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ANSI/ASAE S296.

4 DEC95
Approved DEC 1995 by American National Standards Institute
General Terminology for Traction of Agricultural Tractors,
Self-Propelled Implements, and Traction and
Transport Devices
Proposed by the ASAE Tractive and Transport Efciency Committee;
approved by the ASAE Power and Machinery Division Technical
Committee; adopted by ASAE as a Recommendation June 1966; revised
February 1970; reconrmed December 1975; revised and reclassied as
a Standard December 1976; reconrmed December 1981; revised April
1987; reconrmed December 1991; revised June 1995; approved as an
American National Standard December 1995.
1 Purpose and Scope
1.1 The purpose of this terminology is primarily to assist in the
standardized reporting of information on traction and transport devices. It
is possible that data cannot always be reported using this terminology,
but in such cases it is recommended that the terms used be clearly
dened. Unless otherwise indicated, all denitions refer to a single
traction or transport device (not the entire vehicle) operating on a
horizontal supporting surface.
2 Normative references
ASAE EP285.7 DEC95, Use of SI (Metric) Units
SAE J708 DEC84, Agricultural Test Code
SAE J2708 APR93, Agricultural Tractor Test Code (OECD)
3 Terminology for all types of traction and transport
devices
1)
3.1 ballast: Mass that can be added or removed for the purpose of
changing total load or load distribution.
2)
3.2 otation: The ability to resist sinkage into the surface being
traversed.
3.3 load, dynamic [W
d
]: The total force normal to the undisturbed
supporting surface on which the traction or transport device is operating.
The force is the sum of the static load and any load transfer (see gure
1).
3.4 load, static [W
s
]: The total force normal to the undisturbed
supporting surface on which the traction or transport device is standing
with zero input torque.
3.5 load transfer [W
t
]: The change in the distribution of the force normal
to the undisturbed supporting surface on which the traction or transport
devices are operating as compared to forces for the static vehicle.
3.6 motion resistance of traction device [MR=GTNT]: The difference
between gross traction and net traction; accounts for all energy losses of
a traction device not attributed to slip (see gure 2). Motion resistance is
the preferred term; also called rolling resistance.
3.7 motion resistance of transport device: The force required in the
direction of travel to overcome the resistance from the supporting surface
and the internal resistance of the device. Motion resistance is the
preferred term; also called towing force.
3.8 motion resistance ratio [=MR/W
d
]: The ratio of motion resistance
to dynamic load. Motion resistance is the preferred term; also called
coefcient of rolling resistance or coefcient of motion resistance.
3.9 power, drawbar [DP=PV]: The product of drawbar pull and vehicle
velocity in the direction of travel.
3.10 power, input [T]: The product of input torque and angular
velocity of the driving axle of a traction device.
3.11 power, output [NTV]: The product of net traction and velocity of
a traction device.
1)
All units should be consistent with ASAE EP285.7. Use of SI (Metric) Units.
2)
SAE J708 and SAE J2708 include a similar denition for ballast that does not
recognize transport systems.
Figure 1 Basic velocities and forces on a single wheel
with resultant soil reaction force
Figure 2 Basic velocities and forces on a single wheel with component
soil reaction forces (MR and R
v
act as soil-tire interface)
118 ASAE STANDARDS 1998
3.12 pull, drawbar [P]: The force, in the direction of travel, produced by
the vehicle at the drawbar or hitch. Drawbar pull is the preferred term;
also called draft.
3.13 rolling radius [r
o
]: The distance advanced per revolution of the
driving axle of a traction device under the specied zero condition,
divided by 2.
3.14 sinkage [z]: Deformation of the supporting surface normal to the
direction of travel of the traction or transport device. Equal to the sum of
the static sinkage and slip sinkage.
3.15 sinkage, slip: Sinkage, in addition to static sinkage, that results
from the motion of a traction or transport device.
3.16 sinkage, static: Sinkage of a stationary traction or transport device
under specied zero conditions.
3.17 slip [s]: See travel reduction.
3.18 surface reaction force [R]: The resultant of all forces acting on the
traction or transport device at the surface-device interface (see gure 1).
3.19 torque, input [T]: The driving moment applied to the axle of the
traction device (see gure 1).
