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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH
KHOA VIN THNG II
_____________



BO CO
THC TP TT NGHIP
CHUYN NGNH: IN T - VIN THNG
H CHNH QUY
NIN KHA: 2008-2013




ti:
TI U HA MNG 3G









Sinh vin thc hin: KHNG VN NHT
MSSV: 408160037
Lp: 08VTA1
Gio vin hng dn:NGUYN TN NHN






TP.HCM 8/2012



















































HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG
C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH
KHOA VIN THNG II
_____________



BO CO
THC TP TT NGHIP
CHUYN NGNH: IN T - VIN THNG
H CHNH QUY
NIN KHA: 2008-2013




ti:
TI U HA MNG 3G









Sinh vin thc hin: KHNG VN NHT
MSSV: 408160037
Lp: 08VTA1
Gio vin hng dn: NGUYN TN NHN






TP.HCM 8/2012









MC LC
LI M U 1
DANH MC CC BNG, HNH 3
THUT NG VIT TT 4
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA 7
1.1 GII THIU 7
1.2 KIN TRC MNG 8
1.3 CC KNH V TUYN 10
1.3.1 Cc knh lgic: 11
1.3.2 Cc knh vt l: 11
1.3.3 Cc knh truyn ti: 12
1.3.3.1 Knh truyn ti ring: 12
1.3.3.2 Cc knh truyn ti chung: 12
1.4 IU KHIN CNG SUT 13
1.5 CHUYN GIAO 14
CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G 16
2.1. GII THIU CHUNG V TI U HA MNG 3G 16
2.1.1 Mc ch 16
2.1.2 L do 16
2.1.3 Cc l i ch ca ti u 17
2.2. QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG W-CDMA: 17
2.3. VAI TR CA CC CH S KPI TRONG TI U MNG 19
CHNG 3: QUY TRNH DRIVING TEST V PHN TCH LOGFILE 23
3.1 DRIVING TEST V MT S PHN MM TI U MNG V TUYN 23
3.1.1 Driving Test: 23
3.1.2 TEMS Investigation 10.0.5 24
3.1.3 Actix 25
3.2 QUY TRNH THC HIN DRIVING TEST 26
3.2.1 Chun b 26
3.2.2 Kt ni thit b v tin hnh o ki m 27
3.2.2.1 Kt ni thit b 27
3.2.2.2 Cu hnh cc phng php o 30
Hnh 3.10 Ca s th hin qut nhiu trong TEMS 31
3.3 PHN TCH LOGFILE V A RA KHUYN NGH 32
3.3.1 Cc phng php phn tch: 32
3.3.2 Phn tch tng hp: 39



3.3.2.1 Phn tch rt cuc gi s 1: 39
3.3.2.2 Phn tch rt cuc gi s 2: 41
KT LUN 43
TI LIU THAM KHO 44



LI M U


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 1










LI M U







Trong thi i hin nay, nhu cu trao i thng tin ngy cng tng c v s
lng ln cht lng v cc dch v thng tin di ng ng vai tr v cng quan trng
trong i sng ca chng ta. Chic in thoi di ng tr thnh ngi bn thn thit
vi tt c mi ngi v cc dch v i km theo n li ngy cng pht trin.
Hin ti, cc nh mng ti Vit Nam ch yu vn cung cp cc dch v da trn
cng ngh 2G, 2.5G-GPRS v 2.75G-EDGE. Cc dch v 3G chim s lng cha cao
mt phn l do cc thit b h tr 3G c gi thnh hi cao v cc dch v 3G vn cha
tht s hp dn ngi dng. Nhng vi u th tc truyn d liu, cc dch v ngy
cng phong ph, cht lng tt hn v bo mt cao thch hp vi vic kinh doanh
thng mi online, 3G Vit Nam s ha hn pht trin cao hn na em li cho
ngi dng cc dch v vi tc v cht lng tt nht, m ra tng lai ti sng,
nng ng cho ngnh vin thng ni ring v nn kinh t quc gia ni chung.
Vi nhng u th v tim nng ni trn, cc nh mng Vit Nam bt tay
nghin cu v cung cp cc dch v 3G. Trong qu trnh trin khai mng 3G th khu
ti u mng ng vai tr rt quan trng m bo cht lng v dung lng mng,
em li li ch ti a cho nh mng v khch hng. Vi vai tr , cng tc ti u
mng din ra lin tc v theo quy trnh khp kn trong sut qu trnh khai thc vn
hnh mng. Cng tc ti u i hi cc k s phi c tay ngh cao, thng xuyn hc
tp nghin cu c th kp thi nm bt cc vn , m bo cho mng c vn
hnh mt cch tt nht.
Do mng 3G mi c trin khai khng lu v tng i phc tp nn s lng
cc nhn cng nm r v cng ngh ny vn cn hn ch, ta s gp nhiu kh khn do
thiu kinh nghim thc tin v do ln u trin khai ti u mng 3G. Nhng i hi
cp bch v vic ti u mng 3G trong nhng nm v sau s khin ta gp phi nhng
kh khn nht nh nhng s l c hi mang li nhng th thch v vic lm cho cc
k s tr ca Vit Nam cng nh cc bn sinh vin sp ra trng vi l do trn ti
chn ti thc tp tt nghip l TI U MNG 3G.
Mc ch nghin cu
Nghim cu, tm hiu v nh gi cng tc ti u mng 3G hin nay nc ta,
phc v cho yu cu cng vic v nghin cu sau ny.
LI M U


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 2


Nghin cu phng php ti u mng 3G mt cch hiu qu, gp phn cung
cp cc dch v 3G vi cht lng tt nht v gi thnh r cho ngi dng.
i tng v phm vi nghin cu
a) i tng nghin cu
- L thuyt v ti u mng 3G.
- Mng truy nhp v tuyn thnh ph H Ch Minh.
- Cc phn mm h tr cho vic ti u mng 3G.
b) Phm vi nghin cu
- Nghin cu v l thuyt v ti u mng 3G.
- Nghin cu cc phn mm ti u mng thng dng nht.
- Nghin cu v qu trnh ti u mng thc t thnh ph H Ch Minh.
ngha khoa hc ca ti
Cng ngh 3G c nghin cu v trin khai rng ri trn th gii. Tuy
nhin cng ngh ny vn cn kh mi m so vi nc ta, ta khng th p dng cc m
hnh pht trin ca cc nc tin tin mt cch cng nhc v mi nc c nhng iu
kin t nhin v x hi ring. Sau nhiu s u t v nghin cu, cc nh mng Vit
Nam cung cp dch v 3G n khch hng tuy nhin s lng cng nh cht lng
cha cao. Vi mc ch nghin cu hc tp v tm ra nhng phng php ti u
mng 3G mt cch hiu qu v mt kinh t ln k thut nhm gp phn cung cp cc
dch v 3G ngy cng a dng vi gi thnh r cho mi ngi dn Vit Nam, trnh cho
nc ta khng b tt hu ngy cng xa so vi cc nc ang pht trin trn th gii
trong vin thng ni ring. Mt khc, cng ngh 3G c trin khai khng lu, do
cn nhiu thiu st, hn ch nn vic nghin cu v ti u mng 3G l rt cn thit v
l c hi em li nhiu vic lm cho cc k s nht l nhng sinh vin mi ra trng.
Kt cu ti
ti gm 3 chng vi ni dung tm tt nh sau:
Chng 1: Tng quan v mng 3G WCDMA. Gii thiu tng quan v kin trc mng,
cc knh v tuyn, iu khin cng sut v chuyn giao trong mng.
Chng 2: Tng quan quy trnh ti u mng v yu cu v cc ch s KPIs trong ti
u mng 3G WCDMA.
Chng 3: Thc hin Driving test vi my o TEMS 10.0.5, tin hnh phn tch
Logfile 3G bng phn mm Actix v a ra khuyn ngh ti u mng.
Em xin chn thnh cm n anh Nguyn Minh Phng, nhn vin qun l h s
cng ty TNHH dch v vin thng Thin T, cc anh ch phng k thut cng qu cng
ty to iu kin gip em hon thnh ti bo co thc tp.
ng thi, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti thy Nguyn Tn Nhn,
trng b mn V Tuyn, hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng thnh ph H
Ch Minh trc tip hng dn v gip em hon thnh ti bo co thc tp
ny.
H Ch Mnh, Ngy 31Thng 7 Nm 2012
Sinh vin thc hin

Khng Vn Nht

DANH MC CC BNG, HNH


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 3





DANH MC CC BNG, HNH




BNG 1.1 Cc knh vt l tham gia cc phng php iu khin cng sut
BNG 1.2 Bng tng kt v Handover
BNG 2.1 Cc ch tiu cht lng KPI trong Driving Test
BNG 3.1 File cell definition 3G ca Vinaphone ti thnh ph H Ch Minh
BNG 3.2 Bng thng k % xy ra pilot pollution
BNG 3.3 Bng khuyn ngh dnh cho cc cell ln cn


