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Chapter 5

1. Let g ( x ) = e x x on [ 1, 2] . The derivative of g is g ( x ) = e x 1 .


(a) Write the slope intercept form of the equation of the tangent line to the graph of g at x = 1 .
(b) Determine the x-coordinate of each critical value of g . Show the work that leads to your
answer.
(c) Find the coordinates of the absolute maximum of g . Justify your answer.

Chapter 5

1. Let g ( x ) = e x x on [ 1, 2] . The derivative of g is g ( x ) = e x 1 .


(a) Write the slope intercept form of the equation of the tangent line to
the graph of g at x = 1 .
The slope of the tangent line at x = 1 is given by g (1) = e 1 .

Furthermore, g (1) = e 1 . So the equation of the tangent line is


y y1 = m ( x x1 )

y ( e 1) = ( e 1)( x 1)

+1 Slope is g (1) = e 1
+1 g (1) = e 1

+1 y = ( e 1) x

y = ( e 1) x ( e 1) + ( e 1)
y = ( e 1) x

(b) Determine the x-coordinate of each critical value of g . Show the


work that leads to your answer.
g ( x ) = ex 1
0 = ex 1
1 = ex

+1 Set g ( x ) = 0
+1 e x = 1
+1 x = 0

x = ln1
x=0
(c) Find the absolute maximum of g . Justify your answer.

We must evaluate g at the critical values and end points.


g ( 1) = e 1 ( 1) 1.368
g (0) = e0 ( 0 ) = 1
g (2) = e 2 1 5.389

The coordinates of the absolute maximum are ( 2, 5.389 )

+1 Evaluate g at x = 1 ,
x = 2 , and critical
value from part (b)
+ 2 ( 2, 5.389 ) are the
coordinates of the
absolute maximum

Chapter 5
2. Let f ( x ) =

1
and g ( x ) = ln x .
x
4

(a) Describe the graphical relationship between

f ( x )dx

and g (4) g (2) . Show the work that

leads to your conclusion.


2

(b) Which expression has the greatest value: f (4), f ( x ) dx, g (3), or g ( 2 ) ? Justify your
1

answer.
(c) The function f is its own inverse. That is, f ( f ( x ) ) = x . Show that f ( f ( x ) ) =
for x 0 .

1
f ( f ( x))

Chapter 5
2. Let f ( x ) =

1
and g ( x ) = ln x .
x
4

(a) Describe the graphical relationship between

f ( x )dx

and g (4) g (2) .

Show the work that leads to your conclusion.


+1 Correct graphical
explanation of

f ( x )dx is the area between

f ( x )dx

the graph of f and the x-axis


on the interval [ 2, 4] .
g (4) g (2) is the vertical
distance between the points
( 2, g (2) ) and ( 4, g (4) ) . Since

+1 Correct graphical
explanation of
g (4) g (2)
+1 Relationship between
the two

f ( x ) dx = g ( x ) + C ,
4

f ( x )dx = g (4) g (2) . Both


2

values equal ln 2 .
2

(b) Which expression has the greatest value: f (4), f ( x ) dx, g (3), or
1

g ( 2 ) ? Justify your answer.

f (4) =

1
= 0.25
4

f ( x )dx = ln 2 0.693

+1 g (3)
+2 Supporting work

g (3) = ln 3 1.099
g (2) = 0.5

Of these, g (3) has the greatest value.


(c) The function f is its own inverse. That is, f ( f ( x ) ) = x . Show that
f ( x) =

f ( x) =

1
for x 0 .
f ( f ( x) )

1
x

f ( x) =

1
x2

1
f ( f ( x) ) = f
x
1
=
2
1

x
= x2

1
1
= 2
f ( f ( x) ) x

= f ( x)

+1 f ( x ) =

1
x2

1
+ 1 f ( f ( x) ) = f
x
1
1
+1
= 2
f ( f ( x) )
x

Chapter 5

3. Let f ( x ) = e x x .
(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?
1

(b) Which expression has the least value:

f ( x ) dx

1
a

(c) Given f ( x )dx = f ( a ) , find a .


