6 vistas

Cargado por Yang Gul Lee

- Embedded Generators
- Huawei Parameter Optimization
- Final project.pdf
- On the Use of Non-Stationary P enalt y Functions to Solve Nonlinear Constrained Optimizati on Problems with GA's
- Paper1_model Based Predictive Control for Hammerstein Wiener Systems
- A Multi-objective Approach to Optimal Allocation of Distribution Automation Devices in Radial Medium Voltage Network
- 137 Paper Final
- Operations Research-rony Andrews.
- an-innovative-technique-for-design-optimization-of-core-type-phase-distribution-transformer-using-mathematica-2229-8711-3-142.pdf
- MGO 634 作業9
- IJEET_09_06_004.pdf
- Software A
- Optimal network reconfiguration of electrical distribution systems
- Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Distribution Systems With Limited Switching Operations
- Optimal Reconfiguration in Radial Distribution System
- DOC-20170822-WA0001
- Evaluating-the-solution-performance-of-IP-and-CP-for-berth-allocation-with-time-varying-water-depth_2016_Transportation-Research-Part-E-Logistics-and-.pdf
- Quantitative Methods Assignment
- Location Problem - An Overview
- Part Selection

Está en la página 1de 13

nonlinear programming

Sanyogita Lakhera

a,1

, Uday V. Shanbhag

b,,1

, Michael K. McInerney

c

a

Citibank, New York City, NY

b

Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 117 Transportation Building,

104 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA

c

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), USA

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 23 July 2009

Received in revised form 5 July 2010

Accepted 13 August 2010

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Optimization

Nonlinear programming

Mixed-integer nonlinear programming

Distribution system design

GIS

a b s t r a c t

Given urban data derived from a geographical information system (GIS), we consider the problem of con-

structing an estimate of the electrical distribution system of an urban area. We employ the image data to

obtain an approximate electrical load distribution over a network of a prespeciced discretization.

Together with partial information about existing substations, we determine the optimal placement of

electrical substations to sustain such a load that minimizes the cost of capital and losses. This requires

solving large-scale quadratic programs with discrete variables for which we present a novel penaliza-

tion-smoothing scheme. The choice of locations allows one to determine the optimal ows in this

network, as required by physical requirements which provide us with an approximation of the distribu-

tion network. Furthermore, the scheme allows for approximating systems in the presence of no-go areas,

such as lakes and elds. We examine the performance of our algorithm on the solution of a set of location

problems and observe that the scheme is capable of solving large-scale instances, well beyond the realm

of existing mixed-integer nonlinear programming solvers. We conclude with a case study in which a

stage-wise extension of this scheme is developed to reect the temporal evolution of load.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Obtaining information pertaining to a citys utility networks is

crucial for purposes of planning, maintenance and redesign. Yet,

this information is often inaccessible to most agencies and a rel-

evant question is how one may approximate such information

through the usage of only image data. This provides a motivation

for estimating the underlying distribution system of an urban

area, given an image from a geographical information system

(GIS). Such an image captures the parcel data as well as a subset

of existing substations in the urban area. We consider a novel ap-

proach that comprises of two basic steps. First, the input image is

used to construct an electrical load distribution on a grid of pre-

specied discretization. Note that a grid, in this context, refers to

a regular fully connected network over which a distribution net-

work will be specied. Second, we solve an inverse problem that

estimates the set of lines that correspond to such a load distribu-

tion. Several issues complicate such an estimation. In general, the

true distribution system is a radial network and the resulting in-

verse problem falls within the realm of optimization problems in

function space and is, in general, intractable. Instead, we restrict

the set of possible networks to those that can be specied as

graphs on a grid of chosen size. Two additional complexities

emerge from modeling distribution systems in urban areas. First,

there are signicant areas that cannot be covered by the distribu-

tion system (such as lakes or elds). Therefore, the optimal solu-

tion has to reect these restrictions. Second, a clear evolution

pattern exists in the growth of the load and needs to be respected

in estimating the distribution system. For instance, if a particular

part of a township developed earlier than another, then the distri-

bution system would have such a structure.

The resulting problem can be recast as an mathematical pro-

gram in nite-dimensional space in which one seeks a set of ows

that satisfy the substation capacity constraints, Kirchhoffs conser-

vation equations and voltage bounds. Unfortunately, this problem

can be infeasible if the substation information is inaccurate. To

avert this possibility, we consider a problem in which we deter-

mine the installation of incremental substations as well as the

ows that emerge from the resulting system. This optimization

problem falls within a class of mixed-integer nonlinear problems

(MINLP) and has a size that grows with the level of discretization

and the number of substations. Currently no solvers exist for

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: sanyo_dce@yahoo.com (S. Lakhera), udaybag@illinois.edu

(U.V. Shanbhag), Michael.K.McInerney@usace.army.mil (M.K. McInerney).

1

Authors have been partially supported by Award No. US Army/Construction and

Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) W9132T-07-C-0010.

Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Electrical Power and Energy Systems

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j epes

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

addressing problems arising from practical networks [17]; instead,

we provide a framework that can cope with large-scale instances.

In this paper, we make the following contributions:

1. By converting the image data into electrical load data, we recast

what was essentially an innite-dimensional problem as a

nite-dimensional discrete nonlinear optimization problem.

This problem is capable of encapsulating a variety of complex-

ities ranging from variable substation sizes, restricted areas and

variable feeder sizes.

2. Solving such discrete optimization problems is only possible

when the space of discrete variables is small. To address this

challenge, we present a penalization-smoothing scheme that

solves a continuous form of this problem. We observe that this

allows for solving large-scale instances to local optimality with

respect to the smoothed formulation. Furthermore, the scheme

is shown to scale well with the number of discrete variables.