3.20 traction, gross [GT=T/r
0
=NT+MR]: The input torque divided by the
rolling radius. The magnitude depends on the zero condition specied.
3.21 traction, net [NT]: The force, in the direction of travel, developed
by the traction device and transferred to the vehicle (see gure 1).
3.22 traction device: A device for propelling a vehicle using the reaction
forces from the supporting surface; may be a wheel, tire, track, or belt.
3.23 traction ratio, dynamic: The ratio of drawbar pull to dynamic load
on the vehicle traction devices.
3.24 traction ratio, gross [
g
=T/(r
o
W
d
)]: The ratio of gross traction to
dynamic load. Gross traction ratio is the preferred term; also called
coefcient of gross traction.
3.25 tractive ratio, net [
n
=NT/W
d
]: The ratio of net traction to dynamic
load. Net traction ratio is the preferred term; also called coefcient of net
traction.
3.26 traction ratio, vehicle: The ratio of drawbar pull to total dynamic
load.
3.27 tractive efciency [TE=NTV/(T)]: The ratio of output power to
input power.
3.28 transport device: A device with zero input torque that supports a
vehicle or implement on a surface during travel over that surface.
3.29 travel ratio: The ratio of the distance advanced per revolution of
the traction device under operating conditions, to the distance advanced
per revolution under the specied zero condition.
3.30 travel reduction [s]: One minus travel ratio. The value depends on
the specied zero condition. Travel reduction is the preferred term; slip
and travel reduction are sometimes used synonymously and are often
expressed in percent. See ASAE S209.5.
3.31 zero condition:
A traction device supplied with an input torque to propel the
device across the operating surface or a nondeformable surface
while delivering zero net traction;
A traction device supplied with a force at the axle in the direction
of travel while supplying zero input torque. The denition based on
a deformable surface can sometimes lead to a negative travel
reduction on a different operating surface when net traction is
positive; therefore, use of this practice is discouraged. The choice
of zero condition determines the rolling radius, travel reduction,
gross traction, and motion resistance and should always be stated.
4 Terminology for track- and belt-type traction
devices
4.1 angle of approach: The angle between the supporting surface and
that section of track between the front bogie wheel and the front idler or
sprocket.
4.2 angle of departure: The angle between the supporting surface and
that section of track between the rear bogie wheel and the rear idler of
sprocket.
4.3 grouser: The portion of the track or belt that extends into the soil for
the purpose of developing traction. Used interchangeably with lug and
cleat.
4.4 grouser angle or lug angle: The angle between the centerline of
the grouser or lug and the circumferential centerline of the track or belt.
4.5 grouser height or lug height: The vertical distance from the track
shoe face to the tip of the grouser, or the distance from the belt surface
to the tip of the lug.
4.6 grouser length: The distance measured along the grouser
centerline between its leading and trailing edges.
4.7 grouser spacing or pitch: The distance between corresponding
points on adjacent grousers when the shoe surfaces are in the same
plane.
4.8 lug spacing or pitch: The distance between corresponding points
on adjacent lugs measured on a at section of belt.
4.9 nominal ground contact length: The longitudinal distance between
centers of front and rearmost sprockets, bogies, or idlers that carry a part
of the vehicle vertical load.
4.10 track or belt width: The overall width of an individual track or belt.
4.11 track or lug pitch: The distance between corresponding points on
adjacent shoes in the same plane. On a belt, it is the lug pitch and is the
distance between corresponding points on adjacent lugs on a at section
of belt.
4.12 track width: The overall width of an individual track.
5 Terminology for tractor tires and rims
5.1 aspect ratio: The ratio of the section height to the section width of
a tire.
5.2 belt: The plies of cord material under the tread area of a tire having
the cords nearly parallel to the centerline of the tire (see gure 3). These
cords do not tie into the tire beads but furnish circumferential strength for
the tire.
5.3 bias-ply tire: A tire in which the cords of the body plies run
diagonally from bead to bead.
5.4 breaker plies: Plies of cord material, in bias-ply tires, that do not tie
into the beads.
5.5 deection, percent tire: Tire deection divided by the portion of the
tire section height beyond the rim ange, expressed as a percentage.
