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Aerodynamics and performance
Final review
118
Other
12/11/2007

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Cards
Term
Airplanes were developed primarily by:
Definition
the trial and error method
Term
The density of water changes with depth
t or F
Definition
False
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Term Definition
Send faxes with Skype
PamFax is fully integrated with Skype. Test it now!
Page 1 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Out of the following, who did not experiment in flight
Bernoulli
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Term
The first successful flight of an aircraft
was accomplished with a balloon
T or F
Definition
True
Term
Aerodynamics is the study of
Definition
Air in motion
Term
A balloon that is filled with air that is lighter than the
surrounding air rises to a point where the internal air
density is equal to the external air density is based on
what principle?
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<!--[endif]-->
Definition
Buoyancy
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Term
Air density at sea level is ________ dense than air
at 10,000 feet altitude.
Definition
More
Term
The density of air changes depending on
altitude because air is compressible
T or F
Definition
True
Page 2 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
What part of the atmosphere does all weather occur
and also most flight operations?
Definition
Troposphere
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Term
Balloons that are navigable are called
Definition
Airships
Term
Sir George Cayley, Otto Lilenthal, and Octave
Chanute all had what in common?
Definition
They all experimented with gliders in the 1800s.
Term
Lighter than air aircraft are reliant on what for
lateral (as opposed to vertical) movement.
Definition
Movement of an air mass and
Velocity and direction of the wind
Term
Man's first attempt at heavier than air flight was to
create birdlike vehicles with wings that flapped.
Definition
True
Term Definition
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Birds are successful fliers because they can
achieve lift and thrust with their feathered wings.
Airplanes require;
An engine to develop forward thrust
Controls to maneuver in pitch, roll, and yaw
Stability in their design
Knowledgeable pilots
Term
Gliders and airplanes are
Definition
Heavier than air machines
Term
Who was/were the first to achieve sustained,
controlled and powered flight?
Definition
The Wright Brothers
Term
A chunk of fluid that is suspended in a container of
fluid will ________ due to the weight and pressure
above the chunk balancing out the higher pressure
below the chunk.
Definition
remain still
Term
A small contained bubble of fluid that is lighter
than the surrounding fluid ________ due to the
higher pressure on the bottom of the bubble.
Definition
Rises to the surface
Term
A piece of lead placed in a container of water will
________ due to the weight of the lead being
_______ than the fluid that is displaced.
Definition
Sink to the bottom, heavier
Page 4 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
How are balloons made to be lighter than air?
Definition
Filled with lighter than air gas (helium)
Filled with heated air which is less dense than
cooler air
Both
Term
Pressure =
Definition
Force/ Area
Term
The symbol for air density is?
Definition

Term
The approximate temperature at the Tropopause is
Definition
-56C
Term
Air pressure at sea level is ________ than air at
30,000 feet altitude.

Definition
more
Term Definition
2C
Page 5 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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The temperature of air decreases on average by
how much per 1000ft

Term
The chordline of an aerofoil is:

Definition
A straight line from the leading edge to trailing
edge.
Term
A cambered aerofoil set at 0 angle of attack in an
air stream will produce:
Definition
Lift and drag.
Term
The angle between the chord line of the aerofoil
and the relative airflow is called:

Definition
The Angle of Attack.
Term
Dynamic pressure is equal to:

Definition
v
Term
The centre of pressure of an aerofoil is:

Definition
The point on the chordline where the lift force acts.
Page 6 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
The properties of air on the top of a cambered wing
producing lift:

Definition
Velocity increases, Static Pressure decreases.
Term
"Aspect Ratio" is:
Definition
Span / chord
Term
The density of a gas may be expressed as:

Definition
Mass/Volume.
Term
Which of the below actions will result in a stall
every time?
Definition
Exceeding the critical angle of attack.
Term
An airfoil stalls when:

Definition

The airflow over the top surface of the wing breaks
away or separates which results in a large increase
in drag and a large loss of lift.
Term Definition
Dihedral
Page 7 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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If an aircrafts wings are slightly angled upwards
from horizontal as you look at it from the front
forming a shallow V, this is called:
Term
A high aspect ratio wing will be:
Definition
Of long span and short chord, like a gliders.
Term
The wing span is the distance:
Definition
From wing tip to wing tip.
Term
A wing is tapered if:
Definition
The tip chord is less than the root chord.
Term
The stalling angle of an aerofoil of a training
aircraft is approximately:

Definition
16 degrees.
Term
An aircraft's wing has a mean chord of 6m and a
span of 30m. The aspect ratio is:

Definition
(a) 5.
Page 8 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
To maintain level flight at a steady airspeed:
Definition
(a) Thrust must be exactly equal to drag.
Term
The stall warning vane on an aircraft wing is
located:
Definition
(d) Just below the leading edge.
Term
At positive angles of attack, a wing produces the
most lift at:

Definition
(c) Just before the stall.
Term
An airplane is flying straight and level, therefore:
Definition
(d) Thrust equals drag, Lift equals weight.
Term
The term "Angle of Attack" is defined as:
.