3. The framework allows for modeling a variety of complexities.

We show that restricted or no-go areas can be accommodated

within the framework and the obtained results do indeed reect

the constraints.

4. Finally, we extend the framework to allow for a multi-stage

approach towards approximating the distribution system in

an urban area by using a sequence of images from the GIS

system.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the

remainder of this section, we review past work in this area. In Sec-

tion 2, we provide an outline of our methodological framework and

has three subsections. In Section 2.1, we provide some details per-

taining to the image data while in Section 2.2, we discuss the struc-

tural properties of the constraints arising in such problems. In

Section 2.3, we dene the nonlinear discrete optimization problem

and its smooth generalization. In Section 3, we compare the perfor-

mance of a standard commercial MINLP solver with the smooth

approximation, particularly from the standpoint of the nal value

as well as the scalability. We discuss the performance of our ap-

proach when attempting to estimate the distribution system of

the city of Champaign in Section 4. The paper concludes in Section

5 with a summary and a set of possible research directions.

1.1. Background

The network ow model for distribution system design was

adequately discussed by Willis et al. [24,25]. The use of an optimal

planning approach toward the design of electrical networks was

rst illustrated by Knight [13]. The idea here was to have a mini-

mum cost network design using a network ow algorithm based

on a set of geographical locations. Other work highlighting similar

approaches include [4,15,12,26,1,23]. A succinct review of network

ow algorithms is available in [2] while power systems analysis

and optimization can be found in [28].

Sun et al. [21] used the concept of a long range horizon year

(target) together with a time-phased expansion process beginning

with the base year and progressing on to the target year. The idea is

to determine an optimal static horizon year design using a xed

charge transshipment problem formulation (FNCP). The branch-

and-bound algorithm is then employed in the formulation which

also includes explicit modeling of xed charge and variable cost

components for improved accuracy.

An efcient algorithm for the static investment planning of

large radial distribution systems was presented by Fawzi et al.

[8]. The algorithm takes into account the xed costs, concave non-

linearities in the cost functions of all elements and the operational

constraints. It uses a concave xed cost model to represent

elements with large xed costs (substations and possibly some

feeders) while it assumes linear cost functions for the remaining

elements. The branch-and-bound algorithm was also used with

the bounding criteria dependent on the cost and operational con-

straints. An iterative procedure modifying the solution of the rst

step accounts for the xed costs of the remaining elements.

Sharif et al. [22] propose an approach which makes use of both

the mixed-integer linear programming (MIP) and spanning tree

methods to help estimate the future expansion paths for a radial

distribution network. The general methodology employed is to rst

generate the spanning trees to connect the source to the demand

nodes followed by a MIP approach to ascertain the spanning tree

which can be used as the optimal solution.

Modeling the planning of distribution substations as well as

methods for solving distribution planning problems are discussed

in [7,16]. The solution methodology adopted is that of maximizing

the Lagrangian dual using the NETOPT program. Yahav and Oron

[27] accounted for the nonlinear costs of losses and construction

through the solution of a nonlinear program using an off-the-shelf

solver called GINO (it uses the generalized reduced gradient solver

GRG2 by Lasdon and Waren [19]).

Boulaxis et al. [3] proposes a new algorithm for solving the opti-

mal feeder routing problem using the dynamic programming tech-

nique and GIS facilities. Some of the factors taken into

consideration include practical issues such as cost parameters

(investments, line losses, reliability), technical constraints (voltage

drops and thermal limits) and physical routing constraints (obsta-

cles, high-cost passages, existing line sections). In related work, Lin

et al. [14] determine substation locations and new feeders using

GIS data. This work seems closest to ours in motivation. While

the work by Lin et al. is far more detailed in terms of modeling

the distribution systems, our work allows far more generality

and proposes a exible optimization framework for determining

new locations and feeders. Related work pertaining to planning

of distribution systems is seen in [9,6].

Finally, Murray and Shanbhag [17] use a local relaxation ap-

proach for the problem of siting electrical substations. Through

the solution of a sequence of appropriately dened nonlinear pro-

grams, the authors are able to solve large-scale problems over

thousands of grid-points. Importantly, for cases where global solu-

tions are available, the algorithm compares favorably. Related

extensions of the work to nonlinear facility location problems is

found in [18]. The nonlinear facility location problem falls within

the realm of mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems, a

class of optimization problems that have signicant application

in distribution system planning. For instance, reconguration via

capacitor allocation has been modeled as a mixed-integer nonlin-

ear program by Oliveira et al. [5]. Here, as well a continuous func-

tion is employed for smoothing the discrete variables and a primal-

dual interior point scheme is utilized for solving the resulting

smoothed problem.

Finally, its worth noting that the presence of distributed gener-

ation has introduced both novel and challenging questions in the

context of distribution system design. Popovic et al. [20] consider

the question of siting distributed generation by conducting a sen-

sitivity analysis on the power ow equations. More recently, Ghosh

et al. [10] employ Newton-based iterative schemes for optimal siz-

ing and placement of such generation and test their schemes on a

modied set of IEEE 6, 14 and 30 bus systems.

2. Methodology

Our general approach begins with data acquisition. This step

takes image data and provides a load distribution over a prescribed

grid. Integral to such a transformation is the prescription of how

much load corresponds to a specic residential, commercial or

2 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

industrial parcel. Using the grid-based load distribution, we con-

struct an evolutionary pattern that relates how the load has

evolved historically. This would require specifying a set of vectors

that represent the load distribution over specic time epochs.