0

or f (1) ? Justify your answer.

Chapter 5

3. Let f ( x ) = e x x .
(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?
f ( x ) = ex 1

+1 f ( x ) = e x 1

0 = ex 1
ex = 1
x=0
Since f ( 1) < 0 and f (1) > 0 , a relative minimum occurs at x = 0 .
1

(b) Which expression has the least value:

f ( x ) dx

+1 x = 0
+1 Justify extrema

or f (1) ? Justify

your answer.
1

f ( x ) dx = e

+1 f (1)

1
2.350
e

+2 Supporting work

f (1) = e 1 1.718

f (1) has the least value.


a

a a2
f
x
dx
(
)
=
e 1
0
2

+ 1 f ( a ) = ea 1

(c) Given f ( x )dx = f ( a ) , find a .

+1

f ( x )dx = e
0

x dx

f ( x )dx = f ( a )
0

2 a

x
=e
2
x

f ( a ) = ea 1

a
= ea 1
2

ea

a2
1 = ea 1
2
a2

=0
2
a=0

+1 a = 0

Chapter 5
4. Let f ( x ) = cosh( x ) =

7
e x + e x
.
2

(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?


1

(b) Find the exact value for

f ( x ) dx .

(c) Show that f does not have any inflection points.

Chapter 5

e x + e x
.
2
(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?
1
f ( 1) < 0
f ( x ) = ( e x e x )
2
f (0) = 0
1 x
x
0 = (e e )
f (1) > 0
2
0 = e x e x
A relative minimum occurs at
1
x
x = 0.
e = x
e
e2 x = 1
2 x = ln1
2x = 0
x=0
4. Let f ( x ) = cosh( x ) =

+1 f ( x ) =

1 x
e e x )
(
2

+1 x = 0
+1 Justify extrema

(b) Find the exact value for

f ( x ) dx .

1
1 x
e e x )
(
1 f ( x ) dx = F (1) F (1)
2
1
F (1) = ( e1 e 1 )
= e e 1
2
1
F ( 1) = ( e 1 e1 )
2
(c) Show that f does not have any inflection points.

F ( x) =

1 x
e e x )
(
2

+1 Limits
+1 e e 1

+1 f ( x ) = f ( x )

+ 1 f ( x ) > 0 everywhere

f ( x ) = f ( x )

1
Since e > 0 and e > 0 for all values of x, f ( x ) = ( e x + e x ) > 0
2
for all values of x. Thus f ( x ) > 0 f concave up everywhere .
x

+1 F ( x ) =

Therefore, f does not have any inflection points.

+1 f concave up everywhere

Chapter 5

5. Let f ( x ) = cosh( x ) + sinh( x ) and g ( x ) = cosh( x ) sinh( x ) .


(a) Use calculus to show that f ( x ) is an increasing function.
(b) Define h ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) . Determine the critical values of h .
(c) Write the expressions in order from the smallest value to the largest value: h(0), h ( 0 ) , f (1) .
Show the work that leads to your conclusion.

Chapter 5

10

5. Let f ( x ) = cosh( x ) + sinh( x ) and g ( x ) = cosh( x ) sinh( x ) .


(a) Use calculus to show that f ( x ) is an increasing function.
+1 f ( x ) = e x

1 x
1
e + e x ) + ( e x e x )
(
2
2
x
=e

f ( x) =

+1 f ( x ) > 0
+1 Justify increasing

f ( x ) = e > 0 for all x


x

Since f ( x ) > 0 for all x , f is increasing.


(b) Define h ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) . Determine the critical values of h .
+1 h ( x ) = 0

h( x ) = cosh 2 x sinh 2 x
h ( x ) = 2 ( cosh x )( sinh x ) 2 ( sinh x )( cosh x )
=0
Since h ( x ) = 0 for all values of x , every x-value is a critical value.
(c) Write the expressions in order from the smallest value to the largest
value: h(0), h ( 0 ) , f (1) . Show the work that leads to your
conclusion.
f (0) = 1
g (0) = 1

From (b), h ( 0 ) = 0 .

h(0) = f (0) g (0)


= 1 (1)
=1
So h ( 0 ) < h ( 0 ) < f (1) .