Definition
(b) The angle between the wing chord line and the
relative wind
Term
Weight acts:
Definition
(b) Always in line with gravity.
Page 9 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
When a fowler flap moves back:
Definition
(a) Wing area increases, camber increases.
Term
Where does lift act on a wing?

Definition
(d) Centre of Pressure.
Term
What does the "S" represent in the lift equation?

Definition
(c) Wing area
Term
Bernoulli's Theorem states:
(b)
Definition
When dynamic pressure increases, static pressure
decreases.
Term
For a typical light training aircraft, the optimum
angle of attack producing most lift for least drag is
approximately:
(c)

Definition
+4.
Page 10 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
Wash out of a wing is:
(c)
Definition
A decrease in angle of incidence from root to tip.
Term
A symmetrical aerofoil section of a wing which is
set at 0 angle of incidence will produce in level
flight:

Definition
(d) Zero lift.
Term
The purpose of streamlining is:
(d)
Definition
To reduce pressure or wake drag.
Term
Drag is the force that resists ________.
(
Definition
a) Thrust
Term
3. At high speed the drag on an aircraft is mainly

Definition
(a) Parasite drag
Term Definition
(a) Zero
Page 11 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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The speed of air at the surface of the wing (in
boundary layer) is:

Term
The best plan shape of a wing for minimum drag
is:
Definition
(a) Elliptical
Term
What are the components of Total Drag?
Definition
(a) Lift induced drag and Parasite drag
Term
What are the two types of flow associated with the
boundary layer?

Definition
(a) laminar and turbulent
Term
As airspeed increases, parasite drag

Definition
(a) Increases
Term
The additional drag resulting from the intersection
of two parts of the airplane is called ________, and
engineers design/install ________ to smooth out
the flow of air at these intersections.
(a)
Definition
Interference drag, fairings
Page 12 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
An antenna of 0.05 sq. ft. of a cross-sectional area
(S) produces 1 pound of drag in an airflow with a
dynamic pressure (v) of 25 lbs/sq. ft. What is its
drag coefficient? Drag = v S Cd
(
Definition
a) .80
Term
If the landing gear is lowered:
(a)
Definition
Total drag increases.
Term
The minimum Total Drag of an aircraft in flight
occurs:
(a)
Definition
At the speed where parasite drag and lift induced
drag are equal.
Term
Lift induced drag (lift dependent drag) of an aircraft
would be increased with:

Definition
(a) Increased weight.
Term
The boundary layer of a body in a moving
airstream is:
(a)
Definition
A thin layer of air over the surface in which the air
is retarded by the effects of friction.
Term Definition
Less than from a turbulent boundary layer.
Page 13 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Skin Friction drag resulting from a laminar
boundary layer will be:
(a)
Term
If speed is increased from 150 kts to 300 kts, the
Pressure or wake drag due to shape will be:
Definition
Term
The drag of an aircraft will:
(a)
Definition
Increase with an increase in air pressure.
Term
What phenomena causes Lift induced Drag?

Definition
(a) Wing tip vortices.
Term
What effect on lift induced drag does entering
ground effect have?

Definition
(a) It decreases.
Term
When the undercarriage is lowered in flight:
(a)
Definition
Form drag will increase and the aircraft will pitch
nose down.
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Term
The point where the boundary layer changes from
laminar flow to turbulent flow is called the;

Definition
(a) Transition point
Term
A high aspect ratio wing (High span to chord ratio,
like a glider):

Definition
(a) Decreases lift induced drag.
Term
In straight and level flight, how does Parasite drag
vary with airspeed?
(a)
Definition
V2 (directly with the square of the velocity)
Term
Wingtip vortices:
(a)
Definition
Right wing rotates anti-clockwise, left wing
clockwise
Term
31. At low speed the drag on an aircraft is mainly
(a)
Definition
Lift Induced Drag
Term Definition
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32. The pressure gradient on the rear side of a
shape where the air is flowing from Low static
pressure to High static pressure is called;
(a)
Term
33. The point where the air stops sticking to the
shape of an object is called;
(a)

Definition
Separation point
Term
With regard to "P.L.A.N.n.", the acronym used to
determine the capacity of a reciprocating engine to
produce power, the "A" refers to what?