At a particular time epoch, we solve a design subproblem that

determines the optimal lines and substations to meet the load

appearing in the next time epoch. Such a subproblem is in general

a large-scale nonlinear integer programming problem. In the sub-

sequent sections, we provide some insights of how local solutions

of such problems may be obtained. Given the location of substa-

tions with prescribed capacities, we may solve a full-rank set of

equations to obtain the appropriate ows. This set of ows, if fea-

sible , is taken as a proxy for the distribution system linkages. If

this system is infeasible with respect to substation capacities, then

we proceed to solve a modied problem, till we attain a feasible

integer solution. In the next three subsections, we describe various

aspects of this approach in greater detail.

2.1. Data acquisition

Our test data is the tax parcel data set of the city of Champaign.

It provides information about the land usage which can be catego-

rized into three major groups: residential commercial and indus-

trial. We further subdivided the categories as shown in Fig. 1.

Based on the given data, we mapped the land use information

with the energy consumption information for each type of land

usage (Table 4). Fig. 2 provides the electrical load distribution pro-

le. In reality, the building of a distribution system is an inherently

stage-wise activity that corresponds closely with the evolution of

the urban load prole. Using some prior information about the

evolution pattern, we determine a distribution system design. An

evolution pattern is an order over the set of subgrids (in terms of

age for instance). In reality, nding exact evolution patterns is

challenging. and may require study of historical city development

plan. Fig. 3 gives an example of such evolution pattern and its real-

ization on a grid. The schematic on the right provides an order for

the appearance of the subgrids.

To make a robust decision, one should be able to design over a

family of such evolution patterns for a city. The determination of

an appropriate evolution pattern is out of scope of this study, but

one option could be the change in the historical boundary of the

city. Even if we have this information, it is difcult to estimate

the historical electrical consumption. One option to over come this

would be to take a factor of current load distribution to represent

historical load prole. We use a similar approach for our case study

for the city of Champaign. Once we have come is with one such

evolution pattern we can nd out a evolving distribution system,

we show this in Fig. 4. It can be seen that in this schematic, the grid

design evolves in accordance with the stage-wise appearance of

new load.

2.2. Problem formulation

In this section, we formulate the optimization problem under

the assumption that the load information has been made available

from the GIS data set. Such an optimization problem species the

optimal location of substations and the related ows. In formulat-

ing the problem, several concepts need clarifying. First, the rele-

vant set of equations (namely the load-ow equations) are

discussed. This is followed by a brief discussion of the structure

of admittance matrix of the grid. Finally, an important complexity

in our setting is the requirement that we address restricted (or no-

go) areas. One approach for modeling such areas is provided.

2.2.1. Load-ow equations

Given a set of substation locations, nodal loads and a well-de-

ned branch impedance matrix, the load-ow equations provide

a unique solution vector of nodal voltages at nodes housing loads

and nodal currents at substation nodes. We denote the set of nodes

housing substations by SS while the set of load nodes is denoted by

L. Then the optimal ow is derived from the solution of the linear

equations dened by following load-ow equations:

Yv i 0

v

j

1; j 2 SS

i

j

l

j

j 2 L

X

j

i

j

0: 1

The rst equation relates the current vector i, the voltage vec-

tor v and the admittance matrix Y and originates from Kirchhoffs

constraint equations. Voltage at nodes j 2 SSis assumed to be 1 pu

(per-unit). Current at each node is given precisely by the load at

that node. For a given load distribution and set of substation

Fig. 1. Parcel data for city of Champaign (L) with superimposed grid (R).

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 3

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

Fig. 2. Electrical load distribution for the city of Champaign (L) with 3-D plot (R).

Fig. 3. Evolution pattern of load distribution.

Fig. 4. Evolving distribution system.

4 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

locations, we can solve this linear system of equations. In fact,

one can also show that this set of equations represents a square

nonsingular system (see [17]). Note that the notation of relevance

is summarized in Table 1.

2.2.2. The admittance matrix Y

As seen in Fig. 5, for an n n grid, every interior node is con-

nected to the four nodes while nodes on the boundaries have cor-

respondingly fewer connections. The admittance matrix Y captures

the relationship of a node with its neighbors. Each row of the rst

system of (1) can be thought of as a current-balance relationship in

which the current at a particular node is equal to the sum of the

current ows along the links connected to it. For an n n grid,

the admittance matrix Y can be represented as a symmetric block

tridiagonal matrix

Y

A

1

B

1

B

1

A

2

B

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

B

n2

A

n1

B

n1

B

n1

A

n

0

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

@

1

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

A

;

where the blocks A

j

,j = 1, . . . , n and B

j

,j = 1, . . . ,n 1, are tridiagonal

and diagonal in structure, respectively. Fig. 5 provides the sparsity

pattern for a 5 5 grid.

2.2.3. Restricted area

An important complexity seen in practical problems is that cer-

tain areas are not acceptable from the standpoint of building distri-

bution networks. Such areas are often referred to as restricted or

no-go areas. Our framework is exible enough to construct grids

that do not have connectivity in such areas. As a consequence,

the admittance matrix suffers some changes. In Fig. 6, we show

how a no-go area translates into a new grid. Note that any node

that remains unconnected is essentially removed from the problem

framework. Questions of infeasibility are removed by not allowing

the load to be positive at such points. Also shown in Fig. 6 is the

modied admittance matrix.

2.3. Design subproblem

The location of substations over a given grid with a specied

load distribution may be cast as a facility location problem, but

with an important difference. The cost function is nonlinear in nat-

ure, while the decision variables are integers, specically binary

Table 1

Variables and parameters.

Notation Description

j

Electrical load at node j

v

j

Voltage at node j

i

j

Current delivered at node j

Y Nodal admittance matrix (relates nodal current to nodal voltage)

z

j

Decision to install substation at node j

C

loss

Cost of losses

C

sub

Capital cost

S

cap

Substation capacity

SS Set of substation node

l Smoothing parameter

q Penalty parameter

Fig. 5. A 5 5 grid (L), nodal linkages (C) and admittance matrix Y (R).