From (a),
f (1) = e 2.718

+1 All values of x are


critical values
+1 h ( 0 ) = 1

+1 h ( 0 ) = 0

+1 f (1) = e
+1 correct order

Chapter 5
6. Let f ( x ) =
(a) Determine

11
1

4 x2

f ( x )dx

(b) What is the area of the region bounded by f , the x-axis, the y-axis, and the line x = 1 ?
(c) Determine the value of a that makes the following equality true:

f ( x )dx = f ( x ) .

Chapter 5
1

6. Let f ( x ) =
(a) Determine

12

4 x2

f ( x )dx
x

f ( x )dx = arcsin 2 + C

+1

f ( x )dx = arcsin 2

+1 constant of integration
(b) What is the area of the region bounded by f , the x-axis, the y-axis,
and the line x = 1 ?
1

1
f ( x ) dx = arcsin arcsin ( 0 )
2
=

+1

+1 Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus

6
0.524

+1

(c) Determine the value of a that makes the following equality true:
a

f ( x )dx = f ( x ) .
1

2 6

f ( x )dx = f ( x )

f ( x )dx = arcsin 2 arcsin 2


= arcsin

0.524

+1

a
=
2 6 6
a
arcsin =
2 3
a

= sin
2
3

arcsin


a = 2 sin
3
3
= 2

2
= 3
1.732

a
=
2 3
a

+1 = sin
2
3
+1 arcsin

+1

f ( x )dx = arcsin 2 6
1

f ( x ) dx

Chapter 5
7. Let f ( x ) = arccos ( x 2 ) and g ( x ) = arcsin ( x 2 ) .

(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?


(b) Use technology to determine the area of the region bounded by f and g .
(c) Define h( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) . Write h ( x ) in terms of f ( x ) .

13

Chapter 5

14

7. Let f ( x ) = arccos ( x 2 ) and g ( x ) = arcsin ( x 2 ) .


(a) At what x-values does f have relative extrema?
2 x
f ( 0.5) > 0
f ( x) =
4
1 x
f (0) = 0
2 x
f ( 0.5) < 0
0=
1 x4
A relative maximum occurs
x=0
at x = 0 .
(b) Use technology to determine the area of the region bounded
by f and g .
Using technology, we determine points of intersection at
x 0.841 .
0.841

0.841

arccos( x 2 ) arcsin ( x 2 ) dx 1.815

(c) Define h( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) . Write h ( x ) in terms of


f ( x) .

h ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x )

= f ( x ) ( f ( x ))
= 2 f ( x)

+1 f ( x ) =

2 x

1 x4

+1 x = 0
+1 Justify extrema

+1 x 0.841
0.841

+1

( arccos( x

0.841

) arcsin ( x 2 ) dx

+1 1.815
+1 h ( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x )

+ 1 g( x) = f ( x)
+1 h ( x ) = 2 f ( x )

Chapter 5

15

8. Price inflation in the United States is typically about 3% per year. Assuming an annual
inflation rate of 3%, do the following:
(a) Create a model that gives the future price of a candy bar that costs $0.75 today.
(b) Determine when the price of the candy bar is expected to reach $1.50.
(c) When the price reaches $1.50, at what instantaneous rate (in dollars per year) will the price of
the candy bar be changing?