HNH 1.1: Kin trc mng WCDMA
HNH 1.2: S sp xp cc knh logic, knh truyn ti v knh vt l
HNH 1.3: Knh truyn ti ng ln v ng xung.
HNH 1.4: Tin trnh thc hin chuyn giao
HNH 2.1: Quy trnh ti u ha mng WCDMA
HNH 3.1: Cc cng c dng ti u ha mng v tuyn
HNH 3.2 Phn tch Log file 3G s dng TEMS 10.0.5
HNH 3.3 Phn tch Log file 3G s dng Actix
HNH 3.4 S kt ni nguyn l my o TEMS vi my tnh
HNH 3.5 S kt ni thc t my o TEMS vo my tnh
HNH 3.6 Cu hnh kt ni TEMS vi my tnh
HNH 3.7 Cu hnh kt ni GPS vi my tnh
HNH 3.8 Cu hnh o Call trong phn mm TEMS 10.0.5
HNH 3.9 Cu hnh qut Scanner trong phn mm TEMS 10.0.5
HNH 3.10 Ca s th hin qut nhiu trong TEMS
HNH 3.11 HO lin tc khu vc c qu nhiu cell vt tri
HNH 3.12 Vng ph ca CPICH yu
HNH 3.12 Ec/Io gim do din tch vng ph ca cell phc v nh
HNH 3.13 Cell c vng ph sng qu xa
HNH 3.14 Hin tng tng t ngt cng sut pht ca UE
HNH 3.15 Nhiu do qu nhiu knh pilot ng c cho SHO
HNH 3.16 T l thnh cng cc s kin
HNH 3.17 S kin rt cuc gi xy ra ti hai v tr khc nhau
HNH 3.18 Best server ca UE v Scanner
HNH 3.19 Hot ng gim st ti thi im rt cuc gi
HNH 3.20 Vng ph RSCP ca SC018
HNH 3.21 DL SIR, Ec/Io, Cng sut pht UE, DL BLER ti thi im rt
cuc gi

THUT NG VIT TT


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 4


THUT NG VIT TT

2G Second Generation Global Network Mng di dng h h 2
3G Third Generation Global Network Mng di dng h h 3
AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate codec B m ho v gii m a tc
thch nghi
AICH Acquisition Indicator Channel Knh ch th thm d
AuC Authentication Center Trung tm nhn thc
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel Knh qung b.
BER Bit Error Rate T l bit li
BS Base Station Trm thu pht gc
BLER Block Error Rate T s li khi
BSIC Base Station Identity Code M nhn dng trm gc
CDR Call Drop Rate T l rt cuc gi
CS Circuit Switching Chuyn mch knh
CSD Circuit Switching Data Chuyn mch gi d liu
CR Change Request Thay i yu cu
CCPCH Common Control Physical Channel Knh iu khin vt l
chung
CCCH Common Control Channel Knh iu khin chung
CN Core Network Mng li
CPICH Common Pilot Channel Knh hoa tiu chung
CSV Circuit Switched Voice Chuyn mch gi thoi
CTCH Dedicated Traffic Control Channel Knh lu lng chung
DL Downlink ng xung
DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel Knh vt l ring
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel Knh s liu vt l ring
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel Knh iu khin vt l ring
DSCH Dedicated Shared Channel Knh ng xung dng
chung
DSS Direct Sequence Spectrum K thut tri ph chui trc
tip
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel Knh lu lng dnh ring
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Evolution Gii php nng cao tc
truyn d liu
EIR Equipment Identity Register B ghi nhn dng thit b
FACH Forward Access Channel Knh truy cp ng xung
FDD Frequency Ghp song cng phn chia
theo thi
gian
FER Frame Error Rate T l khung li
GMSC Gateway MSC Cng MSC
GPRS General Packet Radio Service Dch v d liu gi
GSM Global System for Mobile Mng thng tin di ng ton
THUT NG VIT TT


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 5


Telecommunication cu
HLR Home Location Register B ghi nh v thng tr
HO Handover Chuyn giao
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access Truy nhp gi ng xung
tc cao
IMT International Mobile
Telecommunication
Vin thng di ng quc t
IP Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet
IRAT Inter-Radio Access Technology Cng ngh truy nhp v
tuyn
IS-HO Intersytems Handover Chuyn giao lien mng
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network Mng s tch hp a dch v
IWF InterWorking Function Chc nng tng tc mng
KPI Key performace Indicator Ch s hiu nng chnh
LAC Location Area Code M nhn dng vng nh v
MSC Mobile Services Switching Center Trung tm chuyn mch cc
dch v di ng
NOC Network Operating Centre Trung tm iu hnh mng
ODCCH ODMA Dedicated Control Channel Knh iu khin dnh ring
cho OMDA
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center Trung tm vn hnh v bo
dng
PCH Paging channel Knh tm gi
P-CPICH Primary Common Control Physical
Channel
Knh vt l iu khin
chung chnh
PICH Paging Indicator Channel Knh ch th tm gi
PS Packet Switching Chuyn mch gi
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Mng in thoi chuyn
mch cng cng
PSD Packet Switching Data Chuyn mch gi d liu
RTT Round Trip Time Thi gian t ngun ti ch
PCCH Physical Control Channel Knh iu khin vt l
QoS Quality of service Cht lng dch v
QPSK Quatrature Phase Shift Keying Kha chuyn pha vung gc
RACH Random Access Channel Knh truy nhp ngu nhin
RAT Radio Access Technology Cng ngh truy nhp v
tuyn
RF Radio Frequency Tn s v tuyn
RNC Radio Network Controller B iu khin mng v
tuyn
RSCP Received Signal Code Power Cng sut m tn hiu thu
c
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator Tng cng sut thu (bao
gm c nhiu).
S-CCPCH Secondary Common Control Knh vt l iu khin
THUT NG VIT TT


SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 6


Physical Channel chung th cp
SC Scrambling Code M tri ph
SCH Synchronization channel Knh ng b
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node Nt h tr GPRS phc v
SHO Soft Handover. Chuyn giao mm
SIM Subscriber Identity Module Modun nhn dng thu bao
SIR Signal to Interference Ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu
TDD Time Division Duplex Ghp song cng phn chia
theo thi gian
UL Uplink ng ln
UE User Equipment Thit b ngi dng
UMTS Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System
H thng vin thng di ng
ton cu
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network
Mng truy nhp v tuyn
mt t UMTS
VLR Visit Location Register VLR
VHO Vertical Handover Chuyn giao lin mng
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo
m bng rng









CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 7















CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA











Cng ngh EDGE l mt bc ci tin ca chun GPRS t tc truyn d
liu theo yu cu ca thng tin di ng th h ba. Tuy nhin EDGE vn da trn cu
trc mng GSM, ch thay i k thut iu ch v tuyn kt hp vi dch v chuyn
mch v tuyn gi chung (GPRS) nn tc vn cn hn ch. iu ny gy kh khn
cho vic ng dng cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin i hi vic chuyn mch
linh ng v tc truyn d liu ln hn. gii quyt vn ny, gii php a ra
l nng cp EDGE ln chun di ng th h ba W-CDMA.

1.1 GII THIU
WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) l mt cng ngh truy nhp
v tuyn c pht trin mnh Chu u. H thng ny hot ng ch FDD v
da trn k thut tri ph chui trc tip (DSS- Direct Sequence Spectrum) s dng
tc chip 3,84Mcps bn trong bng tn 5MHz. Bng tn rng hn v tc tri ph
cao lm tng li x l v mt gii php thu a ng tt hn, l c im quyt
nh chun b cho IMT-2000.
WCDMA h tr trn vn c dch v chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi tc
cao v m bo s hot ng ng thi cc dch v hn hp vi ch gi hot
ng mc hiu qu cao nht. Hn na WCDMA c th h tr cc tc s liu khc
nhau, da trn th tc iu chnh tc .
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 8


Chun WCDMA hin thi s dng phng php iu ch QPSK, mt phng
php iu ch tt hn 8-PSK, cung cp tc s liu nh l 2Mbps vi cht lng
truyn tt trong vng ph rng.
1.2 KIN TRC MNG
H thng W-CDMA c xy dng trn c s mng GPRS. V mt chc nng
c th chia cu trc mng W-CDMA ra lm hai phn : mng li (CN) v mng
truy nhp v tuyn (UTRAN), trong mng li s dng ton b cu trc phn
cng ca mng GPRS cn mng truy nhp v tuyn l phn nng cp ca W-
CDMA. Ngoi ra hon thin h thng, trong W-CDMA cn c thit b ngi s
dng (UE) thc hin giao din ngi s dng vi h thng. T quan im chun
ha, c UE v UTRAN u bao gm nhng giao thc mi c thit k da trn
cng ngh v tuyn W-CDMA, tri li mng li c nh ngha hon ton da
trn GSM. iu ny cho php h thng W-CDMA pht trin mang tnh ton cu
trn c s cng ngh GSM.



