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March 2013







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32 Repair of a Hull 15 m below the Waterline
Follow the repair procedure through all its stages from
accident to finish
U. Aschemeier and K. Peters
40 Minimizing Risk in Offshore Submerged Arc Welding
The influences of welding procedures and practices on
avoiding the risks of hydrogen buildup are explained
B. Schaeffer and T. Melfi
Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published
monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and posses-
sions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
$10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste.
130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and addi-
tional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Welding Journal, 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166. Canada Post: Publi-
cations Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Re-
turns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box
25542,London, ON N6C 6B2
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti-
cles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.
Editorial ............................4
Press Time News ..................6
News of the Industry ..............8
International Update ............12
Stainless Q&A ....................14
Letters to the Editor ............20
RWMA Q&A ......................22
Product & Print Spotlight ......28
Coming Events....................44
Certification Schedule ..........50
Society News ....................53
Tech Topics ......................55
Errata: D9.1M/D9.1:2012, Sheet
Metal Welding Code
Guide to AWS Services ......66
Conferences ......................70
Personnel ........................72
The American Welder
Learning Track ..................94
Fact Sheet ......................98
Classifieds ......................100
Advertiser Index ................101
57-s Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Brazing of Stainless
Steel 304
A copper interlayer was used in brazing austenitic stainless
steel to address the concerns of brittle intermetallic compound
M. Mazar Atabaki et al.
64-s Porosity, Element Loss, and Strength Model on
Softening Behavior of Hybrid Laser Arc Welded
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy with Synchrotron Radiation Analysis
A new model was developed after analyzing weld softening
produced with a hybrid welding system on age-hardened alloys
S. C. Wu et al.
72-s Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Transition
Joints for Welding Dissimilar Alloys
A dual-wire gas tungsten arc welding system was used in this
experiment in joining ferritic low-alloy steels to austenitic alloys
G. J. Brentrup and J. N. DuPont
80-s Effect of Postweld Heat Treatment on the Toughness of
Heat-Affected Zone for Grade 91 Steel
Recommendations are offered on procedures to improve heat-
affected zone toughness in Grade 91 ferritic steels
B. Silwal et al.
The American Welder
Welding Research Supplement
March 2013 Volume 92 Number 3
AWS Web site
76 How to Become a Commercial Diver and Weld Underwater
Take a look at the profession and its demands and decide
whether it is for you
T. M. Brown
80 Family Business Shines in Sunny Florida
See the growth of a company from a small fabricating shop to
a major player in the South Florida construction industry
M. R. Johnsen
88 Navigating Welding Standards
Help is on the way to sort out the confusion that codes and
standards sometimes cause
M. J. Skinkle
92 Welding Students Bring Steel Sculptures Roaring to Life
Artistic expression and welding skills go together at the
Robert Morgan Educational Center
K. Campbell
On the cover: A diver removes metal from the hull of a tanker that was dam-
aged while taking on cargo at a loading facility in Venezuela. (Photo courtesy
of Uwe Aschemeier.)
March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:00 PM Page 3
Over the past year or so, there has been one overriding theme in the financial sections
of the media the world has a very large shortage of skilled workers to fill immediate
job needs, and this condition is expected to get worse before enough people are trained
to meet the demand. The experts also agree that the lack of skilled workers is having a
direct impact on the economic recovery.
The American Welding Society is working diligently on efforts to develop the skilled
personnel needed to fill the openings in the numerous occupations involved in the fields
of welding and materials joining. A prime example of this activity is the work of the AWS
Foundation through its various scholarship programs. Providing funds to enable men
and women to attend schools and training facilities so they may develop new skills and
enter the workforce is an essential function of the Foundation, and these programs have
aided hundreds of people who are now employed in the welding industry.
Other segments of AWS are also playing a role in this workforce development activ-
ity. The Membership Committee is working to better define the membership benefits
that are attractive to students and that will lead to their participation in Society activities
as well as enhance their skills and knowledge to better enable their entry into the work-
force. To this end, AWS held two student focus group meetings this past fall. A focus
group meeting is an event for which a limited number of people with expected common
interests are invited and asked to freely share their thoughts in a safe environment. Just
as the field of welding is extremely broad, so too are the interests of our student mem-
bers. Recognizing that students learning the skills required to enter the workforce as a
welder may require different benefits than those seeking an engineering career, AWS
held a focus group for each of these interests.
As expected, the needs of each student group were different, but they had much in
common. The number one benefit each group requested was job related. The details
built into the recommendations were different, but it is apparent that both groups are
focused on their careers and employment opportunities.
Examples of the recommendations included the following:
Assistance with rsum writing
Assistance with the interview process
A request for potential employers to better define the skill set they need for a welder
rather than just the generic welder wanted
Opportunities for summer intern work
Sending student-specific information through social media that can be accessed from
smart phones and tablets
Provide examples of how to tips for real-world applications.
The Membership Committee has received the information from the focus groups and
is planning to incorporate as many recommendations as possible into new member ben-
efits. Also, the committee is discussing having one or more focus group meetings in 2013
to collect additional thoughts regarding other benefit needs or concerns.
One of the committees objectives this year is to establish a minimum of two new
member benefits that, while possibly of interest to others, are specifically aligned with
the recommendations of our student membership.
We truly appreciate the input from the students who attended the focus meetings.
The meetings were held afterhours and this did
impose some scheduling challenges. I also invite every-
one who has suggestions or recommendations for new
benefits that would impact our students to e-mail them
to AWS at or The
Membership Committee will be pleased to accept and
consider your thoughts.
MARCH 2013 4
President Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
Vice President Dean R. Wilson
Well-Dean Enterprises
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Vice President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1)
D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc.
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altech Industries
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
J. Jones (Dist. 17), The Harris Product Group
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding
Focusing on Students
Lee G. Kvidahl
AWS Past President and Chair, Membership Committee
Editorial March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:24 PM Page 4
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Robotics Market Sets New Sales Records
The North American robotics market has recorded its strongest year ever in 2012,
according to new statistics from Robotic Industries Association (RIA), Ann Arbor, Mich.
A total of 22,598 robots valued at $1.48 billion were sold to companies in North Amer-
ica last year, beating the previous record of 19,337 robots sold in 2011. When sales by
North American robot suppliers to companies outside North America are included, the
totals are 25,557 robots valued at $1.66 billion.
Compared to 2011, North American orders were up 17% in units and 27% in dol-
lars. Sales were up in metalworking industries. Also, increases were seen in assembly,
spot welding, arc welding, coating and dispensing, and material handling.
The fourth quarter of 2012 was the strongest quarter ever recorded by RIA in terms
of units ordered, with 6235 robots sold to North American companies.
It is promising to see such positive growth in robotics despite the tumultuous manu-
facturing environment throughout 2012, said Jeff Burnstein, RIA president.
Van-Rob Plans to Create 530 Jobs in Michigan
Van-Rob, Inc., through its Michigan subsidiaries including Lenawee Stamping Corp.,
a producer of metal stamping, welded fabrications, and autobody assemblies, is consid-
ering adding programs at its facility in the city of Tecumseh and a new facility in Michi-
gan. The company plans to invest $30.7 million and create 530 jobs, resulting in a $5.3
million Michigan Business Development Program performance-based grant.
Governor Rick Snyder recently announced the Michigan Strategic Funds approval
of state incentives to support 14 business expansions expected to generate more than
$1.1 billion in investments and add 4590 jobs in Michigan.
AWS President Nancy Cole Receives STEP Award
Nancy Cole, 2013 president of the American Welding
Society (AWS), has been selected as an honoree for the in-
augural Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and
Production (STEP) Award from The Manufacturing Insti-
tute, in partnership with Deloitte, University of Phoenix,
and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
The award celebrates womens achievements at all lev-
els of manufacturing and was launched to honor industry
women through leadership, research, and recognition.
On February 5, the honorees were recognized at an event
in Washington, D.C. The keynote speaker, Karen Gilgen-
bach of Airgas USA, is an AWS Certified Welding Inspec-
tor and a past chair of the AWS Milwaukee Section.
Not only am I honored to receive a STEP Award, but I
am so grateful to The Manufacturing Institute and its part-
ners for recognizing the role that women play in this industry, said Cole. As the indus-
try continues to grow and advance, it is more important than ever to attract and retain
women in manufacturing.
Cole, the first female to graduate with a degree in metallurgical engineering from
the University of Tennessee, began her career at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Cur-
rently, she runs her own welding engineering consulting firm in Fernandina Beach, Fla.
Weld-Ed Reveals Professional Development Workshops
The National Center for Welding Education and Training (Weld-Ed), located at Lo-
rain County Community College, Elyria, Ohio, recently announced its 2013 professional
development workshop series. Welding educators are offered a broad selection of af-
fordable, interactive training conducted throughout the summer at teaching facilities
around the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska.
The five modules encompass welding metallurgy; joining and cutting processes; de-
sign, assembly, and robotic welding; weld quality and inspection; welding codes, specifi-
cations, and safety; and laser welding.
For descriptions, locations, and registration details, visit
MARCH 2013 6
Publisher Andrew Cullison
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Design and Production
Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
J. Deckrow, Hypertherm
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and elec-
tronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not in-
tended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.
Nancy Cole
PTN March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:15 PM Page 6
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T. J. Snow Adds Second Airplane for
On-Call Resistance Welding Service
To facilitate response time for in-plant service calls, T. J. Snow
Co., Chattanooga, Tenn., a resistance welding equipment
provider, recently added a second single-engine airplane to its
transportation fleet to service locations throughout the eastern
two-thirds of the United States. The company has five pilots
among its 75-person staff.
Many of its customers supply welded sheet metal parts to au-
tomobile manufacturing plants on a just-in-time basis, so both
are on call to quickly transport service technicians, specialized
troubleshooting instruments, and spare parts during emergency
breakdowns. Two of the service technicians are instrument-rated
private pilots as well, so they can fly themselves as needed.
Tulsa Welding School Starts Shipfitting
and Steel Fabrication Program
Tulsa Welding Schools location in Jacksonville, Fla., is offer-
ing a new shipfitting and steel fabrication program. Students will
learn welding, structural drawings, layout, and fitup skills that
could lead to careers building military, commercial, and fishing
vessels. The program also prepares graduates for entry-level po-
sitions as a fabricator, layout mechanic, quality technician, sheet
metal fabricator, shipfitter, and steel fabricator.
MARCH 2013 8
Jim and Debbie Filipowicz of Steel Etc.,
Great Falls, Mont., a steel/recycling busi-
ness providing support services for weld-
ing and construction companies statewide,
recently donated $20,000 to Great Falls
College Montana State University (GFC
MSU) for supporting the expanding needs
of its welding program. The contribution
will be used to establish an American Weld-
ing Society (AWS) Accredited Test Facility
It is rewarding to witness the impact
your donation makes, said Debbie Fil-
ipowicz, who played a role in the GFC
MSU deans advisory council she was ap-
pointed to last year by former Gov. Brian
Great Falls College Montana State Uni-
versity started the application process to
become an AWS ATF last December. Fol-
lowing a satisfactory review of the colleges
application, an on-site audit will be con-
ducted. It is anticipated the process will be
complete by May. Once accredited, stu-
dents and the public can take AWS certifi-
cation tests there.
AWS Accredited Test Facility to Launch at Great Falls College
Not only is Great Falls College increasing the
capacity of its welding program to satisfy
workforce needs in north-central Montana,
but it is also in the process of becoming an
AWS Accredited Test Facility.
T. J. Snow flies a Mooney Ovation and Beechcraft Bonanza. From
left are pilots Ray Michelena, service technician; Tom Snow, chief
executive officer; James Dillard, vice president, engineering; and
Randy Darby, service technician.
NI March 2013_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:51 PM Page 8
We are excited to expand our career training to include the
nine-month shipfitting and steel fabrication program to our list
of training offerings. This is a program that has both local and
national career opportunities, said Dr. Jim Vernon, campus
For more information, visit
National Network for Manufacturing
Innovations Initial Design Plans Revealed
The Obama Administrations National Science and Technol-
ogy Council (NSTC) recently released National Network for Man-
ufacturing Innovation: A Preliminary Design (http://manufactur- based on the input of
nearly 900 stakeholders. Developed by the NSTCs Advanced
Manufacturing National Program Office, it was previewed at a
Huntsville, Ala., workshop.
Also, the report proposes the Institutes of Manufacturing In-
novation preliminary activities include applied research, devel-
opment, and demonstration projects that reduce the cost and risk
of developing and implementing new technologies in advanced
manufacturing; education and training at all levels; development
of methods and practices for increasing the capabilities and ca-
pacity for supply chain expansion and integration; engagement
with small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises as well
as large original equipment manufacturers; and access to shared
facility infrastructure with the goal of scaling up production from
lab demos and making technologies ready for manufacture.
The Jacksonville, Fla., location of Tulsa Welding School has a new
shipfitting and steel fabrication program for its students.
For info go to
NI March 2013_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:52 PM Page 9
MARCH 2013 10
Mechanized Plate Edge-Preparation Tool
to Reduce Navy Shipbuilding Costs
To improve the plate edge-preparation process because
during ship fabrication, rust and primer must be removed from
the weld joint areas of steel plates prior to welding the Navy
Metalworking Center, Johnstown, Pa., has developed a mecha-
nized tool to increase production rates.
The project identified and developed prototype concepts for
abrasive tools. Test results demonstrated two abrasive configura-
tions disc and drum can be used effectively.
General Dynamics Bath Iron Works tested the prototype tools
on sample and production plates. It processed at least 1500 ft of
plate edges on DDG 51 Class hulls.
The team estimates a 230% increase in production rate is pos-
sible with the potential of saving as much as $6 million on the
cost of a modern surface combatant. In addition, it estimates sav-
ings of approaching $10 million may be possible across several
hulls in various stages of completion.
U.S. Armys Blackhorse Regiment Installs
Jet Edge Waterjet System
The U.S. Armys 11th Armored Calvary Regiment installed a
Jet Edge waterjet cutting system at its home base in Fort Irwin,
Calif. The Mid Rail Gantry waterjet system is operated by the
Service & Recovery Section, a support section within the Regi-
ments Maintenance Troop, Regimental Support Squadron. The
20-soldier section machines and welds fabricated parts as well as
provides recovery support to the regiment.
We decided to purchase this equipment specifically to assist
in expediting our work requests, said Chief Warrant Officer Two
Alphonso L. Ash Jr. He added the decision to incorporate this
waterjet into shop operations was based solely on daily workload.
It has also helped to expedite work requests and allows the sec-
tion to fabricate parts with a long shipping date and/or high cost.
Within the first month of installation, many parts were built,
Call 800-544-5438 or visit
The proper
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number of
Invest to improve productivity,
throughput and safety
See us at GAWDA's Spring
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SPC Roberts and PFC Adams program and build a part with
SigmaNEST software. (Photo courtesy of the U. S. Army 11th
Armored Calvary Regiment.)
For info go to
NI March 2013_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:52 PM Page 10
including battery shims, transmission shifting linkages, electrical
covers, ornamental fixtures, and spanner wrenches, Ash noted.
It is humbling to have our equipment selected by the U.S.
Armys premier regiment, said Jet Edge President Jude Lague.
Ametek Finishes Rolling Mill Upgrades
Ametek Specialty Metal Products, a manufacturer of metal-
lurgical materials, recently upgraded rolling capabilities at its
Eighty Four, Pa., plant. Improvements include a clad metal rolling
mill; new main rolling mill motor with increased horsepower and
higher torque rating; advanced rolling mill controls; energy-effi-
cient products; upgraded prebond surface-preparation equip-
ment; and robotic clad material processing capabilities.
These enhancements provide flexibility in meeting the rolled
clad metals demand for cookware and consumer appliance cook-
top markets. Among the products made is ALCOR 7-Ply stain-
less steel clad aluminum.
3M Unveils Hearing Pledge Campaign
3M, St. Paul, Minn., has launched a social campaign called
the Hearing Pledge that aims to educate people on how to de-
tect and help protect from hazardous noise. By taking this pledge
at, people commit to wearing hearing
protection when exposed to noise in excess of 85 decibels.
Noise and other sounds that exceed this level come from many
activities; for example, at work in noisy assembly lines or ware-
houses. Prolonged exposure to sounds louder than 85 decibels
can lead to permanent hearing loss along with other symptoms.
Those who pledge can enter a giveaway as well.
The Harris Products Group Wins
National Best Plants Competition
The Harris Products Group facility in Mason, Ohio, has won
IndustryWeeks nationwide Best Plants competition. The manu-
facturer of brazing and soldering alloys along with brazing rings
and return bends is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Lincoln
Electric Co.
The Mason, Ohio, facility of the Harris Products Group recently
won IndustryWeeks nationwide Best Plants competition.
continued on page 88-s
For info go to
NI March 2013_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:53 PM Page 11
Robot Welding System Debuts for Chinese
Heavy Machinery Industry
Reis Robotics recently announced what is believed to be the
worlds first robot welding system designed for internal welds in
concrete mixing drums. The company, which developed and man-
ufactured the system, presented the new robot to the staff of
Zoomlion Concrete in Hunan, China.
The mixing drum is a core part of the concrete mixer, and it
requires high-quality precision welds. Reis Robotics developed a
special kinematics for this component, consisting of a linear axis
with mounted articulated-arm robot that was designed for weld-
ing the joints in the hollow space inside the drum.
Cheng Xiao Fei, vice director of Zoomlion and general man-
ager of the concrete department, emphasized the high produc-
tivity and quality achieved with this system.
CIRCOR Opens New Facility in Coimbatore
CIRCOR Flow Technologies India Private Limited (CIRCOR
India) recently inaugurated its facility in Ponnandampalayam,
Coimbatore, which will function as the companys Centre of Ex-
cellence for manufacturing and engineering services. The new
60,000-sq-ft facility includes manufacturing space for control
valves and steam conditioning valves, as well as an office for global
sourcing, design, and applications engineering services. CIRCOR
India products will be sold in the Indian market as well as ex-
ported to other international markets.
The Coimbatore facility, equipped with capabilities in machin-
ing, fabrication, welding, assembly, and testing, has 150 employees
engaged in manufacturing, global supply chain, and engineering
services. It currently occupies 30% of the 8.75-acre plot, allowing
for future expansion as new products and services are introduced.
Wayne Robbins, executive vice president and COO, said, The
consolidation of our new manufacturing operations and shared
services under one roof in Coimbatore is an important milestone
for CIRCOR. We now have a much larger and more efficient op-
eration capable of supporting our future expansion in the Asian
power generation, oil and gas, and other industrial markets.
Honda Plans New Production Plant in
Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (HATC) recently an-
nounced plans to build a new automobile production plant on
newly acquired property in Prachinburi Province (approximately
75 miles east of Bangkok). With an investment of approximately
$5.7 million, including acquisition of the land and construction
of the automobile assembly and engine plant, the new plant is
scheduled to become operational in 2015 with an initial employ-
ment of approximately 1200 and an annual production capacity
of 120,000 units.
The company plans to produce primarily small and subcom-
pact sized vehicles at the new plant, and strive to establish a highly
efficient production system through such efforts as shortened
production processes and introduction of the latest production
Furthermore, annual production of HATCs existing plant in
Ayutthaya is expected to increase from 280,000 units in January
2013 to 300,000 units in 2014. Combined with the capacity of the
new plant, HATCs total annual production capacity will be
420,000 units in 2015.
Service Center to Help Boost Production of
Iraqs Oil and Gas Fields
GE Oil & Gas recently opened a new technology and service
center near Bastra City, in the heart of the oil-rich North Rumaila
region of Iraq. The facility brings the latest GE technology to local
customers to help boost production in the Rumaila oil field.
The new center, in addition to being a base for the supply of
pressure control equipment to Iraqs drilling and production sec-
tor, provides a wide range of services including installation and
maintenance, testing, inspections, repair, and storage. Future
services will include complete nondestructive testing capabili-
ties, machining; welding and heat treatment; blasting and paint-
ing; and API certification and recertification.
According to Rami Qasem, GEs president and CEO for the
Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey, the new center is situ-
ated locally to meet customer demands for rapid drilling and pro-
duction support. Through our investment in strengthening our
local presence, we are able to significantly improve our delivery
time for products and services, while also giving us a base for
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MARCH 2013 12
March 2013 Intl Update_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:30 PM Page 12
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weld engineering_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 1:57 PM Page 13
Q: Many years ago, we welded a 304H
steam line with ENiCrFe-3 electrodes.
Now we want to replace some connections
with new 304H, and it is proposed to weld
with E308H-16 electrodes rather than the
nickel-alloy electrodes. I am concerned
that there may be places where the new
welds are tying into the old nickel-alloy
weld deposits, and this is a potential
cracking problem. Others disagree with
me. Is there a problem?
A: There is indeed a potential for solidi-
fication cracking if stainless steel weld
metal is deposited on nickel-based alloy,
whether the nickel-based alloy is weld
metal or base metal. The origin of the so-
lidification cracking potential is that dilu-
tion from the high-nickel alloy is very
likely to cause the newly deposited stain-
less steel weld metal to solidify in the pri-
mary austenite solidification mode, which
is known to be sensitive to solidification
cracking. The likelihood of solidification
cracking is increased when niobium (Nb)
is present in the nickel-based alloy, as it is
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Fig. 1 WRC-1992 Diagram with Expanded Nickel Equivalent Axis. Points corresponding
to the ENiCrFe-3 weld metal and the mixture of that weld metal with 304H pipe are outside
of the diagram because of their high nickel equivalents 70.9 and 41.9, respectively.
MARCH 2013 14
For info go to For info go to
Stainless Q+A March_Layout 1 2/14/13 3:42 PM Page 14
in the case of your preexisting ENiCrFe-
3 weld metal.
Any weld pass in a joint containing the
nickel-based alloy weld metal along one
side can be at risk of solidification crack-
ing if stainless steel filler metal is used for
the joint. Weld passes that are deposited
on the nickel alloy deposited metal are
most at risk.
The situation can be examined with
the aid of the WRC-1992 Diagram. To
begin, we need the approximate compo-
sitions of the various components of a
joint. Table 1 lists typical compositions
along with the calculated chromium
equivalents, nickel equivalents, and Fer-
rite Numbers of the WRC-1992 Diagram.
In calculating the weld metal composi-
tion, normal SMAW dilution of 30% is
estimated, which is comprised half (15%)
from the new 304H and half (15%) from
the existing ENiCrFe-3 deposit.
The situation is then plotted on the
WRC-1992 Diagram, which has been
modified by expanding the vertical axis to
a maximum nickel equivalent of 23
Fig. 1. This allows the expected weld
metal composition to appear in Fig. 1, al-
though the ENiCrFe filler metal and the
50:50 mixture of 304H pipe and ENi-
CrFe-3 cannot appear on the diagram be-
cause their nickel equivalents far exceed
the maximum of the modified diagram.
These latter two compositions would ap-
pear along the left-most of the two red
tie-lines shown in Fig. 1. It is clear that
the stainless weld metal, due to the dilu-
tion from nickel-alloy deposit, will solid-
ify as 100% austenite (primary austenite
solidification). This solidification mode
is well known to be sensitive to solidifica-
tion cracking in stainless steel weld met-
als, and the presence of about 0.3% Nb,
due to dilution, would make it still more
I would suggest two possible courses
of action for you to undertake the piping
modification without concern about so-
lidification cracking. The first way would
be to cut away enough of the existing pip-
ing to assure that there is no ENiCrFe-3
weld metal remaining on any joint sur-
face to be welded with the E308H-16
electrodes. The alternative would be to
use ENiCrFe-3 electrodes for the modifi-
cation. This nickel-based alloy weld
metal composition is well known to be
very resistant to solidification cracking.
The analysis above assumed that the
old nickel-base alloy weld deposit would
make up only one-half of the fusion
boundary of a new stainless steel weld
pass. The situation would be even worse
if the old nickel-based alloy weld deposit
comprised more than half of the fusion
boundary for any one stainless steel weld
pass. In general, welding over nickel-
based alloys with stainless steel filler met-
als is not a good idea because the diluted
stainless steel weld metal will very likely
solidify in the primary austenite solidifi-
cation mode.
DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,
Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stain-
less Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of
the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Al-
lied Materials, and served as AWS president
(20052006). Send questions to damian@, or Damian Kotecki,
c/o Welding Journal Dept., 8669 Doral
Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
Table 1 Typical Compositions and WRC-1992 Diagram Calculations
50:50 First Pass
Mixture of of
Element (%) 304H Pipe ENiCrFe-3 E308H-16 304H Pipe E308H-16
Deposit Weld Metal and Weld Metal
C 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.05
Mn 1.0 7.0 1.0 4.0 1.9
Cr 18.0 15.0 19.0 16.5 18.2
Ni 9.5 70.0 10.2 39.8 19.1
Nb 0.02 1.8 0.02 0.9 0.3
Cu 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.12 0.18
N 0.06 0.01 0.06 0.04 0.05
% of Joint 15 15 70 30 100
Cr Equivalent 18.2 16.3 19.2 17.2 18.6
Ni Equivalent 12.8 70.9 13.6 41.9 22.0
FN 0.2 0 2 0 0
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Friends and Colleagues:
I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you feel
have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards
set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most
senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases,
the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and
who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take
the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious
individual was available to start the nomination process.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form in this issue
of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made
major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is July 1,
2013. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2014
Thomas M. Mustaleski
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee
Fellow Letter 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:15 PM Page 16
Fellow Description
The American Welding Society, in 1990, established the honor of Fellow of the Society to recognize members for
distinguished contributions to the field of welding science and technology, and for promoting and sustaining the professional
stature of the field. Election as a Fellow of the Society is based on the outstanding accomplishments and technical impact of the
individual. Such accomplishments will have advanced the science, technology and application of welding, as evidenced by:
Sustained service and performance in the advancement of welding science and technology
Publication of papers, articles and books which enhance knowledge of welding
Innovative development of welding technology
Society and chapter contributions
Professional recognition
1. Candidates shall have 10 years of membership in AWS
2. Candidates shall be nominated by any five members of the Society
3. Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS Headquarters
4. Nominations must be submitted to AWS Headquarters no later than July 1 of the year prior to that in
which the award is to be presented
5. Nominations will remain valid for three years
6. All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence
7. No more than two posthumous Fellows may be elected each year
Maximum of 10 Fellows selected each year.
AWS Fellow Application Guidelines
Nomination packages for AWS Fellow should clearly demonstrate the candidates outstanding contributions to the advance-
ment of welding science and technology. In order for the Fellows Selection Committee to fairly assess the candidates qualifica-
tions, the nomination package must list and clearly describe the candidates specific technical accomplishments, how they con-
tributed to the advancement of welding technology, and that these contributions were sustained. Essential in demonstrating the
candidates impact are the following (in approximate order of importance).
1. Description of significant technical advancements. This should be a brief summary of the candidates most
significant contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology.
2. Publications of books, papers, articles or other significant scholarly works that demonstrate the contributions cited
in (1). Where possible, papers and articles should be designated as to whether they were published in
peer-reviewed journals.
3. Inventions and patents.
4. Professional recognition including awards and honors from AWS and other professional societies.
5. Meaningful participation in technical committees. Indicate the number of years served on these committees and
any leadership roles (chair, vice-chair, subcommittee responsibilities, etc.).
6. Contributions to handbooks and standards.
7. Presentations made at technical conferences and section meetings.
8. Consultancy particularly as it impacts technology advancement.
9. Leadership at the technical society or corporate level, particularly as it impacts advancement of welding technology.
10. Participation on organizing committees for technical programming.
11. Advocacy support of the society and its technical advancement through institutional, political or other means.
Note: Application packages that do not support the candidate using the metrics listed above
will have a very low probability of success.
Supporting Letters
Letters of support from individuals knowledgeable of the candidate and his/her contributions are encouraged. These
letters should address the metrics listed above and provide personal insight into the contributions and stature of the
candidate. Letters of support that simply endorse the candidate will have little impact on the selection process.
Return completed Fellow nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166







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V. 01
Critical: If this box appears yellow turn the Overprint Preview setting on in Acrobat
(please type or print in black ink)
DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________
HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER_______________________________________________AWS Member No.___________________
Print Name___________________________________
The Proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. Signatures on this nominating form, or
supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the Proposer. Signatures may be acquired
by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should
be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________ Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________ AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________ Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________ AWS Member No.______________







