Method study

• Improvement of processes and procedures.
• Improvements of factory, shop and workplace layout and of
design of plant and equipment.
• Economy of human efforts and the reduction of unnecessary
• Improvement in the use of materials, machines and manpower.
• The development of a better physical working environment.


Selecting the work to be studied
• Economic considerations
Movements of material over long distances
Operations involving repetitive work
• Technical considerations
Relatively straight forward
Based on the technical knowledge of the process
• Human considerations
Most difficult to foretell – because of mental and emotional
Select an unpopular job for method study.

Product and operation Person who proposed investigation Reason for proposal Particulars of the job Equipment Layout Product Savings and/or increase in productivity expected. 5.Important considerations 1. 3. 7. 4. 8. 2. 4 . 6.

Should not be from memory. 4. Details on the chart must be obtained from direct observation.Why charts? • • • • 1. drawing#) Job or process being carried out Location and time (date) of the study Observer’s name Chart reference number 5 . It gives a complete picture of what is being done and helps to understand the facts and its relationship to one another. Increased value if following is included: Product. 2. Neatness and accuracy important. 3. equipment details (code#. 5.

• It makes possible a study of the operations and inspections so that the best sequence may be developed. an abbreviated description of what is done during the operation or inspection. • Outline process chart which gives an overall view of the entire process is designed to give a quick understanding of the work which must be done to produce a given product. The analyst questioning on the outline process chart may discover significant cost reductions by combining or eliminating certain operations and inspections. 6 .Outline process chart: • Outline process chart: The outline process chart would bear against each symbol.

position. or material. □ INSPECTION – is used to denote inspection. 7 .  TRANSPORT—is used to represent the movement of the hand (or limb) to or from the work. etc. or a tool. D DELAY—is used to denote time during which the hand or limb being charted is idle (although the others may be in use). use. release. of a tool. component or material.The symbols of process chart are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • The symbols of process chart are as follows:  HOLD ―STORAGE‖  OPERATION – is used for the activities of grasp.

Flow process chart• Flow process chart• A flow process chart is a process chart setting out the sequence of the flow of a product or a procedure by recording all events under review using the appropriate process chart symbol • Flow process chart – Man type: A flow process chart which record what the worker does. 8 .

A flow process chart which records how equipment is used.Material type: • A flow process chart which records how material is handled or treated.• Flow process chart. 9 . • Flow process chart-Equipment type.

 10 .• • • • • • Symbols of flow process chart: Operation – O Inspection--.D Permanent storage-.□ Transport--Temporary storage of Delay--.

during the process.Multiple activity chart • A chart on which the activities of more than one subject (worker. machine. equipment) are each recorded on a common time scale to show their interrelationship. 11 . • By using separate vertical columns. • This makes it possible to rearrange these activities so that such ineffective time is reduced. also on maintenance work when scheduling expensive plant. or bars to represent the activities of different operators or machines against a common time scale the chart shows the periods of idleness on the part of any subjects. • Extremely useful in organizing teams of operatives on massproduction work.

Facility layout / Plant lay out .

e. • Layout by Process or function: Here all operations are of same nature are grouped together. air crafts. • Layout by fixed position: • E. 13 .g.g. Ship building.etc.Facility layout: Method study considerations • Important considerations: Easiest flow of material. garment industry. at the lowest cost and with minimum handling.

Material handling .

ideally there should be no material handling. • Therefore. • Only important method study principle: Motion Economy! • Material handling adds to the cost of manufacture but adds nothing to the value of the product. • Typical material handling problem solved in the same way as all method study problem – start with asking questions.Material handling • Typically material handing may take up to 85% of the total process time. • Most important question: WHY is this handling done? 15 .

Material handling: Process • • • • • improved material handling process is traditional way of solving any method study problems Use of outline and process flow charts and flow diagrams to ensure a correct workplace layout. Specially critical when one is buying material handling equipment for the workplace. AIM: Minimization of movement in any plane – horizontal or vertical. 16 . Change in workplace layout affects not only the quantity but also the type of material handling equipment necessary.

• Keep gangways clear. 17 . • Let gravity work for you. • Always have sufficient boxes. • Always handle in bulk over distances. • Don’t reduce the supplementary human labor if it means increase in the load for direct operators. • Never keep material on floor. • Always keep distances over which material is handled as short as possible.Material handling: Important aspects • Always try to keep material at the height at which they are to be worked upon. platforms or container available at the workplace.

Movement of workers .