Hnh 1.1: Kin trc mng WCDMA

UE (User Equipment).
Thit b ngi s dng thc hin chc nng giao tip ngi s dng vi h thng.
UE gm hai phn:
- Thit b di ng (ME: Mobile Equipment): L u cui v tuyn c s dng
cho thng tin v tuyn trn giao din Uu.
- Module nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM): L mt th thng minh cha thng
tin nhn dng ca thu bao, n thc hin cc thut ton nhn thc, lu gi cc kha
nhn thc v mt s thng tin thu bao cn thit cho u cui.
UTRAN (UMTS Terestrial Radio Access Network).
Mng truy cp v tuyn c nhim v thc hin cc chc nng lin quan n truy
cp v tuyn. UTRAN gm hai phn t :
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 9


- Node B: Thc hin chuyn i dng s liu gia cc giao din Iub v Uu. N
cng tham gia qun l ti nguyn v tuyn.
- B iu khin mng v tuyn RNC: C chc nng s hu v iu khin cc ti
nguyn v tuyn trong vng (cc Node B c kt ni vi n). RNC cn l im
truy cp tt c cc dch v do UTRAN cung cp cho mng li CN.
CN (Core Network).
Cc phn t chnh ca mng li nh sau:
- HLR (Home Location Register): L thanh ghi nh v thng tr lu gi thng
tin chnh v l lch dch v ca ngi s dng. Cc thng tin ny bao gm : Thng tin
v cc dch v c php, cc vng khng c chuyn mng v cc thng tin v dch
v b sung nh: trng thi chuyn hng cuc gi, s ln chuyn hng cuc gi.
- MSC/VLR (Mobile Services Switching Center/Visitor Location Register): L
tng i (MSC) v c s d liu (VLR) cung cp cc dch v chuyn mch knh
cho UE ti v tr ca n. MSC c chc nng s dng cc giao dch chuyn mch knh.
VLR c chc nng lu gi bn sao v l lch ngi s dng cng nh v tr chnh xc
ca UE trong h thng ang phc v.
- GMSC (Gateway MSC): Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng cng kt
ni vi mng ngoi.
- SGSN (Servicing GPRS Support Node): Node h tr GPRS (dch v v tuyn
gi chung) ang phc v, c chc nng nh MSC/VLR nhng c s dng cho cc
dch v chuyn mch gi (PS).
- GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): Node h tr GPRS cng, c chc nng
nh GMSC nhng ch phc v cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi.
kt ni MSC vi mng ngoi cn c thm phn t lm chc nng tng tc
mng (IWF). Ngoi mng li cn cha cc c s d liu cn thit cho cc mng di
ng nh: HLR, AuC v EIR.
Cc mng ngoi.
- Mng CS: Mng m bo cc kt ni cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh.
V d: Mng ISDN, PSTN.
- Mng PS: Mng kt ni cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi. V d: mng Internet.
Cc giao din v tuyn.
- Giao din Cu: L giao din gia th thng minh USIM v ME. Giao din ny
tun theo mt khun dng chun cho cc th thng minh.
- Giao din Uu: L giao din m qua UE truy cp cc phn t c nh ca h
thng v v th m n l giao din m quan trng nht ca UMTS.
- Giao din Iu: Giao din ny ni UTRAN vi CN, n cung cp cho cc nh khai
thc kh nng trang b UTRAN v CN t cc nh sn xut khc nhau.
- Giao din Iu
r
: Cho php chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC t cc nh sn xut
khc nhau.
- Giao din Iu
b
: Giao din cho php kt ni mt Node B vi mt RNC. Iu
b
c
tiu chun ha nh l mt giao din m hon ton.
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 10


1.3 CC KNH V TUYN
x l linh hot cc dng dch v khc nhau v cc kh nng gi hi ngh,
giao din v tuyn c cu trc da trn ba lp knh c bn: cc knh vt l, cc
knh truyn ti v cc knh logic.
Cc knh logic c phn loi theo chc nng ca cc tn hiu truyn dn v
cc c tnh logic ca chng, v c gi tn theo ni dung thng tin m n
truyn.
Cc knh truyn ti c phn loi theo khun dng truyn v c nh r c
tnh theo cch truyn v loi thng tin c truyn qua giao din v tuyn.
Cc knh vt l c phn loi theo cc chc nng ca lp vt l v c nhn
bit bi m tri ph, sng mang v dng pha iu ch ca ng ln.
Vic ghp v pht cc knh truyn ti trn cc knh vt l to ra cc kh nng:
ghp tn hiu iu khin vi tn hiu s liu ca cc thu bao, ghp v pht tn hiu
s liu ca cc thu bao kt hp vi a truy nhp. Vic lin kt cc knh logic vi
mt knh truyn ti n cng em li kh nng truyn dn hiu qu hn. Vic xp
knh truyn ti vi knh vt l c tin hnh trong lp vt l, ngc li, vic xp
knh logic vi knh truyn ti c tin hnh trong lp con MAC.




Knh vt l ring (DPCH) bao gm knh s liu vt l ring (DPDCH) v knh
iu khin vt l ring (DPCCH). DPDCH l mt knh truyn s liu , tri li
DPCCH c gn vi DPDCH thc hin chc nng iu khin lp 1 nh TCP. Cc
knh vt l khc c minh ha hnh trn bao gm knh ng b (SCH), knh hoa
tiu chung (CPICH), knh ch th chim dng (AICH) v knh ch th tm gi (PICH).
SCH c s dng tm kim . CPICH l knh dng cho vic pht cc tn hiu hoa
tiu gii iu ch knh vt l iu khin chung (CCPCH) v cng c s dng
ci thin qu trnh gii iu ch ca cc knh ring cng nh cc knh chung. AICH
c s dng truy cp ngu nhin. PICH c ng dng ci thin t l thu gin
on gia cc UE trong vic truyn dn cc tn hiu tm gi.
Hnh 1.2: S sp xp cc knh logic, knh truyn ti v knh vt l
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 11



1.3.1 Cc knh lgic:
Cc knh lgic c th c chia thnh hai nhm ch yu: nhm knh iu khin
v nhm knh lu lng.
Nhm knh iu khin bao gm:
Knh iu khin qung b BCCH.
Knh iu khin tm gi PCCH.
Knh iu khin dnh ring DCCH.
Knh iu khin chung CCCH.
Knh iu khin phn chia knh SHCCH.
Knh iu khin ring cho ODMA ODCCH.
Knh iu khin chung cho ODMA OCCCH.
Nhm knh lu lng bao gm:
Knh lu lng dnh ring DTCH.
Knh lu lng dnh ring cho ODMA DTCH.
Knh lu lng chung CTCH.

1.3.2 Cc knh vt l:
Knh vt l tng ng vi mt tn s mang, m v i vi ng ln n cn
tng ng vi gc pha tng i (0 hay /2).
Cc knh vt l ng ln:
DPDCH: truyn knh truyn dn DCH.
DPCCH: truyn thng tin iu khin L1 nh: cc bit hoa tiu h tr nh gi
vic xc nh knh trong qu trnh pht hin tng quan, cc lnh iu khin cng sut
pht-TPC, thng tin phn hi-FBI, v mt b ch th kt hp nh dng truyn dn
TFCI.
PRACH: mang thng tin ca knh giao vn RACH.
PCPCH: mang thng tin ca knh giao vn CPCH.
ng xung ch c mt knh vt l ring duy nht: knh vt l ring ng
xung (downlink DPCH). Cc knh vt l ng xung c cho di y:
Knh vt l
ng xung
(DPCH)
Knh DPCH chung
(Downlink CPCH)
Knh DPCH ring
(Downlink DPCH)
Knh vt l iu khin chung th cp(S-CCPCH)

Knh vt l iu khin chung s cp(P-CCPCH)
Knh hoa tiu chung(CPICH)

Knh ch th bt (AICH)

Knh ng b(SCH)

Knh vt l ng xung dng chung (PDSCH)

Knh ch th tm gi(PICH)

