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# MATHEMATICS

for

EC / EE / IN / ME / CE
By

Syllabus

Mathematics

## Syllabus for Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard
deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial
distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for
differential equations.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper
integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and Minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities,
Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential
equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchys and Eulers equations,
Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula, Taylors and
Laurent series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

## Analysis of GATE Papers

(Mathematics)
Year

ECE

EE

IN

ME

CE

2013

10

12

10

15

N.A

2012

14

10

15

15

15

2011

10

10

13

13

2010

12

12

12

15

15

14.5%

14.33%

Over All
Percentage

11.25%

11.00% 11.75%

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Contents

Mathematics

CONTENTS

#1.

#2.

#3.

#4.

Chapter

Page No.

Linear Algebra

1-37

1 - 4
4 - 17
17 - 20
21 - 24
24- 27
28
28 - 37

Matrix
Determinant
Eigen Vectors
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

38-70

38
44
50
58
60
64
64

## Permutation & Combination

Random Variable
Normal Distribution
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

44
- 50
- 57
- 60
- 63
70

Numerical Methods

71-90

71 77
77 - 80
80 - 82
83 - 84
85
86
86 90

## Solution of algebraic & Transcendental equation

Numerical Integration
Differential Equation
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

Calculus

91 - 134

91 - 97
97 - 98
98 101
102 - 108
108 - 115
116 -119
120 - 122
123
123 134

Indeterminate form
Derivative
Maxima-minima
Integration
Vector calculus
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

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Contents

#5.

#6.

#7.

Mathematics

Differential Equations

135 - 172

135 - 145
145 - 153
153 160
161 -163
164 - 165
166
166 172

## Order of differential equation

Higher order differential equation
Partial Differential Equation
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

Complex Variables

173 - 199

173 - 175
176 - 178
178 184
184 186
187 - 189
189 - 191
192
192 199

Complex Variables
Analytical Function
Cauchys Intergral Theorem
Residue Theorem
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

Laplace Transform

200 - 217

200
200 - 205
206 -208
209 - 211
212
212 217

Introduction
Laplace Transform
Assignment-1
Assignment-2
Explanations

Module Test

218-235

Test Questions

218- 224

225

Explanations

225 - 235

Reference Books

236

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Page II

Chapter-1

Mathematics

CHAPTER 1
Linear Algebra
Linear algebra comprises of the theory and applications of linear system of equations, linear
transformations and Eigen-value problems.

Matrix
Definition
A system of m n numbers arranged along m rows and n columns
Conventionally, single capital letter is used to denote matrices
Thus,

A=[

a
a

a
a

a
a
a

a
a
a
a

## ith row, jth column

Types of Matrices
1. Row and Column matrices
Row Matrices [ 2, 7, 8, 9]

Column Matrices

## single row ( or row vector)

single column (or column vector)

2. Square matrix
Same number of rows and columns.
Order of Square matrix no. of rows or columns
e.g. A = [

## Principal Diagonal (or main diagonal or leading diagonal)

The diagonal of a square matrix (from the top left to the bottom right) is called as
principal diagonal.
Trace of the Matrix
The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix.
- tr ( A) = tr(A) , is scalar- tr ( A+B) = tr (A) + tr (B)
- tr (AB) = tr (BA)

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Chapter-1

Mathematics

3. Rectangular Matrix
Number of rows Number of columns
4. Diagonal Matrix
A Square matrix in which all the elements except those in leading diagonal are zero.
e.g. [

5. Scalar Matrix
A Diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal elements are same.
e.g [

## 6. Unit Matrix (or Identity Matrix)

A Diagonal matrix in which all the leading diagonal elements are .
e.g.

## 7. Null Matrix (or Zero Matrix)

A matrix is said to be Null Matrix if all the elements are zero.
e.g.

## 8. Symmetric and Skew symmetric matrices

* Symmetric, when a = +a for all i and j. In other words
=A
Note :- Diagonal elements can be anything.
* Skew symmetric, when a = - a In other words
= -A
Note :- All the diagonal elements must be zero.
Symmetric
Skew symmetric
a h g
h g
f]
[h b f ]
[h
g f c
g f

Symmetric Matrix

= A

## Skew Symmetric Matrix

= - A

9. Triangular matrix
A matrix is said to be upper triangular if all the elements below its principal diagonal
are zeros.
A matrix is said to be lower triangular if all the elements above its principal diagonal
are zeros.
a
a h g
[
[g b
]
b f]
f h c
c
Upper triangular matrix
Lower triangular matrix
10.

## Orthogonal matrix: If A. A = , then matrix A is said to be Orthogonal matrix.

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Chapter-1

Mathematics

11.

## Singular matrix: If |A| = 0, then A is called a singular matrix.

12.

Unitary matrix
) = transpose of a conjugate of matrix A
If we define, A = (A
Then the matrix is unitary if A . A =
For example
A=[

13.