5.6 deection, tire [=(OD/2)-(SLR)]: The difference between the
unloaded and loaded section heights of a tire at a given load and ination
pressure.
5.7 end-of-lug clearance: The distance from the trailing side of a lug to
the end of the lug that follows (see gure 3).
5.8 ination pressure: For air-lled tires, it is the gauge pressure
measured with the valve in any position. For tires containing liquid, it is
the gauge pressure measured with an air-water gauge and with the valve
in the bottom position.
5.9 low section height tire: A tire with an aspect ratio less than 0.75.
Also called low prole tire.
5.10 lug angle: The average angle between the centerline of the lug
face and the circumferential centerline of the tire (see gure 3).
5.11 lug base: The projected thickness of width of the lug at the points
where the projected planes of the leading and trailing sides meet the
projected undertread face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.12 lug bracing angle (for the leading or trailing side of the lug):
The angle the lug side makes with a radial line extending from the center
of the wheel through the centerline of the lug (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.13 lug face: The outermost surface of the lug (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
ASAE STANDARDS 1998 119
5.14 lug llet: The curved section which blends the lug sides into the
undertread face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.15 lug height: The distance measured from the undertread face to the
lug face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.16 lug length: The distance measured from end to end along the
centerline of the lug face (see gure 3).
5.17 lug pitch: Center-to-center circumferential spacing of similar lugs
on one side of the centerline of the tire as measured at the lug face (see
gure 3).
5.18 lug side: The lug surface between the undertread face and the lug
face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.19 lug spacing, circumferential: The distance from the leading side
of a lug to the trailing side of the lug ahead of it, measured parallel to the
centerline of the tire at the lug face (see gure 3).
5.20 lug spacing, perpendicular: The distance, measured
perpendicularly, from the leading side of a lug to the trailing side of the
lug ahead of it at the lug face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.21 lug width: The width of the lug face as measured perpendicular to
the centerline of the lug face (see gure 3, sec. A-A).
5.22 overall diameter [OD]: The tire circumference divided by . The
tire is measured over the lugs in the center plane with the tire mounted
on its recommended rim and inated to the maximum rated ination
pressure in an unloaded condition following a 24-h waiting period (see
gure 4).
5.23 overall width: The undeected width of a new tire, including
growth resulting from ination for 24 h, and including protective side ribs
and decorations (see gure 4).
5.24 ply rating: The identication of a given tire with its maximum
recommended load when used in a specic type service. It is an index of
tire strength and does not necessarily represent the number of cord plies
in the tire.
5.25 radial-ply tire: A tire in which the cords of the body plies run
substantially radially from bead to bead.
5.26 rim diameter: The nominal diameter at the intersection of the bead
seat and vertical portion of the rim ange (see gure 4).
5.27 section height [H]: The height of a new tire, including normal
growth caused by ination following a 24-h waiting period, measured
from the rim diameter to the point of maximum radius, on the lug face
(see gure 4).
5.28 section width: The undeected width of a new tire, including
normal growth caused by ination following a 24-h waiting period and
including normal side walls, but excluding protective side ribs, bars, and
decorations (see gure 4).
5.29 static loaded radius (SLR): The distance from the center of the
axle to the supporting surface for a tire mounted on an approved rim and
carrying a load at a specic ination pressure.
5.30 static loaded radius, rated: The distance from the center of the
axle to the supporting surface for a tire mounted on an approved rim and
carrying the recommended load after being inated to the corresponding
recommended ination pressure for 24 h, but without running time on the
tire.
3)
5.31 tangential pull value: Maximum horizontal pull that the tire can
continously withstand, excluding momentary and occasional peak loads.
5.32 tread radius: The radius of curvature of the lug faces measured at
right angles to the center plane of the tire with the tire mounted on an
approved rim after being inated to the recommended pressure for 24 h,
but without running time on the tire.
5.33 tread width: The distance from shoulder to shoulder (see gure 3).
5.34 undertread face: The outermost surface of the rubber on the
carcass where no lugs are located (see gure 3, sec A-A).
3)
This is the SLR value published by tire manufacturers.
Figure 3 Tractor tire lug and tread diagram
Figure 4 New tire and rim dimensions
120 ASAE STANDARDS 1998