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IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO.

1, MARCH 2014 1
Editorial
Special Issue on Wind ApplicationsPart 2
D
RIVEN by the environmental concerns resulting from
traditional energy sources, the rapid wind power instal-
lation in recent years has attracted much attention from acad-
emia, industries, and policymakers. Based on American Wind
Energy Association (AWEA), total installed wind capacity in
the U.S. at the end of 2012 has reached 60007 megawatts
(MW) with more than 13000 MW of new installation in year
2012 alone. Worldwide, based on statistics from World Wind
Energy Association, 14000 MW of new wind power was
installed in the rst half of 2013 and global wind installations
have almost reached 300000 MW. Among the many functional
components in wind turbine generators, power electronics
converters and the associated controllers are key enabling
technology. They play crucial roles in maximizing wind energy
conversion efciency in modern wind turbine generators. The
challenge in the coming years lies in developing new tech-
niques at the lowest possible cost and at the highest possible
efciency for wind power applications, to which the Special
Issue is dedicated. The topics of interest for this Special Issue
include: wind energy harvesting, modeling and simulation of
wind power converters, power electronic converter topologies
for wind turbine generator systems, control of power electronic
converters for wind turbine generators, condition monitoring,
fault diagnosis, and protection for power electronic convert-
ers and machines in wind turbine generator systems, power
electronics and control for small wind turbine systems in
residential applications, synchrophasor applications in wind
power generation, wind power grid connection issues, offshore
wind power generation, FACTS applications for wind power,
power electronics and control for energy storage in wind
applications. This Special Issue is organized into two parts.
Part 1 was published in the December 2013 issue. Part 2 is in
this March 2014 issue.
In Part 2, we start with a two-part paper by Venkata
Yaramasu, Bin Wu, Marco Rivera, and Jose Rodriguez. A new
medium voltage power conversion system for megawatt level
permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind tur-
bine is proposed with two-step model predictive control
strategy. Modeling and theoretical analysis is presented in
Part 1, while simulation and experimental results are detailed
in Part 2. The controller for the four-level grid-tied inverter
has many control objectives including maximum power point
tracking (MPPT), net dc-bus voltage regulation, and efcient
multilevel operation. Continuous- and discrete-time modeling
is developed for the new power conversion system. The
two-step nite control-set model predictive strategy facilitates
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/JESTPE.2013.2297420
lower switching frequency operation and lower total harmonic
distortion (THD). Steady-state and transient performance of
the new system is validated through simulation and experi-
mental tests.
The third paper is by Nuno M. A. Freire and A. J. Marques
Cardoso, which develops low-cost, fault-tolerant power con-
verter topologies for PMSG-based system. New topologies
for grid-side and machine-side converters and the associated
control strategies are proposed. Fault diagnostic and control
algorithms can be implemented at low cost. Experimental
results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the
fault-tolerant drive system.
The fourth paper by Maren Kuschke and Kai Strunz focuses
on a compact transfer function model for a complete wind
energy conversion system (WECS). This model facilitates
stability analysis and helps reveal relation between wind speed
and rotor speed and the poles and zeros of the transfer
function. Insight of controller design and response can be
gained, which is veried by detailed simulation analysis.
The fth paper is by Dustin F. Howard, Jiaqi Liang, and
Ronald G. Harley. In this paper, a simplied doubly-fed
induction generator (DFIG) model is developed suitable for
short-circuit analysis under balanced faults. The model is
control-based, positive-sequence equivalent circuit with para-
meters that are dependent upon the controls of rotor-side and
grid-side converters. The model performance is compared with
detailed PSCAD transient simulations and experimental short-
circuit tests.
The sixth paper by M. A. Herrn et al. applies repetitive
control for H-rotor type wind turbine generator. Variable
sampling/switching period technique is developed to ensure
integer number of samples in each grid period. A variable
sampling period lter phase-locked loop is adopted to maintain
control robustness under grid disturbances. Experimental
results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
proposed control.
