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Drager Drm © Faatbat a a 2 ee a agers a WAR over: DEPARTMENT — ce oe NAVYocrmrys eta RECOGNITION ee PICTORIAL MANUAL RESTRICTED MIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE ‘UNITED STATES, WITHIN. THE MEANING OF THE ACT, 50 U. 8.0, 91 1S AMENDED. “MTS TRANSMISSION OR THE REVELATION OF ITS CON TENTS IN ANY MANNER TO ‘AM UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROWIBITED BY LAW." ‘TRAINING DIVISION » BUREAU OF AERONAUTICS JUNE INTRODUCTION rer! frm foe, Nowhere is this more dificue chan in the ae ‘Owing to the great speeds and heights accaized by moder acral, recognition is frequently dependent oo a momentary glimpse. Ia the same way laste and accurate recognition of sstace cath mech ac ground equipmcat, et, Is fesughe with great diculice ‘owing 10 varying conditions of visibility, stance, xi variety of ype Before the cutheak ofthis war fee realized the grave problems of recognition hat the inccasiog dominance of ae power would present, "The existence of these problems was soon apparent when, fee two monthe, the casualties ofthe British Advances AieSriking Force in France smvouated to:—Sbor down by the Germans, eight ‘Shoe dows by the Freach, alae. In those days the coly question tasked wat, ls ie in tang?” Since then mistakes in recognition, fon the se, o land, aad is the ais have heen t00 numerous £0 mene tion, Usially theve mistakes are attended by the most sctius comequene. Tels now fully reali thatthe omly way to prevent cheteoccute ences is by demanding the highese genceal level of proficiency in ‘recognition throughout the services, This cas only De attained by concentrated study. Tt snot suggest that peactice will make one absolucely pentose, but ie will eraialy go most of the way toward tectucing the chances of a man being # danger not oaly vo himseli, ‘bar to his compade-innars, “The Nay’ problem ac sea, whether ce warship or merchant ship, fs co know as soon as pouikle wheter any aiteafe ot sip within Teer gsm oti he shi ding ‘i sigh is fcndly oe hostile what eype it, and how it lkely «0 attack, an fom that ko estat the best metho of defence. ‘The’ Atmy’s problems are also varied. Aneiaicrafe gunners shoul be able wo revognie any airplane within eange, o likely £0 ome shin tamge, whether Ming directly rowan! the batery ce not. Columns on the move may have to contend wich the lowly ing attackcbomber or the dive-bomber. Injeant recogoition saven lives and leas to the destrction of the every. “The Ait Forces, both of the Army and the Navy, have even more troblema ra solve because the views from which crews may ee the ‘eemy ave noe confined to those from nderacath. The fghtee pilot may hope co dive on the enemy fom above ad behind, but €0 hen che andemeath view is important too. ‘The tail gdoner acc the head-on view. All must know eheie atcraft well) Th a come pletoly diferent category are the photographic intepreter: who have to recognize the topeplan views of aircraft dispersed on ait «tomes of in por. In the pe, too lied artation has been paid tw this importane sihouete, Likewine, the accetate recognition fol mechanized grownd equipment is of extreme porcance. "The Ground Observer Cory as concentrated mals atcencion on secogaition. Again any aircraft within view, feicndly oF heat, thoald be recognized quickly-even throagh # momentary gap i the clou ‘The frse ching vo be appreciated is uhae rssagnition does oe begin and end wich appearance. Certainly it is emential to dis tingulsb between che appearance f fren al Foe lat hi 1 seldom nfo, eis also esential to recognize the exact type. [a the