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 12


1.3.3 Cc knh truyn ti:
Trong UTRAN s liu c to ra cc lp cao c truyn ti trn ng v
tuyn bi cc knh truyn ti bng cch sp xp cc knh ny ln cc knh vt l khc
nhau. Lp vt l c yu cu h tr cc knh truyn ti vi cc tc bit thay i
nhm cung cp cc dch v vi rng bng tn theo yu cu v ghp nhiu dch
v trn cng mt kt ni.
C hai kiu knh truyn ti: Cc knh ring v cc knh chung. im khc nhau
gia chng l: Knh chung l ti nguyn c chia s cho tt c hoc mt nhm ngi
s dng trong cell, cn ti nguyn knh ring c n nh bi mt m v mt tn s
nht nh dnh ring cho mt ngi s dng duy nht.
1.3.3.1 Knh truyn ti ring:
Knh truyn ti ring duy nht l knh ring (vit tt DCH : Dedicated Channel).
Knh truyn ti ring mang thng tin t cc lp trn lp vt l ring cho mt ngi s
dng, bao gm s liu cho dch v hin thi cng nh thng tin iu khin lp cao.
Knh truyn ti ring c c trng bi cc tnh nng nh: iu khin cng sut
nhanh, thay i tc s liu nhanh theo tng khung v kh nng pht n mt phn
cell hay on cell bng cch thay i hng Anten ca h thng anten thch ng. Cc
knh ring h tr chuyn giao mm.
1.3.3.2 Cc knh truyn ti chung:
UTRA nh ngha 6 kiu knh truyn ti chung. Cc knh ny c mt s im
khc vi cc knh trong th h th hai, chng hn truyn dn gi cc knh chung v
mt knh dng chung ng xung pht s liu gi. Cc knh chung khng c
chuyn giao mm, nhng mt s knh c iu khin cng sut nhanh.
Knh qung b:
Knh qung b (BCH: Broadcast Channel) l mt knh truyn ti c s dng
pht cc thng tin c th UTRAN hoc cell. V thit b ngi s dng UE (User
Equipment) ch c th ng k n cell ny nu n c th gii m knh qung b, nn
cn pht knh ny cng sut kh cao mng c th t n tt c mi ngi s
dng trong vng ph yu cu.
Knh truy cp ng xung (hng i):
Knh truy cp ng xung (FACH: Forward Access Channel) l mt knh
truyn ti ng xung mang thng tin iu khin n cc UE nm trong mt cell cho
trc, chng hn sau khi BS thu c mt bn tin truy cp ngu nhin. Knh truyn
dn ng xung truyn thng tin iu khin ti trm di ng khi h thng bit c
vic nh v cell ca trm di ng.
Knh tm gi:
Knh tm gi (PCH: Paging Channel) l mt knh truyn ti ng xung thng
c truyn trn ton b cell, c dng truyn thng tin iu khin ti trm di
ng khi h thng khng bit v tr cell ca trm di ng. N mang s liu lin quan
n th tc tm gi, chng hn khi mng mun khi u thng tin vi UE. UE phi c
kh nng thu c thng tin tm gi trong ton b vng ph ca cell.
Knh truy cp ngu nhin:
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 13


Knh truy cp ngu nhin (RACH: Random Access Channel) l knh truyn ti
ng ln, thng thu c t ton b cell, thc hin truyn thng tin iu khin t
trm di ng. N c s dng mang thng tin iu khin t UE nh: yu cu thit
lp mt kt ni.
Knh gi chung ng ln:
Knh gi chung ng ln (CPCH: Common Packet Channel) l mt m rng
ca knh RACH mang s liu ca ngi s dng c pht theo gi trn ng
ln. FACH ng xung cng vi knh ny to nn cp knh truyn s liu.

Hnh 1.3: Knh truyn ti ng ln v ng xung.
Knh ng xung dng chung:
Knh ng xung dng chung (DSCH: Dedicated Shared Channel) l knh
truyn ti mang thng tin ca ngi s dng v/hoc thng tin iu khin. Nhiu
ngi s dng c th dng chung knh ny. Xt v nhiu mt n ging nh knh truy
cp ng xung, nhng knh dng chung h tr s dng iu khin cng sut nhanh
cng nh tc bit thay i theo khung. FDD, n c kt hp vi mt hoc vi
knh DCH ng xung. N c th c truyn trn ton b cell hoc ch trn mt
phn cell ang s dng, v d cc anten dng bp.
Cc knh truyn ti cn thit:
Cc knh truyn ti chung cn thit cho vic hot ng cn bn ca mng l:
RACH, FACH v PCH, cn vic s dng DSCH v CPCH l la chn v c th c
quyt nh bi mng.
1.4 IU KHIN CNG SUT
Vic iu khin cng sut pht l rt cn thit h thng WCDMA hot ng tt
v tt c cc thu bao WCDMA u chia s cng mt bng tn v tuyn nh vic s
dng cc m tp m gi ngu nhin v do mi thu bao c xem nh mt tp m
ngu nhin i vi cc thu bao khc. Qu trnh iu khin cng sut c thc hin
gii quyt bi ton xa-gn v tng ti a dung lng. iu khin cng sut tc
l cng sut pht t mi thu bao c iu chnh sao cho cng sut thu ca mi
thu bao trm gc l bng nhau (nu khng k n cc loi tp m khc m ch xt
n suy hao lan truyn v tuyn th qu trnh iu khin cng sut s iu chnh
thu bao xa trm gc pht cng sut ln hn thu bao gn trm gc). iu khin
cng sut trong WCDMA c chia thnh:
iu khin cng sut vng h
iu khin cng sut vng kn
iu khin cng sut vng h c thc hin t ng ti UE khi n thc hin
th tc xin truy nhp Node B (da trn cng sut m n thu c t knh hoa tiu pht

BS
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 14


i t B), khi ny UE cha c kt ni vi Node ny. Cn iu khin cng sut vng kn
c thc hin khi UE kt ni vi Node B. iu khin cng sut vng h li c
chia thnh:
iu khin cng sut vng trong c thc hin ti Node B. iu khin cng sut
vng trong c thc hin nhanh vi 1500 ln trong mt giy da trn so snh
SIR thu vi SIR ch
iu khin cng sut vng ngoi c thc hin ti RNC thit lp SIR ch cho
Node B. iu khin cng sut ny da trn so snh t l li khi (BLER) thu c
vi t l ch.
Cc knh vt l tham gia vo cc phng php iu khin cng sut

Bng 1.1 Cc knh vt l tham gia cc phng php iu khin cng sut
1.5 CHUYN GIAO
Chuyn giao (Handover: HO) l phng tin cn thit thu bao c th di ng
trong mng. Khi thu bao chuyn ng t vng ph sng ca mt cell ny sang mt
cell khc th kt ni vi cell mi phi c thit lp v kt ni vi cell c phi c
hy b.
C th chia HO thnh cc kiu HO sau:
HO ni h thng xy ra bn trong mt h thng WCDMA. C th chia nh HO
ny thnh
- HO cng tn s gia cc thuc cng mt tn s sng mang WCDMA
- HO khc tn s (IF-HO) gia cc hot ng trn cc tn s WCDMA khc
nhau
HO gia cc h thng (IS-HO) gia cc thuc hai cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn
(RAT) khc nhau hay cc ch truy nhp v tuyn (RAM) khc nhau. Trng
hp thng xuyn xy ra nht i vi kiu th nht l HO gia cc h thng
WCDMA v GSM/EDGE. Tuy nhin cng c th l IS-HO gia WCDMA v h
thng cc h thng CDMA khc (cdma2000 1x). Th d v HO gia cc RAM l
HO gia cc ch UTRA FDD v UTRA TDD.
Cc th tc HO:
Chuyn giao cng (HHO) l cc th tc HO trong tt c cc ng truyn v
tuyn c ca mt UE c gii phng trc khi thit lp cc ng truyn v
tuyn mi
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 15


Chuyn giao mm (SHO) v chuyn giao mm hn l cc th tc trong UE
lun duy tr t nht mt ng v tuyn ni n UTRAN. Trong chuyn giao mm
UE ng thi c ni n mt hay nhiu thuc cc Node B khc nhau ca cng
mt RNC (SHO ni RNC) hay thuc cc RNC khc nhau (SHO gia cc RNC).
Trong chuyn giao mm hn UE c ni n t nht l hai on ca cng mt
Node B. SHO v HO mm hn ch c th xy ra trn cng mt tn s sng mang
v trong cng mt h thng.
Tin trnh thc hin HO:


Hnh 1.4: Tin trnh thc hin chuyn giao


Bng tng kt v HO:

Kiu chuyn giao o c chuyn giao Bo co o c
chuyn giao t UE
n RNC
Mc ch
chuyn giao
Chuyn giao
trong tn s
WCDMA
o trong ton b thi
gian s dng b lc kt
hp
Bo co khi xng
s kin
- S di ng
thng
thng
Chuyn giao gia
cc h thng
WCDMA -GSM
Vic o ch bt u khi
cn thit, s dng ch
nn
Bo co nh k trong
sut ch nn
- Ph sng
- Ti
- Dch v
Chuyn giao gia
cc tn s
WCDMA
Vic o ch bt u khi
cn, s dng ch
nn
Bo co nh k trong
sut ch nn
- Ph sng
- Ti
Bng 1.2 Bng tng kt v Handover