],A =[

## A. A = , and Hence its a Unitary Matrix

Hermitian matrix
It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to its own conjugate transpose.
A = A or a = a
i
For example:
0
1
i
Note: In Hermitian matrix , diagonal elements

14.

always real

Skew Hermitian matrix : It is a square matrix with complex entries which is equal to the
negative of conjugate transpose.
A = A or a = a
i
For example = 0
1
i
Note: In Skew-Hermitian matrix , diagonal elements

15.

16.

## Nilpotent Matrix : If A = 0 (null matrix), then A is called Nilpotent matrix (where K is a

+ve integer).

17.

Periodic Matrix : If A

18.

## Proper Matrix : If |A| = 1, matrix A is called Proper Matrix.

Equality of matrices
Two matrices can be equal if they are of
(a) Same order
(b) Each corresponding element in both the matrices are equal.
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Chapter-1

Mathematics

## Addition and Subtraction of matrices

[

a
c

b
]
d

a
c

b
] =
d

a
c

a
c

b
d

b
]
d

Rules
1. Matrices of same order can be added
2. Addition is commutative A+B = B+A
3. Addition is associative (A+B) +C = A+ (B+C) = B + (C+A)
Multiplication of matrix by a Scalar
Every element of the matrix gets multiplied by that scalar.

Multiplication of matrices
Condition: Two matrices can be multiplied only when number of columns of the first matrix is
equal to the number of rows of the second matrix. Multiplication of (m n) and (n
m n
p) matrices results in matrix of (m p)dimension
0 n p = m p1.
To find Rank always remember to make matrix a triangular matrix (Upper triangular) or (lower
triangular)
[

] or

Try to make I, zero then II and then III in any Matrix to find Rank of Matrix, for easy execution of
question to find rank.

Determinant
An n order determinant is an expression associated with n

n square matrix.

## If A = [a ] , Element a with ith row, jth column.

For n = 2 ,

a
D = det A = |a

a
a | = (a

-a

a )

Determinant of order n

D = |A| = det A = ||

a
a

a
a

|
|

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Chapter-1

Mathematics

## Minors & Co-factors

The minor of an element in a determinant is the determinant obtained by deleting the row
and the column which intersect that element.
a
a
a
b
b |
D=| b
c
c
c
Minor of a = |

b
c

b
|
c

Cofactor is the minor with proper sign. The sign is given by (-1)
belongs to ith row, jth column).
A2 = Cofactor of

= (-1)

b
|
c

b
|
c
A

## Cofactor matrix can be formed as |

In general

=
=0
*

, ,

if i

=j
j
,

.+

Drill Problem
Can the determinant be expanded about the diagonal?

Properties of Determinants
1.

A determinant remains unaltered by changing its rows into columns and columns into
rows.
a
a
a
a
b
c
b
b |
b
c | = | b
| a
c
c
c
a
b
c

2.

## If two parallel lines of a determinant are inter-changed, the determinant retains it

numerical values but changes in sign. (In a general manner, a row or column is referred as
line).
a
b
c
a
c
b
c
a
b
b
c |=
c
b | =| c
a
b |
| a
| a
a
b
c
a
c
b
c
a
b

3.
4.

## Determinant vanishes if two parallel lines are identical.

If each element of a line be multiplied by the same factor, the whole determinant is
multiplied by that factor. [Note the difference with matrix].
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
|
| =|
|
a
b
c
a
b
c
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Chapter-1

5.

## If each element of a line consists of

sum of the m determinants.
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
c
d
e | =| a
| a
a
b
c
d
e
a

6.

Mathematics

b
b
b

c
a
c |+| a
c
a

b
b
b

d
d |
d

a
| a
a

b
b
b

e
e |
e

8.

## If each element of a line be added equi-multiple of the corresponding elements of one or

more parallel lines, determinant is unaffected.
e.g. By the operation,
+ p +q , determinant is unaffected.
Determinant of an upper triangular/ lower triangular/diagonal/scalar matrix is equal to
the product of the leading diagonal elements of the matrix.
If A & B are square matrix of the same order, then |AB|=|BA|=|A||B|.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.

## Determinant of a skew symmetric matrix (i.e. A =-A) of odd order is zero.

If A is a unitary matrix or orthogonal matrix (i.e. A = A ) then |A|= 1.
If A is a square matrix of order n then |k A| = k |A|.
| | = 1 ( is the identity matrix of order n).

7.

Multiplication of determinants

The product of two determinants of same order is itself a determinant of that order.
In determinants we multiply row to row (instead of row to column which is done for
matrix).

## Comparison of Determinants & Matrices

Although looks similar, but actually determinant and matrix is totally different thing
and its technically unfair to even compare them. However just for readers
convenience, following comparative table has been prepared.

Determinant

Matrix

## No of rows and column need not be same

(square/rectangle)

## Scalar multiplication: elements of one line

(i.e. one row and column) is multiplied by
the constant

## Scalar multiplication: all elements of matrix is

multiplied by the constant

effect

## Interchanging rows and columns changes the

meaning all together

## Multiplication of 2 determinants is done by

multiplying rows of first matrix & rows of
second matrix

## Multiplication of the 2 matrices is done by

multiplying rows of first matrix & column of
second matrix

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