The seventh paper is by Jianwu Zeng, Wei Qiao, Liyan Qu,
and Yanping Jiao, in which a new multiport dc-dc converter
for power management of grid-connected, multisource energy
system is developed. The converter has minimum number of
power switches and its operating principle under different
operating modes is analyzed in depth. Simultaneous MPPT
controls of a hybrid wind/solar system are realized and demon-
strated in an experimental test system.
The eighth paper is by Jie Dang, John Seuss, Luv Suneja,
and Ronald G. Harley. This paper addresses the important
issue of frequency regulation capability of high-penetration
renewable energy generation. A State of Charge (SOC) feed-
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2 IEEE JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 2, NO. 1, MARCH 2014
back control scheme is developed for a hybrid wind/energy
storage system with the aim of regulating both grid frequency
and battery SOC. MATLAB/Simulink simulation results are
presented to verify the control system performance under
different system operating scenarios.
The ninth paper is written by Pedram Sotoodeh and
Ruth Douglas, which develops a single-phase 11-level
inverter for wind power integration in distribution network.
The built-in D-STATCOM capability within the inverter sys-
tem can provide reactive power compensation and power factor
correction, much-needed in a distribution system. Simulation
and prototyping experiments are conducted to validate the per-
formance of the proposed inverter and the associated control
strategy.
I would like to thank the Editor-in-Chief Dr. Don F. Tan for
his persistent assistance and guidance during the entire process
of this Special Issue. I am grateful for all the Guest Associate
Editors who have devoted a lot of effort. My thanks also go
to all the reviewers for their timely efforts to ensure quality
of all the papers in this Special Issue. Last but not least,
I must thank all the authors for their original contributions
to the important eld of wind energy conversion systems.
Finally, I would like to acknowledge the constant support from
Marlene James and Kristin Falco.
DAVID WENZHONG GAO, Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
University of Denver
Denver, CO 80208 USA
E-mail: Wenzhong.gao@du.edu
David Wenzhong Gao (M02SM03) received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and
computer engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA, in 1999 and
2002, respectively.
He is an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Director of the
Renewable Energy and Power Electronics Laboratory, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA.
His research was funded by many funding agencies and sponsors, including the U.S. National
Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
the Argonne National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research
Ofce, the U.S. Ofce of Naval Research, Tennessee Valley Authority, and the U.S. Electric Power
Research Institute. He has published more than 100 technical papers in international journals and
conferences. He has co-authored a book entitled Modern Hybrid Electric Vehicles (John Wiley
& Sons, U.K.). He has conducted extensive research in areas of power and energy systems,
including renewable energies, distributed generation, smart grid, power delivery, power electronics
application, power system protection, power system restructuring, and hybrid electric vehicles.
Dr. Gao received the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER Award for wind power research in 2009. He received the
Best Paper Award in the Complex Systems Track at the 2002 Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences in 2002.
He currently serves as an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, an Associate Editor for the IEEE
JOURNAL OF EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN POWER ELECTRONICS, and he has been an active reviewer of leading
journals and conferences, such as the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
POWER ELECTRONICS, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION,
the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, the IET Renewable Power Generation, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
POWER DELIVERY, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, the IEEE Vehicular Power and Propulsion Conference, and
the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting. He currently serves as the Secretary of the IEEE Power Electronics Society
Denver Section. He teaches courses such as renewable and efcient power and energy systems, power generation, operation and
control, and power system protection. He has been active in various technical committees of the IEEE societies and conference
organizing committees. He served as a General Chair to host the 2012 IEEE Symposium on Power Electronics and Machines in
Wind Applications, Denver. He was a Technical Co-Chair for the IEEE Vehicular Power and Propulsion Conference, Dearborn,
MI, USA, in 2009. He was a Technical Program Co-Chair in the Organizing Committee of the 2013 IEEE GreenTech Conference,
Denver, in 2013. He was invited to serve on the grant review panel for many funding agencies, including the U.S. National Science
Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.