Fig. 6. A 5 5 grid with restricted area (L) and admittance matrix Y (R).

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 5

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

variables. Such problems are inordinately hard to solve and some

preliminary results using existing solvers have not been promising

[17]. In particular, for grid sizes beyond 20 20, the computational

effort is enormous and renders conventional integer programming

formulations useless.

Formally, the design subproblem is given by (INLP):

minimize

i;v;z

C

losses

v

T

Yv C

cap

e

T

z

Yv i 0

subject to v

L

1 v

L

z

j

6 v

j

6 1; 8 j

1 z

j

j

6 i

j

6 1 2z

j

j

z

j

S

cap

; 8 j

z

j

2 f0; 1g; 8 j;

where v

T

Yv represents the lifetime cost of losses while

C

cap

e

T

z C

cap

P

j

z

i

gives the cost of installing capacity. Note that C

cap

provides a ratio of the capacity cost to the cost of losses. The rst

constraint is the Kirchhoffs relationship between current and volt-

age. The second constraint prescribes voltage bounds at each node.

In particular, at a substation node, voltage is set to 1 while at other

node (namely load nodes), voltages are bounded between v

L

and 1

at a load node. The third constraint species current at non-substa-

tion nodes as being precisely the load and bounded by substation

capacity S

cap

at substation nodes. Finally, the decision variable per-

taining to the placement of a substation at node i, given by z

i

, is

specied to be binary.

3. A smoothing technique for binary nonlinear programs

As mentioned in the earlier section, the problem (INLP) is a

large nonlinear integer programming problem whose solvability

(to a global minimizer) is possible only for modest grid sizes. Given

that the problems could have arbitrary sizes, we relax the require-

ment of providing a global minimizer. Instead, we provide a local

solution with respect to a smoothed (and therefore continuous)

nonlinear program. Such ideas were employed by Murray and

Shanbhag [17] to obtain starting points but not for solving the ori-

ginal problem. Here, we use a different smoothing function, which

does have a close relationship with that in [17].

The smoothed nonlinear problem is given by NLP(l):

minimize

i;v;z

C

losses

v

T

Yv C

cap

X

j2N

2

1 e

lz

j

1

Yv i 0

subject to 1 z

j

v

L

z

j

6 v

j

6 1; 8 j

1 z

j

j

6 i

j

6 1 2z

j

j

z

j

S

cap

; 8 j

0 6 z

j

6 1; 8 j

where

C

cap

2

1 e

lz

j

1

represents the smoothed version of the step function representing

the installation of a substation and C

cap

is the ratio of the cost of

capital to that of losses. Finally, the relaxed decision variable per-

taining to the placement of a substation at node j is z

j

. The smooth-

ing of the step function using the exponential function is given by

Fig. 7:

One of the challenges in such a framework is that the relaxed

decision variables z

j

could be non-integral in nature. The likelihood

of such an event is reduced by adding a penalty function of the

form:

Pz; q

X

j2N

qz

j

1 z

j

;

which essentially penalizes non-integral decision variables. This

however has a disadvantage of introducing a large number of local

minimizers. The resulting optimization problem, nonetheless, is gi-

ven by NLP(l, q)

minimize

i;v;z

C

losses

v

T

Yv C

cap

X

j2N

2

1 e

lz

j

1

Pz; q

Yv i 0

subject to 1 z

j

v

L

z

j

6 v

j

6 1; 8 j

1 z

j

l

j

6 i

j

6 1 2z

j

j

z

j

S

cap

; 8 j

0 6 z

j

6 1; 8 j

Finally, the solution to this problem may still be non-integral. If

that is indeed the case, then it is not clear if the load-ow equa-

tions are satised. To avert such a possibility, we dene

Fig. 7. Smoothed step function for a variety of ls.

6 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

^

z

i

z

i

; z

i

2 f0; 1g

1; z

i

P

0; z

i

<

8

>

<

>

:

: 2

The integer-valued ^z may then be used to solve the load-ow

equations. If the solution to the load-owequations is feasible with

respect to the substation capacity constraints, we have a feasible

integer solution to (INLP). If not, we tighten the capacity con-

straints by reducing S

cap

and repeat this procedure. The framework

is formalized in specifying Algorithm 1. Note that in the current

framework, both l and q are kept xed but update rules for these

parameters are part of ongoing work.

Algorithm 1. Penalization-smoothing method

initialization S

cap

, l, q;

termin : false, k : 1, a : 1;

while termin = false do

(z

k

, v

k

, i

k

) solve NLP(c, l; aS

cap

);

z

k

roundz

k

according to (2);

Let v

k

;

i

k

solve load-ow equations;

if

i

k

SS

6 S

cap

then

termin = true;

end

else

a : 0.9a

end

k = k + 1

end

4. Numerical results

This section will examine the workings of the suggested mod-

el as well as the underlying algorithms for obtaining solutions in

large-scale instances. In estimating the underlying distribution

system, we use the current ows from the substations as a basis.

In Section 4.1, we observe how changing the load distribution

leads to intuitively different ow patterns. A challenge faced in

such models is how one can deal with areas which cannot house

transmission lines. We prescribe one technique for addressing

precisely such a problem in Section 4.2 and provides some

examples to show the workings of the model In Section 4.3,

we provide some examples to show the suitability of our meth-

od for locating substations in the absence of such data. Finally,

in Section 4.4, we examine how the penalty-smoothing algo-

rithm works on a set of sample problems of steadily increasing

size. A comparison with the commercial solver CPLEX is also

given.

4.1. Load-ow models and their enhancements

In this section, we provide some preliminary results pertaining

to the estimation of distribution networks through the use of load-

ow equations. To aid in understanding the model, we consider a

relatively small area in which the substation location is known.