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Writer Enthuses about Career
Change to Underwater Welding
The challenges of underwater weld-
ing are many. Ive had a long career in
welding above the H
O on pipes,
bridges, railcars, plates, and tubes just to
name a few. For 30+ years, I never con-
sidered performing welding underwater.
When an opportunity came, it turned
into one of my most challenging and re-
warding career moves. As campus direc-
tor at one of the countrys top commer-
cial diving and underwater welding
schools, I was given the chance to trans-
form the welding program into what it is
today. Understanding that five years ago
I had no diving experience, let alone un-
derwater welding experience, at the age
of 54 I first learned commercial diving,
then underwater welding.
It is my personal opinion underwater
welding presents some of the most chal-
lenging conditions to work in. The Amer-
ican Welding Societys D3.6, Underwater
Welding Code, describes the wet-welding
process as one where the diver and weld-
ing arc are exposed to water without any
physical barrier. Top-side welders take
for granted being in a controlled envi-
ronment and staying dry. Welding fabri-
cation shops are, for the most part, con-
sistently dry with little wind or extreme
temperature changes. Shipyards need not
worry about underwater currents or poor
In the commercial underwater weld-
ing world, water surrounds us, absorbs
our heat, and creates undesirable mi-
crostructures in the heat-affected zone.
Diver fatigue is more common in cold
water conditions, and if you factor in the
support team required to assist just one
diver safely, you can see how the diffi-
culty increases.
All of these challenges, plus lack of
visibility, are what the commercial diver/
underwater welder must face on every
job. Underwater welders rely more on
their sense of feel and sound than they do
eyesight, but the low-pitched rumble
along with balancing the electrode over
the pool is what we strive for. You can
hear the sound of the weld; feel control
of the electrode without ever seeing it;
and come to know what a good weld
feels like.
Training to be a commercial diver/un-
derwater welder is exciting and reward-
ing. You accomplish something unique
in the welding world; most people can
only imagine what its like working or
welding underwater. I know I did until
five years ago.
Ken Temme
AWS Philadelphia Section Chairman
Chicago Nov. 18-21, 2013
Submission deadline: Mar. 29, 2013
The AWS Professional Program is an annual four-day program of sessions
on technical topics featuring the most recent welding research and best practices
in manufacturing and construction from around the world.
Submit your Professional Program abstract online by March 29 at
or contact Martica Ventura at (800) 443-9353 ext 224 (

MARCH 2013 20
Letters to the Editor March 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 3:23 PM Page 20
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Q: Our company is in the process of
quoting the resistance spot welding of
several small automotive assemblies.
We must provide the customer with
metallographic results using AWS
D8.1M:2007, Specification for Automotive
Weld Quality Resistance Spot Welding of
Steel. This standard contains a large
amount of information. Could you review
and discuss the metallographic informa-
tion I need to know to satisfy my cus-
tomers request?
A: Before discussing the metallographic
requirements of AWS D8.1M:2007 (Ref.
1), it is important to understand the spec-
ifications scope. This specification ap-
plies to resistance spot welds in automo-
tive steels and is intended to define their
desired weld quality. It does this by ad-
dressing the needs of both the produc-
tion floor and the laboratory. Welding
experts from various automotive and
steel companies, and consulting/testing
organizations agreed to the quality char-
acteristics and metrics pertaining to these
resistance spot welds. The evaluation
methods and inspection criteria specified
in this standard include both nondestruc-
tive and destructive elements and can be
used to 1) evaluate welding equipment
capability and procedures (such as weld
schedules), and 2) characterize the weld-
ability of a particular steel. Further, Sec-
tion 5 (Spot Weld Acceptance Criteria)
states that not all inspection methods
have to be applied to determine weld
quality. In other words, it is up to the cus-
tomer to determine what test methods
are appropriate to define weld quality for
a particular application.
Before discussing the metallographic
information your customer has re-
quested, it is important to note that
D8.1M:2007 classifies steels used in re-
sistance spot welding by their minimum
ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Table 1
in the specification has steels grouped
into four categories: Low Strength (<350
MPa), Intermediate Strength (350 to 500
MPa), High Strength (>500 MPa up to
and including 800 MPa), and Ultra High
Strength (>800 MPa). The specification
does not require knowledge of what
group the steels are from when metallo-
graphically inspecting the resistance spot
weld(s). However, it is recommended to
have this information. Please note that
it is necessary to know the steel classifi-
cation when performing nondestructive
surface inspections and other destructive
inspections such as peel/chisel tests and
shear/cross-tension load tests.
Destructive Inspection and
Metallographic Criteria
(Section 5.2)
Sample Preparation
The welds to be evaluated should be
cross-sectioned slightly off-center so that
after mounting (if necessary) and sand-
ing/polishing, the centerline plane going
through both sheets will be available for
examination. You should check with the
customer to determine the desired cross-
section orientation as weld(s) can be
cross-sectioned in any direction, includ-
ing parallel (longitudinal cross section)
or perpendicular (transverse cross sec-
tion) to the edge of the sample. After ob-
taining the necessary surface finish, the
customer may want photomacrographs
(typically 10 to 20) prior to etching.
These can be examined for the presence
of cracks and porosity. Next, the weld is
exposed to a suitable etchant to bring out
the weld features (weld nugget, heat-
affected zone) and base metal.
Fig. 1 Fusion zone, nugget width, HAZ, penetration, and indentation (Ref. 1).
Fig. 2 Example of discrepant pores and cavities (Ref. 1).
Fig. 3 Example of discrepant internal cracks (Ref. 1).
RWMA March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 9:19 AM Page 22
Nugget Width (Section 5.2.1)
Weld nugget width is one of the main
parameters to be determined from met-
allographic examination. As shown in
Fig. 1, the nugget width is the width of
the fusion zone. The fusion zone is the
volume of solidified metal resulting from
the welding process. It does not include
the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ
is the portion of base metal next to the
nugget whose mechanical properties or
microstructure have been altered by heat
input from the welding process.
The term nugget is often incorrectly
used interchangeably with the term but-
ton. A button is the part of a spot weld
that tears out during destructive testing
of welded steel. It may include all or part
of a nugget, the HAZ, and base metal.
Typically, a hole is left in the mating
An acceptable weld has a nugget
width equal to or greater than the weld
size listed in Table 2 of the specification,
unless the customer specifies otherwise.
This weld size is also called the minimum
weld size (MWS). The MWS is approxi-
mately related to 4 t, where t is the
governing metal thickness (GMT). Table
2 has a range of GMTs called out for each
listed weld size.
The GMT for a two-sheet (2T) stack-
up is the thinner metal thickness of the
two sheets. For a three-sheet (3T) stack-
up, the GMT is generally the metal thick-
ness of the second-thickest sheet. How-
ever, another approach for a 3T stack-up
is to consider each of the two faying sur-
faces as a separate 2T thickness where
the GMT would be the thinner metal
thickness of the two sheets making up the
faying surface. Consult your customer to
determine their weld size requirement
for a 3T stack-up.
Table 2, note b, states that the weld
size applies to both the nugget width ob-
tained metallographically or to the size
of the fracture mode (for example, a but-
ton) that is obtained from destructive
testing. It is possible that a customer may
specify one weld size requirement for a
nugget and a different weld size require-
ment for a fracture mode result obtained
from destructive testing of the same weld.
When measuring the nugget width in
Fig. 1, the customer may require that any
unfused lengths within the nugget where
the faying surface or interface between
the two sheets originally existed, are sub-
tracted from the nugget width to come
up with an effective nugget width. Check
with your customer to determine their
requirement for this situation.
Penetration (Section 5.2.2)
Penetration is the ratio of the nuggets
maximum depth of fusion to the pre-
welded sheet thickness, expressed as a
percentage [(P1/t1) 100 and (P2/t2)
100]. See Fig. 1 for 2T welding. It should
exceed 20% of the prewelded sheet thick-
ness into each sheet of the stack-up for
both 2T and 3T welding. One hundred
percent penetration into the outer sheets
is undesirable, and in that case, it
may result in discrepancies such as
surface cracking.
D8.1M:2007 discusses indentation in
Section 5.1.4 (Surface Inspection Crite-
ria). Indentation is the ratio of the
amount of weld depression to the
prewelded sheet thickness, expressed as
a percentage. Indentation should be less
than 30% of the thickness of each out-
side sheet of the welded joint unless spec-
ified otherwise by your customer.
Although indentation is not addressed
in Section 5.2 (Destructive Inspection-
Metallographic Criteria), it is possible to
measure indentation depth as shown in
Fig. 1. For 2T welding, the percentage in-
dentation into each sheet t1 and t2 can
then be calculated. If the indentation
depth varies over the length of indenta-
tion width, it is usually measured at its
deepest location. Verify this with your cus-
tomer. 3T weld surface indentations are
calculated the same way as the 2T weld
surface indentations by considering the
outer two sheet thicknesses to be t1 and
t2. A final note of caution: ensure that
sheet metal deformation is not included
in the measurement of indentation.
Porosity (Section 5.2.3)
Welds are discrepant if the pores, cav-
ities, or voids observed in a cross section
examined at 10 meet any one of the cri-
teria listed below:
Calculate the area and length for each
pore, cavity, and/or void (see example in
Fig. 2).
1. If the sum of all the areas (P1 + P2
+ P3) is equal to or greater than 15%
of the nugget area, then the weld is
2. If the sum of all the lengths (L1 +
L2+ L3) is equal to or greater than 25%
of the nugget width, then the weld is
Calculate 15% of the linear distance
between the fusion zone periphery and its
center. Measure this distance inboard of
the fusion zone periphery to establish a
15% inboard of fusion zone periphery as
shown by the dotted line in Fig. 2.
3. If any pore, cavity, and/or void or
portion thereof extends into this outer
zone between the fusion zone periphery
and the 15% inboard of fusion zone pe-
riphery, then the weld is discrepant. For
example, the pore defined by area P1
makes the weld in Fig. 2 discrepant.
Internal Cracks (Section 5.2.4)
Welds are discrepant if the cracks ob-
served in the nugget or HAZ at 10 meet
any one of the criteria listed below:
Calculate the length of each crack in
the fusion zone only (see Fig. 3).
1. If the sum of all the lengths (L1 +
L2 + L3) is equal to or greater than 25%
of the nugget width, then the weld is
Calculate 15% of the linear distance
between the fusion zone periphery and its
center. Measure this distance inboard of
the fusion zone periphery to establish a
15% inboard of fusion zone periphery as
shown by the dotted line in Fig. 3.
2. If any crack or portion thereof (for
example, the crack defined by L1) ex-
tends into this outer zone between the
fusion zone periphery and the 15% in-
board of fusion zone periphery, then the
weld is discrepant. Also, if there are any
cracks in the HAZ (for example, the
crack defined by L4), the weld is dis-
crepant. An exception to this would be
cracks deemed acceptable by surface in-
spection (refer to Section 5.1.2), but do
not extend into the fusion zone.
In summary, AWS D8.1M:2007 has
detailed acceptance criteria relating to
weld size, penetration, indentation,
porosity, and internal cracks as they per-
tain to metallographic analysis. However,
check with your customer to determine
whether they have modifications to these
1. AWS D8.1M:2007, Specification for
Automotive Weld Quality Resistance
Spot Welding of Steel. Doral, Fla.: Amer-
ican Welding Society.
ERIC PAKALNINS is a welding consult-
ant with RoMan Engineering Services. He
is a member of the AWS Detroit Section
and serves on the D8D Subcommittee on
Automotive Resistance Spot Welding. He
retired as a senior specialist with the
Chrysler Materials Engineering Welding
Group. This article would not have been
possible were it not for the assistance from
members of the RoMan team. Send
your comments/questions to Eric at, or to Eric
Pakalnins, c/o Welding Journal, 8669
Doral Blvd., Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166.
RWMA March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 9:19 AM Page 23
Penetration-Enhancing Compounds for
GTAW Stainless Steels
While the high-quality potential typical of welds using gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is well known, and the use of
products for increasing penetration has been characterized, es-
pecially for butt joints in piping (Refs. 13), what is less famil-
iar are the benefits for using these in welding thin-walled tub-
ing and structural joints.
The productivity of GTAW can be limited for many applica-
tions due to low deposition rates; shallow penetration, typically
8 in. maximum; or inconsistent penetration caused by small
variations of trace elements such as sulfur in the base metal, es-
pecially in austenitic stainless steels.
EWI and the Navy Joining Center developed penetration-
enhancing compounds, commercially available as DeepTIG,
for GTAW to overcome these obstacles and reduce fabrication
along with construction costs for a variety of products. The U.S.
patent (Ref. 4) is held by EWI.
Development and Application in Wire Form
Developing the product in wire form offered increased pen-
etration along with filler metal addition in a single product.
Currently, this is available as a development invention featur-
ing a metal-cored wire where the metal core is largely filled with
the product. If there is sufficient demand, there is a potential
for production availability.
The current product is for 300 series stainless steels such as
a 308L composition with a penetration-enhancing compound
in its core. It has been evaluated by several aerospace as well
as oil and gas market companies with successful results. Typical
results are similar to that shown in Fig. 1.
Offering the product in a wire eliminates the need to brush
it on in advance and is closer to a typical welding operation.
Using the penetration characteristics, up to
8 in. in a square
edge closed butt joint configuration, with the product in wire
form, allows for complete filling of the joint (including root and
cap) in a single pass. It also eliminates the typical need for a
separate cap pass to generate a positive weld surface profile to
account for the metal displacement from the formation of an
acceptable root face profile. As joint designs and welding pro-
cedures are significantly modified to take advantage of bene-
fits, the product is not a critical variable in a qualified welding
While the benefits to penetration on thicker materials are
well characterized (Refs. 14), less well known are the applica-
tions that exploit deep and narrow penetration for other uses.
For example, where thin-walled superduplex stainless steel pip-
ing for oil and gas flow-line applications have been effective in
reducing the occurrence of overpenetration and sagging in
thin-walled tubing associated with low depth/width ratio welds.
Equipment Required
The welding equipment used for GTAW with this product is
the same as that used for conventional GTAW Fig. 2. Main-
tenance of a short arc length (1.2 mm) is critical to ensure max-
imum penetration during welding. Arc length is a critical vari-
able in the repeatability of welds made with the products, so
using mechanized equipment is recommended.
The process operating procedure is similar to that for con-
ventional GTAW. If a powder-based product is used, it should
be applied using a carrier and mixed to a consistency that al-
lows easy application to the joint when it is fitup. The product
will not give the penetration increase desired if removed before
welding, so care must be taken to avoid accidental contact. With
the product in a wire form, this is not a concern.
Inspection, weld quality control, and troubleshooting are
also similar to conventional GTAW; therefore, similar proce-
dures are recommended.
The penetration-enhancing product is offered for the fol-
lowing materials: stainless steels (Types 304, 316, 347, 409, 410,
MARCH 2013 24
Fig. 1 Square edge closed butt joint, 6-mm-thick Type 304 stain-
less steel plate, welded in a single pass with DeepTIG wire at
195 A and 150 mm/min (6 in./min).
Fig. 2 GTAW with the product pasted onto the surface of a pipe
butt joint.
Technology March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 8:58 AM Page 24
duplex and superduplex); nickel-based alloys (Alloys 600, 625,
690, 718, 800); and carbon and low-alloy steels (A36, SA-178C,
2 Cr-1Mo, X80).
Advantages and Disadvantages
Shipbuilders and industrial users confirmed the perform-
ance and cost benefits of using DeepTIG GTAW. It increases
weld penetration by as much as 300% for mechanized or auto-
matic applications; reduces heat-to-heat variation in penetra-
tion and distortion based on achieving the desired penetration
at a lower welding current; and promotes grain refinement in
some alloys.
The mechanical properties, weldability, corrosion resistance,
and safe use of these products have been extensively tested and
found suitable for a range of applications. They have reduced
welding time by 50% in most applications. Stainless steels and
nickel alloys welded manually in five passes require only one
or two passes using this product. Welding times for these appli-
cations could be reduced from approximately 23 min for the
manual procedure to 3 min for a single-pass GTAW procedure.
Reasons for using this product include reduced heat input
and distortion compared to conventional GTAW, reduced joint
preparation requirements and joint volume, and reduced wire
consumption for making the weld.
When the penetration-enhanced GTA process is used for
welding austenitic and superaustenitic materials, there is little
to no observable impact on the microstructure morphology
(Refs. 58). Conversely, when used on duplex and superduplex
stainless steels, the microstructure shifts to a finer prior ferrite
grain size with a larger volume fraction of austenite Fig. 3.
One critical item noted following welding was that for both
duplex and superduplex, the weld metal nitrogen content re-
mained unchanged following welding. Typically, these alloys
lose 10 to 30% of their nitrogen content during welding. Su-
perduplex stainless steels welded in conjunction with the prod-
ucts have been shown to exhibit improvements in both mechan-
ical and corrosion properties. The use of these commercially
Weld Test Stand
The Weld Test Stand
allows for quick,
secure clamping and
positioning of pipe
or plate test
Fig. 3 Use of both processes on thin-walled, 2205 duplex tubing
to reduce sagging resulting from low depth-to-width ratio. (Image
courtesy of EWI and Sandvik.)
For info go to For info go to
Technology March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 8:58 AM Page 25
available oxide-based products for superduplex stainless steel
yields a smaller observable (prior ferrite) grain size when com-
pared to welds produced without its use.
Industries and Application
The Navy has approved using SS-7 (the products name for
use on stainless steels) for GTAW stainless steels. One ship-
builder used the GTAW DeepTIG to fabricate piping for Navy
aircraft carriers and commercial tankers while another used the
stainless steel, penetration-enhancing compound to improve
the quality and reduce the costs of pipe welds on destroyers. A
boiler manufacturer utilized it in boiler tube production
An orbital GTAW equipment manufacturer employed SS-7
for orbital GTAW stainless steel tubing. Other manufacturers
have used it for fabricating large medical instrument sterilizers
as well as duplex and superduplex tubing for downhole umbili-
cals associated with oil and gas equipment. Aerospace original
equipment manufacturers/suppliers have utilized it for fabri-
cating various components.
Mechanical Properties and Corrosion
Resistance for Stainless Steels
Structural welds produced with the penetration-enhancing
product performed commensurate to or better than conven-
tional GTA welds Fig. 4. Additionally, GTAW with this prod-
uct increased strength, decreased the volume of weld metal and
heat-affected zone, increased corrosion resistance (critical pit-
ting temperature, ASTM G-150 and ASTM G-48), improved
bead shape and nugget size, and improved austenite content
with smaller grain size in SAF 2507 (the Sandvik-owned trade-
mark for a 25Cr duplex, ferritic-austenitic, stainless steel,
Fig. 3).
The benefits of powder-based DeepTIG are enhanced
when using the product in wire form in terms of simple appli-
cation and use while maintaining its demonstrated benefits. De-
velopment of applications by customers has demonstrated this
factor, and further interest and applications are sought.
1. Paskell, T., Johnson, M., and Lin, W. 1997. Development,
evaluation, and deployment of fluxes for GTAW that increases
weld penetration in austenitic stainless steels, carbon-man-
ganese steels, and copper-nickel alloys. NJC TDL No. 93-06.
Columbus, Ohio.
2. Lundin, C. D., et al. 1996. Gas tungsten arc welding flux
for increased penetration properties characterization. Project
No. NJC TL 94-0038. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
3. Richardson, R., and Kirchheimer, P. G. 1996. Mechanisms
of enhanced penetration with gas tungsten arc welding. NJC TL
94-2048. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
4. U.S. Patent No. 5804972. Filed 1996. Granted September
5. Ames, N. D., Johnson, M. Q., and Holmquist, M. 2000.
Orbital welding of small-bore superduplex tube using GTAW
flux. Duplex Stainless Steel Conference. Venice, Italy.
6. Ames, N. D., Ramberg, M., Johnson, M. Q., and Johns, T.
2002. Comparison of austenitic, superaustenitic and superdu-
plex weld properties produced using GTAW flux. Stainless Steel
World America (2).
7. Ames, N. D., Johnson, M. Q., and Lippold, J. C. 2002. Ef-
fect of GTAW flux on the microstructure and properties of
austenitic, superaustenitic and superduplex stainless steel welds.
Trends in Welding Research (4).
8. Ames, N. D., Frye, C., and Larsen, K. 2004. Improved cor-
rosion resistance of superduplex weldments. Stainless Steel
World America (10).
MARCH 2013 26
Fig. 4 GTAW T joint, 6 mm, Type 304 stainless steel, 225 A, 155 mm/min (6 in./min) travel speed. Autogenous welding with (left) and
without (right) the powder-based product. Using the product in a wire, a fillet could be added simultaneously.
Dr. IAN D. HARRIS ( is Technology Leader, Arc
Welding at EWI, Columbus, Ohio.
Technology March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 8:59 AM Page 26
For Info go to
weld aid_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 1:56 PM Page 27
Umbilical Tubing Tolerates
Subsea Environments
Laser welded, Lean Duplex 19D tub-
ing provides an alternative for subsea um-
bilical applications. Zinc cladding is added
for improved external protection against
corrosion-inducing, temperature-fluctu-
ating subsea conditions. In addition, it un-
dergoes testing, including X-ray, eddy cur-
rent, ultrasonic, and final acceptance, to
meet and exceed ASTM-A789 and
ASTM-A790 specifications.
(800) 468-9459
Finishing Products Useful
for Welding Applications
The companys weld finishing products
line consists of stringer bead brushes, in-
cluding the TY encapsulated stringer
bead brushes developed in conjunction
with offshore pipeline companies to clean
J-weld joints; scratch brushes made with
kiln-dried hardwood for tuft retention;
and cup brushes, including the TY en-
capsulated cup brushes, which mount on
portable and electric tools and finishing
machines, useful for surface prep and re-
moving burrs, as well as other surface
(216) 361-1900
New Technologies Advance
Cutting Processes
The company has introduced a plasma
cutting line with a new set of parameters
that delivers fine feature cutting on mild
steel up to 1 in. thick. These settings are
available for customers with an HPRXD
autogas system and work in combination
With the Activ8 portable wire feeder, available in a One-Pak con-
figuration that includes a Magnum PRO Curve 300 gun, welders get
a package matched for most applications in the offshore, shipbuilding,
construction, or pipeline industries. It includes the wire feeder with in-
ternal contactor, gas solenoid, arc-sensing lead, and clip (15 ft) along
with a K1500-2 gun bushing. The Magnum PRO Curve 300 gun of-
fers a 15-ft gun cable,
16-in. liner, and K466-10 gun connector kit. Also,
the wire feeder is designed for 8-in. spools; is compatible with any DC
CV and/or CC power source; and has front WFS knob and internal-
booted cold feed and gas purges, trigger interlock, and CV/CC switches.
Across-the-arc operation uses a sense lead and contactor to enable weld
current. A standard shielding gas apparatus can be used for FCAW-G
and GMAW processes. The wire feeder is capable of feeding
self-shielded FCAW or FCAW-G and GMAW gas-shielded wires at
50800 in./min. It will handle GMAW wires 0.0230.052 in. in diameter
and FCAW wires 0.0350.078 in. in diameter. The machine is rated at
330 A at 60% duty cycle and weighs 27 lb. At its center is the
MAXTRAC drive system featuring a dual gear-driven drive system,
patented wire drive, and tachometer-controlled motor.
The Lincoln Electric Co.
(888) 355-3213
MARCH 2013 28
Semiautomatic Wire Feeder Designed for Offshore Operations
P and P March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 1:25 PM Page 28
with its True Hole technology. Also
launching is a 200-A process for mild steel
bevel cutting and detailed settings for un-
derwater cutting mild steel up to 1 in.
(800) 643-0030
Catalog Features New
Welding Machines
The 2013 Power of Blue 104-page,
full-color catalog showcases the com-
panys line of welding and cutting ma-
chines, including 11 new products. Pro-
vided are specifications and product com-
parisons on GMA, GTA, and SMA weld-
ing machines, plasma cutting tools, weld-
ing generators, and fume extractors. The
catalog highlights Arc Armor welding
protection, including helmets and safety
apparel. Featured are scannable tags for
mobile product information. The catalog
may be requested or downloaded from the
Web site below.
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
(800) 426-4553
Helmet Available in Light-
Duty and All-Duty Models
The Limited Edition No. 2 custom
welding helmet is available in light-duty
and all-duty models. The light-duty hel-
met is offered with three shade types: au-
todarkening variable shade, autodarken-
ing fixed shade, and passive shade. All
models include a built-in magnifying lens
holder and are packaged with a protective
bag, comfort cushion, do-rag, and protec-
tive inside and outside cover lenses. The
Call or visit us on the web:
Affordable, Portable
Cuts or welds in any position
Rack & pinion drive
Easy operation
Kits available:
- Oxy-fuel
- Plasma
- Welding
Made in U.S.A.

Surface Finishing Solutions

Sheet metal deburring machine
2-sided deburring up to 0.20" thick, achieved with one operation
PTX Eco Smart
Shadow-free satin finish
up to a mirror polish
Linear grinder utilizes slip-on
abrasives, saving time and money
Renders weld
seams invisible on
flat surfaces
and pipe
up to
14" dia.
Integrated dust collection port
Metal Saw
on the Market!
Super Dry Cut Saw
Dry cut up to 4
/4" depth
/4" dia. blade cuts steel,
sandwich panels, trapezoidal
sheets, conduits, metal pipes
and more without coolant
For info go to
For info go to
P and P March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 1:26 PM Page 29
MARCH 2013 30
helmet design features a dragon on one
side and a koi fish on the other.
(877) 684-4427
System Fabricates and
Repairs Plastic Parts
The Magna-Stitcher plastic repair sys-
tem (Model MS-2500) has the power and
accessories needed for repairing and fab-
ricating plastic parts. It works by welding
a stainless steel stake into the surface of
the plastic, resulting in a permanent re-
pair of a crack. The system can be used to
repair containers, housings, brackets,
shrouds, mounting tabs, and any thermo-
plastic part. It features a work light in the
gun to illuminate the work area and comes
with an assortment of stainless steel
Magna-Stakes, each for a specific repair,
including cracks on flat surfaces, broken
tabs, and repairing inside as well as out-
side corners.
Motor Guard
(800) 227-2822
Robotic Blast System Made
for Coating Work Cells
Model RB-RSSA-8, a 7-axis robotic
grit-blast machine for roughening compo-
nent surfaces in a production thermal
spray coating cell, contains a 54- 46-in.
blast process chamber that is 42 in. high.
A single pressure-blast nozzle is fed by a
3.5 ft
capacity, ASME-certified pressure
vessel. Blast nozzle motion is provided by
a Fanuc M-10iA robot and coordinated
with component rotation on a servomo-
tor-driven auxiliary axis controlled by its
R-30iA robot controller. Its spindle, fit-
ted with a jawed chuck or T-slotted
turntable, can be controlled clockwise and
counterclockwise, or it is capable of rota-
tion at speeds from 0 to 300 rev/min. Dur-
ing the programmed blast cycle, the ro-
botic grit blasting system maintains the
correct nozzle angle, stand-off distance,
and surface speed. Its media reclaimer
stack-up includes a cyclone separator.
Guyson Corp.
(518) 587-7894
Redesigned Web Site
Highlights Safety Products
The company has launched a re-
designed Web site that offers several dif-
ferent paths and options to obtain infor-
mation on safety products in the eye, head
and face, hearing, and respiratory protec-
tion categories. Every product is shown
on an individual, easy-to-navigate page
that displays its features and benefits. The
Web site still incorporates the distribution
center, where distributors can find sup-
port tools, such as product images, litera-
ture, and sales rep contact information.
New to the site is a real-life stories sec-
tion, featuring testimonials and photos
from product users.
Gateway Safety
(800) 822-5347
Camera Monitors
High-Spatter Applications
The MeltView DART-A camera pro-
vides up-close monitoring of welding
processes that generate high amounts of
spatter/metal vapor and are difficult for
humans to access. It enables users to mon-
itor multiple machines simultaneously as
well as record welding for troubleshoot-
If you wish to view the worlds
best weld process for code
quality and alloy welds,
For info go to
P and P March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 1:27 PM Page 30
ing and quality assurance. Magnified im-
ages of the weld zone provide clear image
quality and facilitate real-time detection
of welding defects. It employs high-
dynamic range optical technology to pro-
duce high-quality welding images. A key
feature is automatic switching between
welding and nonwelding states. When
provided with dry, clean air or nitrogen,
the camera can operate in temperatures
up to 80C.
MeltTools LLC
(269) 978-0968
Blades Balanced with High
Diamond Concentration
The line of Blue Lightning diamond
blades consists of a collection featuring
34 diamond blades and 4 diamond cup
wheels. The blades are tensioned and bal-
anced with high diamond concentration,
resulting in longer life and increased effi-
ciency. Hot pressed technology produces
a consistent density of segments and rims
that hold up to tough applications.
Mercer Abrasives
(800) 221-5202
Boots Offer Closure
System for Securing Laces
The No. 2491 mens 8-in. work boot
(pictured) and No. 4216 mens 6-in. work
boot have a full-grain, waterproof Cor-
dura upper, dual-density Supersole welt
construction, fiberglass shank, and Cam-
brelle-covered polyurethane footbed.
Benefits of the Boa closure system include
the following: Once locked into place, its
reels and laces stay secure, one-hand fit
adjustment with a quick turn of its dial,
and comfort with no pressure points. Both
are recommended for oil/gas workers and
personnel working around heavy equip-
ment and/or chemicals. Also, the 2491 of-
fers an oil- and slip-resistant outsole, the

Flux Cored
Welding Wire









12500 Grand River Rd.
Brighton, MI 48116
PH: 800-848-2719
FAX: 810-227-9266

Welding W
Flux Cored

elding Wire
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and River Rd.
, INC.