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G WCDMA
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 16










CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 16















CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G













2.1. GII THIU CHUNG V TI U HA MNG 3G
2.1.1 Mc ch
Mc ch ch yu ca vic ti u ho mng l duy tr v ci thin ton b
cht lng v dung lng hin thi ca mng di ng. Mc ch ca vic ti u l
t c mt hay nhiu mc ch nh sau:
- nhn din chnh xc cc suy gim hiu sut mng. Cc suy gim
ny c nhn din qua vic gim st lin tc cc KPIs ca mng
c nh ngha hay qua cc phn nh ca khch hng.
- Khi bt u thit k mng, cht lng ca dch v (QoS) phi c
ngh n khch hng. Ti u chc chn hiu sut mng c duy
tr vi cht lng dch v khng thay i.
- lm cho mng hin ti c hiu sut cao hn.
2.1.2 L do
Cc l do ca vic thc hin qu trnh ti u mng:
- Sau khi hon thnh trin khai mng, pht hin li khi gim st KPIs do
vic hoch nh ban u khng tt bi tn hiu ng truyn v tuyn tht s
CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 17


khng nh cng c thit k d on do c s d liu u vo thit k
khng chnh xc v phn b ti lu lng tht s th khc so vi cc d
on da trn cc thng k khi thit k.
- Do vic b sung cc tnh nng, dch v mi (v d: dch v tin
nhn SMS/GPRS/EDGE) trong n lc gii thiu dch v mi vi nh
hng nh nht n cht lng dch v hin ti v nh nht chi ph u t b
sung.
- Ti u hiu chnh cc vn c nhn din lm gim hiu sut mng
sau khi kim tra (Audit) mng.
- Thc hin hiu chnh, ti u khi gim st nhn din c tnh cht lng
mng KPIs suy gim.
- Ci thin hiu sut mng t c cc yu cu kinh doanh.
- Do lu lng ngy cng tng, cu trc mng thay i nhanh chng v
ngy cng phc tp.
- Tinh chnh, thay i cc tham s hot ng mng nh tng gim vng phc v
cell bng cc thay i tham s chuyn giao, thay i gc ngng anten,
tng, gim cng sut pht,...
2.1.3 Cc l i ch ca ti u
- Duy tr, ci thin cht lng dch v hin ti.
- Gim t l ri b mng ca cc khch hng hin ti.
- Thu ht khch hng mi qua vic cung cp cc dch v hay cht lng dch
v tt hn bng vic nng cao c tnh mng.
- t c ti a li nhun do cc dch v to ra bi vic s dng ti a hiu
sut ca cc phn t chc nng mng.
2.2. QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG W-CDMA:

Ti u mng l mt quy trnh khp kn khng c im kt thc. Tm thi c
th chia thnh cc bc chnh: Gim st thu thp d liu-> Phn tch d liu-> Nhn
din li/ Thc thi cc thay i -> Kim tra -> Gim st.


CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 18




Hnh 2.1: Quy trnh ti u ha mng WCDMA

CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 19




Gim st:
C th theo di s hot ng ca mng bng nhng cch khc nhau, v d
s dng cc tham s mng, cc cnh bo, cc log file o kim Driving Test, cc
phn nh t khch hng. Ph bin nht l xem xt cc thng k thng s ca
mng mi ngy, cc cnh bo (t OMC), v RNO h tr vic gim st thng xuyn
cc cells km cht lng hay cc cells c lu lng cao qua cc ch s KPIs
( Key Performance Indicators Cc ch s biu din chnh ).
Phn tch d liu:
D nhin vic phn tch mt cch chnh xc v r rng s gip cho vic
khc phc s c c nhanh chng hn. Qu trnh phn tch nn bt u cng sm
cng tt ngay khi s c xut hin trong mng. Ngoi tt c cc cng c (Tools) h
tr hin c, qu trnh phn tch cng nn s dng cc b m counters v cc ch s
KPIs.
Phng php chnh l xc nh thi im bt u xut hin s c v tm
cch gii quyt trit .
Nhn din li, thc thi cc thay i:
Sau khi phn tch, cn phi a ra nhng hnh ng c th khc phc s
c: thay i tn s, tinh chnh tilt, azimuth, neighbours, cc tham s mng, reset
cards hot ng km hiu qu, kim tra anten, feeder, ngun, cng sut pht, thay
cards hng,
Kim tra :
Khu ny rt quan trng kim tra li tnh ng n ca cc hnh ng
khc phc trn ( V nhng tc ng khng phi lc no cng hon ton ng,
c th khc phc c s c, c th khng nh hng, c th i lch hng lm tnh
hnh ti t hn). Nn s dng cc cng c (tools) nh OMC, thit b o kim TEMS(
Actix, NEMO) hay cc phn nh t khch hng cho vic kim tra ny.
Nu s c c x l thnh cng, s tip tc quay li qu trnh gim st
ban u, cho n khi li pht hin s c mi. Lu qu trnh kim tra cn c
thc hin cn thn ( u tin mc TRX/cell, n cluster, sau l ton mng ).
Chnh v vy ti u mng l mt quy trnh khp kn khng c im kt thc.
Trong qu trnh thc hin c th linh ng kt hp cc giai on vi nhau. C
th
chia lm 2 qu trnh chnh:
Qu trnh gim st v phn tch c xem nh qu trnh qun l c tnh
cht lng mng.
Qu trnh nhn din vn , thc thi nhng tc ng ti u v kim tra
kt qu c xem nh qu trnh ti u ho mng..

2.3. VAI TR CA CC CH S KPI TRONG TI U MNG
Gii thiu cc ch s KPI:

Cc ch s KPI trong 3G tun theo nguyn l SMART, c ngha l n phi m
bo cc yu t: Specific (C th), Mesurable (C th o lng), Attainable (C th
CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 20


t c), Relevant (Ph hp), Time-bound ( Gii hn v thi gian).










Cc ch tiu cht lng KPI 3G Driving Test
CC CH TIU CHT LNG KPI 3G DRIVING TEST
1. Cc tham s cht lng mng
TT Tham s KPI Din gii Gi tr yu cu Ghi ch
1 CPICH Ec/Io Ec/Io ca Pilot
97% s mu c
CPICH Ec/Io>=-
12dB
S dng Scanner
2 CPICH RSCP Vng ph Pilot
98% s mu c
CPICH RSCP>=
-95dBm
S dng Scanner
3
Pilot Pollution
ratio
Nhiu Pilot
S mu b Pilot
pollution ratio
<5%
S dng Scanner
4 UE_TX_Power Cng sut UE
98% s mu c
UE, Tx
Power<=10dBm
Phn tch t tt c
cc cuc gi thoi
v d liu trong
qu trnh o
5
Soft/Softer
Handover
Success Rate
T l thnh
cng chuyn
giao mm/mm
hn
>=98%
Chuyn giao
mm/mm hn
trong h thng 3G
bao gm thoi,
video, d liu
6
Inter-Freq
Handover
Success Rate
T l chuyn
giao cng
>=97%
Chuyn giao gia
cc tn s trong h
thng 3G bao gm
thoi, video, d
liu (p dng khi
c chuyn giao
gia cc tn s)
7
Inter-RAT
Handover
Success Rate
T l thnh
cng chuyn
giao 2G <->3G
95%
Chuyn giao gia
cc h thng bao
gm thoi v d
liu (GPRS, EDGE
v UMTS)
8
CS Quality
(DL)
BLER ng
xung cuc gi
95% s mu c
BLER <=2%
Bao gm c cuc
gi thoi v video
CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 21


min CS
9
CSV Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi thoi
thnh cng
>=98%

10
CSV Drop
Rate
T l ri cuc
gi thoi
<1.5% i vi tt
c cc cell thuc
vng km
<=2% i vi tt
c cc cell thuc
vng h

11
CSD Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi video
thnh cng
>=98%

12
CSD Drop
Rate
T l ri cuc
gi video
<1.5% i vi tt
c cc cell thuc
vng kn
<=2.0% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng h

13
PSD Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi d
liu thnh cng
>=98%

14 PSD Drop Rate
T l ri cuc
gi d liu
<=2.0% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng kn
<=2.5% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng h

15 PSD RTT
Round Trip
Time min PS
95% s mu c
PSD Latency
<200ms
Thi gian ping gi
32bit n Server ti
GGSN
16
PSD
Ave_UL/DL
Throughput
Thng lng
UL/DL trung
bnh ca phin
PS
Average UL
Throughput
>184kbps
Average DL
Throughput
>=210kbps

17
HSDPA
Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi d
liu HSDPA
thnh cng
>=98%

18
HSDPA Drop
Rate
T l ri cuc
gi d liu
HSDPA
<=2.0% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng kn
<=2.5% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng h

CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 22


19 HSDPA RTT
Round Trip
Time qua
HSDPA
95% s mu c
HSDPA_RTT<1
00ms
Thi gian ping gi
32bit n Server ti
GGSN
20
HSDPA
Ave_Throughp
ut
Thng lng
trung bnh cuc
gi d liu s
dng HSDPA
HSDPA_Ave_D
L_Throughput
(Loaded)>=600k
bps



2 Cc tham s cht lng dch v
TT Tham s KPI Din gii Gi tr yu cu Ghi ch
1
CSV Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi thoi
thnh cng
<=98%

2
CSV Drop
Rate
T l ri cuc gi
thoi
<=1.5% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng kn
<=2.0% i vi
tt c cc cell
thuc vng h

3
CSV Call
Setup Time
Thi gian thit lp
cuc gi thoi
min CS
95% s mu c
CSV Call Setup
Time<=9s

4
CSD Access
Successful
Rate
T l thit lp
cuc gi video
thnh cng
>=98%


Bng 2.1 Cc ch tiu cht lng KPI trong Driving Test




















CHNG 2: QUY TRNH TI U HA MNG 3G
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 23
















CHNG 3: QUY TRNH DRIVING TEST V PHN TCH LOGFILE
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 23



















CHNG 3: QUY TRNH DRIVING TEST V PHN TCH LOGFILE












3.1 DRIVING TEST V MT S PHN MM TI U MNG V TUYN
3.1.1 Driving Test:
Driving test l vic i o kim bng t (hoc xe my), thng ch cng
vic ca nhm k s ti u v tuyn ca cc mng di ng i kim tra, o th cht
lng ph sng ca mng truy nhp v tuyn trong giai on u mi trin khai mng
hay trong qu trnh ti u mng truy nhp v tuyn.
Nhng ngi i driving test thng mang theo cc thit b sau: my thu GPS,
my o TEM pocket, laptop c kt ni ti cc my o trn. My thu GPS cho bit ta
ca im o trn bn s, my TEM cho bit nhiu thng s khc nhau nh vng
ph pilot (CPICH RSCP), Ec/No, BSIC (Base Station Identity Code), LAC (Location
Area Code), tn s sng mang ca cell, cng sut pht ca cell ny v cc cell ln
cn... S liu o c c ghi trong my tnh, sau cc k s v tuyn s s dng
cc tools (cc phn mm chuyn dng) tnh ton v xc nh trn bn a hnh s
dng vng ph sng (c v theo mu, mi mu ng vi mt di no ca CPICH
RSCP level), tnh ton nhiu..., t s a ra cc CR (Change Request) cho cc b
CHNG 3: QUY TRNH DRIVING TEST V PHN TCH LOGFILE
SVTH: KHNG VN NHT LP: D08VTA1 Trang 24


phn nh NOC (Network Operating Centre) thay i cc thng s ca NodeB mt
cch thch hp (cng sut pht, quy hoch tn s li...) hoc cc b phn i chnh cc
thng s ca trm nh chiu cao ng-ten, gc ngng (down-tilt angle), gc phng v
(azimuth angle) hoc kim tra cc li lp t nh li ni v nim connector ca cc
dy nhy (jumper) vi ng-ten, li u ni trong t NodeB.
Driving Test ch yu l o tn hiu ng downlink ch khng phi uplink do tn
hiu downlink phn b trn khp khu vc ph sng ca NodeB nn khng th nh gi
chnh xc c nh kt qu thng k. Trn thc t UE c th report tn hiu downlink
nhng ch mang tnh tng i v v tr a l ca UE thay i thng xuyn nn
khng th nh gi chnh xc khu vc no tn hiu downlink c vn . V vy cn
phi thng qua Driving Test. Ring i vi uplink, tt c tn hiu ca UE u chui vo
cng mt im l my thu NodeB nn c th d rng nhn bit.
Mt s cng c chuyn dng cho ti u mng v tuyn


Hnh 3.1: Cc cng c dng ti u ha mng v tuyn


3.1.2 TEMS Investigation 10.0.5
Thit b TEMS Investigation l mt cng c o kim nh gi cht lng mng
di ng qua giao din v tuyn cho php chng ta chun on, o kim li, vng ph
thi gian thc. TEMS cho php chng ta gim st knh thoi cng nh truyn data qua
cc kt ni GPRS, EDGE, chuyn mch knh (CSD) hoc chuyn mch gi (PSD).
Cc phin truyn data, voice c th c kim sot trong phm vi ca TEMS.
TEMS c trang b cc chc nng kim tra v gim st tin tin cng vi
kh nng phn tch v x l mnh m. V vy TEMS rt tin ch cho nhng k s
c kinh nghim v lm vic v RF.
D liu m TEMS thu c s c trnh by ngay thi im thc hin o.
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iu lm cho TEMS pht huy nhng u vit trong vic Driving test khc
phc li, thc hin iu chnh, ti u vng ph nng cao cht lng mng. Ngoi
ra d liu m TEMS thu c c th lu thnh Logfiles phc v mc ch x l,
iu chnh, so snh trc v sau khi c s tc ng, thng k, bo co (Report).
TEMS Investigation c hai Mode hot ng l Idle Mode v Dedicated Mode, trong
:
- Idle Mode c s o vng ph ca trm, trn c s chng ta c th
ti u vng ph tt hn.
- Dedicated Mode c s dng o chi tit v cht lng cuc gi



Hnh 3.2 Phn tch Log file 3G s dng TEMS 10.0.5

3.1.3 Actix
Actix l mt cng c phn tch v ti u rt mnh. Cho php cc k s ti u mng
c th hiu r nguyn nhn v cc s c xy ra trong khi thc hin thoi hoc truyn
d liu. Actix cho php ta xem xt r chi tit ca cc bn tin bo hiu trong mng mt
cch r rng, y hn tt c cc phn mm h tr ti u trc , c th m nhiu
file cng mt lc ( TEMS mi ln ch m 1 file), cung cp mt ci nhn ton din v
hin trng v cht lng ca mng. T c th a ra cc bin php x l ti u nht.
Chc nng ca ACTIX:
o kim cho cc site cng nh ton b h tng mng.
Phn tch chi tit ca qu trnh thit lp cuc gi.
nh gi v phn tch cc s liu thng k.
Khc phc cc vn v hiu nng ti nguyn ng truyn v tuyn.
Pht hin v cc s c trong qu trnh drive test.




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Hnh 3.3 Phn tch Log file 3G s dng Actix
3.2 QUY TRNH THC HIN DRIVING TEST
3.2.1 Chun b
cng vic Driving test c thc hin mt cch hiu qu, ta cn c mt s
bc chun b trc khi o:
Chun b ng o: ng i Drive test phi c xc nh cn thn trc khi
thc hin. Cc im sau phi c cn nhc khi ln k hoc o:
+ Khong thi gian ti a cho mi cluster l 4h. s cuc gi >=200 c th
cung cp mt s liu ng tin cy.
+ ng i phi bao gm tt c cc Cells ca mt cluster.
+ Nu c th ng i phi c ln k hoch c th i c Handover c 2
chiu.
+ t nht tt c cc tuyn ng chnh phi c o.
Chun b d liu:
Chun b cc bn v tr site, bao gm tn site, tn cell, hng ng-ten,
BISC, ARFCH, SC,
Bng d liu bao gm: tn cell, cc tn s, cc thng s nh v cell.










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Bng 3.1 File cell definition 3G ca Vinaphone ti thnh ph H Ch Minh
File cell name vi khun dng ca cc phn mm o.
Bn giy dng nh du cc ng o v cc trm v file bn
cc tnh.
Chun b thit b:
Danh sch cc thit b cn trang b cho xe o bao gm:
- Mobile o sng (my o TEMS)
- H thng nh v ton cu (GPS)
- My laptop cu hnh mnh
- Cc bn a l
- SIM card in thoi
- Cable kt ni my TEMS v GPS v laptop
- Investor
Thi gian o:
nh gi chnh xc nht cht lng mng thng thng cn 2 my o, mt
my gi lin tc xc nh cht lng mng tng th. Mt my ci ch t ng
thit lp cuc gi c sau 2 pht, thi gian ch ri gia hai cuc gi khong 20 giy.
Mc ch nhm ng gi cht lng thit lp cuc gi ca cc cell v cc trao i
ch ri.
3.2.2 Kt ni thit b v tin hnh o kim
3.2.2.1 Kt ni thit b
S kt ni nguyn l:


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Hnh 3.4 S kt ni nguyn l my o TEMS vi my tnh



S kt ni thc t















G
P
S

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Hnh 3.5 S kt ni thc t my o TEMS vo my tnh

Cu hnh kt ni cc thit b vi my tnh:
Kt ni my o TEM vi my tnh: Chn th ControlCommand
SequenceAdd Equipment Xut hin hp thoi:

Hnh 3.6 Cu hnh kt ni TEMS vi my tnh
Chn cng cm thit b v chn tn mobile click OK. Sau click biu tng
CONNECT kt ni.
Kt ni GPS vi my tnh: Thao tc tng t v chn thit b tng ng

Hnh 3.7 Cu hnh kt ni GPS vi my tnh
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3.2.2.2 Cu hnh cc phng php o
o Call: gm 5 bc
- Bc 1: Chn tab Edit trong ca s Command Sequence
- Bc 2: Chn Voice/VideoDial
- Bc 3: Trong hp thoi Phone number, chn s dch v cn gi



Hnh 3.8 Cu hnh o Call trong phn mm TEMS 10.0.5

- Bc 4: Chn tab Properties v iu chnh cc thng s Number
Excution (s cuc gi lin tip), v Interval (thi gian ch) l 10s. Sau
Save li.
- Bc 5: Nhn Ctrl+G start cuc gi. Bt u lu vo Logfile bng
cch bm F6 (Start recording).
o Scanning:
Chn th ScanningPropertiesClick vo hp Decode Chn all
channel OK Click Start trong th Scanning bt u qut.
