For instance, in Fig. 8, there is exactly one substation on the lower

left corner from which ow emerges. The positive ow species an

initial estimate of the distribution system. It is observed that the

ow from the substation ows symmetrically in the Northern

and Eastern directions. Now, consider a setting where a majority

of the load is situated in towards the top-left of the grid (North

of the substation). We model such a load by using a Gaussian load

distribution instead of a uniform load distribution. The resulting

ow pattern changes signicantly with a dominant ow pattern

towards the Northern direction to address the load requirements.

The new pattern is shown in Fig. 9. Further complexities in the load

distribution (as exemplied by adding two Gaussian distributions)

are handled well by the existing framework (see Fig. 10). Increas-

ing the scaling of the problem provides a richer characterization

of the underlying distribution system design. In Fig. 11, we use

the load distribution from our test data with a single substation.

The size of the grid is increased to 25 25 and the resulting ow

shows a concentration in the load areas and the connections be-

tween the load center and the substation locations.

4.2. Modeling of restricted areas

We have modeled restricted areas as Fig. 12 shows. Specically,

in an 8 8 grid, we introduce a 3 3 region that cannot house

transmission lines. We see that ow passes around the no-go areas,

precisely as required.

4.3. Optimal location of substations

This subsection provides some of the results of using such an

approach to locate substations. In most settings, we may have

either no data (or possibly incomplete data) pertaining to the sub-

stations in an existing area. The optimal placement of these substa-

tions would then specify the ow along the wires.

In each gure, we display the load distribution (negative) on the

left and the current ows on the right. In Fig. 13C, we have 10 10

grid with C

cap

and l set at 1. The load centers are at locations (3, 3),

(3, 8), (8, 3) and (8, 8). Since the cost of capacity is low with respect

to the cost of losses, it is optimal to locate a substation at each load

center and our smoothing approach nds what is conceivably the

global solution. Clearly, such a strategy is not optimal as the cost

of capital increases. This is observed in Fig. 13R as the number of

Fig. 8. (L) Uniform load distribution, (C) current ows and (R) nodal current distribution.

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 7

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

Fig. 9. Gaussian load distribution.

Fig. 10. Multiple Gaussians load distribution.

Fig. 11. Test area load distribution with a single substation location.

Fig. 12. Flow distribution in a 8 8 grid having 3 3 restricted area.

8 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

substations reduces to two as the cost of capital grows by a factor

of 10.

Next, we consider two scenarios (Figs. 14 and 15 in each of

which a 25 25 grid is employed with multiple Gaussian load dis-

tributions placed at a variety of locations. In each instance, the

smoothing approach leads to placement of the substations at the

load centers or near a clump of load centers.

4.4. Scalability of the algorithm

As noted in the earlier sections, crucial to the solution of the

problem is the ability to solve large-scale instances of the design

subproblem given that the grid sizes can be arbitrarily high. In this

section, we provide some details on several aspect of our smooth-

ing approach. First, we show how the computational effort scales

with grid size. However such techniques lead to a local minimizer

of a smoothed problem which need not be a global minimizer.

Obtaining global minimizers would require the use of cutting-

plane or branch-and-bound techniques which tend to scale poorly

with the size of the problem. To obtain such solutions, we use the

commercial solver CPLEX. Table 2 charts the performance of Algo-

rithm 1 for obtaining a feasible integer solution to the problem

NLP(l, q) where l and q are kept at values of 10 and 10,000,

respectively. Note that our approach for solving this problem

Fig. 13. 10 10 grid with load distribution (L), substation locations with low capital costs (C

cap

= 1) (C) and high capital costs (C

cap

= 10) (R).

Fig. 14. 25 25 grid with symmetrically placed Gaussian loads.

Fig. 15. 25 25 grid with asymmetrically placed Gaussian loads.

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 9

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

requires solving NLP(l, q), given the original substation capacity.

From Table 2, several observations may be made:

1. The number of major and minor iterations is relatively insensi-

tive to the size of the grid. We use a sequential quadratic pro-

gramming algorithm (SNOPT) [11] for solving the smoothed

problem. Such an approach solves a sequence of quadratic pro-

gramming problems. The bottleneck in such an approach is the

solution of the quadratic programming subproblem. As the grid

size grows, the real challenge lies in solving such problems ef-

ciently. It can be seen that while the number of grid-points

grows by a factor of 25, the corresponding growth in the cpu-

time is far more modest.

2. An important concern that can possibly plague Algorithm 1 is

that the number of substations added can be rather large, while

ensuring feasibility of the resulting integer solutions. Our preli-

minary tests however show that the number of substations

added is slightly larger than that seen in the globally optimized

setting.

The dominant reason for developing an alternate approach for

solving the nonlinear integer programming problem is that exist-

ing commercial solvers for such problems obtain global solutions

but at enormous computational cost. Table 3 details the perfor-

mance of CPLEX for a set of steadily increasing grid sizes. An

immediate observation is the growth in all metrics of computa-

tional effort is the rapid exponential growth. For instance, if the

problem size grows by 10 (from 25 to 225), the CPU time grows

from 12 s to over 30,000 s. Fig. 16 compares the growth in effort

of the two solvers using the logarithmic scale. A closer look at

the nature of the solutions shows that while CPLEX always nds

a global solution with 4 substations, the smoothing method termi-

nates with 5 or 6 substations in all the tested cases.

5. Case study: city of Champaign

In this section, we use image data of the city of Champaign to

approximate the underlying distribution system. Importantly, we

employ a stage-wise algorithm that solves a smoothed problem

at each stage. Such an extension allows adherence to an underlying

temporal evolution of the load.

5.1. Obtaining the load distribution

To approximate the test area distribution system, we began by

approximating the load distribution by using the GIS parcel data

obtained the Champaign County Regional Planning Commission.