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9266 - 227 - FA FAX: 810
27 - 848 - PH: 800
Brighton, MI 481

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continued on page 88-s
P and P March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 1:29 PM Page 31
MARCH 2013 32
Accidents seem to happen at the most
inconvenient times, so it is important to
know who to turn to when they happen.
When a 50,000-ton product tanker ended
up with a hull breach while taking on
cargo in a loading facility in Venezuela,
the owner turned to Miami Diver LLC,
a founding member of the Subsea Solu-
tions Alliance, a global network of spe-
cialized underwater ship repair contrac-
tors that also includes Parker Diving
Service LLC and Trident BV.
The following is a chronological re-
view of the events, from the accident,
through damage review until the success-
ful repair of the vessel.
The Tanker
The vessel is a 50,000 MT ice-classed
product tanker (Fig. 1), built in 2009. The
183-m-long double-hull ship is classed by
DNV and RINA. In the area of the dam-
age, the hull is constructed from 13.5-
mm-thick higher tensile steel AH36.
The Accident
In May 2012, the tanker was loading
jet fuel in a tanker port in Venezuela.
During the loading operation at the ter-
minal, the tanker sank deeper into the
water with every ton of cargo being
Repair of a Hull
15 m below the
( is the sr.
welding engineer for the
SubSea Solutions Alliance.
( is the
president of Miami Diver LLC, a
member of the SubSea Solutions
Since circumstances prevented the vessel
from entering dry dock, the repairs had to
be completed while it was afloat
Fig. 1 This 189m vessel
required an underwater
repair after it had its hull
pierced sufficiently enough
to let seawater enter its
water ballast tank.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:35 PM Page 32
pumped into the tanks. Nobody knew
that a submerged obstacle, most likely in
the form of a broken pile, was hidden
below the waterline, invisible to the offi-
cers and crew of the vessel. While in-
creasing her draft through the increasing
weight of the cargo, the submerged pil-
ing finally pierced its way through the
hull of the vessel, allowing the ingress of
seawater into the portside water ballast
wing tank.
Damage Assessment
Despite the damage, the tanker left
Venezuela and sailed to Aruba in the
Caribbean Sea, where an initial evalua-
tion of the damage was performed by a
local dive company. After the assess-
ment, the owner of the tanker contacted
the Miami Diver office in Curaao.
The damage proved to be severe (Fig.
2), preventing the vessel from sailing to
its destination. Class would only allow
the vessel to continue the journey if the
hull breach was fixed permanently. Since
the vessel was fully loaded, dry-docking
was out of the question. The repairs
needed to be performed with the vessel
afloat. It was discussed with the owner
and class to sail to Curaao and perform
the repairs with the vessel at berth in the
clear waters of the sheltered Caracas Bay.
Miami Divers engineering department
developed a detailed repair procedure
that was submitted and agreed to by the
owner and class, suggesting a no condi-
tion once the repair was completed.
Attending the Vessel
With the arrival of the vessel in Cu-
raao, a team of divers, welders, and the
welding engineer were deployed from
Miami, Long Beach, and Curaao to at-
tend the vessel. The initial inspection
dive revealed an approximate 400- 500-
mm hole in the hull of the vessel and de-
formed hull plating in the vicinity of the
hull breach. In addition to the aforemen-
tioned damages, the bilge keel and
grounding bar were also found to be dam-
aged Fig. 3.
The bilge keel and grounding bar had
to be trimmed back to allow for the in-
stallation of the cofferdam and the insert
plate. The trimmed bilge keel and
grounding bar were mechanically pro-
filed to match the original form.
Templating, Engineering,
and Building the
To allow the repair work to be per-
formed under dry conditions, a coffer-
dam was engineered by Miami Diver.
To ensure that the cofferdam would
be large enough to enclose the area of
the deformed hull, divers laid out the
area the cofferdam needed to cover and
communicated the measurements to the
engineering department.
Since the damage was in the turn of
the bilge, the transition between the flat
bottom and sidewall of the ship, divers
templated the contour of the area to be
Fig. 2 Damage to the hull
viewed from the outside.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:53 PM Page 33
MARCH 2013 34
enclosed by the cofferdam. The area cov-
ered by the cofferdam needed to be large
enough to cover the deformation in the
hull caused by the impact.
Based on information and sketches
provided by the divers, the cofferdam was
modeled to meet the required 4-times
safe working load at 14 m depth. Com-
plete built drawings were produced to en-
sure the cofferdam was built in accor-
dance to the modeling profile.
The cofferdam was built from 8-mm
ASTM A36 steel in the facilities in Cu-
raao Fig. 4.
Preparing the Insert Plate
The deformed and breached shell
plate section needed to be removed and
replaced with a rectangular insert plate,
approximately 2185 1422 mm in size,
with the corners prepared with class-
required radii.
The insert plate, fabricated from 15-
mm-thick EH36 class-approved steel was
cut to size, prepared for welding with an
approximate 37.5-deg bevel and rolled to
match the curvature of the hull. The
preparation of the insert plate was per-
formed locally in Curaao.
The track with customized ceramic
backing tiles develop by Miami Diver was
fitted around the peripheral edge of the
Lifting lugs were welded onto the rec-
Fig. 3 Schematic of the vessel showing where the hull was pierced and bilge keel damage.
Fig. 4 The cofferdam under construction.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:54 PM Page 34
Fig. 5 Diver welder welding
a lifting lug to the hull.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:54 PM Page 35
tangular insert plate to allow for easier
handling. After preparation of the insert
plate was completed, the plate was placed
into the cofferdam.
Installing the Cofferdam
The cofferdam was fitted with a
closed-cell foam gasket material around
the outer perimeter. It was centered and
installed over the breach and deforma-
tion, overlapping the weld zone 500 mm,
to shield the welding area and heat-
affected zone.
Weld fixtures were wet welded to the
ship hull (Fig. 5) by diver welders to hold
the cofferdam in place.
After installation, the cofferdam was
dewatered and checked for leaks prior to
cutting and welding work to be per-
formed from the inside.
Removing the Damaged
Shell Plate Section from
the Inside
The damaged section of the hull plat-
ing was removed by oxyfuel cutting from
inside the cofferdam. The edges of the
cut area (future weld joint) were ground
smooth and beveled (Fig. 6) to approxi-
mately 37.5 deg. The corners were pre-
pared with a 100 mm (4 in.) radii.
Preparing the Weld Joint
To allow unrestricted access for re-
moval of the damaged hull section and
installation of the new insert plate,
frames needed to be cropped and/or tem-
porarily removed. The welds between the
web frames and hull were carefully re-
moved by gouging the weld. In the area
MARCH 2013 36
Fig. 6 Grinding performed to prepare the joint for welding. Fig. 7 Insert plate being installed.
Fig. 8 Welding the root
from inside the cofferdam.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:54 PM Page 36
of the intersection between the web of
the frame and weld joint of the insert
plate, weld access holes were removed
from the web member, sufficient in size
to allow unrestricted access to the weld
joint to be welded and tested.
Installing the New Shell
After preparation of the weld joint,
the insert plate was pulled tight against
the outside of the shell plating with a con-
sistent root opening of about 10 mm. The
plate was secured in place with weld fix-
tures Fig. 7. Prior to welding the in-
sert plate, the previously cropped and/or
removed frame members were rein-
stalled and tack welded into place. The
preheat temperature of 80C was con-
trolled through heat-indicating crayons.
Root Opening with
Ceramic Backing
Ceramic Inclusion
While welding the root, welders expe-
rienced a popping of the ceramic back-
ing resulting in undesirable rejectable in-
clusions in the root of the weld. It ap-
peared that the ceramic was emerged in
the seawater for too long, picking up
moisture that could not be released
through preheating.
It was discussed with the owner and
surveyors to cut a 510- 660-mm man-
hole into the center of the insert plate,
backgouge the root pass from the insert
plate to remove all inclusions, and reweld
the root from inside the cofferdam. The
manhole was welded on ceramic backing.
Both classification societies DNV and
RINA agreed to the proposal.
After completion of the weld between
the insert plate and hull, the manhole was
cut in the center of the insert plate to gain
access to the root side of the original joint.
The root pass was removed by carbon
arc gouging, followed by cleaning the
joint by grinding and rewelding the root
with the SMAW process (Fig. 8) in the
overhead position.
Welding the Root from
Inside the Cofferdam
After welding was completed, visual
and ultrasound inspection was per-
formed on the weld between the insert
plate and hull plating. The weld did not
reveal rejectable indications.
Reinstalling the Manhole
The weld joint of the insert plate for
the manhole was prepared and welded
on ceramic backing. It was subject to vi-
sual and ultrasound inspection after com-
pletion. The welds passed without re-
jectable indications Fig. 9.
All temporary removed frames were
reinstalled with weld sizes matching the
original weld sizes.
Underwater Wet Welding
Underwater wet welding was only per-
formed to attach installation aids for the
cofferdam, which were removed after
completion of the work.
All underwater wet welding was based
on AWS D3.6:1998 Class A welding pro-
cedure qualifications (WPQ), employing
the wet shielded metal arc welding
process with Hydroweld FS electrodes.
All welds were executed as multilayer fil-
let welds in T- and lap joints.
Fig. 9 Large and small inserts as
they appeared from the water side.
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:55 PM Page 37
Top Side Welding
Top side welding was per-
formed as a permanent repair in
the dry. Top side welding was per-
formed in accordance with the
class-approved welding proce-
dure specification (WPS), em-
ploying the flux cored arc weld-
ing process (FCAW) under a
shielding gas consisting of 75%
argon and 25% CO
and shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW)
process with class-approved
E7018 low-hydrogen electrodes.
Complete joint penetration
welds were either welded on non-
consumable ceramic backing or
backgouging the root and reweld-
ing the root side of the joint.
Removing the
After removal of the coffer-
dam (Fig. 10), previously welded
installation aids were removed
and any weld metal remaining on
the hull was ground flush.
Underwater magnetic particle
(MT) testing was performed on
the ship hull where installation
aids for the cofferdam were re-
Corrosion Protection
After welding was completed
and the welds passed nondestruc-
tive examination, corrosion pro-
tection in the form of Hycote 151,
an underwater, two-component,
polyamine-cured epoxy coating,
was applied over the welds, areas
adjacent to the welds, and areas
where the corrosion protection
had been removed or burned off
during welding. This assisted in
the protection and reduction of
metal wastage in those areas due
to immersion in saltwater by
providing a permanent anticorro-
sive protection. Preparation of the
coating of the internal paint
system was performed by the ves-
sels crew.
MARCH 2013 38
Fig. 10 Divers removing the
Aschemeier 3-13_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:55 PM Page 38
For Info go to
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MARCH 2013 40
eld integrity, quality, and con-
sistency are compatible with
higher welding productivity and
lower fabrication costs, as long as key fac-
tors are taken into consideration. The ef-
fect of diffusible hydrogen, selection of
alloy systems, and choice of welding pro-
cedures all play a crucial role in main-
taining high quality and consistency in
offshore weldments.
Welders and welding engineers face
distinct challenges in an era of increased
scrutiny by governmental regulations,
owners representatives, and agency clas-
sification societies. For example, owner
representatives are closely monitoring
the welding activity of yards, commonly
looking for less than 1% defect rate in
overall welding performance before con-
tracts are awarded. This requires that the
design engineering, fabrication, and con-
struction firms rethink the margin of
safety in their welding processes.
To reach first oil or gas in deep water,
designs incorporating higher-strength
materials are increasingly common, as
are higher productivity welding proce-
dures, even in automated processes such
as submerged arc welding (SAW). How-
ever, changes in welding variables can
also increase hydrogen content, further
influencing the risk of delayed cracking.
Hydrogen-related cracking is known to
be a function of the hydrogen quantity,
susceptibility of the microstructure, and
residual stresses on the metal. Welding
procedures and practices influencing the
diffusion of hydrogen are often over-
looked. Increased productivity in weld-
ing almost always results in thicker indi-
vidual weld passes and more weld passes
per hour (for less time between passes).
The result is larger diffusion distances,
shorter periods of time for hydrogen to
escape, and an increased risk of hydro-
gen-related cracking. These factors, es-
pecially when combined with the mi-
crostructures of higher-strength steels
common to the offshore welding indus-
try, require a new look at hydrogen con-
trol in every aspect of welding.
In addition to an increased risk of hy-
drogen cracking, mechanical properties
such as crack tip opening displacement
(CTOD) toughness often suffer when
larger weld beads are deposited with con-
ventional welding consumables and
processes. This article quantifies the risk
factors beyond those explored in stan-
dardized diffusible hydrogen and CTOD
Minimizing Risk in Offshore
Submerged Arc Welding
BEN SCHAEFFER is a development
engineer and TERESA MELFI is an
engineering manager for
The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio
Increasing deposition rates in submerged arc
welding requires proper selection of consumables
for achieving consistent toughness and low
diffusible hydrogen weld deposits
Fig. 1 Increased deposition rates
achieved through AC waveform
Schaeffer and Melfi Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:23 PM Page 40
testing, dispelling some commonly held
beliefs and proposing others. From this,
options are established to mitigate these
risks in the real-world environment of
heavy offshore structures.
Its important that offshore firms in-
crease their technical requirements for
welds, look to new technologies and
strategies to maintain consistency and
quality of weld deposit properties, as well
as achieve higher productivity. For SAW,
this is achieved through welding proce-
dure upgrades in combination with prop-
erly selected welding consumables.
Increasing Productivity
with AC Technology
Fabricating offshore platforms and
components requires an unwavering
commitment to the quality of welding but
also carefully managed costs and produc-
tion schedules. A newer technology in
SAW power sources is AC waveform con-
trol. As shown in Fig. 1, it permits signif-
icant increases in electrode deposition
rates, allowing higher weld productivity
at the same average heat input.
The outcomes are reduced welding
and operational costs along with in-
creased weld team productivity in single-
or multiarc welding applications. And,
with input current requirements reduced
by up to 50% for some of the newest in-
verter-based SAW systems, users consis-
tently report significant energy savings
over traditional SAW equipment.
Increased deposition rates do not
come without a price, however. That
price is risk; specifically, failing mechan-
ical properties (toughness) and hydrogen
related cracking.
CTOD Toughness and
Consumable Selection
The productivity increases delivered
through SAW AC waveform control are
associated with higher deposition rates,
often accompanied by thicker individual
weld passes. Many alloy systems develop
toughness when as-deposited weld metal
is reheated and refined by subsequent
weld passes Fig. 2. Thicker weld beads
resulting from higher deposition rates
can affect mechanical properties by in-
creasing the percentage of as-deposited
(unrefined) weld metal. Unrefined weld
metal is associated with coarser grain mi-
crostructure, more grain boundary fer-
rite, and lower toughness in Mn-Si (mild
steel) and Mn-Si-Ni alloy systems.
Weld bead size and placement are es-
pecially influential on weld deposit
toughness when such alloy additions are
not engaged. Smaller weld beads and
more passes ensure higher content of re-
fined weld metal but limit welding pro-
ductivity. Technology advances in SAW
fluxes allow for better toughness in the
unrefined weld metal of mild steel and
low-alloy systems without making tradi-
tional sacrifices to diffusible hydrogen or
ease of welding at higher deposition
Table 1 shows that CTOD toughness
at 10C of predominantly unrefined
weld metal (weld centerline [WCL] + 5
mm, Fig. 2) approaches that of predomi-
nantly refined weld metal for both mild
steel and low-alloy deposits when using
a welding flux designed accordingly.
These results show consistent toughness
throughout a weld deposit even at a
higher overall concentration of unrefined
weld metal, and imply a reduced risk of
toughness-related failures is possible
when modifying joint designs and weld-
ing procedures for improvements to pro-
Consistent CTOD values for a weld
deposit may also serve as its own produc-
tivity improvement. The CTOD values
quantify a welds resistance to ductile
crack propagation. During multipass
welding of thick sections, residual
stresses accumulate that deteriorate a
welds ability to resist ductile crack prop-
agation (and reduce CTOD values).
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) is
often used by fabricators to relieve resid-
ual weld stresses. According to Offshore
Standard DNV-OS-F101, Postweld heat
treatment shall be performed for welded
joints of C-Mn and low-alloy steel hav-
ing a nominal wall thickness above 50
mm, unless fracture toughness testing
shows acceptable values in the as-welded
Consistent CTOD values in the as-
welded condition eliminate the need for
PWHT, significantly reducing cost and
improving productivity.
Table 1 Through-Thickness CTOD Values at 10C for a Mild Steel Weld Deposit

CTOD Test Location

842-H and L-S3 Weld Centerline (WCL) WCL + 5 mm
Specimen # CTOD (mm) CTOD (mm)
1 2.49 2.20
2 2.41 1.92
3 2.08 1.83
Average 2.33 1.98
Weld centerline (WCL) consists of mostly refined weld metal, and WCL + 5 mm consists of mostly unrefined weld metal. See Fig. 2 for a depiction of the
CTOD test location.
Fig. 2 Weld-metal refinement in a
submerged arc weld.
Schaeffer and Melfi Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:23 PM Page 41
Diffusible Hydrogen and
Consumable Selection
Proper selection of welding consum-
ables is also vital at higher deposition
rates to resist a common failure de-
layed hydrogen cracking in the thicker
weld beads.
Qualifying materials and welding pro-
cedures used in critical structural off-
shore and pipeline applications often in-
cludes extensive welding and testing
under production conditions for validat-
ing mechanical properties, including
CTOD toughness. Because diffusible hy-
drogen testing is extremely difficult to
quantify outside of a laboratory, the same
is not true for its validation.
Further complicating the situation is
that most offshore yards are in high-
humidity areas near the sea. These fac-
tors make it even more critical that a
SAW wire and flux combination is robust
in its ability to deposit low-hydrogen weld
metal both directly out of the bag and
after exposure to humid environments.
Failure mode rankings use frequency,
severity, and detectability of defects in
determining a risk rating. Diligent fabri-
cators may consider the frequency of hy-
drogen cracking to be low. Cracking in
the welds of any subsea pipeline or com-
ponent is a severe defect with increased
risk of in-service failure due to the diffi-
culty associated with detecting hydrogen
cracks. Hydrogen cracks may initiate im-
mediately or days after welding.
Figure 3 shows that although the
measured volume of hydrogen increases
with subsequent weld passes, weld metal
MARCH 2013 42
Fig. 3 Diffusible hydrogen in a mul-
tipass weld.
Fig. 4 Example of hydrogen crack-
ing in a multipass weld. A Cross
section of a hydrogen crack; B ex-
posed crack surface.
Fig. 5 Diffusible hydrogen time-
decay for a single-pass weld. More
than one hour was necessary for a
specimen (held at 250F) to halve its
initial diffusible hydrogen content.
4A 4B
Schaeffer and Melfi Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:24 PM Page 42
hydrogen has been measured to be most
concentrated (i.e., hydrogen per 100 g
weld deposit) in the first weld passes of
a multipass joint. In this case, hydrogen
cracks may be located deep within a weld
joint (common offshore joints are as deep
as 3 or 4 in.) requiring sophisticated non-
destructive examination techniques for
detection and great expense to repair.
The cross section of a hydrogen crack
(Fig. 4A) from a high-strength weld in-
dicates that such cracks may also initiate
immediately. This crack was shown to
originate in the first pass of a multipass
weld. The exposed crack surface (Fig.
4B) confirmed immediate cracking as
heat tint was found in the first pass re-
gion. The severity and detectability fac-
tors yield a high risk associated with hy-
drogen cracks in structural offshore
As shown in Fig. 5, increasing time be-
tween weld passes (especially at inter-
pass temperature) is effective for reduc-
ing diffusible hydrogen content. Al-
though increasing preheat and interpass
temperatures helps to mitigate the risk
of hydrogen cracking, such practices may
also reduce weld metal strength. Other
methods of lowering diffusible hydrogen
(interpass hold times and dehydrogena-
tion soaks) reduce productivity. Avoid-
ing such practices makes selecting
and handling consumables especially
All SAW fluxes (both agglomerated
and fused) have a unique correlation be-
tween moisture content and diffusible hy-
drogen. Flux moisture characteristics are
equally important in minimizing risk for
hydrogen-related cracking. This relation-
ship limits the minimum achievable hy-
drogen content for a given flux, even after
prebaking or predrying the flux.
Figure 6 shows the difference between
diffusible hydrogen obtained from a
welding flux considered to be an indus-
try standard for use in offshore welding
applications in Europe and Asia com-
pared to that of Lincolnweld 842-H,
a flux designed and manufactured to pro-
duce ultralow diffusible hydrogen, typi-
cally less than 3 mL/100 g of deposited
weld metal on both AC and DC polarity,
which reduces the likelihood of weld
metal hydrogen cracking. This is valuable
for the offshore construction industry
where consistency in operability, impact
toughness, and low diffusible hydrogen
are critical.
Figure 7 highlights the diffusible hy-
drogen of fluxes upon humidification.
Using a flux that requires no precon-
ditioning reduces cost and complexity
while minimizing the chance for error
during handling.
Specifying consumables for deepwa-
ter and ultradeepwater SAW applications
requires forethought and diligence to
produce robust welds that not only stand
up to harsh environments, but also meet
increasingly stringent industry quality
and testing standards, such as CTOD
Welding with AC waveform control
on the latest inverter AC/DC power
sources has the potential to greatly in-
crease productivity. This, combined with
a high-toughness, low-hydrogen flux can
achieve lower costs while lowering risks.
New technologies applied to the SAW
power source and flux design make this
all possible.







(No Humidification)
7 Days
@ 80
F & 80%
Fig. 6 Hydrogen diffusing from two
samples welded and tested using
the same procedures. Diffusible hy-
drogen values correspond to the
as-received condition in Fig. 7. On
the left is the industry standard;
the right features Lincolnweld
Fig. 7 Diffusible hydrogen of fluxes
upon humidification. The hydrogen
potential for as-received flux as well
as for flux exposed to high humidity
should be minimal to reduce the risk
of hydrogen-related cracking.
Schaeffer and Melfi Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:24 PM Page 43
Adhesion Society Annual Meeting & Expo. March 36. Hilton
Daytona Beach Oceanfront Resort, Daytona Beach, Fla.
ASQ Lean and Six Sigma Conf. March 4, 5. Pointe Hilton Tapatio
Cliffs Resort, Phoenix, Ariz. Sponsored by American Society for
Quality (ASQ).
13th Annual Lean and Six Sigma Conf. March 4, 5. Phoenix, Ariz.
ASNT 22nd Annual Research Symposium. March 1821. The
Peabody Memphis, Memphis, Tenn. American Society for Non-
destructive Testing.
ILSC Intl Laser Safety Conf. March 1821. Doubletree by
Hilton, Orlando, Fla. Laser Institute of America.
AeroDef Manufacturing and Composites Manufacturing 2013.
March 1921. Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, Calif.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
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Sponsored by the American Technical Education Assn.
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by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264;
2013 MTConnect: Connecting Manufacturing Conf. April
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Hyatt Hotel and Convention Center, River Walk, San Antonio,
Tex. Gases and Welding Distributors Assn.
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Rhode Island Convention Center, Providence, R.I.
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Danish Welding Society, Welding Technology Institute of Australia,
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lic of Korea. Sponsored by ASM International. www.asminterna-
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Puerto Rico.
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Hotel Termas & Convention Arax, Estncia Parque do Barreiro,
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structive Testing.
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man Welding Society).
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and Welding Distributors Assn.
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Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind.
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MARCH 2013 44
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Hazards ($19), Safety (free). North American Die Casting Assn.;
(847) 808-3161;
Plastics Welding School. A two-day course for certification to
European plastics welding standards. Malcom Hot Air Systems;
Protective Coatings Training and Certification Courses. At vari-
ous locations and online. The Society for Protective Coatings;
(877) 281-7772;
Robotics Operator Training. Presented by ABB University at 13
locations nationwide. For course titles and locations: (800) 435-
7365, opt. 2, opt. 4;
Safety Training Online. Unlimited training on myriad industrial
safety course titles for $45/employee/year. Visit Web site for com-
plete information and previews of several courses;
Servo-Robot Training Seminars. Two-day laser-vision seminars
held throughout the year at Servo-Robot, Inc., near Montreal,
Canada. Seminars include tutorials and hands-on practical train-
ing. For seminar schedule and costs, e-mail request to info@ser-
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of 2-in. Pipe in the 6G Position
Uphill. Troy, Ohio. Hobart Institute of Welding Technology;
(800) 332-9448;
SSPC Training and Certification Courses. Courses in protective
coatings, abrasive blasting, paint inspector, bridge coatings inspec-
tor, surface preparation, NAVSEA inspector, and many others.
The Society for Protective Coatings;
Thermadyne Distributor Training. Year-around training at
Denton, Tex.; West Lebanon, N.H.; Bowling Green, Ky.; and
Chino, Calif.; contact
TIP TIG Manual and Automated Plate and Pipe Welding
Workshops. Held the third Thursday of every month. 1901 Kitty
Hawk Ave., Bldg. 68, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Philadelphia,
Pa.; (215) 389-7700;
Tool and Die Welding Courses. Troy, Ohio. Hobart Institute of
Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448;
Unitek Miyachi Corp. Training Services. Personalized training
services on resistance and laser beam welding and laser marking;
(626) 303-5676;
Vibration Training Short Courses. Presented at locations nation-
wide, customers site, and by correspondence. Vibration
Welding Courses. A wide range of specialized courses presented
throughout the year. The Lincoln Electric Co.; (216) 486-1751;
continued from page 46
Coming Events Layout_Layout 1 2/15/13 1:55 PM Page 48
For Info go to
mitsui_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 1:51 PM Page 49
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
Springfield, MO April 712 April 13
Dallas, TX April 712 April 13
Miami, FL Exam only April 18
Minneapolis, MN April 1419 April 20
Las Vegas, NV April 1419 April 20
Syracuse, NY April 1419 April 20
San Francisco, CA April 2126 April 27
New Orleans, LA April 2126 April 27
Nashville, TN April 2126 April 27
Annapolis, MD April 28May 3 May 4
Detroit, MI April 28May 3 May 4
St. Louis, MO Exam only May 4
Fresno, CA May 510 May 11
Miami, FL May 510 May 11
Albuquerque, NM May 510 May 11
Oklahoma City, OK May 510 May 11
Corpus Christi, TX May 510 May 11
Knoxville, TN Exam only May 18
Birmingham, AL June 27 June 8
Hutchinson, KS June 27 June 8
Spokane, WA June 27 June 8
Miami, FL Exam only June 13
Bakersfield, CA June 914 June 15
Pittsburgh, PA June 914 June 15
Beaumont, TX June 914 June 15
Corpus Christi, TX Exam only June 29
Hartford, CT June 2328 June 29
Orlando, FL June 2328 June 29
Memphis, TN June 2328 June 29
9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI
(No exams given.) For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to
meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam
can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Miami, FL April 712
Sacramento, CA April 28May 3
Charlotte, NC May 510
Pittsburgh, PA June 27
San Diego, CA July 712
Miami, FL July 2126
Orlando, FL Aug. 1823
Denver, CO Sept. 1520
Dallas, TX Oct. 611
Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
New Orleans, LA April 1519 April 20
Minneapolis, MN July 1519 July 20
Miami, FL Sept. 2327 Sept. 28
Norfolk, VA Oct. 1418 Oct. 19
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
Houston, TX April 1519 April 20
Las Vegas, NV May 610 May 11
Miami, FL June 37 June 8
Dallas, TX Aug. 1923 Aug. 24
Chicago, IL Sept. 2327 Sept. 28
Pittsburgh, PA Oct. 1418 Oct. 19
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The course dates are followed by the location and phone number.
June 1721, Dec. 913 at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
May 2024, Aug. 1923, Dec. 26 at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Oct. 14 at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
April 2226, July 1519, Oct. 2125 at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
May 20, July 22, Sept. 23, Nov. 18 at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996
Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding
Inspector Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Please visit
Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations
IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the semi-
nar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline
dates by visiting our Web site Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to
confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register
online, visit or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to
avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.
MARCH 2013 50
Cert Schedule March_Layout 1 2/14/13 1:25 PM Page 50
Education That Works
1.800.238.DIVE (3483)
Near Atlantic City, New Jersey
Underwater welding training and full
commercial dive certication in ve months
Financial Aid & Career Placement Assistance
available to those who qualify
Opportunity for a career with variety,
adventure, and reward