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Hnh 3.9 Cu hnh qut Scanner trong phn mm TEMS 10.0.5

Ca s th hin qut nhiu:


Hnh 3.10 Ca s th hin qut nhiu trong TEMS

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3.3 PHN TCH LOGFILE V A RA KHUYN NGH
3.3.1 Cc phng php phn tch:
Phn tch Cell phc v vt tri
S Cell vt tri qu nhiu hoc qu t :
Hin tng :iu ny l do gc ngng ca ng-ten qu cao
hoc khng ti u. iu ny s gy nhiu ti cc cell ln cn
lm gim dung lng h thng.
X l : iu chnh gc ngng ca ng ten.
Vng khng c Cell vt tri :
Hin tng :Ni v nhng khu vc khng c cell vt tri r
rng, v vic thay i cell phc v tt nht (best server) din
ra qu thng xuyn. y chnh l nguyn nhn dn n tng
s lng SHO lm gim hiu qu h thng v tng kh nng
rt cuc gi.
X l : iu chnh ng ten, b sung thm site.
Khng c Cell phc v :
Hin tng :Khu vc khng thu c sng ca cell trong
sut qu trnh kho st. Nu hin tng ny xy ra, cn c
xc nhn trc khi tin hnh phn tch tip (hoc kho st li
nu tt c u khng radiating).
X l : Vic c qu t cell vt tri c th do anten b che
khut, cn kim tra li khng gian xung quanh ng-ten.
So snh m tri ph (SC) UE v Scanner: Rt c ch khi so snh m
tri ph ca UE vi Scanner, s khc nhau ng k c th l nguyn
nhn vic thiu neighbour hay li SHO.

Hnh 3.11 HO lin tc khu vc c qu nhiu cell vt tri
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Phn tch vng ph ca CPICH (RSCP) :
Hin tng : gi tr RSCP thp (di -85dB). Ti cc vi tr khc
nhau c ngng khc nhau, mc nhiu nn ln.
L do : Thiu site, cell phc v b kha hoc b cm thm nhp,
cell ln cn khai bo khng ng, tr HO.
X l : B sung site, kim tra cht lng cell phc v, x l cc
vn v HO.




Hnh 3.12 Vng ph ca CPICH yu

Kim tra nhiu (CPICH Ec/Io) : Cng vi phn tch vng ph RSCP, Ec/Io
cng cn phn tch da trn nhng gi tr ngng (Tt: Ec/Io -8dB ; Bnh
thng: -14dB Ec/Io < -8dB ; Yu: Ec/Io< -14dB).
Cc trng hp:
Nu RSCP yu th nguyn nhn Ec /Io yu l do yu vng
ph.
Nu RSCP mnh th nguyn nhn Ec /Io yu l do h thng
nhiu mnh. Nh m hnh c 2 sector hng vo nhau. So
snh Ec/Io t my scanner v UE, nu UE thp hn ng k
th iu ny ch vic thiu neighbor hoc SHO tr, iu ny
c th dn n vic rt cuc gi.

X l : tng cng sut pht ca cell phc v v gim cng sut pht
ca ngun nhiu ; tin hnh iu khin cng sut, nhy tn hoc
pht gin on ; gim gc ngng ca ng ten.

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Hnh 3.12 Ec/Io gim do din tch vng ph ca cell phc v nh

Phn tch cc vn v vng ph :
Vng ph sng qu xa: cell pht ra vi khong cch xa nhng v tr
c nhiu cell xung quanh gn hn. Do cell t downtilt qu nh,
cell t trn i cao, cc cell gn hn cng b pht xa, khng gii
m c BSIC ca cell gn hnkim tra downtilt ca cc ng ten,
chnh ng h ng b ca cc cell ln cn.

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Hnh 3.13 Cell c vng ph sng qu xa


Vng ph sng b chng ln. Do vng ph sng qu xa, downtilt
ng ten t qu nh, c qu nhiu cell trong vng gn nhauQuy
hoch li vng ph ca mng v tuyn (di chuyn site).
Vng ph khng ng hng ng ten. Do u cp t t BTS ln
ng ten sai, lp ng ten sai hoc nh du hng ng ten saihiu
chnh hng ng ten.
Vn vng ph UL:
Hin tng : cng sut pht ca UE tng cao t ngt.
Nguyn nhn chnh c th l do vng ph UL yu hoc do s
c ng truyn.
X l : So snh cc knh pilot ca khu vc b tng cng sut
pht ca UE kim tra xem c phi li ch xy ra do s c
ng truyn UL khng ; hoc thay i thng s iu khin
cng sut.



Hnh 3.14 Hin tng tng t ngt cng sut pht ca UE

Xc nh Pilot polution (Nhiu knh hoa tiu): do nhiu knh pilot khng
nm trong active set nhng gn t c gi tr ca cell phc v tt nht
(best server). Bng di y ch ra % thi gian mi cell pht hin pht hin
pilot polluter. Kt qu c s dng lin kt vi vic nh c active set
xc nh vng c qu nhiu pilot.
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Bng 3.2 Bng thng k % xy ra pilot pollution

nh c Active Set : Mt ng dng khc ca o kim pilot pollution l
nh c active set da trn d liu scanner. iu ny thu c t vic m
hnh ha cc thng s chuyn giao mm ca mng. Active set cho php ti
a l 3 knh pilot. Vng c nhiu hn 3 pilot trong active set cn c
nh du l ngun gc gy nhiu. Vic ny c th hon thnh tt nu lin
kt vi phn tch Pilot pollution.

Hnh 3.15 Nhiu do qu nhiu knh pilot ng c cho SHO
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Kim tra danh sch Neighbour: Danh sch neighbour c th c kim tra
v ti u bng cng c Neighbour List Verification ca Actix. Cc
neighbour ny cn c trong file CellReff. Cng c so snh d liu kho st
vi danh sch trong CellReff v cung cp khuyn ngh cho mi cell:
Retain(gi li cc neighbour c xc nhn trong kho st d liu),
Add(thm cc neighbour c trong Driving test nhng khng c trong danh
sch neighbour), Remove (g b cc neighbour c trong danh sch nhng
khng o c).


Bng 3.3 Bng khuyn ngh dnh cho cc cell ln cn

Cc vn v HO :
HO sang cell yu hn: iu chnh li thng s HO margin
Ping pong HO: qu nhiu HO gia cc cell. Do thng s nh thi
HO t khng ng, s c phn cng BTS, nhiu UL/DL, HO sang
cell yu hn, ng ten khng ng hngKim tra thay th phn
cng, tn s ca cell, kim tra gc hng ng ten, thng s nh
thi HO
Tr HO: BSIC ca cell c gii m nhng HO qu chm. Do cell
ln cn b nghn, b nhiu vt ngngm rng TRx, kim tra li
tn s ca cell ln cn.
S c hoc ri HO: MS ti cell mi khng v c c, gi tin HO
failure ti cell gc nhng khng c tr li. Do nhiu tn s, vng
ph hp, nhiu ngoi hng UL, nhiu di rng phn tch va x
l tn s nhiu, thm trm mi, o ph knh tn s xc nh
ngun nhiu ngoi.
Khng thc hin c HO: BSIC gii m c nhng khng HO
c. Do mt quan h HO, khng c cell ln cn no trong c s
d liu, ln cn ngoi khng ng, LAC/BCCH/BSIC ca cell ln
cn khc vi thc t , thng s HO_margin qu ln, cell phc v
qu mnh hoc bao ph vng qu rngphn tch v b sung HO
ca cell, iu chnh thng s HO_margin ca cc cell ln cn, chnh
downtilt ng ten.
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Hiu sut SHO ca UE : t l thnh cng cho cc s kin 1a,1b v
1c