This data has information about the tax parcel polygons, parcel

boundary lines and subdivision polygons. The parcel data set pro-

vides information about the land, usually with some implication

for land ownership or land usage. By aggregating the land usage

into three major categories that is, residential commercial and

industrial. We further subdivided the categories. Based on the gi-

ven data, we mapped the land use information with the energy

consumption information provided in Appendix A. Using this map-

ping, we created an additional mapping between, land use infor-

mation and approximation of site energy consumption for

residential/commercial/industrial buildings.

5.2. Evolution pattern

We assumed an evolution of the distribution network corre-

sponds with the evolution of the test area. We based the estima-

tion of the city development as provided the Champaign County

Regional Planning Commission which maps the city boundaries

over the last 60 years at certain key points on the basis of old maps.

Using the GIS les provides, the evolution of the city is shown in

Fig. 17.

Using this evolutionary data, we constructed two sets of distri-

bution patterns. The rst test case used the existing set of substa-

tions which were sequentially introduced within the evolution.

The second test case assumed that such data was not available

and prescribed an optimal placement.

5.3. Test case 1: Partial substation information

In the rst test case, we assumed that information about the

substation provided in the image data. Using the load distribution,

and assuming a three stage evolution pattern we come us with fol-

lowing distribution system. Here we assumed that these substa-

tions have enough capacity to take care of any load requirements.

Fig. 18 shows the growth in load over the three stages. Given

the load in stage 1, the bottomschematic in Fig. 18 shows the ows

based on the grid placement. Using this set of lines as given and

new load emerging from the stage 2 expansion, the second sche-

matic in Fig. 18 shows how the lines may be extended. Note that

we may insert a variety of no-go areas at this instance. Here, we

merely introduce a grid of a specic size. Finally, in Fig. 19, we

Table 2

Performance of the smoothing approach.

Size Iteration Minor iteration Time Loss Substation

25 269 5338 1.03 0.0094 6

64 89 5314 0.72 0.0679 6

100 47 4790 0.72 0.0615 5

225 4 994 0.28 0.3780 5

289 44 4657 1.83 0.0531 5

400 8 2642 1.21 0.2252 6

625 11 5814 4.27 0.3137 5

Table 3

Performance of CPLEX.

Size Iteration Minor iteration Time Loss Substation

25 8159 30,596 12.20 0.107 4

64 87,937 361,307 168.98 0.740 4

100 627,456 2,614,568 2053.83 0.470 4

225 3,768,278 16,079,112 31742.30 1.034 4

Fig. 16. Time comparison.

10 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

show how the designed distribution system compares with the ori-

ginal area.

5.4. Test case 2: No substation information

In the second test case, we assumed that no information about

the location of substations is provided. Therefore, the algorithm

must nd the best possible location of the substations and estimate

the distribution system. Using the load distribution, and by assum-

ing a three stage evolution pattern, our algorithm provides us with

the following distribution system. Here we assumed that these

substations have a specied capacity. The distribution system de-

sign varies signicantly with the earlier one. In particular, we

sequentially add substations of nite capacity and the algorithm

Fig. 17. Evolution of the city of Champaign.

Fig. 18. Load prole (top) and distribution system (bottom) across stages 1 (top), 2 (middle) and 3 (bottom) (with substation information).

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 11

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

chooses to add several substations in certain areas that represent

load centers. Fig. 20 provides a schematic of how the system

evolves.

6. Summary

We have presented a framework for obtaining approximations

of utility networks by employing GIS images. Our basic framework

has relied on obtaining an electrical load distribution over a pre-

specied grid. In the presence of possibly incomplete substation

data and restricted areas, we present an optimization-based for-

mulation for obtaining ows on the network, the latter usable as

a proxy for the lines in the distribution system. Addressing large-

scale instances of the location and ow problem requires solvers

that scale well with the grid size. Unfortunately, these problems

are discrete nonlinear problems and existing solvers are capable

of solving problems no more than a few hundred variables. Instead,

we present a penalization-based smoothing scheme that scales

well with the grid size and provides solutions that are comparable

with the global solutions obtained by CPLEX. Our framework can

be seen to address a variety of load distributions and restrictions

on line placements. We conclude with a case study in which a

stage-wise approach is adopted to the planning problem.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the data provided by

Champaign County Regional Planning Commission and some preli-

minary effort by Kevin Waicekauskas.

Appendix A

See Table 4.

Fig. 19. Given location of substation.

Fig. 20. Load prole (top) and distribution system (bottom) across stages 1 (top), 2 (middle) and 3 (bottom) (without substation information).

12 S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

References

[1] Adams RN, Laughton MA. Static and time phased network synthesis. Proc IEE

1974;121(2):13947.

[2] Ahuja RK, Magnanti TL, Orlin JB. Network ows. Theory, algorithms, and

applications. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall Inc.,; 1993.

[3] Boulaxis NG, Papadopoulos MP. Optimal feeder routing in distribution system

planning using dynamic programming technique and gis facilities. IEEE Trans

Power Deliv 2002;17:2427.

[4] Crawford DM, Holt SB. A mathematical optimization technique for locating and

sizing distribution substations and deriving their optimal service areas. IEEE

Trans Power Appar Syst 1975:2305.

[5] de Oliveira LW, Carneiro Jr S, de Oliveira EJ, Pereira JLR, Silva Jr IC, Costa JS.

Optimal reconguration and capacitor allocation in radial distribution systems

for energy losses minimization. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst

2010;32(8):8408.

[6] El-Fouly THM, Zeineldin HH, El-Saadany EF, Salama MMA. A new optimization

model for distribution substation siting, sizing, and timing. Int J Electr Power

Energy Syst 2008;30:30815.