For Info go to
divers academy_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 1:46 PM Page 51
Mathematics is a necessary part of a welding professionals activities. However, math can be
complicated and confusing for beginners, and difficult for adults who havent used math principles
awhile. This course provides a combination of clear step-by-step verbal and visual explanations that
make each mathematical concept easy to understand and remember. Topics include place value,
simplification, estimation, measurement, and the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of
whole numbers, fractions, decimals and mixed numbers. Practical exercises allow welders, welding
students, supervisors and inspectors to apply basic math skills to various aspects of the welding
process. Eighteen PDHs are provided through this course toward AWS recertification.
Online Math for Welders Course
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educ awo math_FP_TEMP 2/12/13 9:08 AM Page 52
The Welding Journal asked several Soci-
ety leaders to reflect on what activities have
been most successful for their Sections. It
is obvious that a major factor for their Sec-
tions success is their members enthusiasm
for welding and sharing this knowledge with
their communities.
Paul Hebert said, We try to keep our
New Orleans Section Web page current
with meeting information and pictures. We
also put ads in our local newspaper. Our
biggest event has been our fishing rodeo.
This year will mark 15 years we have been
doing this to raise money. Our next big
event is our welding competition. A few
years ago we went digital on our meeting
notices to save money. An active executive
board and getting sponsors are key to our
Tom Ferri, District 1 director, said, It
is important to build the camaraderie
among the board members to keep the Sec-
tions participation strong. I use my con-
tacts as a sales representative to discover
fabrication shops and enlist speakers for
the Section meetings and advertisers for
underwriting most of the cost of the Boston
Sections newsletters. I also make sure my
Sections send in their meeting reports and
photos for posting in Society News. This
column is a big inspiration for me. I study
the reports of other Sections to get fresh
meeting and event ideas. For us, vendor
nights held at local technical schools are al-
ways successful. Its real simple to invite
manufacturers representatives from
Miller, Lincoln, Thermal Dynamics, and
some of the abrasive and safety supply rep-
resentatives to participate. Whats more,
Most of these reps say they get more inter-
est from a few hours at an AWS-sponsored
vendors night than at one of their own dis-
tributors open house events.
Bill Shreve, a 31-year AWS member,
speaking for the District 12 Section lead-
ers, said, We decide on meeting topics by
correspondence via e-mail, phone, and in
person at the meetings. We share what we
see going on in the industry and try to en-
list speakers who will draw a crowd. Alu-
minum expert Tony Anderson packed the
house. We involve our business customers
with the Society on a daily basis and urge
even nonmembers to attend our meetings,
then we quiz them for topics they would
like us to address at future meetings. Fun
events are always on our agendas. We offer
a golf outing and two sporting clays shoots
each year that involve mom and the chil-
dren. Everyone goes home with a prize that
was donated. We charge the adults $30, $10
of which goes to support our scholarship
fund. We also have had a lot of success with
our student programs held at a local tech-
nical college. The Boy Scouts we invite
enjoy the presentations and some have de-
cided to pursue careers in welding. We try
to maintain contact with the real-world
businesses and the people who own them.
I personally owe so much to AWS helping
us achieve these goals that all of us are in-
terested in through (exposure in) the Weld-
ing Journal. I know that I speak for the rest
of my team as well.
Sgon Delmore, Olympic Section chair,
District 19, expressed his appreciation for
the inspiration and ideas he got from at-
tending the AWS Leadership Symposium.
Our Section has implemented a success-
ful annual Scholarship Golf Tournament
(three years running) as well as building the
AWS Olympic Section Web site with the
help of Henry Chinea, AWS Section Web
site editor. We plan to hold a welding skills
competition in May. I find keeping Section
leaders on their toes requires getting pas-
sionate people involved. They arent easy
to find. I find myself doing most of the vol-
unteer work most of the time. We involve
the local technical college welding instruc-
tors and some serve on the Sections board.
Their welding students attend our Section
meetings as part of their classroom assign-
ments to help their grades. This helps us
with attendance and also with obtaining
new Student Members. Chinea
( said, My ultimate goal
is for every Section to have a Web site they
can use as an informational hub to consis-
tently publicize their events and photos. I
can provide training and assistance, and
even assist in sending out their e-mail no-
tices. I also urge Sections to create a Face-
book page for daily interaction.
Rod London, Alaska Section chair, said
he has found that bringing new life into his
meetings means inviting anyone interest-
ing in welding inspection, fabrication,
processes, and engineering updates. Our
meetings include students, retirees, instruc-
tors, engineers, inspectors, and others who
are just interested in the American Weld-
ing Society. I try to engage the schools and
businesses with notices of presentations on
new processes or equipment, strategies for
cost reductions, informative methods that
keep companies current in codes, and im-
pressing on anyone about the diverse re-
sources and services that AWS offers the
public. I have found a mixture of tours at
companies and even art studios draws new
faces and interest along with the more tech-
nical speakers who really get into the nuts
and bolts of metallurgy and equations. I
have also found that attending other soci-
eties meetings, such as ASNT (American
Society for Nondestructive Testing), adds
to my contacts and attracts new members,
and we have held joint meetings with some
of these organizations. Most important is
having a presence at career fairs at schools,
construction day events, and talking about
student memberships and the vast network-
ing that AWS offers. This includes notices
of scholarships, leadership opportunities,
and the many benefits of the AWS organi-
zation. They learn that AWS is the place to
find information and to stay current.
Bob Richwine, District 14 director, ac-
knowledged that the Indiana Section also
struggled with preparing agendas. He re-
called that when he first joined the Society,
The Section held all of its meetings at the
same place, we had a meal, heard a speaker,
then went home. After a while, attendance
dropped off. With the downturn in indus-
try in Indiana, we were not drawing engi-
neers, management, nor a lot of the sales
people. To bring the Section back to life,
we began encouraging younger people to
become active in the Section. Our core
group of officers is now mostly educators.
Our students night event last year drew 140
people. We hold the Mid-West Team Weld-
ing Tournament each year which draws stu-
dents from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio
and concludes with an impressive awards
banquet. The students were thrilled to be
photographed with Dick Alley (a past AWS
president) and see their names and picture
in the Welding Journal Section News. The
members also get a kick from working this
contest and helping the students. We have
What Do Successful Sections Do?
Success continued on page 54
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:01 PM Page 53
MARCH 2013 54
AWS Works with Middle East Industrial Training Institute
Modern Welding Presented First U.S. ISO 3834 Certification
AWS President Nancy C. Cole made a
presentation, Jan. 8, at the AWS Confer-
ence and Graduation Ceremony held at
the Middle East Industrial Training Insti-
tute (MEITI) in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Assist-
ing Cole at the event were John Gayler,
managing director, Certification Services;
and Jeff Kamentz, corporate director, In-
ternational Sales. The event, organized by
the institutes Managing Director
Haytham Akkila, offered Cole the oppor-
tunity to discuss AWS history, its pro-
grams, certifications, and educational serv-
ices. The institute is an AWS Accredited
Test Facility (ATF), AWS International
Agency, a SENSE Participating Organiza-
tion, AWS Educational Institution Mem-
ber, and an AWS Certified Welding Fab-
ricator. Recent graduates of the MEITI
welding program and nondestructive eval-
uation courses received their certificates
at the event.
On Jan. 31, the first certificate for IIW
ISO 3834, Quality Requirements for Weld-
ing, certification in the United States was
presented to Modern Welding Company
of Kentucky, represented by Phil Grimm.
The certification was presented by AWS
President Nancy Cole and Ray Shook,
AWS executive director, at AWS World
Headquarters in Doral, Fla. Shook also
serves as chief executive of the Authorized
National Body for Company Certification
to the International Institute of Welding.
Founded in 1932, Modern Welding
Company of Kentucky is a family-owned
business based in Madisonville, Ky. It is
one of the largest suppliers of under-
ground and aboveground steel storage
tanks for flammable and combustible liq-
uids, and operates five welding supply
stores located in Kentucky and Indiana. It
also offers a wide variety of products, such
as chemical storage tanks, pressure ves-
sels, and structural steel fabrications.
AWS President Nancy C. Cole receives a speaker-appreciation gift from Hamad Saif Mo-
hammed Al Salmeen AlMansouri (right), H. E. Saif Mohammed Al Salmeen Almansouri
(center), and Sheikh Mubarak Bin Ham.
Phil Grimm (center) of Modern Welding Company of Kentucky is shown with AWS Presi-
dent Nancy C. Cole and Ray Shook, AWS executive director and chief executive of the Au-
thorized National Body for Company Certification to the International Institute of Welding.
a good member turnout for contests. With
our commitment to conducting the best
welding contest possible, the AWS se-
lected the Indiana Section to run the Pro-
fessional Welding Contests at the last
three FABTECH shows held in Chicago,
and weve been asked to work the 2013
Chicago event. Some of our most success-
ful events provided technical education.
We have conducted seminars on solder-
ing and brazing, tool steel welding, and
several processes and new technologies.
We have many factories and racing shops
in the Indianapolis area providing plant
tours. Plant tours always draw large
turnouts. We also sponsor a day at the In-
dianapolis Speedway at the Lincoln Elec-
tric suite. By starting a Student Chapter,
our attendance has increased by about 12
people each meeting. Our next meeting
will be held at a drag racing shop and 18
students have already signed up for the
tour. Among our more popular summer
outings is to hold a meeting and cookout
at a state park or campground where we
can enjoy the great outdoors with our fam-
ilies. We also make a point of having sev-
eral members attend the annual District
conference with their families and friends
who enjoy the tours and entertainment
provided for spouses and guests. Our
wives are a big help with the work at the
Chicago shows, our Christmas parties, and
most of the activities at the cookouts.
Success continued from page 53
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:01 PM Page 54
March 12, 13, D16 Committee on Ro-
botic and Automatic Welding. Tanner,
Ala. P. Henry,
March 26, 27, C3 Committee and Sub-
committees on Brazing and Soldering.
Doral, Fla. S. Borrero,
April 911, D15 Committee and Sub-
committees on Railroad Welding. St.
Louis, Mo. S. Borrero,
April 23, B2D Subcommittee on Stan-
dard Welding Procedure Specification.
Kansas City, Mo. A. Diaz,
April 23, B2E Subcommittee on Sol-
dering Qualifications. Kansas City, Mo.
A. Diaz,
April 24, 2013, B2B Subcommittee on
Welding Qualifications. Kansas City, Mo.
A. Diaz,
April 24, B2C Subcommittee on Ma-
terials. Kansas City, Mo. A. Diaz,
April 2426, A2 Committee and Sub-
committees on Definitions and Symbols.
Nashville, Tenn. S. Borrero, sborrero@
April 25, B2 Committee on Procedure
and Performance Qualification. Kansas
City, Mo. A. Diaz,
April 25, B2A Subcommittee on Braz-
ing Qualifications. Kansas City, Mo. A.
Standards for Public Review
D8.8M:20XX, Specification for Auto-
motive Weld Quality Arc Welding of Steel.
Revised standard. $29.50.
D14.3/D14.3M:2010-AMD1, Specifica-
tion for Welding, Earthmoving, Construc-
tion, and Agricultural Equipment. Amend-
ment standard. $52.
D15.1/D15.1M:2012-AMD1, Railroad
Welding Specification for Cars and Loco-
motives. Amendment standard. $129.
The above documents are submitted
for public review, with expiration date
3/25/13. Draft copies may be ordered from
R. ONeill, AWS was ap-
proved as an accredited standards-prepar-
ing organization by the American Na-
tional Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979.
AWS rules, as approved by ANSI, require
that all standards be open to public review
for comment during the approval process.
ISO Standards for Public Review
ISO/DIS 669, Resistance welding Re-
sistance welding equipment Mechanical
and electrical requirements
ISO/DIS 9455-5, Soft soldering fluxes
Test methods Part 5: Copper mirror
Review copies of the above Draft In-
ternational Standards are available from
your national standards body, which in the
United States is ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St., 4th
Fl., New York, NY, 10036; (212) 642-4900.
Comments regarding ISO documents
should be sent to your national standards
body. In the United States, if you wish to
participate in the development of Inter-
national Standards for welding, contact
A. Davis,
Tech Topics
Errata D9.1M/D9.1:2012
Sheet Metal Welding Code
The following erratum has been
identified and will be incorporated into
the next reprinting of this document.
Page 54, Question 6 of the SMAW
Sample Test. The letter D. is missing
from the alphabetical list Correct
Direct Current Electrode Positive to
read D. Direct Current Electrode
Technical Committee Meetings
All AWS technical committee meetings
are open to the public. Persons wishing to
attend a meeting should contact the com-
mittee secretary listed.
March 5, 6, A5 Committee on Filler
Metals and Allied Materials. Orlando, Fla.
R. Gupta,
March 6, A5T Subcommittee on Filler
Metal Procurement Guidelines. Orlando,
Fla. R. Gupta,
March 7, A5A Subcommittee on Car-
bon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and
Rods for Shielded Metal Arc and Oxyfuel
Gas Welding. Orlando, Fla. R. Gupta,
March 8, C6D Committee on Friction
Welding. San Antonio, Tex. P. Henry,
A5K Subcommittee on Titanium and
Zirconium Filler Metals.To update spec-
ifications for welding electrodes and rods
of titanium, zirconium, and their alloys.
A. Diaz,
A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium
Alloy Filler Metals. R. Gupta,
C2 Committee on Thermal Spraying,
C4 Committee on Oxyfuel Gas Welding
and Cutting, and D8 Committee on Au-
tomotive Welding seek educators, gen-
eral interest, and users to update its doc-
uments. E. Abrams,
D10P Subcommittee for Local Heat
Treating of Pipe. B. McGrath, bmc-
D14 Committee on Machinery and
Equipment and D14H Subcommittee on
Surfacing and Reconditioning of Indus-
trial Mill Rolls seek professionals in de-
sign, production, engineering, testing,
and safe operation of machinery and
equipment to prepare recommended
practices for surfacing and recondition-
ing of industrial mill rolls. E. Abrams,
D16 Committee on Robotic and Auto-
matic Welding seeks general interest and
educators to help revise its documents.
D17J Subcommittee to update speci-
fication for friction stir welding of alu-
minum alloys for aerospace applications.
A. Diaz,
G2D Subcommittee on Reactive Al-
loys to update guides for the fusion weld-
ing of titanium and titanium alloys, and
fusion welding of zirconium and zirco-
nium alloys. A. Diaz,
J1 Committee on Resistance Welding
Equipment seeks educators, general in-
terest, and users to help develop its doc-
uments on controls, installation and
maintenance, calibration, and resistance
welding fact sheets. E. Abrams,
Share Your Professional Expertise
Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:02 PM Page 55
MARCH 2013 56
Member-Get-A-Member Campaign
Listed are the members participating in
the 20122013 campaign. Standings as of Jan.
16, 2013. See page 67 of this Welding Journal
for campaign rules and prize list or visit For information, call the
Membership Department (800/305) 443-
9353, ext. 480.
Winners Circle
Sponsored 20 or more new Individual Members
per year since June 1, 1999. The superscript de-
notes the number of times the member achieved
Winners Circle status if more than once.
E. Ezell, Mobile
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley
J. Merzthal, Peru
G. Taylor, Pascagoula
L. Taylor, Pascagoula
B. Chin, Auburn
S. Esders, Detroit
M. Haggard, Inland Empire
M. Karagoulis, Detroit
S. McGill, NE Tennessee
B. Mikeska, Houston
W. Shreve, Fox Valley
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona
R. Wray, Nebraska
Presidents Guild
Sponsored 20+ new Individual Members
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 24
Presidents Roundtable
Sponsored 919 new Individual Members
E. Ezell, Mobile 12
R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers 10
W. Blamire, Atlanta 9
A. Tous, Costa Rica 9
P. Strother, New Orleans 9
Presidents Club
Sponsored 38 new Individual Members
D. Galigher, Detroit 7
W. Komlos, Utah 7
J. Smith, San Antonio 6
C. Becker, Northwest 5
L. Webb, Lexington 4
A. Bernard, Sabine 3
P. Brown, New Orleans 3
D. Buster, Eastern Iowa 3
C. Daon, Israel 3
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 3
D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley 3
J. Turcott, Rochester 3
A. Winkle, Kansas City 3
D. Wright, Kansas City 3
R. Wright, San Antonio 3
Presidents Honor Roll
Sponsored 2 Individual Members
G. Cornell, St. Louis 2
M. Depuy, Portland 2
P. Host, Chicago 2
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 2
L. Kvidahl, Pascagoula 2
W. Larry, Southern Colorado 2
G. Lawrence, N. Central Florida 2
J. Mansfield, Philadelphia 2
E. Norman, Ozark 2
A. Sam, Trinidad 2
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 2
C. Shepherd, Houston 2
G. Solomon, Central Pennsylvania 2
A. Sumal, British Columbia 2
J. Vincent, Kansas City 2
A. Vogt, New Jersey 2
J. Vorstenbosch, International 2
M. Wheeler, Cleveland 2
L. William, Western Carolina 2
W. Wilson, New Orleans 2
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 2
Student Member Sponsors
Sponsored 3+ new Student Members
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 73
B. Scherer, Cincinnati 39
W. England, W. Michigan 33
R. Bulthouse, Western Michigan 31
R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville 28
S. Siviski, Maine 24
B. Cheatham, Columbia 23
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 23
C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia 23
M. Arand, Louisville 22
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 21
J. Falgout, Baton Rouge 18
R. Munns, Utah 18
S. Lindsey, San Diego 17
E. Norman, Ozark 16
M. Anderson, Indiana 15
R. Hutchinson, Long Beach/Or. Cty. 14
D. Pickering, Central Arkansas 13
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 13
J. Daugherty, Louisville 12
C. Morris, Sacramento 12
R. Richwine, Indiana 12
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 12
A. Duron, Cumberland Valley 11
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 11
A. Theriot, New Orleans 10
J. Boyer, Lancaster Section 9
C. Schiner, Wyoming 9
G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 9
C. Galbavy, Idaho/Montana 8
C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains 8
J. Dawson, Pittsburgh 7
R. Udy, Utah 7
R. Vann, South Carolina 7
T. Buckley, Columbus 6
R. Fuller, Green & White Mountains 6
T. Shirk, Tidewater 6
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. 6
P. Host, Chicago 5
R. Ledford, Birmingham 5
P. Strother, New Orleans 5
K. Temme, Philadelphia 5
W. Wilson, New Orleans 5
C. Chifici, New Orleans 4
L. Clark, Milwaukee 4
J. Ginther, International 4
C. Griffin, Tulsa 4
J. Reed, Ozark 4
E. Shreve, Pittsburgh 4
G. Siepert, Kansas 4
P. Strother, New Orleans 4
R. Zadroga, Philadelphia 4
R. Hilty, Pittsburgh 3
S. Liu, Colorado 3
G. Lunen, Kansas City 3
R. Wilsdorf, Tulsa 3
November 1, 2013, is the deadline for submitting nominations for the 2014 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award. This award includes a
$5000 honorarium. It is presented each year to one person, 40 years old or younger, who has made significant contributions to the ad-
vancement of materials joining through research and development. Nominations should include a description of the candidates expe-
rience, list of publications, honors, and awards, and at least three letters of recommendation from fellow researchers. The award is
sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dept. of Ocean Engineering. E-mail your nomination package to Todd A.
Palmer, assistant professor, The Pennsylvania State University,
Candidates Sought for Welding-Related Awards
William Irrgang Memorial Award
This award is given to the individual who has done the most
over the past five years to enhance the Societys goal of advanc-
ing the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500
honorarium and a certificate.
Honorary Membership Award
This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession,
or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the
development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full
rights of membership.
Nat. Meritorious Certificate Award
This award recognizes the recipients counsel, loyalty, and
dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial rela-
tions with industry and other organizations, and for contribu-
tions of time and effort on behalf of the Society.
George E. Willis Award
This award is given to an individual who promoted the ad-
vancement of welding internationally by fostering coopera-
tive participation in technology transfer, standards rationali-
zation, and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a
$2500 honorarium.
International Meritorious Certificate Award
This honor recognizes recipients significant contributions to
the welding industry for service to the international welding com-
munity in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate
and a one-year AWS membership.
The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations.
Contact Wendy Sue Reeve,; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:02 PM Page 56
District 1
Thomas Ferri, director
(508) 527-1884
Shown at the Central Mass./Rhode Island Section meeting are (from left) Brendon Piquita,
Chair Paul Mendez, Doug Desrochers, Bob Wunschel, Tim Kinnaman, and Tom Ferri, Dis-
trict 1 director.
Shown at the Green & White Mountains Section meeting are from left (standing) Joe Tokarski,
John Steel, Phil Witteman, Gerry Ouelette, Gary Buckley, Jennifer Eastley, and Chair Ray
Henderson, (kneeling) Rich Fuller, and Ernie Plumb. Geoff Putnam took the photo.
Shown at the Maine Section event are from left (seated) Bronwyn Potthoff, Russ Norris,
Dick Gregoire, Mark Legel, and Ralph Ruel; (standing) Bernie Bisnette, John Rayburn,
Bob Bernier, Chair Jim Kein, Scott Lee, and Tom Ferri, District 1 director.
Paul Mendez (left), Central Mass./Rhode Is-
land Section chair, is shown with Tom Ferri,
District 1 director.
Activity: The Section held an executive
board meeting to discuss plans for hosting
the District 1 conference, scheduled for
April 27. District 1 Director Tom Ferri pre-
sented the Section Educator of the Year
Award to Chair Paul Mendez.
Activity: The executive committee held a
program planning meeting at Fireside Inn
in White River Junction, Vt. Discussed
were FABTECH and the World Skills com-
petition event. The nominating commit-
tee released its recommended slate of in-
coming officers.
Speaker: Tom Ferri, District 1 director
Affiliation: Victor Technologies
Topic: Update on AWS activities
Activity: A video was shown of the ribbon-
cutting held at AWS World Headquarters.
AWS Member Counts
Feb. 1, 2013
Sustaining ......................................562
Educational ...................................617
Welding Distributor........................51
Total Corporate ..........................2,065
Individual .................................58,638
Student + Transitional .................9,700
Total Members.........................68,338
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:03 PM Page 57
MARCH 2013 58
District 4
Stewart A. Harris, director
(919) 764-4000
District 3
Michael Wiswesser, director
(610) 820-9551
District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903
Activity: A meeting was held to discuss
how the Section members can best provide
their assistance to the reconstruction of
the area devastated by Superstorm Sandy.
District 2 Director Harland Thompson
Activity: The Section sponsored a two-day
seminar on liquid dye penetrant testing for
Level II certification. Sterling Buss from
Welder Training and Testing Institute
taught the program. Bob Petrone from
AGL Welding Supply and Eric Dolan from
Dolan Associates received certificates for
passing the course. The presentation was
held at Snuffys Steak House in Scotch
Plains, N.J.
Activity: Attending this event were Chair
Tracy Davenport and past chairs Steven
Gammon, Francis Butkus, Chris Ochs,
Dave Hibshman, and Merilyn McLaugh-
lin. Silver Member certificates were an-
nounced for Rubin Choug, Thomas E.
Zimmerman III, and Bruce Mays for 25
years of service to the Society. The event
was held at Dutchway Restaurant in My-
erstown, Pa.
Shown at the Long Island meeting are (from left) Jack Spaulding, Jesse Provler, Alex
Duschere, Ray OLeary, and Harland Thompson, District 2 director.
Reading Section past chairs are (from left) Francis Butkus, Chris Ochs, Merilyn McLaugh-
lin, Dave Hibshman, Chair Tracy Davenport, and Steven Gammon.
Shown at the Aiken S.C. Student Chapter program are (from left) Chair Colton Williams,
Brad Mullins, Travis Bilbee, and Vice Chair Quinney Dedercheck.
Shown (from left) are Bob Petrone, Sterling
Buss, and Eric Dolan at the New Jersey Sec-
tion event.
Jim Dolan (left), New Jersey Section vice
chair, is shown with presenter Sterling Buss.
Silver Member Rubin Choug and wife Kelly
are shown at the Reading Section event.
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:03 PM Page 58
District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344
District 7
Uwe Aschemeier, director
(786) 473-9540
District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
(315) 218-5297
Speaker: Dennis Crockett, consultant
Affiliation: Chair, A5M Subcommittee on
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes;
The Lincoln Electric Co. (ret.)
Topic: Trends and recent changes to the
AWS filler metal specifications
Activity: The meeting was held at Smoke
BBQ Restaurant in Newport News, Va.
Aiken South Carolina
Student Chapter
Activity: Chair Colton Williams and Vice
Chair Quinney Dedercheck presided at
this first meeting of the year. The presen-
ters were ESAB Welding and Cutting rep-
resentatives Brad Mullins, sales manager,
and CWI Travis Bilbee, welding engineer.
They demonstrated welding and cutting
technology for the students at Aiken
County Career & Technology Center in
Warrenville, S.C.
Speaker: Alex Klahm, metalsmith
Affiliation: Architectural Metal and
Topic: Restoring historic lighthouses
Activity: Twenty-three members and
guests attended this program held at Fron-
tier Steak House in Tampa, Fla.
Beaver Valley
Student Chapter
Activity: The Student Chapter, led by Ad-
visor Tom Geisler, visited American Bridge
Co. in Coraopolis, Pa., to study its weld-
ing operations. Randy Wilson, head of
quality, conducted the tour.
Speaker: Neil G. Thompson, VP, Materi-
als and Corrosion Technology Center
Affiliation: Det Norske Veritas
Topic: Forensic investigation of the Deep-
water Horizon blowout preventer
Activity: The Section joined members of
the local chapters of SWE, ASME, ASM
International, and AIAA for this program,
held at Det Norske Veritas in Columbus.
The event attracted 73 attendees.
Speaker: David McQuaid, AWS vice
Affiliation: DL McQuaid & Associates
Topic: The Oakland Bay self-anchored sus-
pension bridge
Activity: Harvey Castner received his Gold
Member certificate for 50 years of service
to the Society. Forty people attended this
Columbus Section program held at
Schmidts Restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.
Speaker: Dick Holdren
Affiliation: ARC Specialties, consultant-
ing division
Topic: Welding engineering
Activity: The program was held at Asian
Buffet in Dayton, Ohio.
Activity: The Dayton Section members vis-
Alex Klahm (right) receives a speaker plaque
from Charles Crumpton, Florida West Coast
Section chair.
Harvey Castner (right) receives his Gold
Member certificate from John Lawmon,
Columbus Section chair.
Dick Holdren (left) is shown with Chris Lan-
der, Dayton Section chair, in October.
Columbus Section Chair John Lawmon
(left) is shown with speaker David McQuaid,
an AWS vice president.
Beaver Valley Student Chapter members are shown during a tour of American Bridge Co.
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:04 PM Page 59
MARCH 2013 60
District 9
George Fairbanks Jr., director
(225) 473-6362 ited Southern Ohio Forge and Anvil in
Troy, Ohio, for demonstration of black-
smithing techniques. Steve Roth con-
ducted the program.
Activity: The Dayton Section members
joined members of the Cincinnati Section
to tour the MillerCoors Brewing Co. in
Trenton, Ohio.
Activity: The Dayton Section hosted its an-
nual joint meeting with the Dayton and
Cincinnati Chapters of ASM Interna-
tional. Bill Ballis received his Gold Mem-
ber certificate for 50 years of service to the
American Welding Society.
Activity: The Section hosted its 32nd an-
nual student weld-off competition at the
Boilermakers Local No. 154 Training Cen-
ter in Pittsburgh, Pa., for 47 students.
Speakers: Bob Stiger, Joe Kingston, CWIs
Affiliation: Orbital Engineering
Topic: Inspecting ladle turrets
Activity: Howard Pfeifer received his Gold
Member certificate for 50 years of service
to the Society from Chair John Menhart.
The past chairs attending were Roger Hilti,
Dale Dodds, Bob Jackson, Ed Yevick, Dick
LaFave, Tom White, and Carl Ott. The
event was held at La Mont Restaurant in
Mt. Washington, Pa.
Speaker: Zhenzhen Yu, Section vice chair
Affiliation: Oak Ridge National Labora-
tory, researcher, materials science and
Topic: In-situ characterization of transient
material behavior in welding
Activity: The presentation was given at
Peerless Restaurant in Knoxville, Tenn.
Speaker: Dennis Crockett, consultant
Affiliation: Chair, A5M Subcommittee on
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes;
The Lincoln Electric Co. (ret.)
Steve Roth demonstrated blacksmith tech-
niques for the Dayton Section in November.
Pittsburgh Section Chair John Menhart
(center) is shown with speakers Bob Stiger
(left) and Joe Kingston in January. Zhenzhen Yu is shown addressing the North-
east Tennessee Section members.
Pittsburgh Section past chairs are (from left) Roger Hilti, Tom White, Dale Dodds, Carl Ott,
Bob Jackson, Chair John Menhart, Ed Yevick, and Dick LaFave.
Participants in the Pittsburgh Section weld-off competition pose for a group shot.
Bill Ballis (left) receives his Gold Member
certificate from Chris Lander, Dayton Sec-
tion chair, at the January program.
Howard Pfeifer displays the Gold Member
certificate he received at the January Pitts-
burgh Section program.
District 8
Joe Livesay, director
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:04 PM Page 60
Shown are the attendees at the Pittsburgh Section program in January.
Topic: Trends and recent changes to the
AWS filler metal specifications
Activity: This Mobile Section event was
held at The Original Oyster House in
Spanish Fort, Ala.
Speaker: D. J. Berger
Affiliation: National Inspection Certifica-
tion and Testing Corp.
Topic: Installation and brazing processes
of medical gas piping systems
Activity: The meeting was hosted by
Plumbers & Steamfitters UA Local 60, rep-
resented by Randy Rovira, in Metairie, La.
Activity: The New Orleans Section held its
eighth annual student welder competition
hosted by New Orleans Pipe Trades in
Metairie, La. Thirty-four students partici-
pated in two classes, beginner and ad-
vanced. Taking top beginner honors were
Jacob Newton, Dylan Aymond, and Byron
Sharp. Advanced welder honors were
earned by Jesus Sanchez, Jared Aymond,
and Lee Holloway.
Activity: Boh Bros. Construction Co. spon-
sored this general meeting at its facility in
New Orleans, La. Participating were Su-
perintendents Ricky Tamor, William St.
John, and Ronnie Krupp, Vincent Rabal-
ais, Daniel Flattman, and Anthony Doty.
Alan Truiti won the 50/50 raffle.
Speaker Dennis Crockett (left) is shown with
Johnny Dedeaux, Mobile Section chair.
Shown at the October New Orleans Section
program are Randy Rovira (left), and Chair
Aldo Duron.
D. J. Berger discussed brazing at the Octo-
ber New Orleans Section program.
Shown at the New Orleans Section welder
competition are (from left) Lee Holloway,
Jared Aymond, and Jesus Sanchez.
Shown at the November New Orleans Section welder competition are (from left) Byron
Sharp, Chair Aldo Duron, Jacob Newton, and Dylan Aymond.
Shown at the November New Orleans Section program are (from left) Chair Aldo Duron,
Vincent Rabalais, Ricky Tamor, William St. John, Anthony Doty, Ronnie Krupp, and Daniel
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:05 PM Page 61
MARCH 2013 62
District 11
Robert P. Wilcox, director
(734) 721-8272
District 12
Daniel J. Roland, director
(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421
District 10
Robert E. Brenner, director
(330) 484-3650
Attendees are shown at the Northern Michigan Section holiday party, Dec. 13.
Central Michigan Section members are (from left) Jeff Haynes, Jeff Seelye, Bill Eggleston,
Kevin Whitford, presenter Jeff Schiable, and Chair Roy Bailiff.
Charles Dixon (right) is shown with Chuck
Moore, Mahoning Valley Section chair.
Shown at the Lakeshore Section event are (from left) Chair Milt Kemp with presenters Jim
King, Rob Stinson, and Jason Rolan.
Shown at the Madison-Beloit Section event
are (from left) Jim Hansel, Bob Dempsey,
and Rob Stinson.
Speaker: Charles W. Dixon, safety and
workforce training administrator
Affiliation: Ohio Oil and Gas Energy Ed-
ucation Program
Topic: Training the oil and gas energy
Activity: The program was held at
Columbiana County Career Center in Lis-
bon, Ohio.
Activity: The Section members toured En-
protech Industrial Technologies in Lans-
ing, Mich.The facility specializes in press
repairs, rebuilding, and equipment up-
grades. Jeff Schiable, plant manager, dis-
cussed the procedures and processes the
company uses for rebuilding large presses
including welding, brazing, machining, and
Activity: The Section hosted its holiday
party at Sorellina Italian Restaurant in Tra-
verse City, Mich.
Activity: This program featured demon-
strations of the VRTEX 360 virtual re-
ality arc welding training system. Lincoln
Service Technician Jim King and Techni-
cal Sales Representatives Jason Rolan and
Rob Stinson made the presentations. Each
attendee competed for high score on the
machine and to take home a welders hood.
The lowest score earner was surprised to
receive a grinder as the consolation prize.
Activity: The Section hosted a welding
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:05 PM Page 62
District 18
John Bray, director
(281) 997-7273
District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635
District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606
District 17
J. Jones, director
(832) 506-5986
hands-on program at Blackhawk Techni-
cal College in Janesville, Wis. Included was
a tour of the colleges facilities and the op-
portunity to operate some new equipment
from ESAB, Fronius, Hypertherm, Miller
Electric, and Lincoln Electric. Rob Stin-
son demonstrated the Lincoln virtual re-
ality arc welding trainer and oversaw a
welding competition among the attendees.
Jim Hansel took first place, and Bob
Dempsey took second-place honors.
Activity: The Section held a board meet-
ing to plan events for the coming year. The
program was held at Mama Luigis Restau-
rant in Bridgeview, Ill.
Activity: The Section members met at Met-
ropolitan C. C. in Kansas City, Mo., for a
presentation by welding instructor Tim
Gill and a tour of the welding technology
facility. Brian McKee received his AWS
Member Service certificate for five years
of service to the Society. Chair Mike Vin-
cent discussed the requirements for nomi-
nating and electing officers.
Activity: The Section members met at Mid-
west Technical Institute in Springfield,
Mo., to tour its new training facility.
Activity: The Section hosted its holiday
dinner at Omni Bayfront Hotel in Corpus
Speaker: John Bray, District 18 director
Affiliation: Affiliated Machinery,
Topic: The District 18 conference
Activity: The Section held its holiday party
and awards-presentation program at Great
American Land & Cattle Restaurant in
Anthony, Tex. Awards were announced for
Kansas City Section members are shown during their tour in January.
Ozark Section members are shown during their tour of Midwest Technical Institute.
Shown at the Corpus Christi Section program are (from left) Ellery Francisco, Norman Sali-
nas, Walter Barrett,Rick Garcia, Lee West, Anne Matula, District 18 Director John Bray,
Chair Chris Long, and Misty Ralls.
District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 954-4838
District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 378-5378
Tim Gill (right) receives a speaker gift from
Mike Vincent, Kansas City Section chair.
Brian McKee (left) is shown with Mike Vin-
cent, Kansas City Section chair.
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:06 PM Page 63
MARCH 2013 64
District 19
Ken Johnson, director
(425) 957-3553
Lawrence Romero and Tom Evans (Sec-
tion Meritorious), Joe Angelo (Section Ed-
ucator), and Guadalupe De La Cruz (Dis-
trict Director).
Speaker: Mike Virgillio, NDT manager
Affiliation: Mayes Testing
Topic: Seismic requirements for welding
brace frames
Activity: Scholarship Chair Rosy Jensen
presented a Section scholarship to Tyler
Renner. The meeting was held at Bates
Technical College in Tacoma, Wash.
Activity: The Section hosted a students
night program at Rock Salt Steak House
in Seattle, Wash. The presenters included
Steve Pollard from Machinists, Inc., and
District 19 Director Ken Johnson from
Vigor Shipyards. The theme was metal
joining and cutting processes, weld joint
geometry, weld symbols, and weld discon-
tinuities. The program concluded with a
20-question test. Jennifer Bernard will co-
ordinate the Sections CWI seminar and
exam. Robert White, Grant Goldsmith,
and Student Chapter members will man
the Sections tables at the Seattle PESEC
fair at the Boeing Museum of Flight.
Everett Community College Student
Chapter members will present a welding
merit badge workshop for the Tyee Dis-
trict Boy Scouts.
El Paso Section members and guests are shown at their holiday party.
Welding students are shown at the Puget Sound Section program.
Shown at the El Paso Section program are (from left) Lawrence Romero, District 18 Direc-
tor John Bray, Guadalupe De La Cruz, and Joe Angelo.
Speaker Mike Virgillio (left) is shown with
Scott Roswold, Olympic Section secretary.
Rosy Jensen presents the Olympic Section
scholarship award to Tyler Renner.
District 20
William A. Komlos, director
(801) 560-2353
District 21
Nanette Samanich, director
(702) 429-5017
District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
(925) 866-5434
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:06 PM Page 64
New AWS Supporters
Affiliate Companies
Armstrong Marine, Inc.
151 Octane Ln., Port Angeles, WA 98362
DJC Inspection & Engineering Services
Unit #1 2526, Al Khaleej Rd. Shati E.
Dammam 6087-32413, Saudi Arabia
Ira G Steffy & Son, Inc.
460 Wenger Dr., Ephrata, PA 17522
Ric, Inc.
5505 Scott Hamilton Dr.
Little Rock, AR 72209
1309 Energy Dr., Kilgore, TX 75662
Supporting Companies
Kalas Mfg., Inc.
167 Greenfield Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601
Realityworks, Inc.
2709 Mondovi Rd.
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Educational Institutions
Argenta Tecnologa en Soldadura
Santa Corina 0198, La Cisterna
Santiago 7970091, Chile
Elk Grove High School
500 W. Elk Grove Blvd.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
Lassen Community College
478-200 Hwy. 139
Susanville, CA 96130
Midwest Technical Institute
3600 S. Glenstone Ave.
Springfield, MO 65804
NH Plumbers & Steam Fitters
Local Union 131 Training Dept.
161 Londonderry Tpk.
Hooksett, NH 03106
Rabiya Industrial Training Institute
Asharfi Comp, Masjid Rd.
Opp. Canra Bank, Jamshedpur
Jharkhand 831003, India
R & S Welding Mentors LLC.
Trade School
1750 Oxford St. SE, Bldg. # 2
Salem, OR 97302
Roanoke-Chowan Community College
109 Community College Rd.
Ahoskie, NC 27910
New Sustaining Members
Amec Kamtech, Inc.
1979 Lakeside Pkwy., Ste. #400
Tucker, GA 30084
Representative: Donald Depappa
Amec provides engineering and project
management services to customers in the
oil and gas, minerals, metals, clean energy,
environmental, and infrastructure markets.
It has 29,000 employees and major opera-
tions centers based in the UK and the
Americas, with offices and projects in more
than 40 countries worldwide.
301 Chestnut St.
East Longmeadow, MA 01028
Representative: Gerry Overstreet
LENOX, a division of Newell Rubber-
maid, is a manufacturer of bandsaw blades,
power tool accessories, and hand tools, de-
signed and manufactured for its industrial
and professional customers.
Pennsylvania College
of Technology
One College Ave.
Williamsport, PA 17701
Representative: David R. Cotner
Pennsylvania College of Technology is
ranked among the top public colleges in the
north and is one of the nations top 100 is-
suers of associate degrees. As a special mis-
sion affiliate of Penn State committed to
applied technology education, it offers
bachelors and associates degrees, and cer-
tificates in 100 careers, including welding.
The Walt Disney Co.
1313 S. Harbor Blvd., MC: DL-622
Anaheim, CA 92802
Representative: Nathaniel Doersam
Walt Disney Parks and Resorts includes
five world-class vacation destinations with
11 theme parks and 43 resorts in North
America, Europe, and Asia, with a sixth in
Shanghai. It includes Disney Cruise Line
with its four ships, and the Disney Vacation
Club with 11 properties.
Central Welding Supply, Inc.
13305 38th Ave. NE
Marysville, WA 98271
Representative: Dale Wilton
Gunderson LLC
4350 NW Front Ave.
Portland, OR 97210
Representative: Mai Wood
Ranews Truck & Equipment Co., LLC
1308 Hwy. 41 N., Milner, GA 30257
Representative: Daniel Williams
Roberts Industries
180 Waterworks Rd.
Coatesville, PA 19320
Representative: Troy Jackson
Summit Industrial Construction, LLC
12725 Morris Rd., Ste. #100
Alpharetta, GA 30004
Representative: Paul Lentzer
Welding Distributors
Mesab Welding Technology
& Construction
POB 237, Al-Hashmiyah
Zarqa 13125, Jordan
Welders Supply Co. of Louisville, Inc.
335 Boxley Ave.
Louisville, KY 40213
Distinguished Member
Joseph M. Vincent, Kansas City Section,
has attained the status of Distinguished
Member for his participation in the Societys
leadership, professional development activi-
ties, and membership recruitment. To qual-
ify, applicants must accrue 35 points or more
from at least four AWS categories: national
leadership, local leadership, professional de-
velopment, and member recruitment. If you
believe you qualify, contact the Membership
Dept. (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 260.
District Director Awards Announced
Roy Lanier, immediate past District 4 di-
rector, has nominated the Triangle Section
and Edwards Construction Co. for this
Bill Komlos, District 20 director, has
nominated the following in appreciation for
their assistance with the IIW Annual Assem-
bly held in Denver, Colo., in July: Raymond
Harrison, Art Waskey, Hugh Adams, and
Wanda Adams, Colorado Section, and AWS
District 1. The District Director Award rec-
ognizes individuals and others who have con-
tributed their time and/or financial assis-
tance to the affairs of a local Section and/or
Student Chapter Members Cited
Bob Richwine, District 14 director and
Advisor, Ivy Tech C. C. Student Chapter, has
named Josh Noble and Dustin Dean Hawkins
to receive the Student Chapter Member
Award. Noble is chairman of the Student
Chapter and also served as chairman of the
schools SkillsUSA Chapter. He has been ac-
tive in student government as well as his com-
munity. He helped organize fund raisers, and
participated in the schools Christmas Tree
Project to provide gifts for needy children.
Hawkins is the Chapter vice chair. He has
organized fund raisers for the Chapter and
the AWS Indiana Section, and repaired fur-
niture and machinery in his community.
The AWS board of directors established
the Student Chapter Member Award to rec-
ognize AWS Student Members whose Stu-
dent Chapter activities have produced out-
standing school, community, or industry
achievements. The award also provides an
opportunity for Student Chapter Advisors,
Section officers, and District directors to rec-
ognize outstanding students affiliated with
Student Chapters. The criteria and nomina-
tion form can be downloaded from
ter.pdf, or call the Membership Dept.
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 260.
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:07 PM Page 65
MARCH 2013 66
Guide to AWS Services
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166
(800/305) 443-9353; FAX (305) 443-7559;
Staff phone extensions are shown in parentheses.
Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
2735 Robert Oliver Ave.
Fernandina Beach, FL 32034
Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253)
Chief Financial Officer
Gesana Villegas.. . . . . . .(252)
VP Sales and Marketing
Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . .(211)
VP Technology and Business Development
Dennis . . . . . . . . .(213)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. . . . . .(294)
Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando . .(296)
Hidail . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Director of IT Operations
Natalia . . . . . . . . . .(245)
Human Resources
Director, Compensation and Benefits
Luisa Hernandez.. . . . . . . . . .(266)
Director, Human Resources
Dora A. Shade.. . . . . . . . . .(235)
International Institute of Welding
Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.
Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . .
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors fed-
eral issues of importance to the industry.
Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew . . . . . . .(239)
ITSA International Thermal
Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy . . .(232)
RWMA Resistance Welding
Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila . . . .(444)
WEMCO Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila . . . .(444)
Brazing and Soldering
Manufacturers Committee
Jeff Weber.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)
GAWDA Gases and Welding
Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. . . . . . . . . .(401)
Managing Director, Global Exposition Sales
Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Corporate Director, International Sales
Jeff P. . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving
certification, publication, and membership.
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)
Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249)
Welding Journal
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . .(249)
Mary Ruth Johnsen.. . .(238)
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein.. . . . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard . .(244)
Welding Handbook
Annette OBrien.. . . . . . . .(303)
Ross Hancock.. . . . . . . .(226)
Public Relations Manager
Cindy . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Jose . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry . . . . . . . . .(452)
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. . . . . . .(253)
Rhenda A. Kenny... . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all inter-
national certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
Director, Certification Programs
Linda . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification pro-
grams, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.
Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. . . . . . .(224)
Director, Education Development
David Hernandez.. . . .(219)
Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nom-
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)
Managing Director
Andrew R. Davis.. . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Coun-
cil of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)
Director, National Standards Activities
Annette Alonso.. . . . . . . .(299)
Manager, Safety and Health
Stephen P. Hedrick.. . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plas-
tics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Per-
sonnel and Facilities Qualification
Managing Engineer, Standards
Brian McGrath .... . . . . .(311)
Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Me-
chanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Con-
struction, Piping and Tubing
Senior Staff Engineer
Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Welding and Cutting Processes
Standards Program Managers
Efram Abrams.. . . . . . . . .(307)
Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding,
Machinery and Equipment
Stephen Borrero... . . . . .(334)
Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols
Alex Diaz.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)
Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Air-
craft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Patrick Henry.. . . . . . . . . . .(215)
Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cut-
ting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Weld-
ing, Welding in Sanitary Applications
Senior Manager, Technical Publications
Rosalinda ONeill.. . . . . . . .(451)
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
throughout the welding industry
Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards
may be obtained only by sending a request in writ-
ing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Tech-
nical Services,
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be ren-
dered, however, oral opinions do not constitute of-
ficial or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and
should not be used as a substitute for an official
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212,
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)
The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corpora-
tion established to provide support for the educa-
tional and scientific endeavors of the American Weld-
ing Society.
Promote the Foundations work with your financial
support. Call (800) 443-9353, ext. 212, for complete
Society News March_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:07 PM Page 66