Hnh 3.16 T l thnh cng cc s kin

Phn tch vn rt cuc gi : nguyn nhn do vng ph yu, nhiu ln v
yu Ec/Io, vng ph ng ln yu (cng sut pht UE yu), yu cell vt
tri (best cell thay i qu thng xuyn dn n qu nhiu SHO), pilot
pollution ( qu nhiu cell hin th), thiu neighbour, thay i nhanh cc
iu kin RF ( iu chnh gc). Rt cuc gi c th lp i lp li ti cng
mt v tr th nn phn tch k li xc nh nguyn nhn chnh xc,
C mt s phng php phn tch rt cuc gi v nhng bc di y
s gip nhanh chng xc nh nguyn nhn:
Nu RSCP va Ec/Io gim xung trc khi rt c t Scanner ln
UE th kim tra vn v vng ph.
Nu RSCP va Ec/Io gim xung trc khi rt ch t UE m
Scanner vn khng rt th xem xt:
Best server cho UE c ging ca Scanner khng? Nu khng, th
c th l do UE li trong vic thc hin SOH.
UE chuyn ti cell mi ngay sau khi rt? Nu UE chuyn ti cell
mi ngay sau khi rt th cell neighbour c t trc ? Nu
khng, xem xt vic thm neighbour ny coi UE c ang o
neighbour ny khng?
C qu nhiu cell phc v tt nht v thay i qu nhanh gy kh
khn cho UE trong vic thc hin o v SHO cng lc. Nu y l
l do th ta ci thin cell vt tri bng cch ti u ng-ten.
Cng sut pht ca UE tng ti a trc khi rt trong khi Ec/Io
vn tt: Nu cng sut thu ca UE tng t t v UE xa site th li
l do gii
hn vng ph ng ln. Nu cng sut thu UE tng t ngt v
UE khng qu xa site, kim tra ti ng ln t SIB7 theo cuc gi
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b rt, xem n c thng cao khng? Nu ti ng ln c bo l
cao, xc nhn trng thi ca mng l ti cao do lu lng thc, mt
khc kim tra li site c th c. Nu ti ng ln khng cao, vn
c th l do li iu khin cng sut

3.3.2 Phn tch tng hp:

Chng ta s thc hin mt v d v phn tch tng hp ca hai s c rt
cuc gi khc nhau sau y:

Hnh 3.17 S kin rt cuc gi xy ra ti hai v tr khc nhau
3.3.2.1 Phn tch rt cuc gi s 1:

Rt cuc gi s 1 xy ra ti khu vc c cell phc v tt nht thay i
lin tc (c ch ra nh qut m tri ph). So snh Ec/Io t my qut v UE
trong cng thi im rt cuc gi th c khc bit ln. Ec/Io ca UE l -12dB,
cn ca my qut l -11dB. Khi so snh best server ti thi im rt cuc gi.
Trc , scanner v UE cng SC008, nhng trc khi rt 30 giy, scanner chn
SC018 lm best server trong khi UE vn ch c SC009 trong active set ca n.
Ngay sau khi rt, UE mi chuyn n SC018.
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Hnh 3.18 Best server ca UE v Scanner

Kim tra UE active set v monitered set, khng thy c SC018 trc khi
rt. iu ny phi chng l thiu neighbour? D c hai cell u nghi ng l
neighbour.

Hnh 3.19 Hot ng gim st ti thi im rt cuc gi

Dng nh s thay i best server din ra qu nhanh t SC009 n
SC011 ri SC018, lm UE khng SHO kp. D cho UE c SHO thnh cng,
nhng cng rt cn phi ci thin cell vt tri trong vng b nh hng. Nhn
vo hnh ta thy SC018 khng phi l best server so vi SC011, nhng vng ph
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RSCP ca SC018 l mt vng ln, vng quanh khu vc rt cuc gi, SC018
RSCP ln hn -75dBm.

Hnh 3.20 Vng ph RSCP ca SC018

Kt lun: Nguyn nhn rt cuc gi l do vng ph ca SC018 qu xa dn n
thay i best server lin tc. Cch x l l h gc ngng ng ten ca SC018.


3.3.2.2 Phn tch rt cuc gi s 2:
Trng hp ny xy ra ti SC020, ti y RSCP v Ec/Io u tt ( RSCP -
65dBm v Ec/Io > -8dB). Khng ging nh trng hp 1, y khng c s
thay i lin tc best server, Ec/Io v RSCP khng gim trc khi rt, c UE v
scanner u chung cell SC020. Nhng ta thy, mc cng sut thu ca UE tng
cao ti thi im rt cuc gi. Theo hnh v di y, ta thy:
- Mc cng sut thu t nhin tng ln 15dB.
- BLER ng xung tng ti 100%.
Kt lun: L do rt cuc gi c th lin quan n iu khin cng sut ca UE.







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Hnh 3.21 DL SIR, Ec/Io, Cng sut pht UE, DL BLER ti thi im rt
cuc gi

Tng kt: Trn y l mt s phng php phn tch Logfile v v d v
vic phn tch tng hp 2 s kin rt cuc gi trong mng WCDMA. Do ngun
c s d liu c hn nn c th cha trnh by y cc phng php phn tch
cng nh cc v d c th cho tng phng php, nhng rt mong c th p ng
tng i yu cu bi bo co v tng quan qu trnh phn tch Logfile.











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KT LUN


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KT LUN

ti bo co trnh by nhng nt c bn nht v mng thng tin di
ng 3G WCDMA, cng vi mt s cng tc ti u ha h thng c thc hin ti
mng Vinaphone. Ti u ho l mt cng vic kh khn v i hi ngi thc hin
phi nm vng h thng, ngoi ra cng cn phi c nhng kinh nghim thc t v
s tr gip ca nhiu phng tin hin i c th gim st v kim tra ri t
mi a ra cc gii php thc hin ti u ho.
Do thi gian thc tp c hn v nhng hn ch khng trnh khi ca vic
hiu bit cc vn da trn l thuyt l chnh nn bo co thc tp ca em chc
chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em rt mong c c nhng kin nh
gi, gp ca cc thy v cc bn ti thm hon thin.
Qua thi gian thc tp em thy ti u ho l mt mng ti rng v lun
cn thit cho cc mng vin thng hin ti ni chung v mng thng tin di ng ni
ring. Kh nng ng dng ca ti l gip ch cho nhng ngi lm cng tc ti
u ho mng, l c s l thuyt phn tch v tin hnh, t hon ton c th
tm ra gii php ti u khoa hc nht. V phn mnh, em tin tng rng trong tng
lai nu c lm vic trong lnh vc ny, em s tip tc c s nghin cu mt cch
su sc hn na v ti ny.
Mt ln na, em xin chn thnh cm n anh Nguyn Minh Phng, nhn vin
qun l h s cng ty TNHH dch v vin thng Thin T, cc anh ch phng k thut
cng qu cng ty to iu kin gip em hon thnh ti bo co thc tp.
ng thi, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti thy Nguyn Tn Nhn,
trng b mn V Tuyn, hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng thnh ph H
Ch Minh hng dn v gip em hon thnh ti bo co thc tp ny.

H Ch Minh, Ngy 31 thng 7 nm 2012
Sinh vin thc hin


Khng Vn Nht









TI LIU THAM KHO


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TI LIU THAM KHO
***
Ti liu ting Vit
[1] TS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng (2002) , Thng tin di ng, Nh xut bn bu
in, H Ni
[2] TS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng (2002) , Thng tin di ng th h th ba, Nh
xut bn bu in, H Ni
[3] inh Nh (2006), Quy trnh ti u ha,ITC.

Ti liu ting Anh
[5] John Wiley and Sons (2006), Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for
UMTS 2nd Edition.
[6] Jarno Niemela and Jukka Lempiainen, Tampere University of
Technology in Finland, Mitigation of pilot polltution through Base Station Antenna
Configuration in WCDMA.
[7] Henrik Persson, Inter-System Handovers in Heterogeneous Wireless System.
[8] Yue chen, Soft Handover Issues in Radio Resource Management for 3G
WCDMA Network.
[9]Juri Hamalainen, Cellular Network Planning and Optimization.
[10] 3GPP TS 25.331 version 5.25.0 Release 5, Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System, Radio Resource Control (RRC), Protocol Specification.
[11] Qualcomm University, UMTS/WCDMA Network Optimization.
[12] Qualcomm University, WCDMA (UTMS) Inter-System Network
Optimization Workshop.
[13] Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., WCDMA RNO RF Optimisation Guidance.
[14] Maciej J. Nawrocki , Mischa Dohler, A. Hamid Aghvami , Understanding
UMTS Radio Network Modelling, Planning and Automated Optimisation.
[15] Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Introduction to UMTS Radio KPI.













TI LIU THAM KHO


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