[7] El-Kady MA. Computer-aided planning of distribution substation and primary

feeders. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 1984;PAS-103(6):118392.

[8] Fawzi TH, Ali KF, El-Sobki SM. A new planning model for distribution systems.

IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 1983;PAS-102:30107.

[9] Farrag MA, El-Metwally MM, El-Bages MS. A new model for distribution

system planning. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 1997;21(7):52331.

[10] Ghosh S, Ghoshal SP, Ghosh S. Optimal sizing and placement of distributed

generation in a network system. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst

2010;32(8):84956.

[11] Gill PE, Murray W, Saunders MA. SNOPT: an SQP algorithm for large-scale

constrained optimization. SIAM J Optim 2002;12(4):9791006.

[12] Hindi KS, Brameller A. Design of low-voltage distribution networks:a

mathematical programming method. Proc IEE 1977;124(1):548.

[13] Knight UGW. The logical design of electricity networks using linear

programming methods. Proc IEE 1970;117:211727.

[14] Lin MW, Tsay MT, Wu SW. Application of geographic information system for

substation and feeder planning. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst

1996;18(3):75183.

[15] Masud E. An interactive procedure for sizing and timing distribution

substations using optimization techniques. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst

1974;93(5):12816.

[16] Marshall AC, Boffy TB, Green JR, Hague H. Optimal design of electricity

networks. Proc IEEE C 1991;138(1):6977.

[17] Murray W, Shanbhag UV. A local relaxation approach for the siting of electrical

substations. Comput Optim Appl 2006;33(1):749.

[18] Murray W, Shanbhag UV. A local relaxation method for nonlinear facility

location problems. In: Multiscale optimization methods and applications.

Nonconvex Optim Appl, vol. 82. New York: Springer; 2006.

[19] More JJ, Wright SJ. Optimization software guide. SIAM Phila 1993:879.

[20] Popovic DH, Greatbanks JA, Begovic M, Pregelj A. Placement of distributed

generators and reclosers for distribution network security and reliability. Int J

Electr Power Energy Syst 2005;27(56):398408.

[21] Sun DI, Farris DR, Cote PJ, Shoults RR, Chen MS. Optimal distribution substation

and primary feeder planning via the xed charge network formulation. IEEE

Trans Power Appar Syst 1982;PAS-101:6029.

[22] Sharif SS, Salamat MA, Vanelli A. Model for future expansion of radial

distribution networks using mixed integer programming. IEEE; 1996. p. 1525.

[23] Thompson GL, Wall DL. A branch and bound model for choosing optimal

substation locations. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 1981;PAS-100(5):26837.

[24] Willis HL, Tram H, Engel MV, Finley L. Optimization applications to power

distribution. IEEE Comput Appl Power 1995;10:127.

[25] Willis HL, Tram H, Engel MV, Finley L. Selecting and applying distribution

optimization method. IEEE Comput Appl Power 1996;1:127.

[26] Wall DL, Thompson GL, Northcote-Green JED. An optimization model for

planning radial distribution networks. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst 1979;PAS-

98(3):10616.

[27] Yahav K, Oron G. Optimal locations of electrical substations in regional energy

supply systems. IEEE; 1996. p. 30710.

[28] Zhu JZ. Optimization of power systems operation. Wiley-IEEE Press; 2009.

Table 4

Land usage and energy consumption.

APROP Usage Btu per square foot VA per square foot

1000 Developer held residential lots 0.00 0.00

1100 Single family rental dwelling 115.10 36.20

1150 Owner/occupied single family dwelling 115.10 36.20

1200 Duplex rental dwelling 123.30 36.20

1250 Owner/occupied duplex dwelling 123.30 36.20

1300 Apartment 37 153.40 44.90

1350 Apartment 37 153.40 44.90

1400 Apartment 8 or more 131.50 38.60

1450 Apartment 8 or more dwelling units 131.50 38.60

1500 Group home/fraternities/sorority 123.30 36.20

1700 Mobile home parks 194.50 57.00

1800 Condominium rental 123.30 36.20

1850 Owner/occupied condominium dwelling 123.30 36.20

2000 Industrial use 2000.00 746.67

2100 Developer held industrial lots 0.00 0.00

3000 Commercial use 128.80 37.70

3050 Owner/occupied commercial use 128.80 37.70

3100 Developer held commercial lots 0.00 0.00

4000 Communications or utilities use 2000.00 746.67

5000 Hotels and motels use 126.60 37.10

6000 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6001 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6002 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6003 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6005 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6006 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6007 Property exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6800 Property partially exempt from taxation 123.30 36.20

6900 Veterans and fraternal organizations 123.30 36.20

7000 Land used as a commons area 0.00 0.00

7400 Open space valuation 0.00 0.00

7500 Open space valuation 0.00 0.00

8100 Agriculture (10+ acres) 5.00 5.00

8150 Agriculture use with owner occupied dwelling 6.00 6.00

S. Lakhera et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems xxx (2010) xxxxxx 13

Please cite this article in press as: Lakhera S et al. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Int J Electr