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q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr. Please print Duplicate this page as needed
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Type of Business (Check ONE only)
A q Contract construction
B q Chemicals & allied products
C q Petroleum & coal industries
D q Primary metal industries
E q Fabricated metal products
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F q High energy beam processes
G q Arcwelding
H q Brazing and soldering
I q Resistance welding
J q Thermal spray
K q Cutting
M q Safety and health
N q Bending and shearing
O q Roll forming
P q Stamping and punching
Q q Aerospace
R q Automotive
S q Machinery
T q Marine
U q Piping and tubing
V q Pressure vessels and tanks
W q Sheet metal
X q Structures
Y q Other
Z q Automation
1 q Robotics
2 q Computerization of Welding
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Expand your credentials with an endorsement that fulfills your recertification requirements.
Recertification every nine years requires either 80 hours of documented continuing
education, retaking the Part B Practical Exam, or an endorsement to your certification.
You can do this at any time, so why not do it now and secure the prestige and enhanced
career potential of a credential in an additional welding code or skill?
(800) 443-9353 ext 273
A CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle.
Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification.
Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a
two-hour exam on one of the following:
Seminars to prepare you for the two-hour exam on D1.1 or API 1104 are available at numerous
seminar sites across the country.
One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your
recertification requirement. At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites,
you can apply to become certified as an AWS Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI).
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
is given at the end of each seminar week. This is a valuable certification that fulfills your
nine-year requirement. Upcoming seminars and exams for CRI are:
Houston Apr. 15-20

Las Vegas May 6-11

Miami June 3-7
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by
attending a six-day AWS 9-Year Recertification Course. Courses are scheduled for:
Miami Apr. 7-12
Sacramento Apr. 28-May 3
Charlotte May 5-10
One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam. This exam and refresher
Visual Inspection Workshop seminars, are offered at convenient CWI seminar/exam sites across
the country.

ASME Section IX, B31.1 &
B31.3 Boiler & Pressure Vessel

ASME Section VIII, Div. 1 &
Section IX Boiler & Pressure Vessel

Structural Drawing Reading

AWS D1.1 Structural Welding

AWS D1.2 Aluminum

AWS D1.5 Bridge

AWS D15.1 Railroad

API 1104 Pipeline
Even if your nine-year recertification
deadline is years away, you can fulfill
it now with a CWI

Plan ahead.

Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a
Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification.

Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a
Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification.
CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle.

Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a
Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification.
CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle.

Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a
Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification.
CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle.

CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle.


seminar sites across the country

Seminars to prepare you for the two-hour exam on D1.1 or
two-hour exam on one of the following:
Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a

104 Pipeline API 1
WS D15.1 Railroad A
WS D1.5 Bridge A
D1.2 Aluminum WS A
elding WS D1.1 Structural W A
. seminar sites across the country
Seminars to prepare you for the two-hour exam on D1.1 or
two-hour exam on one of the following:
Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a

Structural Drawing Reading

Section IX Boiler & Pressure V

ASME Section VIII, Div

B31.3 Boiler & Pressure V

ASME Section IX, B31.1 &

104 are available at numerous API 1 Seminars to prepare you for the two-hour exam on D1.1 or
two-hour exam on one of the following:
Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a

Structural Drawing Reading
es IX Boiler & Pressure VVe
. 1 & ASME Section VIII, Div
essel oiler & Pressure VVe
ASME Section IX, B31.1 &
104 are available at numerous
Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a

104 are available at numerous

Plan ahead.
is given at the end of each seminar week.
indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
you can apply to become certified as an
recertification requirement.
One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your

. 15-20 Apr Houston
is given at the end of each seminar week.
indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
you can apply to become certified as an
At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites, recertification requirement.
One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your

1 egas May 6-1 Las V Ve

This is a valuable certification that fulfills your is given at the end of each seminar week.
indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
WS Certified Radiographic Interpreter A you can apply to become certified as an
At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites,
One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your

Miami June 3-7

This is a valuable certification that fulfills your

indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
(CRI). aphic Interpreterr
At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites,
One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your

indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which
The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess
At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites,

the country
isual Inspection W V
One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam.
attending a six-day
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by

. the country
orkshop seminars pection Wo
One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam.
ear Recertification Course. WS 9-Y A attending a six-day
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by

fered at convenient C s, are of ff
One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam.
Charlotte May 5-10
. 28-May 3 Apr r. Sacramento
. 7-12 Aprr. Miami
Courses are scheduled for: ear Recertification Course.
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by

fered at convenient CWI seminar/exam sites across
This exam and refresher One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam.
. 28-May 3
Courses are scheduled for:
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by

fered at convenient CWI seminar/exam sites across
This exam and refresher
If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by

