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case with 0 = 65". However.

other CP characteristics are similar to


those observed for 0 = 65".

Table 1: Comparison between proposed disk-sector microstrip


antennas (antenna 1 with 8 = 65" and antenna 2 with 0
= 70") and reference antenna (circularly-polarised
equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna with slit [4])
Maximum
hear
Patch
CP
Maximum
Centre
frequency dimensions area bandwidth received
powelof patch
Antenna 1
Antenna 2

141

MM

inm

1944
1889
1931

48.4
51.6
48.2

nm'

1149
1237
998

MFIr

dBin

25 (1.3%)
23 (1.2%)
19 (1.0%)

-50.4
-50.0
-50.3

reduced and therefore the array can be designed with smaller element spacing. When comparing the experimental results for the
single element CP antenna with those for the array, it is found
that the ne\$ 2 x 2 array configuration offers a wider impedance
bandwidth than the single element CP antenna. Similarly, the CP
array also improves the axial ratio bandwidth and the boresight
axial I-atio. Experimental results of return loss, radiation pattern
and polarisation aspect ratio are also presented in this Letter.
slot Width w,

length Lb

line width WL

circular patch with cross slot


microstrip

Conclusions: A single-feed circularly-polarised disk-sector microstrip antenna has been experimentally investigated. The present CP
design requires no perturbation elements to be introduced in the
patch, and the excitation of two near-degenerate orthogonal
modes for CP radiation is mainly controlled by the flare angle of
the patch, which is experimentally found to be 65 and 70".
0 IEE 1998

ground plane
a

16 Septeniher 199%

Eleclronics Lerrcrs Online N o : 19981587

Wen-Hsiu Hsu

and Kin-Lu Wong (Deparznwir of E/wtr.ir.o/


Enginwring, Nurional Sun Yat-Sen University, Kcrohsiung, Tciiiwm,
Republic of China)

element spacing
D=0.59h0

References
and HALL, P.s (Eds.): 'Handbook of microstrip
antennas' (Peter Peregrinus, London. 1989)
2 WONG. K.L., and L I N . Y F.: 'Circularly polarised microstrip antenna
with tuning stub', Electron. Letr., 1998. 34, pp. 831-832
3 WONG, K L., HSU. w.H , and wu. C.K : 'Single-ked circularly polarized
microstrip antenna with a slit', Mzcvoiv. Opt. Technol. Lett., 1998.
18, pp. 306-308
4 LU. J H , TANG, c L.. and WONG, K . L : 'Circular polarisation design of
single-feed equilateral-triangular microstrip antenna', Election.
1 JAMES. J R ,

Fig. 1 Antennci toi~fi~iircitions


U

Single element

W,

2111m, L, = 20mm. L,

IO",

W, = 4.68mm,
d = 23mm,

h = 1.57min
h Array

Lett., 1998, 34, pp. 319-321


0

-1 0

Circularly polarised microstrip antenna array


using proximity coupled feed
m -20

:
3

W.K. Lo, C.H. Chan and K.M. Luk


A 2 x 2 circularly polarised (CP) microstrip antenna array using a
proximity coupled feed and sequential rotation is described. As

E
+

P -30

compared with a previously presented single-element circularly


polarised microstrip antenna with a cross-slot, the new array
achieves a much wider impedance bandwidth of 11.18'%1 and has
an axial ratio bandwidth of 4. I 'h.The rcturn loss, radiation
patterns anti axial ratio of the antcnna array were measured and
are prcsented.
Introduction: Microstrip antennas have been investigated extensively because of their advantages such as small size, low profile
and low cost. Circularly polarised (CP) antennas arc particularly
useful for a number of radar and mobile satellite communication
systems. It has been demonstrated that CP antennas can be realised by cutting a cross-slot into a circular patch [l, 21. Furthermore, the size of the patch is reduced when compared with that
without the ci-oss-slot. In this CP microstrip antenna, flexible
impedance matching is provided by a proximity-coupled feed [3].
For the conventional single-element CP antenna, the impedance
bandwidth and the axial ratio bandwidth are relatively narrow.
The use of sequential rotation [4, 51 can alleviate these difficulties.
In this study, a 2 x 2 circularly polarised microstrip phased array
antenna was designed and measured experimentally. Each array
element is a circular microstrip antenna with a cross-slot with a
proximity-coupled feed. With the cross-slot, each element size is

2190

-40

-50

1.5

1.6

I
1.7

I
1.8

1.9

169412

frequency,GHz

Fig. 2 Rrfurn loss against frequency

array
single element

~.._

-- -

An~znzna configurmtiun: The configurations of the single-element


antenna and the CP antenna array are shown in Fig. 1. The relative phases for the array at four feed points are 0, 90, 180 and
270", respectively. The substrate used for the antenna has a dielectric constant E, = 2.33 and the substrate thickness h = 1.57mm, the
width of the 50Q microstrip feed W, is 4.68".
The radius of the
circular patch R is 66".
The length of the longer slot Lo is

ELECTRONICS LETTERS

12th November 1998

Vol. 34

No. 23

20mn, the length of the shorter slot L,, is 10inm and the width W,
of the slots is 2.
The patch-line overlap length of a single element U is 23.
Based on the design of the single-elemmt CP
antenna, the design of the 2 x 2 CP antenna array is shown in Fig.
lh. The designed frequency of the antenna array is 1.61GIIz and
the element spacing D of the array is 0.59 A,, and the patch-line
overlap length is the same as the single element.
0

antennas are shown in Fig. 3. It reveals that the directivity of the


CP antenna array is better than that of the single element due to
the sharper radiation pattern. Also, from experimental results, it is
found that the single elenlent and the antenna array generate
RHCP (right hand circular polarisation) when the microstrip line
excites the circular patch as showri in Fig. 1. The array indeed
provides a much better RHCP than does the single element. Fig. 4
shows the measured axial ratio of ihe single element and that of
the array antenna where the 3dB axial ratio bandwidth of the
antenna array is 4.1%1which is much wider than the single element
of O.S6/0. The best axial ratio of the array is 0SdB at 1.62GHz
which is also much better than the single element of 2.8dB at the
same frequency.

Aclcnowledgnient: This project is supported by the Research Grant


Council of Hong Kong (Project number: 9040199 and 9040210).

270

0 IEE 1998

16 Septeniber 1998

Electronics Letters Otzlincj No: 19981573


225

\__

180

R.J. Mailloux

A technique is presented which combines the subarraying qualities

of constrained dual transform beamforming sections and partial


overlapping networks to produce arrays of contiguous subarrays.
This approach is shown to facilitate wideband scanning or limited
Geld of view coverage with a minimum number of controls and
low sidelobes.

8 -

9
._
+

E 6 m

4 -

2 -

Honfi Kong, 53 Tat Clzee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong S A R , Peoples


Repuldic of China)

W.K. Lo, C.H. Chan and K.M. 1,uk (Wireless Communications


Luboratory, Department OJ Electronic Engineering, City University oj

large phased arrays

12

10

135

Intvoduction: Elements of large arra:ys are often grouped into subarrays for the purpose of decreasing the array feed complexity or
reducing the number of controls. SiibarrdyS are useful in systems
that scan over a limited field of view (LFOV) and also in wideband scanning systems. In an LFOV system that scans to kO,,,,,
the use of only a single phase shifter per subarray results in significant cost savings since the maximum subarray spacing D is of the