Power Energ Syst (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.08.020

- Embedded GeneratorsCargado porJan Michael Batilo
- Huawei Parameter OptimizationCargado porShafiyyah
- Final project.pdfCargado porFrankpic
- On the Use of Non-Stationary P enalt y Functions to Solve Nonlinear Constrained Optimizati on Problems with GA'sCargado porel_ruso__83
- Paper1_model Based Predictive Control for Hammerstein Wiener SystemsCargado porLionel
- A Multi-objective Approach to Optimal Allocation of Distribution Automation Devices in Radial Medium Voltage NetworkCargado porristicaleksa
- 137 Paper FinalCargado porganesh_n1412
- Operations Research-rony Andrews.Cargado porRony Andrews
- an-innovative-technique-for-design-optimization-of-core-type-phase-distribution-transformer-using-mathematica-2229-8711-3-142.pdfCargado porKamran Daud Panhwar
- MGO 634 作業9Cargado porShang-Jen Chang
- IJEET_09_06_004.pdfCargado porAneet Mohanty
- Software ACargado pormelkady2020
- Optimal network reconfiguration of electrical distribution systemsCargado porapi-3697505
- Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Distribution Systems With Limited Switching OperationsCargado poranagumbla
- Optimal Reconfiguration in Radial Distribution SystemCargado porSudheerKumar
- DOC-20170822-WA0001Cargado porDilin Dinesh
- Evaluating-the-solution-performance-of-IP-and-CP-for-berth-allocation-with-time-varying-water-depth_2016_Transportation-Research-Part-E-Logistics-and-.pdfCargado porUmang Soni
- Quantitative Methods AssignmentCargado pornadine
- Location Problem - An OverviewCargado porMayra Alejandra Vargas Fuertes
- Part SelectionCargado porKristin Mack
- QANT520 Spring 2019 SyllabusCargado porRahil Verma
- 01338493Cargado porapi-3697505
- 3 Nonlinear Estimation of ExternalCargado poralabaster6
- Accenture Unlocking Value MetricsCargado porSakshi Saurabh
- Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, Its VariantsCargado porNestor Calizar Jr.
- PMS2010 Template MainFileCargado porRealyandieto Monantun
- 00631495Cargado porÉtoile Filante
- coloos2012.pdfCargado porSaid Djaballah
- Refinery Revenue OptimizationCargado porSunil Pillai
- Adaptation of Genetic Algorithms for Engineering Design OptimizationCargado porVictor Mallang

- Lng HazardsCargado porPrince Israel Eboigbe
- LNG Safety and Security Update 2012Cargado pormerarin
- Back Pressure.pdfCargado porYang Gul Lee
- LNG Safety and Security _ CEECargado porErwin
- CEE LNG BackgrounderCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Mazut - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Introduction to Lng Update 2012Cargado porGeorgi Kalchev
- Mazut M100 (Heating Oil)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- Basic Design of Desalination Process (Water Arabia 2013)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- Matlab Eda Gui User's GuideCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Safety Integrity Level (SIL) Assessment as key element within the plant design (2011).pdfCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Evaluation of low-profile flare tips using ISIS-3D.pdfCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Carbon Capture for Gas Power Appears on the Horizon (2013.04.01)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- EDA Toolbox Contents (Martinez)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- LNG outlook - spare global capacity and weak demand (2009).pdfCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Integration Strategy of Gasification Technology - A Gateway to Future Refining (2002)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- Corrosion in Petroleum RefiningCargado porKen Wells
- Cao 1998 Computers & Chemical EngineeringCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Castell 1998 Computers & Chemical EngineeringCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Flares ImCargado porBaba Johneh
- HPI Market Data 2011_ContentsCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Cardoso 1997 Computers & Chemical EngineeringCargado porYang Gul Lee
- Gas LiquidCargado porAnne Aguiar
- An Alternative Route for Coal to Liquid Fuel - Applying the ExxonMobil Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) Process (26TABAK)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- Carbon Capture for Gas Power Appears on the Horizon (2013.04.01)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- IAPWS-IF97Cargado porappar1982
- dagarCargado porSandeep Meena
- HPI Boxscore Update (2009.Feb)Cargado porYang Gul Lee
- Chem & PetrochemicalCargado porYang Gul Lee

- 3 Spaces Nov 09Cargado porSomy Else
- Cisco Press VPN SolutionsCargado porMariana Frunze
- Selection of Optimum Parameters to Develop an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite With Respect to Mechanical Properties by Using Grey Relational AnalysisCargado porIAEME Publication
- Information Systems Security Management in Big Data Era - Literature ReviewCargado porNelson Kimathi
- Chapter 17 - Transient Stability AnalysisCargado porPradeep_Vashist
- C#Cargado porSraVanKuMarThadakamalla
- Griffiths MarkCargado porerere
- Holophane Emergency Panelite Series Brochure 9-79Cargado porAlan Masters
- Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris SMA Tahun 1997Cargado porAndhika A. Setiyono
- F 656 - 96 _RJY1NI05NKE_Cargado porMorched Tounsi
- Condenser CalculationsCargado porAngelo Imbo
- Asa Firepower Module User Guide v541Cargado poramapreet.scorpio
- Formulation of Field Databased Model a Case Study at Pvc Pipe ManuCargado porIAEME Publication
- Enablement EAGLE Initial Configuration Lab Activities W_ClaytonCargado porfouad boutat
- Tow CombineCargado porBolarinwa
- Chaves Comutadoras RotativasCargado porLuis Pereira
- FIN_05_FI_ACC_SOL_US_US_2012-10Cargado porAlok Manik
- Erwasco Hot Water Steam Valves CatalogCargado porManuel Alejandro Arguelles
- Requirements for the future digital library.pdfCargado porombisen18
- FM-AS350B3.241201933Cargado porsuperdby
- HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals & Clinics-2003 OrignalCargado porAlaa Faiq
- AbbreviationsCargado porPakibiri
- 14P 0132 Malaysia School of ITCargado porNasrullah Bin Parhani
- Service Manual for weichai wp6(stage 3).pdfCargado poradelmomoura
- Alarm ListaCargado porNhím Biển
- Community Radio User GuideCargado porHarish Kumar
- PC Chop Shop - Tricked Out Guide to PC ModdingCargado porTrevor Wilson
- Journalism 1.0Cargado porMEDIA AT CHFS
- Pump School Lesson 2 - The Pump Curve (PPCO)Cargado porNo Person
- Congestion de la TransmisionCargado porCliffordWellner