Chapter 5

16

8. Price inflation in the United States is typically about 3% per year. Assuming an annual
inflation rate of 3%, do the following:
(a) Create a model that gives the future price of a candy bar that costs
$0.75 today.
p ( t ) = 0.75 (1.03)

+1 exponential function
+1 initial value is 0.75
+1 growth factor is 1.03

(b) Determine when the price of the candy bar is expected to reach
$1.50.
1.50 = 0.75 (1.03)

+1 1.50 = 0.75 (1.03)

2 = 1.03t
ln 2 = t ln1.03
ln 2
t=
ln1.03
t 23.450 years from now
(c) When the price reaches $1.50, at what instantaneous rate (in
dollars per year) will the price of the candy bar be changing?
p ( t ) = 0.75ln (1.03) (1.03)

p ( 23.450 ) 0.044 dollars per year

+1 Correctly log both sides


+1 t = 23.450 years

+1 p ( t ) = 0.75ln (1.03)(1.03)
+1 0.044
+1 dollars per year

Chapter 5

17

9. Two towers of equal height are spaced 366 feet apart. A cable suspended between the two
x
forms a centenary whose height above the ground is given by f ( x ) = 125cosh
+ 100
250
where x = 0 at the point on the ground halfway between the two towers.
(a) What is the height of each tower (rounded to the nearest foot)?
(b) What is the average height of the cable?
(c) At the point where the height of the cable is equal to the average height of the cable and the
cable is rising, what is the slope of the cable?

Chapter 5

18

9. Two towers of equal height are spaced 366 feet apart. A cable suspended between the two
x
forms a centenary whose height above the ground is given by f ( x ) = 125cosh
+ 100
250
where x = 0 at the point on the ground halfway between the two towers.
(a) What is the height of each tower (rounded to the nearest foot)?
366
Since
= 183 feet , the towers are at x = 183 and x = 183 .
2
f (183) = 260 feet

+1 f (183)
+1 260
+1 feet

(b) What is the average height of the cable?


183

183

f ( x ) dx = 86, 546.525

183

+1

f ( x ) dx = 86, 546.525

183
183

average height =

183

f ( x ) dx

183

366
86, 546.525
=
366
= 236.466 feet
(c) At the point where the height of the cable is equal to the
average height of the cable and the cable is rising, what is the
slope of the cable?

We set f ( x ) = 236.466 and solve for x using technology.


x = 106.277
x 1
f ( x ) = 125sinh

250 250
f (106.277 ) = 0.219 vertical foot per horizontal foot

+1 average height =

f ( x ) dx

183

366

+1 236.466 feet

+1 x = 106.277
x 1
+ 1 f ( x ) = 125sinh

250 250
+1 f (106.277 ) = 0.219

Chapter 5

19

10. The function f ( x ) = 10 x has inverse function g ( x ) = log x with x > 0 .


(a) Show that g ( x ) =

1
.
f ( g( x))

(b) What is the area of the region between f and g on the interval [1, 2] ?
(c) What is the equation of the tangent line of g at x = 4 ?

Chapter 5

20

10. The function f ( x ) = 10 x has inverse function g ( x ) = log x with x > 0 .


(a) Show that g ( x ) =
f ( x ) = ln10 (10 x )

1
.
f ( g( x))

g( x) =

f ( g ( x ) ) = ln10 (10 g ( x ) )
= ln10 (10log x )

= ( ln10 ) x

1
ln (10 ) x
1
f ( g ( x) )

+1 f ( x ) = ln10 (10 x )

+1 f ( g ( x ) ) = ( ln10 ) x
+1 Show g ( x ) =

1
f ( g( x))

(b) What is the area of the region between f and g on the interval
[1, 2] ?
+1 limits of integration
+1 integrand
+1 38.919

( f ( x ) g ( x ) ) dx = 38.919
1

(c) What is the equation of the tangent line of g at x = 4 ?

1
y=
x+b
( ln10 ) 4

1
g( x) =
( ln10 ) x
g (4) =

1
( ln10 ) 4

log 4 =

0.109

1
(4) + b
( ln10 ) 4

b = log 4
0.168

y=

1
1

x + log 4

ln10
( ln10 ) 4

= 0.109 x + 0.168

1
ln10

+1 g ( 4 ) 0.109
+ 1 m = g (4)

+1 b = 0.168