AWS CERT (CWI RECERT)_FP_TEMP 2/12/13 2:54 PM Page 69
Weld Cracking Conference
March 26, 27
Las Vegas, Nev.
Much to their chagrin, most welding engineers have witnessed
a crack or two or even more in the welds fabricated at their plants.
That is serious. Most weld cracks can be prevented. All it takes is
more practical knowledge. Were the cracks caused by hydrogen dif-
fusion, residual stress, some mix-up in heat treating, misuse of elec-
trodes in dissimilar metal welds, or some unexplained problem with
the heat-affected zone? Find out what it takes to eliminate weld
cracks. Make plans to hear the experts at this conference, who will
be armed with solutions to many of your problems.
Pipeline Conference
June 4, 5
Houston, Tex.
The transportation of oil and natural gas through cross-
country pipelines has never been as vigorous as it is now, and
greater growth lies ahead with welding in the thick of it. For many
decades, the covered electrode has been a driving force behind
the construction of these lines, and it is still very much in the dri-
vers seat. But in order to cut costs, owners have started to useX80,
a lighter weight, higher strength linepipe steel. The same cellu-
losic electrodes used on the more conventional steels are inade-
quate for X80 steel. This has opened the door for low-hydrogen
electrodes and mechanized welding.
The keynote address to this important AWS conference will
be delivered by Brian Laing, president of CRC-Evans Pipeline
International. A seasoned veteran of the pipeline industry, Laing
once worked for NOVA (now TransCanada) as a welding
engineer. Following is a breakdown of the other speakers and
their topics.
Robin Gordon, senior vice president of Microalloying Inter-
national Inc., will present the current status of Grade X80 pipeline
technology and highlight the technical challenges that must be
addressed before considering its use.
Paul Tews presentation on Specimen Quality for Fatigue
Test Girth Welds should be of interest to every pipeline owner.
Tews, who is operating out of the UK at present, is the principal
welding engineer for Subsea 7.
Bill Bruce, U.S. director of Welding and Materials Technol-
ogy for Det Norske Veritas, will discuss new revisions for pipeline
repair in API 1104.
Two popular processes, hybrid laser arc welding and friction
stir welding, are waiting their turns for acceptance in some ap-
plications. Matt Boring, senior welding engineer, Knieper & As-
sociates, will speak on the situation from the standpoint of ASME
Section IX.
Ian Harris, technical leader, Arc Welding, EWI, will give a
detailed presentation on the hybrid laser arc welding process and
how suited it is for pipeline construction work.
Another speaker from EWI, Connie Reichert, will talk about
automated corrosion repair of pipelines. Reichert is principal
engineer, Design, Controls & Automation.
Michael Lang, senior construction engineer, Bechtel Corp.,
has lean welding as his topic. Lang is chairman of the AWS D10
Committee on Piping and Tubing.
Russel Fuchs, senior technical manager, Bohler Welding
Group USA, will offer a comparison of one cellulosic electrode
and two low-hydrogen electrodes.
SMAW: the Evolution of Stick Welding, from a Welders Per-
spective is the title of Lori Kuipers talk. She is offshore &
pipeline segment manager, Euroweld, Ltd.
Derick Railling, product manager, Global Onshore Pipeline,
ITW Welding, is basing his presentation on understanding the
sources and remedies of hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline
Scott Funderburk from CRC-Evans Pipeline International
will discuss overcoming such operational challenges as leak de-
tection and automatic shut-off valves.
Chris Penniston, welding and materials engineer, RMS Sys-
tems in Canada, has chosen the topic of innovations in mecha-
nized welding.
Olivier Jouffron, technical manager, Serimax North America,
will discuss the steps that can be taken in welding corrosion-
resistant alloy pipe.
Win Wijnholds, president of Magnatech International BV in
The Netherlands, will discuss dual-process methodology.
Ryan Lewis, a consumables product manager at The Lincoln
Electric Co., will talk about some of the welding activities used
in oil shale environments.
Codes and Standards Conference
July 16, 17
Orlando, Fla.
This conference will feature the AWS D1 Structural Welding
Code Steel, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel, and API pipeline
codes, plus MIL and ISO standards, potentially the most valuable
documents available to manufacturers and fabricators of welded
products. Information will be provided about the planning and ex-
ecution of various welding processes, as well as useful data for de-
signers, inspectors, and QC specialists.
16th Annual Aluminum Conference
September 17, 18
Chicago, Ill.
A distinguished panel of aluminum-industry experts will sur-
vey the state of the art in aluminum welding technology and prac-
tice. You will also have several opportunities to network infor-
mally with speakers and other participants, as well as visit an ex-
hibition showcasing products and services available to the alu-
minum welding industry. Aluminum lends itself to a wide variety
of industrial applications because of its light weight, high strength-
to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and other attributes. How-
ever, because its chemical and physical properties are different
from those of steel, welding aluminum requires special processes,
techniques, and expertise.
For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext. 223, or e-mail You can also visit the Conference Department Web site at for upcoming conferences
and registration information.
MARCH 2013 70
Conferences March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:22 PM Page 70
buyers guide_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 9:06 AM Page 71
MARCH 2013 72
Miyachi Unitek Appoints
Miyachi Unitek
Corp., Monrovia,
Calif., a manufac-
turer of welding
equipment and laser
systems, has ap-
pointed David Faw-
cett president and
CEO. Previously,
Fawcett served as
COO of Miyachi Eu-
rope Corp. for two
Wall Colmonoy Fills Two
Key European Posts
Wall Colmonoy, Pontardawe Swansea,
Wales, UK, has appointed Richard Shaw
as commercial director for its European
operations. John Lapping was appointed
key account manager, UK, for the Alloy
Products Group. Shaw has more than 30
years of experience in manufacturing for
the defense and aerospace industries.
Lapping has 30 years experience with var-
ious industries, primarily in the thermal
spray and high-temperature brazing in-
dustry as a design engineer.
The Harris Products Group
Names Sales VP
The Harris Products Group, Mason,
Ohio, a supplier of cutting, brazing, sol-
dering, and welding alloys and equipment,
has named Patrick W. Fagerquist vice
president of sales for
North America.
Fagerquist joined
The Lincoln Electric
Co., the parent com-
pany of The Harris
Products Group, in
1987 as a technical
sales representative.
He most recently
served as regional
sales manager in the
AMT Names VP-Advocacy
The Association for Manufacturing
Technology (AMT), McLean, Va., has
promoted Amber Thomas to vice presi-
dent-advocacy. The advocacy department
promotes public policy to strengthen
Americas manufacturing technology in-
dustry by boosting research and develop-
ment and innovation, and enhancing
global competitiveness by working across
party lines. Thomass more than 20 years
of experience with the association has
been in Advocacy, formerly known as
Government Relations.
CEO Named at Desert NDT
Desert NDT, LLC, Odessa, Tex., a full-
service nondestructive testing company
serving the midstream oil and gas market,
has appointed Larry Ames CEO. He suc-
ceeds Doug Frey who will remain involved
with the company as a director. Ames pre-
viously served Transfield Services Ltd. as
CEO and president of the Americas.
Laboratory Testing Hires
Quality Manager
Laboratory Testing,
Inc., Hatfield, Pa.,
has hired Ed Deeny as
quality manager for
its expanded Quality
Department. Deeny,
who has more than 25
years of experience in
the quality field, suc-
ceeds Frank Peszka
who was promoted to
director of quality.
U.S. Steel Names Plant
United States Steel Corp, Pittsburgh,
Pa., has named Patrick J. Mullarkey plant
manager, Fairfield Tubular Operations,
part of its Tubular Products, Inc., located
near Birmingham, Ala. He most recently
served as president of United Spiral Pipe
LLC. Mullarkey succeeds Dennis Quirk
who has retired. Prior to joining the com-
pany in 2000, Mullarkey served as lead en-
gineer for the blast furnace reline division
at Raytheon Engineers & Constructors.
Fronius USA Announces
Four Key Promotions
Fronius USA, LLC, Portage, Ind., a
subsidiary of Fronius International
GmbH, a manufacturer of welding equip-
ment, has promoted David Grant and
Chris Bliven, previously area sales man-
agers, to regional sales managers. Shaun
Relyea, senior application engineer, was
promoted to tech support manager at the
company headquarters in Indiana. Wes
Doneth, formerly tech support manager,
was promoted to area sales manager for
Michigan and Indiana. Mark Stone con-
If you wish to view the worlds
best weld process for code
quality and alloy welds,
David Fawcett
P. W. Fagerquist
For info go to
John Lapping Richard Shaw
Ed Deeny
continued on page 74
Personnel March_Layout 1 2/14/13 3:09 PM Page 72
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MARCH 2013 74
tinues his role as regional sales manager
for Michigan and Indiana.
Welding Engineer Hired at
Arc Specialties
Arc Specialties, Inc., Houston, Tex., a
manufacturer of automated and robotic
welding systems, has hired Ithamar
Glumac as welding
engineer for its Engi-
neering & Consulting
division. Glumac
holds an engineering
degree from Le-
Tourneau University
and interned at the
company during the
summer of 2012.
Aluminum Assoc.
President Named NAM
Aluminum Association, Arlington,
Va., has announced that its President
Heidi Brock was elected to a three-year
term on the National Association of Man-
ufacturers board of directors. Brock, who
has served as the associations president
since October 2011, previously served as
vice president of federal and international
affairs for the Weyerhaeuser Co., and ear-
lier as a legislative assistant to two U.S.
senators responsible for natural resource
Bug-O Systems Appoints
Shipyard Manager
Bug-O Systems, Canonsburg, Pa., a di-
vision of Weld Tooling Corp., has named
Brad Mutschler, previously a mechanical
engineer with the company, to fill the new
position of industry manager for shipyards
in North and South America. Mutschler
will also continue to serve as product man-
ager for the K-BUG line of welding ma-
Paul James Sullivan
Paul James Sullivan, 86, died Jan. 10 in
Boston, Mass. He was a Professional En-
gineer and a lifelong public employee and
union member. His
career at the Massa-
chusetts Highway
Dept. included insti-
tuting and leading the
first quality control
program for bridge
erection in the Com-
monwealth. He rose
to the position of
bridge engineer be-
fore his retirement.
He received the Lifetime Achievement
Award from the American Road and
Transportation Builders Assn. In his re-
tirement, he worked with AWS commit-
tees as a volunteer developing standards
for welding aluminum and steel. He served
in the U.S. Marine Corps during World
War II in the South Pacific theater, and was
a lifelong member of the Disabled Ameri-
can Veterans. He is survived by his wife,
Toby Pearlstein, a son and a daughter.
Brian (Shimon) Addess
Brian (Shimon) Addess, 76, a 25-year
AWS member, died Dec. 28 in Israel. He
was active with the AWS Israel Section.
Born in London, UK,
Addess spent many
years in Sydney, Aus-
tralia, where he stud-
ied electrical and
welding engineering.
After graduation, he
moved to Israel in
1961 where he
worked for the Israel
Atomic Energy Com-
mission with respon-
sibility for quality as-
surance at the Negev Nuclear Research
Station. He headed the welding commit-
tee of the Israel Society of Engineers, was
active in establishing welding standards,
and trained many of the welders. Since his
retirement in 2001, Addess worked as a
consultant for special welding projects
until August 2012. He is survived by his
wife, LLana, a son and daughter, and
seven grandchildren.
Ithamar Glumac
continued from page 72
Paul Sullivan
Brian Addess
Guidelines for Submitting a Welding Journal Feature Article
Have you ever thought about writing a feature article for consideration in the Welding Journal? If so, our staff stays on the look-
out for original, noncommercial, practical, and hands-on stories. Take a look at our editorial calendar available as part of the Amer-
ican Welding Societys Media Kit at to see what topics will be highlighted in future issues as well as the editorial
deadlines. Potential ideas to focus on could include a case study, recent company project, tips for handling a particular process, and
so on.
Heres an easy breakdown of our guidelines:
The text of the article should be about 1500 to 2000 words and provided in a Word document.
Line drawings, graphs, and photos should be sent as high-resolution jpg or tiff files with a resolution of 300 or more dots per
Plan on about one figure for every 500 words, and provide captions for every image. Also, if a nice lead photo is available, please
include it for review.
The authors names, along with the companies they work for and their positions, should be listed.
If youd like to discuss a particular idea or e-mail a submission for evaluation, please contact Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen at or Associate Editor Kristin Campbell at
Personnel March_Layout 1 2/14/13 3:09 PM Page 74
Join us in Houston for the debut of the AWS Pipeline Welding Conference! Our featured
speakers will cover a multitude of topics including the welding of high strength X80 pipe
steels, orbital processes used in pipeline construction throughout the world, the new FRIEX
system from Belgium and many other exciting topics.
AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:
Pipelines Conference
June 4
/ Houston, TX
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at or call 800-443-9353, ext. 224.
Learn about the progress of new and innovative developments
in pipeline welding.
Network with industry peers to fnd the best solutions for
business growth.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional
Development Hour) for each hour of conference attendance.
These PDH's can be applied toward AWS recertifcations
and renewals.
educ pipeline conf_FP_TEMP 2/12/13 2:48 PM Page 75
MARCH 2013 76
magine carrying a 30-lb helmet on
your head while pulling a large, heavy
air-supply hose over your shoulder as
you are suspended mid-water, in a black
river with strong currents, and facing
40F water temperatures welding on the
side of a bridge.
In another scene, picture working 200
ft underwater on an oil rig and spending
a few hours in a decompression chamber
after surfacing.
Both scenarios sound pretty intrigu-
ing, dont they? Underwater welders and
commercial divers face these conditions
and many more every day Figs. 1, 2.
This article presents a look at the pro-
fession, including necessary education
and adventurous working conditions.
How Do You Become an
Underwater Welder?
Underwater welding and commercial
diving require proper education and cer-
tification. This begins by attending a
commercial diving school.
A commercial diver the only indi-
( is president
of Divers Academy International, Erial, N.J.
All photos courtesy of Divers Academy Inter-
national (
A view of the specialized training is featured
along with various responsibilities from
inspecting and repairing oil rigs to bridges
How to Become a
Commercial Diver and
Weld Underwater
Fig. 1 Currently in high de-
mand, an underwater welder is
usually compensated top dollar
for facing tough challenges.
Brown AW Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:06 PM Page 76
vidual who can get to the underwater job
site to do a job must be certified in all
aspects of diving and construction. He or
she learns deep diving (such as mixed gas
and decompression diving that requires
use of a decompression chamber), and
performs underwater welding, rigging,
and salvage operations.
In addition, a diver must pass an
annual physical examination. A common
concern is at what age are you too old to
dive, but the answer is based on your
personal physical condition rather than
Most training programs are five to
nine months long. Training for this spe-
cialized profession is available at only
about five accredited schools in the
country. These schools are located on
each U.S. coast.
The Process of
Underwater Welding
In underwater welding, water sur-
rounds the welder and absorbs heat,
cooling the weld as fast as the bead can
be run, creating undesirable microstruc-
tures in the heat-affected zone.
Therefore, an underwater welder
must get used to dragging the electrode
during shielded metal arc welding rather
than using the oscillating method to gain
proper weld penetration.
An underwater welder must take care
to not get shocked. The current runs
between the workpiece connection and
electrode. A diver must always remain
mindful not to move between the elec-
trode and workpiece connection.
Also, an underwater welder uses a
350-A diesel welding machine and
reverses its polarity to slow down the
What Type of Work
Is Available?
Oil Rigs
An underwater welder is required to
inspect each oil rig after it has been
affected by a hurricane to ensure the
structural integrity has not been compro-
mised in any way. Different forms of
nondestructive examination (NDE) are
used to determine the severity of dam-
age to the oil rig. If welds have cracked
due to strong winds associated with hur-
ricanes, and the rig is tilting, it may be
necessary to shut down production.
Many government bodies have strin-
gent oversight standards to be met. The
American Bureau of Shipping has
requirements stating that if an oil rig has
a tilt
16 in. from centerline, the rig must
be shut down for production until it has
been properly repaired. When notified
by the National Hurricane Center that a
storm is in the area, divers rush offshore
to shut down the oil rig production until
after the hurricane has passed through
the area. This assures no leaks or explo-
sion from the oil rigs.
After the storm passes, divers are
called to inspect the oil rigs prior to
opening them back up for production.
There were approximately 3000 oil rigs
in the Gulf of Mexico prior to Hurricane
Katrina; 1500 were either completely
lost or suffered damage and considered
a total loss afterward.
Most underwater welding work is
performed on oil rigs and pipelines.
Underwater welding is also common in
ship husbandry and salvage tasks.
Fig. 2 A commercial diver
performs many tasks, including
underwater welding, salvage
operations, and inspections.
Brown AW Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 3:07 PM Page 77
MARCH 2013 78
There are more than 603,000 bridges
in the National Bridge Inventory.
Approximately 502,000 are built over
waterways requiring underwater inspec-
tion within a 12- to 60-month period.
To perform these bridge inspections,
41 of 50 states hire diving contractors.
Bridges require NDE after major events
like hurricanes, earthquakes, and flood-
ing to determine if the structure has suf-
fered any significant damage.
Significant scouring is the cause of
85% of all bridge failures from collapse.
Scouring is the washing away of the sea-
bed bottom, which may cause serious
damage to the bridge. If the center abut-
ment of the bridge is buried 8 ft into the
seabed and high floods wash the seabed
out, it could expose the abutment, caus-
ing the bridge to collapse.
The first inspection performed on any
bridge is a routine inspection. This
involves the inventory or initial inspec-
tion of any bridge.
The most common form of inspection
today is NDE. This ensures an in-depth
and comprehensive inspection of the
structure. Divers commonly use ultra-
sonic testing to examine the thickness
utilizing acoustic sound waves or echoes
to penetrate the metal and measure its
thickness to determine the amount of
corrosion to the structure.
Divers use pit gauges to measure
anomalies on the metals surface for
measuring pitting depth in steel plate.
They also use Bathycorrometer style
corrosion testing probes. The cathodic
protection gun probe is a hand-held tool
used to measure corrosion. Underwater
video and still photography are used to
assist in determining the extent of any
damage to an underwater structure.
Additional Construction,
Inspection, and Repair Jobs
Bridge inspections and oil rig mainte-
nance are just a few of the many under-
water structures that underwater welders
and commercial divers service. They also
construct, inspect, and repair hydroelec-
tric dams, water treatment plants, paper
mills, and nuclear power plants. These
all require water for processing.
Each structure falls under its own
governing body with its own set of stan-
dards that typically requires inspection
on a routine basis. The Department of
Transportation (DOT) requires bridges
to be inspected every one to five years
depending on inspection ratings. Level 5
is a top rating, meaning the bridge only
has to be inspected once every five years.
Level 1 is critical and requires the bridge
to be inspected once every year; this may
be due to the settlement of a new bridge;
high, rough water levels that may cause
serious scour; an aging bridge structure;
or high traffic loads.
You may have noticed that sometimes
when approaching a bridge, youll drive
over a pothole, then encounter another
one as you are leaving the bridge. The
local DOT keeps placing blacktop in the
hole, but year after year, it keeps getting
larger. This is not because of the road-
way; it is caused under the bridge
because its wing walls have suffered set-
tlement and slipped downward.
Commercial divers are then called to
properly repair the structure and install
anti scour countermeasures.
Entering this exciting profession can
lead to a valuable career and a chance to
see the world along the way.
The travel depends on the area where
you choose to work. For example, the
offshore industry in the Gulf of Mexico
requires more travel than the inshore
industry located on inland industrial
rivers. But if you think the aquatic field
is a good fit for you, working underwater
offers seaworthy opportunities.
Toll Free: (877) WELDHGR (877) 935-3447 Fax: (480) 940-9366
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Join together.
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Meet over 1,000 exhibitors and experts from all over the world.
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MARCH 2013 80
outh Florida conjures images of
bathing suit clad bodies soaking up
the sun, not welders wearing hel-
mets and leathers. But while Florida may
not be a manufacturing mecca, its many
construction-related projects demand
the skills of welders. One company meet-
ing that demand is D&D Mobile
Welding and Fabrication, Inc., Ft.
Lauderdale, Fla.
Chip Massa, a union ironworker and
boilermaker, and his wife, Barbara,
started the business in 1983, naming the
enterprise after their children, Daniel
and Diane. When he started the busi-
ness, Chip took on whatever job came
his way; today, the company is a fabrica-
tor and erector of structural and miscel-
laneous steel. Chip remains president,
but these days Daniel, who holds the
title of vice president, runs the company,
is editor of the
Welding Journal.
Family Business Shines
in Sunny Florida
Over the years, D&D Mobile Welding and
Fabrication has grown from a one-man
operation to a staff of fifty
Fig. 1 Construction of this 347,000-sq-ft warehouse
distribution building in Miami required 1503 tons of steel.
Johnsen AmWeld Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:20 PM Page 80
while sister Diane Jackson oversees the
office operations as office manager/exec-
utive vice president. Daniels son and
daughter, Tony and Brittney, as well as
two cousins also work for the company.
Throughout the rest of this article, the
name Massa refers to Daniel.
The company employs just over 50
people, about 40 of whom can weld,
including Massa himself. In my opinion,
there is nothing better than when the
owner can be involved with the day-to-
day work, he said.
Although the company performs jobs
from Central Florida south to Key West,
the bulk of its work takes place in
Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach
counties. Clients have included CVS and
Walgreens pharmacies, Publix supermar-
kets, Joe Dimaggio Childrens Hospital,
and the Miami Arena. Jobs range from
shopping centers and warehouses to pri-
vate homes.
The Port of Miami is the biggest and
closest U.S. port to the Panama Canal,
Massa explained, so were doing a lot of
work related to the canal expansion.
That included the structural steel
work for the 347,000-sq-ft Miami
International Distribution Center
Fig. 1.
We do lots of stairs, railings, canopy
work, stainless steel bridge rails, and
structural metals such as columns and
beams, Massa said, including a stairway
for a second floor patio at the new AWS
World Headquarters building in Doral
Fig. 2. In addition, the company does
a lot of high-end residential work (Fig.
3) for people you know, but that we cant
talk about.
D&D maintains two shops. The com-
pany headquarters in Ft. Lauderdale sits
on a half-acre lot and includes 2000 sq ft
of office space. The current site is the
companys third location. Because it
needed more shop and storage space
than the Ft. Lauderdale site could pro-
vide, the company has opened a second
location in Ft. Pierce Fig. 4. The 1
acre shop site includes 10,000 sq ft under
roof; across the street is a 5-acre storage
The company welds mostly mild steel,
aluminum, and stainless steel in thick-
nesses from 14 gauge to 4 in. In the shop,
the welders use gas metal arc welding
(GMAW); those in the field utilize the
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
process. Gas tungsten arc welding is also
sometimes used both in the shop and
field. Cutting is done through mechani-
cal means such as saws and shears, and
with hand-held oxyfuel and plasma arc
cutting equipment. All welders work to
the requirements of the AWS Structural
Welding Codes and are qualified to
those same requirements at an outside
testing facility about 90 days after their
Dealing with the South
Florida Climate
Dealing with the heat and humidity is
the toughest part of working in South
Florida. We are construction workers,
Massa explained. That means the field
welders are outside all day, even when
the temperatures are more than 90F
and the humidity is 100%. The guys
have to stay hydrated, he said. Think
about being under the hood for about
seven hours every day, possibly wearing
a body harness because youre working
at a height. Being a welder is not an easy
Many of the companys jobs are also
located near the water. Thats why the
company mostly uses SMAW in the field,
because the elements dont affect that
process as much as they do GMAW. For
instance, with SMAW, they dont have to
worry about Atlantic Ocean breezes
blowing away the shielding gas that is
necessary for GMAW.
They do as much preassembly as pos-
sible in the shops in order to limit the
time in the field.
Owning a Business
Hands down, the two most difficult
aspects of owning a business, Massa said,
are finding qualified workers and getting
paid for your work.
Yes, we have trouble finding quali-
fied people, he said. People will tell
you anything (to get hired), but then
they have to prove they can do what they
D&D finds its welders through a vari-
ety of means. The company runs adver-
tisements, accepts applications from
people who walk in off the street (the
shop is located in a commercial area),
Fig. 2 The staircase at the AWS head-
quarters building.
Johnsen AmWeld Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:21 PM Page 81
MARCH 2013 82
occasionally hires students from area
welding schools, and discovers some
welders through word of mouth.
Prospective employees must pass a drug
test and background check.
Holding up a thick folder full of
applications from last October and
November, Massa related, Out of all
these, we were able to hire and keep only
one or two.
There are lots of questions even when
they can find experienced welders, he
explained. How long will that person
want to work? How well will they work
out in the heat alongside another
younger guy?
Fig. 3 D&D built the structural steel roof
frame for this residence in Boca Raton,
Fig. 4 The companys Ft. Pierce fabrication facility.
Johnsen AmWeld Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:21 PM Page 82
While the company has grown consid-
erably since his father started it as a one-
welder shop, the difficulty in finding
qualified workers may keep it from
growing much larger, Massa noted.
Still, as hard as it is to find and keep
good workers, thats not the toughest
part of running a business. The hardest
part is getting paid. Everyone has a
excuse (not to pay you). A lot of people
dont understand cash flow. Thats what
hurts new guys, Massa said. Fifty is a
good amount of people to rely on you for
their paychecks, and we have a lot of
money in equipment and materials. For
example, to buy a truck and outfit it costs
approximately $60,000.
D&D usually is a subcontractor on
large corporate jobs. The client pays the
contractor, but that company may take a
long time to pay off all the subcontrac-
tors. Often, too, there will be a hold-
back amount on large jobs. So even if
D&Ds portion of the work was early in
the process, it may not be paid in full
until every item of the total job is com-
pleted. Small companies and individuals
have their own cash flow problems, so
they may pay companies whom they owe
small amounts to first, leaving the larger
amounts for whenever.
You have to have your hands all over
the business, Massa advised. A good
business owner knows his customers and
knows his employees. These days youve
got to be a business owner, an insurance
specialist, and sometimes youre a
referee for employees.
Massa begins his day at 5 every morn-
ing and usually ends it around 7:30 at
If you want to go into business for
yourself, plan on working a lot of hours
and to be a good listener, he advised.
Try to learn from others. You have to
read a lot. Read the business section of
your local newspaper, read the Welding
Journal. Learn as much as you can about
your area and your industry.
Even with the difficulties involved in
operating successfully, the company
likes to give back to the community
whenever it can by donating both mate-
rials and labor. For example, last year it
built a 9/11 memorial for the city of Port
St. Lucie, Fla. The memorial, located in
front of the Port St. Lucie Civic Center,
includes a portion of a beam from the
World Trade Center. The companys
employees and their families attended
the memorials dedication Fig. 5.
Appreciating Welders
Massa emphasized that everything his
company does is handmade. Every job is
different, and there is no mass produc-
tion of parts. What he needs is not mere-
ly welders, but fabricators capable of
doing many different types of tasks.
We take welders for granted, he
said. We dont appreciate the American
welder/fabricator. The American fabri-
cator is an artist and hard to find.
Fig. 5 D&D employees and family members pose in front of the September 11th Memorial for which the company donated labor and
materials. The memorial is located in front of the Port St. Lucie, Fla., Civic Center.
Johnsen AmWeld Feature March 2013_Layout 1 2/12/13 2:22 PM Page 83
Friends and Colleagues:
The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individual
members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and
impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an individuals career of
outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in the
welding industry by one or more of the following:
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding
industry. The individuals organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as
evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to training and
vocational education in the welding industry. The individuals organization shall have shown an
ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in
industry activities.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor nomination form in this
issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is July 1, 2013. The committee looks
forward to receiving these nominations for 2014 consideration.
Lee Kvidahl
Chair, Counselor Selection Committee
Counselor Letter 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 10:34 AM Page 84
Nomination of AWS Counselor
In 1999, the American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize indi-
vidual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the
image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an
individuals career of outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in
the welding industry by one or more of the following:
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the
welding industry. (The individuals organization shall have shown an ongoing
commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees
in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA, NSRP SP7 or other
similar groups.)
Leadership of or within an organization that has made substantial contribution to training
and vocational education in the welding industry. (The individuals organization shall
have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of partici
pation of its employees in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA,
NSRP SP7 or other similar groups.)
A. Candidates for Counselor shall have at least 10 years of membership in AWS.
B. Each candidate for Counselor shall be nominated by at least five members of
the Society.
C. Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS
D. Nominations must be submitted to AWS headquarters no later than July 1
of the year prior to that in which the award is to be presented.
E. Nominations shall remain valid for three years.
F. All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence.
G. Candidates who have been elected as Fellows of AWS shall not be eligible for
election as Counselors. Candidates may not be nominated for both of these awards
at the same time.
Maximum of 10 Counselors selected each year.
Return completed Counselor nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166







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(please type or print in black ink)
DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________
HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
The Counselor Selection Committee criteria are strongly based on and extracted from the categories identified below. All in-
formation and support material provided by the candidates Counselor Proposer, Nominating Members and peers are considered.
AWS Member No.___________________
The proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. The proposer is encouraged to include a
detailed biography of the candidate and letters of recommendation from individuals describing the specific accomplishments of the can-
didate. Signatures on this nominating form, or supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition
to the proposer. Signatures may be acquired by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the sig-
natures are secured, the total package should be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________







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275031 _504B
Flat Size: 8.375 X 11.0
Blk, PANTONE 468 C
V. 02
Critical: If this box appears yellow turn the Overprint Preview setting on in Acrobat
AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:

AWS invites you to join us in Las Vegas to expand your weld cracking
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
for each hour of conference attendance. These PDHs can be applied toward AWS
recertifications and renewals.
Weld Cracking Conference
March 26-27, 2013 / Las Vegas
For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site
at or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264.

cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
WS invite AAW

cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
WS invites you to join us in Las

cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
egas to expan VVe WS invites you to join us in Las

cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
egas to expand your weld cracking

knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld
egas to expand your weld cracking

recertifications and renewals.
for each hour of conference attendance.
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.

recertifications and renewals.
for each hour of conference attendance.
WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.

These PDHs can be applied toward for each hour of conference attendance.
WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.

A These PDHs can be applied toward
WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking.

WS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour)
Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth.

or the latest conference information and registr F .a wwww. at
or the latest conference information and registr

800-443-9353, ext. 264 or call
ation visit our web site or the latest conference information and registr

