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Method study

Objectives
• Improvement of processes and procedures.
• Improvements of factory, shop and workplace layout and of
design of plant and equipment.
• Economy of human efforts and the reduction of unnecessary
fatigue.
• Improvement in the use of materials, machines and manpower.
• The development of a better physical working environment.

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Selecting the work to be studied
• Economic considerations
Bottlenecks
Movements of material over long distances
Operations involving repetitive work
• Technical considerations
Relatively straight forward
Based on the technical knowledge of the process
• Human considerations
Most difficult to foretell – because of mental and emotional
nature.
Select an unpopular job for method study.
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5. Product and operation Person who proposed investigation Reason for proposal Particulars of the job Equipment Layout Product Savings and/or increase in productivity expected. 8. 6. 4 . 2. 3.Important considerations 1. 7. 4.

Details on the chart must be obtained from direct observation. 3. 5. It gives a complete picture of what is being done and helps to understand the facts and its relationship to one another. drawing#) Job or process being carried out Location and time (date) of the study Observer’s name Chart reference number 5 . 4.Why charts? • • • • 1. 2. Should not be from memory. equipment details (code#. Increased value if following is included: Product. Neatness and accuracy important.

an abbreviated description of what is done during the operation or inspection. • It makes possible a study of the operations and inspections so that the best sequence may be developed. 6 . • Outline process chart which gives an overall view of the entire process is designed to give a quick understanding of the work which must be done to produce a given product. The analyst questioning on the outline process chart may discover significant cost reductions by combining or eliminating certain operations and inspections.Outline process chart: • Outline process chart: The outline process chart would bear against each symbol.

or material.  TRANSPORT—is used to represent the movement of the hand (or limb) to or from the work. 7 . □ INSPECTION – is used to denote inspection. use. position.The symbols of process chart are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • The symbols of process chart are as follows:  HOLD ―STORAGE‖  OPERATION – is used for the activities of grasp. component or material. D DELAY—is used to denote time during which the hand or limb being charted is idle (although the others may be in use). or a tool. of a tool. etc. release.

8 .Flow process chart• Flow process chart• A flow process chart is a process chart setting out the sequence of the flow of a product or a procedure by recording all events under review using the appropriate process chart symbol • Flow process chart – Man type: A flow process chart which record what the worker does.

A flow process chart which records how equipment is used.• Flow process chart. 9 .Material type: • A flow process chart which records how material is handled or treated. • Flow process chart-Equipment type.

□ Transport--Temporary storage of Delay--.D Permanent storage-. 10 .• • • • • • Symbols of flow process chart: Operation – O Inspection--.

machine. equipment) are each recorded on a common time scale to show their interrelationship. • By using separate vertical columns. or bars to represent the activities of different operators or machines against a common time scale the chart shows the periods of idleness on the part of any subjects.Multiple activity chart • A chart on which the activities of more than one subject (worker. • This makes it possible to rearrange these activities so that such ineffective time is reduced. • Extremely useful in organizing teams of operatives on massproduction work. during the process. also on maintenance work when scheduling expensive plant. 11 .

Facility layout / Plant lay out .

etc. e. • Layout by Process or function: Here all operations are of same nature are grouped together. Ship building. • Layout by fixed position: • E.g.Facility layout: Method study considerations • Important considerations: Easiest flow of material. air crafts.g. 13 . at the lowest cost and with minimum handling. garment industry.

Material handling .

• Most important question: WHY is this handling done? 15 . ideally there should be no material handling.Material handling • Typically material handing may take up to 85% of the total process time. • Typical material handling problem solved in the same way as all method study problem – start with asking questions. • Therefore. • Only important method study principle: Motion Economy! • Material handling adds to the cost of manufacture but adds nothing to the value of the product.

Specially critical when one is buying material handling equipment for the workplace. 16 . AIM: Minimization of movement in any plane – horizontal or vertical.Material handling: Process • • • • • improved material handling process is traditional way of solving any method study problems Use of outline and process flow charts and flow diagrams to ensure a correct workplace layout. Change in workplace layout affects not only the quantity but also the type of material handling equipment necessary.

• Always handle in bulk over distances. platforms or container available at the workplace. • Don’t reduce the supplementary human labor if it means increase in the load for direct operators. • Always have sufficient boxes. • Always keep distances over which material is handled as short as possible. • Let gravity work for you. • Keep gangways clear. • Never keep material on floor. 17 .Material handling: Important aspects • Always try to keep material at the height at which they are to be worked upon.

Movement of workers .

