simulink/Matlab is three phase therefore it is necessary to connect each of the three phases (A to a, B
to b and C to c).
The Simulink model provided is colour coded. This colour code allows the easy identification of the
different components of the model, as specified below:
Cyan: Electric power circuit components such as generator, crowbar protection, converters, reactor,
transformers, circuit breakers (CB), transmission lines, and infinite bus (Network).
Grey: Control blocks; pitch control, crowbar control, RSC control, GSC control, breakers control.
Green: go to tags or measurements blocks that allow sending signals from specified blocks
(wireless transmitter for control signals)
Red: from tags that allow the reception of signals specified by the go to tags (wireless receiver for
control signals).
Blue: Scopes
Orange: Customizable control blocks.

2. Assessment of DFIG behaviour under different wind speed conditions


Objective: To explore the DFIG behaviour under different wind speed operating conditions
As previously stated, orange blocks allow modifying some parameters for controlling the DFIG
model. However they should not be changed arbitrarily because their parameters can affect the
performance of the whole system.
The customizable control block Wind allows the selection between four different types of wind
speed representation: constant, step, ramp or random.
The scopes coloured in blue located in the block called Conditioning and measurements allow
observing Voltage, Current, Active and Reactive Power, frequency, etc. at different points in the
model.
Procedure and tasks:
2.1. Constant wind
Open the control block Wind, to select the constant wind source type 1 in the input selection
block.
Run the simulation for wind speeds of 9 and 10 m/s, open the corresponding scopes in the
conditioning and measurement block and fill out the next table.

Pstator

Constant wind 9m/s


Qstator

Pstator

Constant wind 10m/s


Qstator

Pgsc

Qgsc

Pgsc

Qgsc

PDFIG

QDFIG

PDFIG

QDFIG

Settle time (wr)

Settle time (wr)

Explain the differences.

2.2. Wind speed step change


In the block wind set the input selection block to 2 and run the simulation.
Explain the behaviour of the DFIG when it is subjected to step changes with the help of the plots
in the scopes DFIG, Stator, GSC and DFIG parameters.
What happens when the wind speed suffers a positive step change at t=5s?
What is the response of the DFIG to a negative step change in wind speed at t=10s?
Elaborate on why the DFIG exhibits such behaviour for a step change in wind speed.

2.3. Ramp wind speed changes


In the block wind select the Ramp Wind option by setting the input selection to 3 and run the
simulation.
Discuss the main differences between this case results and those of the case with a step change in
the wind speed.
Now, in the ramp limiter in the wind block, change the rising slew rate from 1 to 2 and the falling
slew rate from -1 to -2 and run the simulation.
Explain the differences.

2.4. Random wind speed source and Pitch control


In the block wind, select the Random wind source by setting the input selection at 4 and run the
simulation.
What is the reason of the change in the direction of the power at t = 1.8s?
Resize and arrange in a matrix way the scopes DFIG parameters, stator, GSC and DIFG on
your computer screen and press the key Print Screen of your keyboard (by doing this you will
take a picture of your screen) open the Microsoft program Paint (Start all the
programsaccessories Paint) and copy the image by pressing your keyboard keys ctrl + v,
you can save the image or just keep Paint open.
Now go back to your Matlab model and change the constant input of the Pitch control wr
reference from 1.35 to 1.29.
Run the simulation.
Compare the DFIG output with respect to the previous simulation.
Explain the differences.

3. Reactive Power Control.


Objective: To observe the DFIG reactive power compensation capabilities
Procedure and tasks:
A DIFG can provide reactive power compensation. However, to ensure suitable DFIG
performance it is recommendable to limit the amount of reactive power compensation it
provides.
Set the blocks Q stator ref and Q GSC ref between 0 and 0.3 p.u.
Run the simulation and observe the DFIG performance.

While the simulation is running change the value of Q stator ref and Q GSC ref again and
observe the change in reactive power delivered by the DFIG.
Build the reactive power chart for this DFIG wind turbine

4. Performance under faults


Objective: To explore the behaviour of the DFIG when it is subjected to a power system fault, and to
understand the importance of the DFIG protection.
For an easier understanding of the effects of a power fault over the system this exercise will be
performed with the assumption of a constant wind speed.
Open the block Wind and set the constant wind source to 9m/s.
Select the constant wind source by setting the Input selection block to 1.

Procedure and tasks:


4.1. Three-phase fault
Return to the main model screen and make sure that the Crowbar and the breakers are disabled
(the blocks Crowbar and Breaker must be set to 0).
Open the Three-Phase Fault block and select the Parameters Phase A Fault, Phase B Fault and
Phase C Fault.
Run the simulation.
Open the scopes Rotor, TL1, TL1_2, TL2, TL2_2, DFIG, and IB and observe the behaviour of
the system.
Print and save the images by using the steps explained in exercise 2.3.

4.2. Circuit Breakers


Return to the main model screen and Enable the system breakers by setting the Breaker
configuration block to 1.
Run the simulation.
Open the scopes Rotor, TL1, TL1_2, TL2, TL2_2, DFIG, and IB and observe the behaviour of
the system.
Print and save the images by using the steps explained in the exercise 3.3.

4.3. Crowbar protection


Return to the main model screen and Enable the Crowbar Protection by setting the Crowbar
Protection block to 1.
Run the simulation
Open the scopes Rotor, TL1, TL1_2, TL2, TL2_2, DFIG, and IB and observe the behaviour of
the system.
Print and save the images by using the steps explained in exercise 2.3.
Write a report explaining the Differences between the three simulations performed in exercise 4,
with particular emphasis on:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fault timing
Current, voltage and power levels
Power flows reschedule
Power breakers and Crowbar operation times
The effects of Power breakers and Crowbar operation over the system

4.4. Establish which type of fault is more onerous on DFIG performance, a three-phase or a singlephase. Discuss this issue based on the magnitude of the fault current, the drop in active power output
and acceleration of the DFIG.

5. Enhanced DFIG controls for power system operation support


This task regards the design and implementation recommendation of additional DFIG control loops
that enable the turbine to provide synthetic inertia and a power system stabiliser function to damp
power system oscillations after a fault. The task is split into two subtasks as follows:
i) Synthetic inertia control loop

Theory and background: Report how this control loop is designed and implemented, what are
the main components (including input and output signals), and indicate how the control loop
operates and impacts power system performance.
Model implementation: Implement the control loop in the DFIG Simulink model. Make a
print of the implementation and include it in your report.

ii) Power System Stabiliser control loop

Theory and background: Report how this control loop is designed and implemented, what are
the main components (including input and output signals), and indicate how it operates and
impacts on power system performance.
Model implementation: Implement the control loop in the DFIG Simulink model. Make a
print of the implementation and include it on your report.

Structure of the Report


The expected structure of the report would include:

Cover page
Summary
Introduction
Task 1 to 5 including discussions
General conclusion of the lab exercise
References

There is no limit on length. Please include the necessary material that makes you fill confident and
satisfied in addressing each task and questions.
Observe that most of the tasks include a component where you need to provide background and
theory, in addition to the work in the Simulink model, so feel free to expand on the theoretical
component.