. 800-443-9353, ext. 264
ation visit our web site

educ cracking conf_FP_TEMP 2/12/13 9:10 AM Page 87
MARCH 2013 88
t times, manufacturers may state
welding requirements for their
projects that seem overwhelming
and complicated. It doesnt matter if you
are working for a company whose clients
are in the aerospace or oil and gas indus-
tries, a military parts supplier, or a
builder of aircraft carriers or bridges
(Fig. 1), there is a common approach that
can help you successfully comply with
each companys welding requirements.
I discovered soon after joining one
company that many of its welding proce-
dures had no supporting Procedure
Qualification Records (PQRs). If you are
familiar with standard welding practices,
you know how disturbing that discovery
was for me. I was further concerned this
was allowed to happen at a company that
employed an outside agency to audit its
welding operations .
It was clear to me that parts of the
welding program were missing and as-
pects not clearly understood at my new
place of employment, and I devised a
plan to correct these oversights. If you
want to make sure that your company has
a solid welding program, try the follow-
ing approach that I have used to ensure
compliance to welding requirements, re-
gardless of the industry, project, or task.
Standards, Codes, and
The three commonly recognized doc-
uments that guide welding activities are
standards, codes, and specifications.
Standards consist of codes, specifica-
tions, recommended practices, guide-
lines, and methods.
Codes and specifications use the word
shall and will to indicate mandatory
requirements. Guidance information
that is recommended but not mandatory
is indicated by using the words should
or may.
Codes differ from specifications in
that their use is generally applicable to
processes. Specifications generally pro-
vide requirements for products. Codes
and specifications become mandatory
when so specified by a governmental ju-
risdiction or they are referenced by pro-
curement or contractual documents.
Navigating the Documents
The first step in navigating documents
for welding begins with identifying which
code, specification, or standard you must
The qualification document presents
the requirements for qualifying the weld-
ing procedures and the requirements for
welder performance qualification. The
qualification document details the kind
of destructive testing and how many spec-
imens of each are required for the type
of qualification (procedure or perform-
ance). The testing usually includes both
Guidance is offered to help you
understand the various controlling
documents that can be specified for a
wide variety of welding-related projects
Fig. 1 The main span catwalk of the Oakland Bay Bridge in San
Francisco, Calif.
( is weld-
ing/NDE specialist, Bechtel Corp.,
Oil, Gas, and Chemicals, Materials
Engineering Technology,
Houston, Tex.
Skinkle feature_Layout 1 2/14/13 2:26 PM Page 88
tensile and bend specimens, and there
may be additional types of testing de-
pending on the situation.
Listed below are a number of com-
monly cited welding qualification
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2010, Structural
Welding Code Steel
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section IX, Qualification Stan-
dard for Welding and Brazing Procedures,
Welders, Brazers, and Welding and Braz-
ing Operators
AWS D3.6M:2010, Underwater
Welding Code
AWS B2.1/B2.1M:2009, Specifica-
tion for Welding Procedure and Perform-
ance Qualification
AWS D17.1/D17.1M:2010, Specifi-
cation for Fusion Welding for Aerospace
NAVSEA S9074-AQ-GIB-010/248,
Requirements for Welding and Brazing
Procedure and Performance Qualification
(NAVSEA Technical Publication)
NAVSEA 250-1500-1, Technical
Manual, Welding Standard
AWS D1.2/D1.2M:2008, Structural
Welding Code Aluminum
AWS D1.3/D1.3M:2008, Structural
Welding Code Sheet Steel
AWS D1.4/D1.4M:2011, Structural
Welding Code Reinforcing Steel
AWS D1.5/D1.5M:2010, Bridge
Welding Code
AWS D1.6/D1.6M:2007, Structural
Welding Code Stainless Steel
API Standard 1104, Welding of
Pipelines and Related Facilities
As you can see, there are many differ-
ent welding qualification documents.
The qualification document that must be
used depends on what is to be welded
(aircraft carrier, process piping in a re-
finery, etc.). Some qualification docu-
ments work in conjunction with another.
An example of this is the fusion welding
for aerospace applications document
D17.1/D17.1M. It suggests using AWS
B2.1/B2.1M and the Engineering Au-
thority for qualifying welding proce-
dures. For welding program navigation
purposes, the qualification document is
where you will find the requirements for
welding procedure qualification and
welder performance qualification.
The Fabrication Standard
The second step in welding document
navigation consists of identifying which
fabrication standard you are working to.
The fabrication document may be a code,
specification, or standard.
What kind of information is in the fab-
rication document? For the purpose of
welding document navigation, we are
looking for the requirements for preheat,
postweld heat treatment, hardness, and
impact, and special weld testing, i.e., the
number of various weld joint configura-
tions and types of testing. There may also
be welding workmanship requirements,
and instructions for the preparation of
the base metal, weld inspection, and
other welding-fabrication requirements.
The fabrication documents require-
ments may be job specific, part specific,
or project specific.
Most welding documents are struc-
tured in the fashion of separating the
qualification document and fabrication
document, but this is not always the case.
Both D1.1 and D17.1 are qualification
documents that also provide fabrication
Several typical welding fabrication
documents are listed below.
NAVSEA S9074-AR-GIB-010/278,
Requirements for Fabrication, Welding and
Inspection, and Casting Inspection and Re-
pair for Machinery, Piping, and Pressure
BAE Systems, Number P50, Spec-
ification for the Welding and Fabrication
of Titanium 6AL4V Alloy Ultra Light-
weight Field Howitzer
PPD 802-6337597 (a Project Pecu-
liar Document)
NAVSEA T9074-AD-GIB-010/1688,
Requirements for Fabrication, Welding,
and Inspection of Submarine Structure
MIL-STD-1689A, Department of
Defense Manufacturing Process Stan-
dard: Fabrication, Welding, and Inspec-
tion of Ships Structure
ASME B31.1, Power Piping
ASME B31.3, Process Piping
ASME B31.4, Pipeline Transportation
Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and
other Liquids
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section I, Rules for Construction
of Power Boilers
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construc-
tion of Pressure Vessels
API 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil
As you can see, there are many fabri-
cation documents published by various
organizations. Moreover, each fabrica-
tion company operates differently and
may have its own internal fabrication
standards. The contract, purchase order,
or circular of welding requirements gov-
erning the work being accomplished or
the Appendix K (if youre working with
submarines or aircraft carriers) will de-
fine which welding documents to use.
Project Specifications
The third step in welding document
navigation consists of identifying which
project specifications apply to your work.
This step may or may not be applicable
depending on each situation. For exam-
ple, I previously worked for Fluor. It is a
Fortune 500 company with projects un-
derway worldwide. Each customers proj-
ect is unique with specific requirements.
Fortunately, most projects have a
master specification index that lists all of
the controlling documents cited for the
entire job. This allows one to quickly
identify all of the specifications that
must be followed to meet each clients
Some examples of welding project
specifications are listed below.
Master Specification 000-285-
85050, General Welding/NDE Specifica-
tion for Pressure-Retaining Components
Skinkle feature_Layout 1 2/14/13 2:27 PM Page 89
MARCH 2013 90
Master Specification 000-285-
85001, Welding/NDE Specification for
Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Master Specification 000-285-
85002, Welding/NDE Specification for
Shop/Field Fabricated Pipe
Master Specification 000-285-
85003, General Specification for Weld
Overlay and Integrally Bonded Cladding
Master Specification 000-285-
85007, Welding, Shop and/or Field Fab-
ricated Structures
The method described here should
help guide you through some of the com-
plicated situations and clarify the numer-
ous requirements prescribed for working
on most any project, whether a bridge, an
aircraft carrier, a submarine, or welding
structural steel in a refinery, for an oil
company project, or welding for a power
company or a supplier of military parts.
I would like to give a special thanks
to Gary Cannell, senior fellow, welding
and materials engineer, Fluor Govern-
ment Group, for technical support and
advice for this article, and information
presented in the AWS Welding Hand-
book, Vol. 1, Welding Science and Tech-
nology, Ninth Edition. 2001. Codes and
Other Standards, pp. 684, 685.
Fig. 2 A worker is
shown welding on the
Oakland Bay Bridge.
For info go to For info go to
Skinkle feature_Layout 1 2/14/13 2:27 PM Page 90
general corporate_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 9:09 AM Page 91
elding students at Robert Morgan
Educational Center, Miami, Fla.,
have been tapping into their best
wildlife and swashbuckling creativity,
proving just how amazing steel sculptures
can turn out when industrial training is
combined with artistic expression.
A 7-ft-tall elephant and 12-ft-tall gi-
raffe fabricated by high school and
adult welding students in the newly
formed morning class required draw-
ing, measuring, and critical thinking skills
Fig. 1. They used hot-rolled, 11-gauge
steel sheets; cut them into 2-in.-wide strips
of various lengths; moved in various posi-
tions to gas metal arc weld (GMAW) the
strips in place; viewed pictures of the real-
life animals; then painted the elephant
gray and the giraffe yellow with brown
Additionally, welding students in the
morning class paid tribute to the schools
mascot by creating a Captain Robert
Morgan sculpture Fig. 2. The 7-ft-tall
pirate was crafted from 11-gauge steel
sheets cut into 2-in.-wide strips by various
lengths then assembled using gas metal
arc welding. Features include a painted-
red hat crafted from 18-gauge stainless
steel; facial characteristics accented with
an eye patch and beard; a silver sword;
metal belt buckles across his chest and
waist; and large jewelry around his neck
and hands. Two small cannons to go with
him have been made as well, and a treas-
ure chest to go by his side is in the works
Fig. 3.
Ricardo Delgado, the schools welding
instructor and an American Welding So-
ciety member, thought it was a good idea
for his applied welding technology classes
to make various figures after being in-
spired by visiting different universities and
public buildings.
The lessons the students have
learned, and are still learning, is the con-
cept of teamwork, the artistic work of
welding, and using measurement tools,
Delgado said.
Challenges faced while working on the
sculptures varied from height proportion-
ing the large animals to dimensional fac-
tors with bringing out the 3D image vs. a
flat pattern. On the flip side, students
gained experience and skills working on a
The time to create each figure varied
from two weeks to a month. Currently,
they are on display throughout the school
in different courtyard areas. Faculty mem-
bers along with students enjoy their pres-
ence. Planned projects for the future in-
clude making flamingos and alligators.
We are constantly creating new art-
work, Delgado added. Adult welding stu-
dents in the evening class have trans-
formed discarded bicycles into custom-
made, American Chopper-style rides.
Delgado further feels it is rewarding
to help his students succeed and have
worthwhile careers. When companies call
asking for welders, he helps them prepare
for interviews and get ready to become
MARCH 2013 92
( is
associate editor of the
Welding Journal.
Fig. 1 A 12fttall giraffe stands in front
of Robert Morgan Educational Centers
Fig. 2 The 7fttall Captain Robert Mor
gan takes his stand in front of the schools
Fig. 3 Todd White, a high school student
in the morning welding class, performs fin
ishing work on a small cannon.
Welding Students Bring Steel
Sculptures Roaring to Life
Miami students challenged
to express their artistry
through welding
Campbell Layout_Layout 1 2/13/13 4:14 PM Page 92
NOVEMBER 18-21, 2013
Follow us: Co-sponsors:
For Info go to
fabtech_FP_TEMP 2/11/13 1:47 PM Page 93
MARCH 2013 94
Welder Training & Testing
Institute Stresses Personalized
Skills Development
The school offers numerous training
programs to help each student reach
their individual goal
(, is associate editor
of the Welding Journal.
Students at WTTI pose for a group shot.
2 WTTI Learning Track 3-13_Layout 1 2/13/13 1:58 PM Page 94
he Welder Training & Testing Insti-
tute (WTTI) is comprised of a
Welding Technology School and an
Industrial Services Division, both located
in Allentown, Pa., about 60 miles north of
The Welding Technology School, in
operation since 1968, is accredited by the
Accrediting Commission of Career
Schools and Colleges (ACCSC). The
school offers comprehensive welding
programs for adults interested in estab-
lishing a career in the field of welding.
Advanced courses and seminars are
available for professionals seeking to up-
grade their skills in a number of com-
mercial processes, including pipe weld-
ing, brazing, submerged arc welding, and
specialty gas tungsten arc welding.
Recognizing that everyone has a dif-
ferent learning ability and potential, the
instructional staff members (Figs. 1, 2)
make every effort to personalize the
training to best develop each individuals
career skills. This starts with a one-on-
one interview process and a tour of the
institute by each prospective student to
meet the instructors and visit with the
school staff. This offers the opportunity
to discuss their goals, determine which
program is best suited for achieving their
career objectives, and discuss tuition,
other expenses, financial aid opportuni-
ties, local housing, recent job offerings,
and other concerns.
The school operates on a rolling en-
rollment with new students beginning
their programs or courses on a weekly
basis throughout the entire year. Stu-
dents have the benefit of progressing
through their program based on their
own personal achievements. Therefore,
the pace of training is not set by the
group, but rather by each individuals
ability to develop and acquire each new
skill. Each students attendance and daily
progress are monitored by an interactive
software system specially developed by
WTTI. Students are responsible for mon-
itoring their progress with the oversight
of the instructor, much the same as oc-
curs in the real-world job environment.
The unique computer-based tracking sys-
tem enables each student to reach his or
her personal educational objective on
target within their chosen timeframe.
The theory sessions are taught on a
modular basis and the lectures are pre-
sented with extensive use of digital
media. These lectures are enhanced
through hands-on activities in the inte-
grated computer lab.
Fig. 1 Ready for work, WTTI welding instructors are (from left) Andrew Laker, Sam
Dorward, Adam Kline, Troy Heiser, and Marc Tobash.
For info go to
2 WTTI Learning Track 3-13_Layout 1 2/13/13 1:59 PM Page 95
MARCH 2013 96
Prior to graduation, the school pro-
vides assistance with preparing rsums,
and uses its established relationships with
major employers nationwide to match
each students capabilities with the most
appropriate jobs available, and arranges
for plant tours and job interviews when-
ever possible.
The Training Site
To ensure each welding student re-
ceives adequate personal attention, the
school maintains a low student/teacher
ratio. Its 10,000-sq-ft training facility
houses 65 welding stations equipped with
multiprocess inverters, several layout
areas, and multiple cutting and pipe-
beveling stations. The fully equipped
classrooms support the in-shop training
with lessons in safety, blueprint reading,
layout, and the theory necessary to under-
stand and utilize the various welding
processes. In addition to skills training,
the school emphasizes the importance of
practicing the employee-retention attrib-
utes of punctuality, good attendance, and
Course Offerings
The school presents diplomas to grad-
uates of the following comprehensive
diploma programs and courses to provide
students with the level of training needed
to meet their goals.
The program titles (with the hours in
parentheses) are Welder Fitter (900) and
Combination Welding (740).
The general courses include Practical
Shop Welding (600) and General Shop
Welding (500).
The process-specific and advanced-
technique courses include Standard Weld-
ing (180), Advanced Welder Qualification
Pipe (120), Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(60), Gas Metal Arc Welding (60), and
Flux Cored Arc Welding (60).
The Welder Fitter is a career-level pro-
gram for beginners who have little or no
welding experience. It begins with basic
structural welding skills in multiple
processes and advances through all-posi-
tion pipe welding on carbon steel, stain-
less steel, and aluminum.
The school is equipped to qualify
welders in accordance with the standards
for the AWS Certified Welders program.
All students have the option to participate
in qualification testing at the conclusion of
their training for an additional fee.
How to Start Training
First, visit the institutes Web site
( to tentatively select the
program or courses that interest you.
Next, to verify you meet the admission re-
quirements, download and complete the
student application form. Then you
should contact the school to make an ap-
pointment for the facility tour and enroll-
ment interview to discuss your work and
educational history, future goals, and ca-
reer path. The registration fee is $75.
DO YOUR OWN TESTING ! (937)754-1750
Bend Testers - Bend Specimen Cutting
Fixtures - Coupons -Tensile Testers
Visit our website
for all sizes and
models available
Fig. 2 Lead instructor Troy Heiser (right) teaches Bryan Stanton how to walk the cup
on 4-in. Schedule 10 stainless steel pipe in the 6G position
For info go to
2 WTTI Learning Track 3-13_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:00 PM Page 96
Financial Aid
A call or a visit to the WTTI financial
aid office will help determine your eligi-
bility for the various sources of financial
assistance. The school is eligible for Fed-
eral Direct Student Loans, Pell Grant
Program, and supplemental Education
Opportunity Grant Program, and veter-
ans educational assistance.
On-Site Training
The Institute also offers on-site train-
ing using 50-ft mobile trailers fully
equipped to train ten welders at a time in
oxyacetylene, shielded metal arc, flux
cored arc, and gas tungsten arc welding.
The Industrial Services
The institutes Industrial Services Di-
vision (ISD) provides specialty services
to the welding industry both domestically
and internationally. It operates a me-
chanical testing lab accredited by A2LA
to ISO/IEC 17025 and a nondestructive
testing lab with capabilities in the latest
methods, including digital radiography
and phased array ultrasonics Fig. 3.
The labs provide welder, brazer, and pro-
cedure qualification testing to a broad
range of codes, as well as material and
failure analysis. Field services such as in-
spection, consulting, and customized
training are provided by its staff of AWS
Certified Welding Inspectors (CWIs),
ASNT Level IIs and National Level IIIs,
and a lead welding engineer.
Specialized training programs are also
offered by WTTIs ISD in a variety of
weld-related technical areas such as non-
destructive testing, CWI, Certified Weld-
ing Educator (CWE), Certified Welding
Supervisor (CWS), prep courses, Quality
Control and Quality Assurance, and var-
ious other areas of welding technology.
These specialized training curriculums
are provided at employer-based sites, and
as public courses at WTTIs Allentown
Some Client
Graduate Stephen Gonzales said he
went to WTTI to become a fully qualified
professional welder. The largest part of
the training was hands-on in the shop,
he said. The daily shop work made him
feel confident in his abilities. And after I
graduated, WTTI even helped me to get
in touch with the company that hired
Dave Kriner, QA manager, Goodhart
Sons, Inc., said, WTTI provides above
average service and offers a wide range of
expertise. We have relied on them for
welder and procedure qualifications and
technical support. Their response time,
pricing, and experience have led us to call
on them time and time again.
Student Mark Barowski stated,
WTTI gave me the training and the cer-
tification that I needed to qualify for jobs
and survive a tough economy. And, they
put me in touch with the right people
once I graduated.
Collette McEllheeney said, I gradu-
ated from the Welder Fitter Program at
WTTI. They helped me contact the com-
pany that hired me. What can I say be-
sides it was worth it, and I really like my
new job.
Fig. 3 View of the WTTI lab for perfoming chemical analysis, and impact and tensile-strength testing.
Jason Deiter, Administrator
Welder Training & Testing Institute
1144 N. Graham St.
Allentown, PA 18109
(610) 437-9720, ext. 214
FAX (610) 820-0271
2 WTTI Learning Track 3-13_Layout 1 2/13/13 2:01 PM Page 97
In fusion welding, a double-groove
weld is a groove weld made from both
sides. Figure 1 shows various types of dou-
ble-groove welds. The definitions of these
welds follows.
A double-square-groove weld (Fig. 1A)
is a weld in a square groove welded from
both sides.
A double-bevel-groove weld (Fig. 1B) is
a weld in a double-bevel-groove welded
from both sides. A double-bevel groove is
a double-sided weld groove formed by the
combination of a butting member having
a double-bevel edge shape abutting a pla-
nar surface of a companion member.
Figure 1C shows a double-V-groove
weld, which is a weld in a double-V groove
welded from both sides. A double-V
groove is a double-sided weld groove
formed by the combination of butting
members having double-bevel edge
Figure 1D shows a double-J-groove
weld, which is a weld in a double-J groove
welded from both sides. A double-J groove
is a double-sided weld groove formed by
the combination of a butting member hav-
ing a double-J edge shape abutting a pla-
nar surface of a companion member.
A double-U-groove weld (Fig. 1E) is a
weld in a double-U groove welded from
both sides. A double-U groove is a double-
sided weld groove formed by the combi-
nation of butting members having double-
J edge shapes.
A double-flare-bevel-groove weld (Fig.
1F) is a weld in a double-flare-bevel groove
welded from both sides. A double-flare-
bevel groove is a double-sided weld groove
formed by the combination of a butting
member having a round edge shape and a
planar surface of a companion member.
A double-flare-V-groove weld (Fig. 1G)
is a weld in a double-flare-V groove
welded from both sides. A double-flare-V
groove is a double-sided weld groove
formed by the combination of butting
members having round edge shapes.
Types of Double-Groove Welds
Fig. 1 Types of double-groove welds.
MARCH 2013 98
Fact Sheet March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:34 PM Page 98
Online Welding Safety Certificate Course
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
ventilation, fire protection, handling of gases, and much more.
Sample seminar at
OSHAestimates that
4 out of every 1,000
welders will
experience a fatal
injury or accident over
their working lifetime
Online elding Safet W Online y Certificate Course elding Safety Certificate Course y Certificate Course
their working lifetime
injury or accident over
experience a fatal
welders will
4 out of every 1,000
estimates that A OSH
their working lifetime
injury or accident over
experience a fatal
4 out of every 1,000
estimates that
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
their working lifetime
Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection,
Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations.
Sample seminar at Sample seminar at Sample seminar at
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Austenitic stainless steels have been
widely used in nuclear power plants for
different applications such as superheaters
and heater components, and they are also
used in cryogenics and pressure vessels.
These steels perform well at elevated tem-
peratures and are applied extensively for
steam pipes and exhaust systems. How-
ever, there are many difficulties in joining
these steels using fusion welding methods.
Despite the fact that there is some re-
search on joining stainless steel using gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW), laser beam
welding (LBW), and plasma arc welding
(PAW), work continues on attaining a re-
liable joint. A concern, when welding the
austenitic stainless steel by conventional
welding methods, is the susceptibility to
solidification and liquation cracking (Refs.
14). In many instances, the formation of
brittle intermetallic phases in the diffusion
zone leads to unfavorable changes in the
mechanical and physical properties of the
metallic bonds (Refs. 57). The research
work presented in this study concerns the
transient liquid phase diffusion brazing of
stainless steel 304 using a pure copper in-
terlayer. Copper as the interlayer does not
form brittle intermetallic compounds with
iron, and its melting point is lower than Fe
and Ni. Thus, the flowability increases at
higher brazing temperatures and encour-
ages a suitable contact between the faying
surfaces. The brazing variables and their
effect on microstructural changes have
been investigated using optical and scan-
ning electron microscopy and energy
dispersive spectrometry elemental analy-
ses. In addition, the brazing mechanism
was explained using numerical methods.
The analysis was coupled with a corrosion
test, considering the effects of the brazing
Experimental Procedure
The stainless steel was received in the
form of plate 2 mm thick, and the chemi-
cal composition as shown in Table 1. The
plates were cut using an abrasive cutting
saw to the dimensions of 2 10 20 mm.
The mating surface of the stainless steel
was prepared by conventional grinding on
1200-grade silicon carbide paper followed
by polishing using diamond paste. The
specimens then were cleaned in an ultra-
sonic bath using acetone for 15 min and
dried in air. A copper foil (50 m thick,
99.95% purity) was used as intermediate
material, and the surface of the interlayer
was polished in the same fashion as it does
to the base metal. A stainless steel fixture
was designed to fix the specimen and hold
the sandwich assembly during the metallic
brazing process. The brazing process was
performed in a vacuum furnace, and the
substrate and interlayer contact area was
enhanced by a pressure of 0.5 MP at set
brazing temperatures. The brazing cycle is
shown in Fig. 1. The test specimens were
heated to the brazing temperature, then
left in the furnace for a variable holding
time and heating rate, and finally cooled
to room temperature. The brazing param-
eters for the copper interlayer are shown
in Table 2. The specimens were prepared
by grinding on 240- to 2400-grade SiC
paper, then etched using 2 g FeCl
, 24 mL
distilled water, and 6 mL HCl. Mi-
crostructural observations were conducted
using an optical microscope (Nikon mi-
crophot-FXL), scanning electron micro-
scope (SEM, PHILIPS XL 40) using
backscattered mode, and energy-disper-
sive spectrometry (EDS). Moreover, the
corrosion test was carried out in a 3.5%
Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council
Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Brazing
of Stainless Steel 304
The results of different brazing temperatures and holding times were compared
to determine the best condition
Stainless Steel
Transient Liquid Phase
Diffusion Brazing
M. MAZAR ATABAKI (mmazaratabak, is with
Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing
(RCAM), Department of Mechanical Engineer-
ing, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex.,
and Department of Materials Engineering, Fac-
ulty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia. J. NOOR WATI
and J. IDRIS are with Department of Materials
Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
Transient liquid phase diffusion brazing was employed to join stainless steel 304
using pure copper foil as the interlayer. The brazing process was carried out in a vac-
uum furnace at various temperatures for a range of times. The joints were studied
with optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and
corrosion testing. The diffusion of the main elements from the interlayer and base
metal into the braze line and brazing-affected areas was the main controlling factor
pertaining to the microstractural evolution of the joint interface. The presence of eu-
tectoid Fe+ eutectic Cu + Cr and Fe (Cr, Ni) intermetallic was detected at the in-
terface of the joints brazed with copper interlayer. The average displacement of the
solid/liquid interface as a function of time was found to be about 0.36 of the brazing
time. The diffusivity of copper in the grain boundary of the stainless steel was found
to be around 56 10
times higher than the lattice diffusivity at the interface of the
joint, showing copper as a melting point depressant has the ability to produce grain
boundary grooves facilitating the diffusion of the copper atoms.

Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 57
NaCl solution in order to determine the
corrosion resistance of the bonds. To esti-
mate the reliability of the joints, a shear
test was applied using an Instron tensile
test machine with a crosshead speed of 1
Results and Discussion
Microstructure Analysis
of 304SS-Cu-304SS
Figure 2AC shows the optical mi-
crostructure of the brazed specimens at
900, 950, and 1000C for 20 min holding
time, respectively. It is observed that a cer-
tain amount of diffusion occurs between
the interlayer and two substrates. A thin
diffusion layer was revealed parallel to the
joint interface on the stainless steel side
for all joints. However, it is interesting to
note that the stainless steel after exposure
to the brazing temperature exhibits differ-
ent microstructure by emerging twins on
the surface of the steel Fig. 2A. This ex-
posure to the brazing temperature also re-
sults in the formation of complex carbides
within the austenite grains. This leads to
an impoverishment of chromium in the
austenite solid solution.
The interface of the stainless steel and
copper consisted of a continuous reaction
layer free from voids on both sides. It was
observed that the copper side showed the
absence of any recognizable diffusion
zone. Images of the joints prepared at
900, 950, and 1000C for 20 min holding
time, shown in Fig. 3AC, were taken by
scanning electron microscope in the back-
scatter mode. It can be seen that grain
boundary grooving increases the diffusion
of the main alloying elements due to the
curl shape liquid/solid interface and higher
grain boundary diffusivity. The effect of
the grain boundary grooving was indicated
(Refs. 8, 9) considering a significant dif-
ference in a predicted brazing time with
different grain sizes. Accordingly, if the in-
terfacial curvature enhances the solute,
solubility would be increased depending
on the stainless steel grain size.
Therefore, increasing the interfacial cur-
vature at the higher temperatures is the rea-
son for enhancing the solute influx into the
substrate at both sides of the joint, especially
in the diffusion zone. After the grain bound-
ary grooving, the base metal dissolves into
the partial molten copper interlayer until
the stainless steel in the molten partial melt
reaches its equilibrium state at the brazing
temperature. While the partial melt touches
the stainless steel, a high-carbon iron phase
formed and, as a result, the high-carbon iron
phase in the molten copper interlayer ex-
ceeded its equilibrium quantity. This phase
then deposits as a columnar dark structure
of Fe-Cu-C phase. This phase grew increas-
ingly with heating time and finally solidified
at the interface of the base metal and
Therefore, the process of dissolution
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 58-s

Fig. 1 Transient liquid phase diffusion brazing cycle and the
dimensions of the brazing specimens.
Table 1 Chemical Composition of the Materials (wt-%)
Material C Fe Mn Si P S Cr Ni N Cu
304 SS 0.08 Bal 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 20.0 10.5 0.1
Copper 99.99
Fig. 2 The optical microstructure of the joints prepared at A 900C; B 950C; C 1000C for 20 min, using copper interlayer.
Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 58
and solidifying the dark phase can be ex-
plained by the distortion of the stainless
steel structure due to the diffusion of Cu
into the steel. This causes the separation of
the formed Fe-Cu solid solution clusters
Fig. 4. In order to determine the chemical
composition of the brazing interface, en-
ergy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis
was performed using spot analysis taken
from the stainless steel and copper inter-
layer. From the observations, various diffu-
sion zones were found in the joint area and
base metal. The brazing-affected zones can
be classified in terms of the shape and loca-
tion of each phase. The area can be divided
into three distinct zones, which are base
metal, diffusion zone, and interlayer, as
shown in Fig. 5. Compositional profiles in-
dicating the distribution of the alloying ele-
ments from the base metal and interlayer at
the centerline are taken as shown in AB line
in Fig. 5. The compositional profile for the
specimens brazed at 900, 950, and 1000C
are presented in Fig. 6.
Different rates of elemental distribution
like the distribution of Fe, Cr, and Cu along
the joint is due to the different diffusion co-
efficients. At the interlayer surface, the side
which is rich in Cu, however, only a small
amount Fe and Cr diffused from the base
metal. It can be seen that the weight-percent
of Fe and Cr in the interlayer significantly
decreased while the weight-percent of Cu
considerably increased in the base metal.
The decreasing of Fe at the interface is due
to dissolution of the base metal. To further
analyze the distribution of Fe and Cr from
the base metal to the interlayer and Cu from
the interlayer to the base metal, Cu-Fe and
Fe-Cr-C phase diagrams were applied for
describing the effect of the melting point de-
pressant on the mechanism of the brazing
process. A very low amount of Fe was de-
tected in the copper interlayer due to the
limited solubility of Fe in copper at the tem-
perature range of 900 to 1000C. The cop-
per started to dissolve a little amount of Fe
at the stainless steel/copper interlayer inter-
face and continuously diffuses into the
The diffusion of Cu into the
stainless steel produces a solid
solution in a very limited solu-
bility. In addition, the solubility
of Cu in Fe was enhanced when
the brazing temperature was
increased. It can be assumed
that the diffusion layer at the
braze consists of Fe + (Cu).
The element distribution analy-
sis revealed that at any of the
brazing temperatures, Cu
transfered a long distance in
the stainless steel side, while
Fe, Cr, and Ni transverse a

Table 2 Bonding Process Parameters
Brazing Parameters
Low Brazing Temperature (C) 850, 900, and 950
Predry Time (min) 24
Rate (C/min) 25
High Brazing Temperature (C) 900, 950, and 1000
Holding Time (min) 16, 20, 24, and 72
Cooling Time (min) 10
Vacuum (mm Hg) 740
Vacuum Start (mm Hg) 740
Vacuum Release (mm Hg) 740
Table 3 Average of the Diffusion-Affected Zone Thickness in the Joints Prepared at 900,
950, and 1000C at Various Holding Times
Temperature (C) 900 950 1000
Holding Time 16 20 72 16 20 72 20 72
(m) 9.286 9.657 15.15 10.013 14.8 16.385 7.581 72
Diffusion Zone
(m) 47.129 46.933 46.05 45.113 43.357 43.24 42.355 7.854
(m) 7.996 8.664 11.91 6.257 9.748 13.895 5.957 8.432
Diffusion Zone
Predicted X
8.245 8.996 13.451 8.452 13.765 14.673 6.941 41.121
Fig. 3 SEM-BSE images of the joints prepared at A 900C;
B 950C; C 1000C for 20 min holding time.
Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 59
comparatively smaller distance in the Cu in-
terlayer side.
Interface Characterization
For characterizing the diffusion zone
and diffusion-affected areas, images were
taken from the joint area at the stainless
steel/copper interlayer interface as shown in
Figs. 8 and 9. Moreover, a quantitative
overview of the chemical composition of dif-
ferent regions (region A to E) of the diffu-
sion zone for the specimen brazed at 900C
illustrated in Fig. 7A shows a dark-shaded
region (point B) and a light-shaded region
(point C) at the interface. By applying EDS
analysis, it is shown that regions B and C are
enriched with Fe and Cr with small quanti-
ties of Ni, Mn, and Cu. The different con-
trast occurs due to the dissimilarity in
concentration of Fe and Cr into the inter-
layer and Cu into the base metal. The white
island (region A) found in
the copper interlayer is en-
riched with Fe and Cr. Fig-
ure 7B shows a significant
difference in the joint com-
pared to the joints shown in
Fig. 7A, presenting a small
diffusion layer. Copper is
dissolved (regions D and E)
due to infiltration of the liq-
uidated copper at 1000C.
Figure 8 shows a schematic
diagram describing the pos-
sible brazing mechanism
and the changes of the phases from the be-
ginning of the process until 20 min of hold-
ing time.
At the initial stage, during the brazing
process, the copper interlayer partially liq-
uefied and then stainless steel dissolved by
migrating the liquid copper to the base
metal. As a result, some grain boundary
grooves appeared in the steel in the vicinity
of the copper interlayer, and Fe-Cr from the
base metal flows into the diffusion zone. At
the same time, Cu atoms of the melt diffuse
into the dissolved region. This is known as a
relationship of the solid metal dissolution
and liquid metal migration.
While the liquid interlayer touches the
surface of the base metal, the migration of
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 60-s

Fig. 4 Binary alloy phase diagrams. A Cr-C; B Fe-Cu; C Cu-C. Fig. 5 Three distinct zones in the joints, showing the solute infiltrated
into the grain boundaries of the base metal. This is more obvious in the
diffusion zone.
Fig. 6 Elemental distribution for the joints brazed at A 900C; B
950C; C 1000 C for 20 min holding time.
Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:37 PM Page 60
the melting point depressant to the base
metal occurs by diffusing into the grain
boundary of the base metal (Ref. 10). The
grain boundary grooving as a result of
heavy diffusion of the melting point de-
pressant adjacent to the interfacial region
caused great infiltration of copper into the
stainless steel. The liquid copper changes
into Cu phase and reacts with Fe and Cr
along the interface. As described, the dif-
fusion coefficients of Fe, Cr, and Cu are
quite different. For example, the diffusion
coefficient of Cu into Fe and Fe into Cu at
920C is 2.2 10
and 4.63 10
respectively (Ref. 11). By increasing the
dissolution of the base metal with apply-
ing a longer time (16 min), the phase is en-
riched with Cu and Fe Fig. 8B.
On the other hand, it was observed that
the Fe and Cr atoms that flowed from the
base metal were transformed into a Fe-Cr
phase. By increasing the holding time to
20 min, the amount of Fe-Cr phase shows
a tendency to increase Fig. 8C.
Widening of Diffusion Zone
The diffusion zone was widened during
the brazing operation. The mechanism of
the diffusion zone widening is studied by
measuring the thickness of the diffusion
area on both sides of the interlayer with an
initial thickness of 50
m. The thickness of
the diffusion zones
for the joint prepared
at 950C for 16 min is
shown in Fig. 9. It
can be seen that the
diffusion zone ad-
vanced into the stain-
less steel. Table 3
shows the average
thickness of the dif-
fusion zone for the
joints fabricated at
900, 950, and
1000C for various
holding times.
As the morphol-
ogy of the diffusion
zone was not uniform, thickness of the dif-
fusion-affected zones was taken at three
different locations. It was seen that the
thickness of the diffusion zone increased
with increased holding time. Generally,
mass transfer has to be extended, depend-
ing on the brazing temperature. By in-
creasing the brazing temperature more,
atoms migrated across the interface, hence
the diffusion zone widened. By approach-
ing the melting temperature of the copper
interlayer (900950C), Cu atoms were
stimulated to move faster and in larger
quantity. Therefore, it is enough for Cu
atoms to vibrate and give possibility to Fe
and Cr atoms to diffuse into the interlayer.
If the growth of the diffusion zone as-
sumed to be parabolic, the growth can be
stated by a simple relation:
where X
is the growth of the diffusion
zone, D
Cu Fe
is the diffusion coefficient of
Cu atoms into the stainless steel structure,
and t
is the brazing time. Calculating the
X D t
D Z Cu Fe b .