• In restaurants and canteens kitchens during preparation of meal. 19 . • Laborers are delivering material to or removing work from a series of machines. • An operator is looking after two or more machines. This happens when. with or without material.Effects of shop layout on worker movement There are many activities in which workers move at irregular intervals between a number of points in the working area. • In stores and shops when variety of materials are being removed from or put away into racks or bins. • Bulk material is fed to or removed from a continuous process.

• A special form of flow diagram. in which a thread is used to measure distance. • Like flow diagram. whereas regular flow diagram can be drawn only approximately to scale. it will most often be used to supplement a flow process chart. • Necessary that the string diagram be drawn correctly to scale. 20 . • Start using the string diagram by recording all the relevant facts from direct observation.String diagram A scale plan or model on which a thread is used to trace and measure the path of workers. material or equipment during a specified sequence of events.

21 . the string diagram is used for plotting the movements of workers. string diagram and flow chart can give clearest possible picture of what is actually being done.String diagram • Thus. • Flow process chart will be examined critically in order to make sure that all unnecessary activities are eliminated before a new method is proposed and tested using string diagram. • String diagram can be used to plot movements of material to know how far the materials travel. • Most commonly.

partitions. as stated earlier. benches.String diagram: Process • A scale plan of working area similar to that required for a flow diagram must be made. the heads being allowed to stand well clear of the surface. • Completed plan should be attached to a softwood board and pins driven into it firmly at every stopping point. stores etc. pillars. together with doorways. with higher accuracy. 22 . • Machines. should be drawn to scale. • Pins should also be driven in at all the turning points on the route. • A measured length of thread is then taken and tied around the pin at the starting point of the movements.

String diagram: Process • It is then led around the pins at the other points of call in the order noted on the study sheet until all the movements have been dealt with. • By measuring the length of the thread. • Of two or more workers are studied over the same working area. • The result is to give a picture of the paths of movement of the operators. 23 . different colored threads may be used to distinguish them. the distance traveled by the worker can be calculated. those which are most frequently traversed being covered with the greatest number of strings.

24 . • This can be checked by leading the thread around the pins in their new positions. keeping the same sequence. • The length of the thread for the new layout is measured and compared with the length of thread for original layout. • Difference in length of threads represent the reduction in distance traveled as a result of improved layout.String diagram: Analysis • Examination of diagram and development of new layout done in a similar fashion as with a flow diagram. • Pins and templates are moved around until an arrangement is found by which the same operation can be performed with a minimum movement between them.

25 .Travel chart • A travel chart is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about the movements of workers. materials or equipment between any number of places over any given period of time.

the diagram looks like ugly mess of criss-crossing lines. Or vice versa. • Data could be travel time taken.Travel chart • String diagrams take a rather long time to construct. materials or equipment between any number of places over any given period of time. • It is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about movements of workers. the travel chart is quicker and more manageable recording technique. And when a great many movements along complex paths are involved. • When the movement patterns are complex. 26 . distance traveled etc. • It is represented as a square matrix: columns indicating origin of movement and rows the destination.

• Just the start and end of the travel is recorded as corresponding columns and row. 27 .Travel chart • The person conducting the study doesn’t have to trace the actual path from origin to destination.

28 .handed process chart • The two handed process chart is a process in which the activities of a worker’s hands (or limbs) are recorded in their relationship to one another.Two.

The techniques used for this purpose frequently make use of filming. symbol and letter for recording purposes. The divisions were devised by Frank B. Each therblig has a specific color. 29 . Gilbreth differentiated 17 fundamental hand or hand and eye motions.Micromotion study • • • Micromotion study: In certain types of operation. the founder of motion study. The micromotion group of techniques is based on the ideas of dividing human activity into divisions of movements or groups of movements (known as therblings) according to the purpose for which they are made. to which an eighteen has subsequently been added. it is worth while going into much greater detail to determine where movements and efforts can be saved and to develop the best possible pattern of movement. thus enabling the operative to perform the operation repeatedly with a minimum of effort and fatigue.Gilberth. and particularly those with very short cycles which are repeated thousands of times ( such as the packing of sweets into boxes or food cans into cartons). the word ―therblig‖ is an anagram of his name. and are known collectively as micromotion study.

often based on firm analysis. often performed with extremely rapidity. used to record simultaneously on a common time scale the therbligs or groups of therbligs performed by different parts of the body of one or more workers. Because simo chart are used primarily for operations of short duration.Simo Chart (Defination) • • • Simo Chart (Defination): A simo chart is a chart. 30 . It will be seen that the movements are recorded against time measured in ―winks‖ (1 wink = 1/2000 minute). The Simultaneous motion cycle chart in short known as simo chart is the micromotion form of the man type flow process chart. it is generally necessary to compile them from films made of the operation which can be stopped at any point or projected in slow motion.