Definition
a) Cross sectional piston area
Term
. The final factor (n) in determining the capability of
a reciprocating engine to produce power in the
anacronym P.L.A.N.n. is:
a)
Definition
The number of cylinders of the engine
Term
The optimum angle of attack for a propellor blade
to the airflow passing through it is approximately;

Definition
a) 4
Term
With regard to P.L.A.N.n., the pilot can control
which of the factors in the cockpit?
a)
Definition
Mean cylinder pressure (P) by use of the throttle to
control the amount of fuel and air being taken into
the cylinders Engine Speed (N)
Page 16 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
A propellor blade slips through the air unlike a
woodscrew or corkscrew and so cannot be 100%
efficient;
True or False?
Definition
True
Term
The pitch of a propeller blade that produces the
most efficiency (most thrust for least drag) for a
given speed is called;

Definition
a) Optimum angle of attack
Term
The resultant relative wind acting on a propellor, is
the result of which two velocities?

Definition
a) Propellors rotational speed and aircrafts
forward speed
Term
. Which is faster;
a)
Definition
Propellor Tip speed
Term
9. In order to maintain a relatively constant angle
of attack along the span of a propeller blade,
blades are manufactured with what?
a)
Definition
Term Definition
Page 17 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Attempting to increase the top speed of an aircraft
by fitting a bigger engine is difficult because;
a
) Parasite Drag increases as airspeed increases
and a bigger engine creates more weight induced
drag
Term
. Which equation(s) below is/are an expression of
Newton's second law?
a)
Definition
Force = Mass x Acceleration
Term
In a variable propeller system, as airspeed
increases, the propellor must ________ to maintain
the most efficient angle of attack.
a
Definition
) Increase pitch
Term
. In the event of an engine failure (particularly
important in a twin engined airplane) the propellor
should automatically be turned to a minimum drag
position, this is called:

Definition
a) Feathered
Term
What was the reason that the earlier engines had

Definition
a) Greater number of cylinders could be mounted
and better cooling
Term
. Compared to jets, propellers move a ________
amount of air with a ________ acceleration.

Definition
a) Large/Small
Page 18 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
Which is considered the more "efficient" producer
of "thrust"?
a)
Definition
Propeller driven by a reciprocating engine
Term
. A turbojet engine differs from a turbofan engine
in that all of the air flows through the compressor
section or the core of the engine, whereas some of
the airflow with a turbofan engine flows around the
outside of the core.
True or false?
Definition
True
Term
The term for the air which doesnt pass through
the core of a jet engine and get burnt with the fuel
is called:
Definition
a) Bypass Air
Term
A propellor blade is twisted to ensure a constant
angle of attack to the relative airflow along the
blade which is moving faster through the air from
the hub to the blade tip.
True or False?
Definition
True
Term
. 1 horsepower equals;

Definition
a) 550 foot pounds per second
Term Definition
a) Force x Velocity
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. Power =

Term
. A propellor accelarates a large mass of air with a
relative small acceleration compared with a jet
which accelerates a small mass of air with a very
large acceleration;
True or False?
Definition
True
Term
27. The main factor that limits the diameter of a
a)
Definition
The Speed of the blade tip relative to the speed of
sound
Term
During the ground roll whilst accelerating along
the runway before taking off, the four forces
________ in balance.

Definition
a) are not
Term
. The difference (in HP) between power avaliable
and power required is called what?

Definition
a) Excess power
Term
. When determining takeoff distance required,
whether runway is paved or grass will affect your
takeoff distance.
True or False?
Definition
True
Page 20 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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Term
The reasons for having more than a twin engine
rather than one engine include which of the
following?
Definition
a) To provide more power than can be provided by
one engine.
a) Improves safety by providing redundancy in
case one engine fails.
Both
Term
. The loss of one engine in a twin engine aircraft
results in:

Definition
a) Significant loss of climb capability
a) Yaw in the direction of the failed engine
a) Increased drag due to use of rudder to
overcome yaw
All of the above
Term
. The best glide ratio is:

Definition
a) found on power required curve at the point of
minimum drag.
Term
WIth respect to change in velocity, what is required
in order to generate enough lift to takeoff.

Definition
a) Acceleration
Term
Service ceiling is:
Definition
a) The maximum altitude in which the aircraft can
achieve a climb rate of 100 fpm.
Term Definition
Lower
Page 21 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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. Best range airspeed with a tailwind will be
________ than best range airspeed with a
Term
22. Operating at maximum L/D (Lift/Drag ratio)
gives speed for best glide distance and best range.

Definition
a) True
Term
. At airspeeds slower than V(min power), more
power is required to maintain altitude. What is this
called?
a
Definition
) Back side of the power curve
Term
. As altitude increases Power available;

Definition
a) Decreases
Term
. As aircraft weight increases Power required;

Definition
a) Increases
Term
. As Drag increases (from flaps and undercarriage
lowered) Power required;
a)
Definition
Increases
Page 22 of 23 Aerodynamics and performance Flashcards
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