Effects of shop layout on worker movement There are many activities in which workers move at irregular intervals between a number of points in the working area. • In stores and shops when variety of materials are being removed from or put away into racks or bins. 19 . • Bulk material is fed to or removed from a continuous process. • In restaurants and canteens kitchens during preparation of meal. This happens when. • Laborers are delivering material to or removing work from a series of machines. • An operator is looking after two or more machines. with or without material.

in which a thread is used to measure distance. 20 . • Start using the string diagram by recording all the relevant facts from direct observation. whereas regular flow diagram can be drawn only approximately to scale.String diagram A scale plan or model on which a thread is used to trace and measure the path of workers. • Like flow diagram. • Necessary that the string diagram be drawn correctly to scale. it will most often be used to supplement a flow process chart. material or equipment during a specified sequence of events. • A special form of flow diagram.

• Flow process chart will be examined critically in order to make sure that all unnecessary activities are eliminated before a new method is proposed and tested using string diagram. the string diagram is used for plotting the movements of workers. 21 . string diagram and flow chart can give clearest possible picture of what is actually being done. • Most commonly. • String diagram can be used to plot movements of material to know how far the materials travel.String diagram • Thus.

partitions. the heads being allowed to stand well clear of the surface. should be drawn to scale. stores etc. • Pins should also be driven in at all the turning points on the route. with higher accuracy. 22 . • A measured length of thread is then taken and tied around the pin at the starting point of the movements.String diagram: Process • A scale plan of working area similar to that required for a flow diagram must be made. • Completed plan should be attached to a softwood board and pins driven into it firmly at every stopping point. • Machines. together with doorways. pillars. as stated earlier. benches.

• By measuring the length of the thread. 23 . • The result is to give a picture of the paths of movement of the operators. • Of two or more workers are studied over the same working area. those which are most frequently traversed being covered with the greatest number of strings. the distance traveled by the worker can be calculated. different colored threads may be used to distinguish them.String diagram: Process • It is then led around the pins at the other points of call in the order noted on the study sheet until all the movements have been dealt with.

• This can be checked by leading the thread around the pins in their new positions. • The length of the thread for the new layout is measured and compared with the length of thread for original layout.String diagram: Analysis • Examination of diagram and development of new layout done in a similar fashion as with a flow diagram. • Difference in length of threads represent the reduction in distance traveled as a result of improved layout. 24 . • Pins and templates are moved around until an arrangement is found by which the same operation can be performed with a minimum movement between them. keeping the same sequence.

materials or equipment between any number of places over any given period of time.Travel chart • A travel chart is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about the movements of workers. 25 .

26 . the travel chart is quicker and more manageable recording technique. the diagram looks like ugly mess of criss-crossing lines. materials or equipment between any number of places over any given period of time. distance traveled etc.Travel chart • String diagrams take a rather long time to construct. Or vice versa. • It is represented as a square matrix: columns indicating origin of movement and rows the destination. • Data could be travel time taken. And when a great many movements along complex paths are involved. • It is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about movements of workers. • When the movement patterns are complex.

Travel chart • The person conducting the study doesn’t have to trace the actual path from origin to destination. 27 . • Just the start and end of the travel is recorded as corresponding columns and row.

28 .handed process chart • The two handed process chart is a process in which the activities of a worker’s hands (or limbs) are recorded in their relationship to one another.Two.

and are known collectively as micromotion study.Micromotion study • • • Micromotion study: In certain types of operation. Gilbreth differentiated 17 fundamental hand or hand and eye motions. to which an eighteen has subsequently been added. symbol and letter for recording purposes. The techniques used for this purpose frequently make use of filming. it is worth while going into much greater detail to determine where movements and efforts can be saved and to develop the best possible pattern of movement. the word ―therblig‖ is an anagram of his name. The divisions were devised by Frank B. thus enabling the operative to perform the operation repeatedly with a minimum of effort and fatigue. Each therblig has a specific color. 29 . the founder of motion study.Gilberth. and particularly those with very short cycles which are repeated thousands of times ( such as the packing of sweets into boxes or food cans into cartons). The micromotion group of techniques is based on the ideas of dividing human activity into divisions of movements or groups of movements (known as therblings) according to the purpose for which they are made.

Because simo chart are used primarily for operations of short duration. it is generally necessary to compile them from films made of the operation which can be stopped at any point or projected in slow motion. used to record simultaneously on a common time scale the therbligs or groups of therbligs performed by different parts of the body of one or more workers. 30 . It will be seen that the movements are recorded against time measured in ―winks‖ (1 wink = 1/2000 minute). The Simultaneous motion cycle chart in short known as simo chart is the micromotion form of the man type flow process chart. often performed with extremely rapidity.Simo Chart (Defination) • • • Simo Chart (Defination): A simo chart is a chart. often based on firm analysis.

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