Fig. 7 A SEM-BSE image and EDS analysis of the joints prepared at 900C; B SEM-BSE image and EDS analysis of the joint prepared at 1000C.
Fig. 8 Schematic of the brazing mechanism. Fig. 9 The thickness of the diffusion area and its measurement.
Fig. 10 The concentration profile of Cu, Cr, and Ni at the interface of the
stainless steel and interlayer brazed at 900C.
Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:37 PM Page 61
growth of the diffusion zone implies that the
distance of the movement of Cu atoms into
the base metal can be predicted by the sim-
ple parabolic law under the condition that
other parameters like self-diffusion and
Kirkendall effect are neglected from the
evaluation (Table 3). To estimate the diffu-
sion coefficient of Cu, Cr, and Ni, the Boltz-
mann solution of Ficks second law was
applied based on the following definition:
where x is the position of the solute, t
is the
brazing time, and C
is the concentration of
the solute in the stainless steel. It was re-
ported that D
Cu Fe
at 900C is 4.67 10
/s for a diffusion time of 50 min (Refs. 12,
13), whereas D
calculated in this research,
despite applying lower diffusion time, is a
little higher, reaching to 1.06 10
. The
reason behind this difference might be the
presence of Cu in the lattice and grain
boundaries of the stainless steel. The pre-
dicted value of the Cu diffusion in the grain
boundaries of the stainless steel is 1.754
. Another main element in the stainless
steel is Ni, which for a stainless steel with 10
wt-% Ni has a predicted diffusion coeffi-
cient of 1.5 10
/s at 1280C with
holding specimens at 1280C (Ref. 14), al-
though the diffusion coefficient of Ni at a
brazing temperature of 900C is estimated
to be 2.65 10
/s. The diffusion coef-
ficient of Cr is also predicted to be 5.03
/s. Now, with having the diffusion
coefficients, the diffusion profiles of Cu, Cr,
and Ni in and out of the stainless steel can
be estimated by solving the Ficks second
law and applying an analytical model:
where C (t, x)
is the composition of
each of Cu, Cr, and Ni individually in the
joint, D is the diffusion coefficient, t is the
brazing time, x is the distance from the in-
terface of the substrate and interlayer, and
is the initial solubility of Cu, Cr, and Ni
in the stainless steel. The concentration of
Cu, Cr, and Ni can be drawn via distance
from the joint as shown in Fig. 10. It can
be seen that by increasing the brazing time
the concentration of the elements changes
considerably leading to a change in the in-
terlayer thickness. However, the thermal
activation of the solute atoms was higher
at the higher brazing temperatures caus-
ing a higher rate of mass transfer and
tougher atomic brazing.
Corrosion Test Results
Figure 11AC shows the optical mi-
crostructure of the joints prepared at 900,
950, and 1000C after corrosion test in a
3.5% NaCl solution for 12 h. Dark film de-
posits were present along the copper surface
for all joints. Chloride ions are very aggres-
sive ions to the copper interlayer, due to the
tendency of the chloride ion to form unsta-
ble films (CuCl and CuCl
) (Ref. 16).
Therefore, even a little amount of chloride
ions can cause severe corrosion attack. Fig-
ure 12 shows polarization curves for the
joints as a function of the brazing time and
temperature. It can be declared that all the
joints show the same behavior in the polar-
ization curve due to the uniform and con-
tinuous penetration of the solute and other
alloying elements. However, optical exami-
nation indicated that the corrosion mostly
attacks along the surface of the stainless
steel and copper interlayer.
Obviously, the cathodic line for the
brazing temperature of 900C exhibits
high current density indicating a hydrio-
genic reaction by reducing the holding
time. Thus, the free corrosion potential
) becomes more negative at the
lower holding times. Moreover, by reduc-
ing the brazing temperature from 1000 to
900C, cathodic hydrogen reactions are re-
duced and E
increases negatively. The
anodic polarization curve for all joints
shows that the current density significantly
( )

C t x
C erf
D t
Cu Cr Ni
Cu Cr Ni b
, ,
, ,

x dC
b S
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 62-s

Fig. 11 The optical microstructure of the joints prepared at A 900; B 950; C 1000C for a holding time of 20 min.
Fig. 12 A Linear polarization test results for the joints brazed at 900C for three different holding times;
B linear polarization test results for the joints prepared at three temperatures for 20 min holding time.
Fig. 13 The comparison of the shear strengths for
the joints prepared at different temperatures and
holding times.
Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:37 PM Page 62
increases as a result of dissolution of the
electrode at the beginning of the anodic
polarization, and then the current density
decreases because of the passivation
process. In the passivation region, the joint
surface is covered by the passive oxide
film. Then, the current density starts to in-
crease suddenly due to the breakdown of
the passive layer until the end of the po-
larization curve.
As mentioned, the corrosion fre-
quently occurred along the stainless steel-
copper interface and inside the copper
region. At the anodic polarization curve,
the current density was significantly in-
creased for all the joints indicating disso-
lution of some phases ( Fe + eutectic Cu
+ Cr), which resulted in preferential lo-
calized corrosion. As indicated in Fig. 12,
severe corrosion attack with a wide open-
ing (trench formation) occurred at the in-
terface because of the dissolution of the
base metal. The corrosion develops in all
the joints and preferential dissolution of
the copper interface was favored during
polarization. In this case, stainless steel is
more positive than copper, so when stain-
less steel is in contact with copper, the
copper corrodes first. The rate of corro-
sion attack is governed by the size of the
potential difference. Referring to the joint,
the surface area of the stainless steel is big-
ger than copper.
As a result, stainless steel has a large
surface area in contact with the elec-
trolyte, while the copper interlayer has a
very small surface area in contact with
3.5% NaCl solution; therefore, the stain-
less steel generates a large corrosion cur-
rent, concentrating on a small area of the
copper interlayer. However, intergranular
corrosion cracking was found at the cop-
per surface. It is caused by interdiffusion
of Fe and Cr along the copper grain
boundary and also by Fe-Cr intermetallic
compound. The larger the area of the
stainless steel, the greater is the accelera-
tion of the copper corrosion.
On the copper side, chloride ions were
very aggressive, due to their tendency to
form an unstable film (CuCl) and soluble
chloride complexes (CuCl
). Besides, intergranular corrosion
cracking was also found at the copper sur-
face. It is due to interdiffusion of Fe and
Cr elements along the copper grain
boundary and also to the formation of Fe-
Cr intermetallic phase. This phase dis-
solves into (Fe + eutectic Cu + Cr) along
the interface.
For the joints without an immersion
test, there was no pitting attack found on
the copper surface, as this can be seen in
Fig. 12A. Figure 12B shows a pitting at-
tack on the surface of the copper. Gener-
ally, grain boundaries; inclusions such as
sulphides, oxides, and nitrides; and local
segregation of the alloying elements can
act as irregularities, initiating the pitting
corrosion. The main alloying elements
such as Cr, Ni, and Mo were segregated
into the copper interlayer. Pitting corro-
sion attacks and propagates easily where
Cr and Mo contents are locally depleted
forming microsegregations, precipitation
of carbides, and the formation of inter-
metallic phases.
A comparison of shear strengths for the
joints is shown in Fig. 13. The shear
strength increased with the enhancing of
brazing time for different temperatures.
This increase in joint strength is related to
the diffusion of the main alloying elements
to the base metal during isothermal solid-
ification, so an optimum brazing time is re-
quired to improve the joint strength. The
highest shear strength with a value of 180
MPa was achieved for the joints prepared
at 950C for 72 min. It was noticed that the
joints prepared at 1000C showed a reduc-
tion in shear strength, confirming the li-
quation at the grain boundaries of the base
metal in the vicinity of the interface.
Transient liquid phase diffusion braz-
ing was applied to join stainless steel using
a copper interlayer. Brazing was carried at
900, 950, and 1000C for 16, 20, 24, and
72 min in a vacuum furnace. The impor-
tant findings are as follows:
1) The microstructure studies revealed
that Fe + eutectic Cu + Cr accumulated
along the diffusion zone. The diffusion
zone for the joints increases with increas-
ing temperature and holding time except
for the case of the highest brazing tem-
perature (1000C), which did not produce
significant changes.
2) After brazing, the joint consisted of
three distinct zones including base metal,
diffusion zone, and diffusion-affected
zone. There were no eutectic structures in
the joint and a relatively uniform distribu-
tion of the alloying elements across the
joints occurred, especially at the higher
brazing temperature.
3) It was shown that diffusion of Cu in
the lattice and grain boundary of the stain-
less steel plays a significant role in altering
the solute concentration in the joint region
during the brazing process at the brazing
temperatures. Corrosion test results
showed that the interface is the weakest
part in the resistance against the corrosive
4) The joints developed crevice corro-
sion due to a galvanic couple formed be-
tween the stainless steel and copper
interlayer. It presented preferential disso-
lution of the copper interlayer under an-
odic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution at
room temperature. Intergranular corro-
sion was also found in the copper region.
After immersing the joints for 12 h, pitting
attack appeared at the copper surface. In
the shear test, the optimum shear strength
was attained for the joints prepared at
950C for 72 min.
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merical modeling and simulation of a diffusion-
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Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, ISBN:
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Kang, C. Y. 2007. Effect of brazing conditions
on microstructure and mechanical properties of
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H., and Ken ichi, H. 1990. Diffusion chromium
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Atabaki 3-13_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:37 PM Page 63
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 64-s

Age-hardened Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys,
especially 7075 with T6 temper (7075-T6),
have become some of the most widely
used structural materials in the aerospace,
high-speed train, and automotive indus-
tries because of their attractive mechani-
cal properties (Ref. 1). Nonetheless, the
high heat sensitivity and low eutectic liq-
uidus temperature range of 7075-T6 make
it difficult to weld with conventional arc
welding methods. Hybrid laser arc welding
(termed hybrid welding) was proposed to
achieve a sound joint in both strength and
geometry (Ref. 2). However, the welding
process readily degrades the characteris-
tics of the precipitation strengthening.
This phenomenon has been observed to
accompany a dramatic loss of static
strength, although the strength can be par-
tially recovered by elaborately designing
the postweld aging (Refs. 3, 4). Prior stud-
ies have shown that heat-induced soften-
ing is primarily caused by the intrinsic dis-
solution and growth of precipitates (Refs.
5, 6). To prevent quality loss in 7075-T6
joints, solid-state friction stir welding
(FSW) is being actively pursued as a po-
tential alternative to fusion welding. Un-
fortunately, the softening behavior of the
weld nugget zone (WNZ) and thermome-
chanically affected zone (TMAZ) remains
a major challenge (Refs. 7, 8). Therefore,
it is vital to deeply explore the softening
mechanism of fusion hybrid welds.
Physically, the softening can be attrib-
uted to three causes. First, the strengthen-
ing elements, such as zinc, magnesium,
copper, and their hybrids (intermetallic
compounds) in the 7075-T6 matrix tend to
be rearranged during welding, and this re-
distribution affects the microstructure and
strength (Ref. 9). Previous papers have
mainly focused on the evolution of precip-
itation phases in the base metals (Refs.
1012), and a number of empirical models
have been established to correlate the
strength with the precipitates, aging stage,
and compositions (Refs. 13, 14). Further-
more, the presence of various gas pores
decreases the effective load capacity and
has a detrimental effect on the mechanical
properties. The relevant literature has
paid more attention to the source, pre-
vention, and formation of gas porosity
(Ref. 15), and few works have reported the
influence of this porosity on the static
strength (Refs. 16, 17). This lack of infor-
mation exists because it is difficult to de-
tect the exact size, morphology, and distri-
bution of pores in the fusion welded joints.
Microcracks, inclusions, segregations,
tensile residual stress, and filler metal
(FM) are also responsible for the compro-
mised mechanical properties (Ref. 18).
The softening that arises from these
foregoing factors can seriously undermine
the fitness for service of welded aluminum
alloy structures (Ref. 19), in addition to
deteriorating their load-carrying capacity,
especially under variable reversed loads
(Ref. 20). The existing literature has rarely
The severe strength loss of hybrid welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy joints such as 7075-T6
has been characterized using high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-rays and theo-
retical modeling. To elucidate the physical causes of this static strength change, the dis-
tribution of strengthening elements such as Zn and Cu and the three-dimensional gas
porosity were mapped. The interesting findings included the following: 1) Hybrid welds
only reach approximately 53% of the ultimate tensile strength of the base phase, and
the lowest strength is situated in the central fusion zone; 2) because of the excessive
evaporation of elemental Zn and the significant inverse segregation of elemental Cu in
cenral fusion welds, the major strengthening elements gather near the heat-affected
zone; 3) the elastic modulus of hybrid welds is slightly larger than that of their base al-
loys, probably as a result of the inhomogeneity in their chemical composition, mi-
crostructure, geometry, and residual stress; 4) the pore size ranges from below 0.01 m
to approximately 107 m, and it is modeled by the Schwartz-Saltykov method to reveal
its damaging effects on the static strength; 5) a strength model of 7075-T6 welded butt
joints is established to correlate with the elastic modulus, porosity, and heat inputs, and
it coincides well with the computational and experimental results; and 6) in principle,
the porosity has little influence on the static strength of hybrid welds, and the modified
strengthening structure markedly dominates the overall mechanical properties.
S. C. WU ( and,
W. H. ZHANG are with State Key Lab of Traction
Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu,
China. X. YU, R. Z. ZUO, and J. Z. JIANG are
with School of Materials Science and Engineer-
ing, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.
H. L. XIE is with Shanghai Syncrotron Radiation
Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,
Shanghai, China.
7075-T6 Aluminum Alloys
Hybrid Laser Arc Welding
Softening Behavior
Gas Porosity
Element Loss
Strength Modeling
Synchrotron Radiation X-Rays
Porosity, Element Loss, and Strength Model
on Softening Behavior of Hybrid Laser Arc
Welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy with
Synchrotron Radiation Analysis
Gas porosity and alloying elements Zn, Cu, Ti, and Mn were characterized by high-
resolution synchrotron radiation analysis, and a new strength model of hybrid
welded 7075-T6 joints was formulated and validated using these results
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 2:13 PM Page 64
been concerned about the softening of hy-
brid welded 7075-T6 joints. Consequently,
it is commercially and academically im-
portant to quantify the softening behavior
of hybrid welded joints.
This work presents novel elemental
composition and gas porosity results, and
their roles in the strength of 7075-T6 butt
joints are identified by measurements
taken using the high-resolution Shanghai
Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)
(Ref. 21). The elemental composition and
pores were detected using synchrotron ra-
diation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-
XRF) at the 15U beam line (BL15U)
and synchrotron radiation X-ray microto-
mography (SR-XRM) at the 13W beam
line (BL13W), respectively. Relatively
perfect joints were obtained using hybrid
welding, and nonheat-treatable ER5356
was used as the FM. A quantitative rela-
tionship between the strength with the
porosity in hybrid welds was established
based on the elastic modulus, heat input,
and gas porosity. New insights are pro-
vided to characterize the heat-induced
softening behaviors, which are expected to
be an important complement to the recog-
nition of the softening mechanism of hy-
brid fusion welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu joints.
Table 1 shows the chemical composi-
tions of the high-strength 7075-T6 alu-
minum alloys and the self-developed con-
sumable ER5356 (1.2 mm) with yield
strength of 120 MPa and ultimate tensile
strength (UTS) of 260 MPa. A commercial
7075-T6 sheet was sheared into sample
sizes of 240 60 2 mm
. Following de-
greasing and abrading, the butting sur-
faces were carefully cleaned using a
sodium hydroxide
solution at 60C.
The samples were
then washed in a di-
lute nitric acid solu-
tion. To reduce the
hydrogen gas
porosity as much as
possible, both the
BM and FM were
placed into a dry,
clear, well-venti-
lated storage space for no more than 24 h.
Hybrid Welding
Hybrid welding was performed by incor-
porating a fiber laser (YLR-4000) with a gas
metal arc welding (GMAW, Fronius
TPS4000) power source. The parameters of
the laser were as follows: 0.4-mm focus spot
diameter, 10 kW/mm
maximum output
power density, 1.06-m wavelength, and
150-mm focal length of the lens. The filler
tip was 3 mm away from the laser axis, and
99.999% pure argon gas with a flow rate of
45 L/min was selected as the shielding gas.
To alleviate reflection, the laser was inclined
by approximately 10 deg, and the arc torch
was inclined to the sample plane at a 70-deg
angle. To prevent any relative movement,
the plates were fixed onto a worktable using
parallel slat clamps. Single-pass, butt-joint
hybrid keyhole welding was then performed
in the rolling direction.
For a good quality of butt joints, a large
number of hybrid welding experiments
were conducted, and the suitable parame-
ters were as follows: P
= 2.5~3 kW
laser power, I
= 90~110 A arc cur-
rent, about U
= 23 V arc voltage,
=2.5~3 m/min torch travel speed,
= 5.3 m/min for the FM, and = 1
mm defocusing distance.
= 0.60 and

=0.82 were thermal efficiency for
the laser and GMAW heat source, respec-
tively, and the heat input was Q =
Performance Examination
Briefly, the microstructure was investi-
gated using an optical microscope (OM)
and a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
The morphology and distribution of the
heat-induced particles were then examined
near the heat-affected zone (HAZ).

Fig. 1 Typical SEM macroimage of the complete weld produced by
hybrid laser arc welding, in which solid circles on the transverse cross
section of the hybrid joint were used to illustrate the indentation points
for the microhardness and white rectangle across the left weld interface
was drawn to show triangular or polygonal particles. The black solid
line near left-curved weld interface was actually the longitudinal cross
plane as perpendicular to the x-y plane for the particle analysis by SEM.
The z-axis is normal to the transverse cross section.
Fig. 2 Microhardness distribution curves for hybrid welded 7075-T6 alu-
minum joints after 10 months natural aging under different heat inputs: low
heat input Q
= 65520 J/m, medium heat put Q
= 72080 J/m, and high heat
input Q
= 86496 J/m.
Fig. 3 Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation results from
cross-tensile tests with the same gauge length of 10 mm on received base metal,
hybrid welded joints after three months of natural aging, and autogenous laser
welded joints after seven months of natural aging.
Table 1 Measured Nominal Chemical Composition (wt-%) of the 7075-T6 High-Strength
Aluminum Alloy and the Self-Developed ER5356 Filler Metal
Elements Zn Mg Cu Ti Mn Cr Fe Si Al
7075-T6 5.54 2.43 1.30 0.05 0.10 0.19 0.25 0.20 Bal.
ER5356 0.10 4.80 0.10 0.12 0.15 0.10 0.40 0.25 Bal.
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 2:11 PM Page 65
Cross-tensile tests were conducted
with hybrid and autogenous laser welded
joints that had been naturally aged for
three and seven months, respectively. The
samples were machined to a 10-mm gauge
length with a 25-mm width based on
welded joint tensile test code (ISO 4136:
2001). The facility employed was an MTS
809 servohydraulic testing system with a
load capacity of 250 kN. The fractured
surfaces were then examined for the frac-
ture mode and distribution of gas pores
and microcracks using SEM.
To obtain the hardness, the Vickers mi-
crohardness was examined along the
transverse section with a load of 200 g for
approximately 10 s. The natural aging pe-
riod was 10 months for present hybrid
welded joints. Figure 1 demonstrates the
spatial distribution of the pressed points in
a complete joint.
Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray
The strengthening elements were
mapped in the sectioned welds with a syn-
chrotron radiation light source. The high
flux and low divergence of the SR-XRD
demonstrate its advantage in quantifying
alloying elements with less damage to the
irradiated samples (Refs. 22, 23). The sam-
ples were ground and polished to a 1.5-mm
thickness, and a maximum energy of 20
keV was selected to ensure a 30% trans-
mission rate. The spot size was 1.6 1.8
inside the sample with a focus photon
flux density of 1.8 10
) at 10
keV. The fluorescent intensities were meas-
ured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled seven-
element energy-dispersive high-purity
Si(Li) detector, and the sample was
scanned in the step-by-step mode at
BL15U. Using this method, it took a total
time of 1.5 h to pick up a total of 10,000 pix-
els. Unfortunately, the strengthening ele-
mental Mg could not be detected because
of its absorption edge limit.
The formation of pores is a problem
when joining 7075-T6. Complete avoidance
of pores is unrealistic for fusion welding.
High-resolution SR-XRM has become the
most advanced tool (Ref. 24) to determine
the exact descriptions of the gas pores, as
well as their size, morphology, position,
number, and distribution (Ref. 25). A voxel
size of 0.7 m was chosen as the sample size,
representing a compromise between the
minimum size of the gas pores and the 2048
2048 CCD detector. Successive two-
dimensional (2D) in situ slices were ob-
tained at BL13W, and these slices were sub-
sequently reconstructed using the Amira
software for three-dimensional (3D) im-
It is vital to evaluate the influence of the
pores on the mechanical properties. Many
methods have been introduced to deter-
mine the 3D size distribution of spherical
pores. Here, the classical Schwartz-Saltykov
(SS) method is selected because it is suitable
to the zero-continuity and low fraction of
the pores (Refs. 26, 27). By characterizing
the gas porosity, the damage to the static
strength can be evaluated.
Results and Discussion
Softening Behavior
Figure 2 shows the hardness distribu-
tion curves along the x-axis illustrated in
Fig. 1, for three cases of welding heat in-
puts Q
= 65520 J/m, Q
= 72080 J/m, and
= 86496 J/m. It is clearly observed that
the welding heat input has a primary effect
on the hardness. A higher heat input re-
sults in a larger softening region, a rela-
tively wider fusion zone (FZ), and a lower
hardness (Ref. 28). Moreover, it was also
found that the hardness changes slowly
from the joint center to the weld interface
(WI) and then increases suddenly to the
level of base metal (BM). The hardness
profiles fully show that the welded joint is
mechanically and compositionally hetero-
geneous, which practically makes the FZ
the weakest part of the aluminum welded
To clearly reveal the serious softening
behavior of hybrid welded joints, cross-
tensile tests with a 25-mm gauge length
were conducted for the BM and two types
of welded joints. Tensile results show that al-
most all fractures occurred near the PMZ
rather than the central FZ. It is seen in Fig.
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 66-s

Fig. 4 XRF maps of elements Zn and Cu inside hybrid welded 7075-T6 joints after five months natural aging for the case of high heat input Q
=86496 J/m, in
which 20-keV synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence was used at the 15U beam line. A Element Zn; B element Cu. Scale bars represent normal XRF
intensity for the respective element.
Fig. 5 XRF maps of elements Ti and Mn inside hybrid welded 7075-T6 joints after five months natural aging for the case of high heat input Q
J/m, in which 20-keV synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence was used at the 15U beam line. A Element Ti; B element Mn. Scale bars represent
normal XRF intensity for the respective element.
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:38 PM Page 66
3 that the hybrid joints achieve the lowest
yield strength and UTS that is only approx-
imately 53% of the strength of the base
7075-T6 material, indicating serious soften-
ing. In contrast, autogenous laser welds ob-
tain a slightly higher UTS because of the
lower heat input.
Elemental Mapping
It is known that the 7075-T6 alloy
achieves its high strength from a series of
precipitates such as typical (MgZn
) and
Zn) (Refs. 29, 30). The content
and gradient of the alloying elements
change distinctly in hybrid welds and play a
primary role in the microstructure and re-
sulting properties. Few studies have exam-
ined the softening mechanism from the el-
emental perspective. Figure 4 shows the
spatial distribution of the major Zn and Cu
strengthening elements. The elemental
mappings are graded using a continuous
color bar. Each bar is assigned to an ele-
mental level, for which red is the highest,
yellow is medium, and blue is the lowest.
It can be observed that Zn and Cu have
similar distributions, and their concentra-
tion is lowest near the lower reinforce-
ment and highest near the HAZ. It is gen-
erally thought that owing to the excessive
energy accumulation during welding, less
Zn is found in the FZ because of its low
boiling point. While inverse segregation
happens for the strengthening element
Cu, that is to say, the region that solidifies
first has the higher Cu (Ref. 31). The ele-
ment-induced softening appears to be
consistent with the hardness variation
seen in Fig. 2. The relationship and mech-
anism between the change of alloying ele-
ments such as Cu and Zn with the me-
chanical performance of welded joints
were not explored in present research
mainly due to limited information. How-
ever, one important point should be noted
that the biggest effect of element variation
would come from the filler dilution. In
other words, the main contribution to the
lower content of Zn and Cu is probably
the addition of ER5356 FM into the
molten pool.
Ti and Mn are usually considered im-
purities in commercial 7075-T6 aluminum
alloys. Nevertheless, they sometimes play
useful roles in either refining grains or form-
ing dispersed second phases of MnAl
. A small amount of elemental
Ti in ER5356 helps to form TiAl
particles smaller than 0.5 m and refine the
weld microstructure. As a dispersed precip-
itate, elemental Mn is effective in prevent-
ing the grain growth (Ref. 32). Figure 5
shows the distribution maps of Ti and Mn.
The map shows that Ti and Mn exhibit a
comparable distribution. The top region of
the weld has a slightly higher content, and a
lower content in the lower reinforcement.
The level of Zn is the highest of all other
elements, which is consistent with the alloy-
ing contents listed in Table 1. Elemental Ni
and Co are also identified by the 20-keV
synchrotron micro X-ray spectrums. No fur-
ther qualitative efforts are made to analyze
these results.
The strength and hardness of welded
joints always depend on the elemental re-
distribution and microstructural changes

Fig. 6 Optical microscope images of the following: A PMZ (1000); B central FZ microstructures with slightly etched hybrid welded metallographic
specimen after 17 months natural aging. Scanning electron microscope micrographs of the following: C Transverse cross section or oxy plane PMZ mi-
crostructures; D PMZ microstructures of the longitudinal cross section as illustrated in Fig. 1 or the plane parallel to oyz with slightly etched hybrid welded
metallographic specimen after 10 and 11 months natural aging, respectively.
Inside PMZ (OM)
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:38 PM Page 67
that occur when the weld experiences an
intense thermal history. Figure 6 illus-
trates the OM and SEM images of two
mutual vertical sections denoted in Fig. 1.
These images show the typical solidifica-
tion characteristics of columnar dendritic
structures near the HAZ and equiaxed
dendritic structures in the central FZ to-
gether with the morphology of particles in-
side the partially melted zone (PMZ,
about 100 m width) near the WI.
Figure 6A shows the coarse grains con-
taining a large number of dispersed parti-
cles near the PMZ of the transverse cross
section. These particles appear as equilat-
eral triangles and polygons with the size var-
ied from 0.1 to 2.5 m when slightly etched
using Kellers reagent. Figure 6C shows
their morphology more clearly under SEM.
These types of precipitates gradually in-
crease from either side of the PMZ and few
were found in both the central FZ and BM.
Further studies show that these precipitates
contain a large amount of Zn and a little Fe,
which is basically consistent with the ele-
mental mappings seen in Fig. 4. Thorough
information concerning the chemical com-
positions of precipitated phases and their
influence on the mechanical properties will
be investigated in another work.
The FZ exhibits finely equiaxed den-
dritic structures, as seen in Fig. 6B, which
are attributed to the higher cooling rate.
The lower hardness is most likely caused by
the eutectic constituent precipitates or the
disappearance of the Guinier-Preston (GP)
zone (Ref. 33). It should be specially noted
that the FM also makes a pronounced con-
tribution to the strength of welds due to its
dilution effect of composition.
Figure 6D further shows the morphol-
ogy of particles in the longitudinal cross sec-
tion running through the PMZ. It is basi-
cally concluded that these particles exhibit
some kind of typical spatial shape. It is of
value to explore the detailed information of
composition, microstructure, and resulting
Modeling Porosity
The previous sections briefly discuss
the softening mechanism from the per-
spective of the hardness, strength, and el-
emental composition, which is mainly re-
sponsible for the lower strength and
hardness. The gas pores formed during hy-
brid welding present another problem that
contributes to the loss of mechanical be-
havior of hybrid 7075-T6 welds.
Figure 7 shows a stereogram of the gas
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 68-s

Fig. 7 X-ray microtomography mapping of 3D porosity with detailed size, amount, distribution, morphology, and location inside the hybrid 7075-T6 weld with 40-
keV synchrotron radiation XRM at the 13W beam line and SEM fracture morphology micrograph of typical gas porosity under low heat input Q
= 65520 J/m.
Fig. 8 Size and volume distributions of 3D pore size in hybrid 7075-T6 welds derived by the Schwartz-
Saltykov analysis according to the diameters variation [D
]. A The re-
lationship between percentage by number; B the correlation of maximum volume V(t) and maxi-
mum diameter t.
Fig. 9 The curve that is fit to the relationship between
elastic modulus E
and heat input Q of hybrid welded
7075-T6 aluminum joints measured from the cross-
tensile tests.
Table 2 The Number of Gas Pores in Each Volume Interval and Resulting Maximum Volume
Interval Porosity diameter ( m) 3D porosity Maximum volume ( m
i=1 99.90~74.04 1 1.2510
i=2 74.04~53.49 2 8.5010
i=3 53.49~37.90 7 7.0510
i=4 37.90~24.93 8 2.7410
i=5 24.93~14.64 7 6.4910
i=6 14.65~6.48 289 2.5910
i=7 6.48~0.01 184 1.7710
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:38 PM Page 68
porosity and fractured surface inside a weld.
Many voids and microcracks were observed
surrounding the pores, which might be re-
lated to the isolated particles on the den-
drite boundary. However, the voids and mi-
crocracks are treated as pores for
convenience and simplification. Voids and
microcracks can act with gas pores under
loading, affecting the performance and life
of the material as a whole (Refs. 34, 35).
According to the SS approach, the num-
ber of 3D pores is represented as n volume
intervals of N
(i), where i=1,2n,
and the diameters are
] for the ith
interval, where D
is the diameter of the
largest 3D pore (Ref. 36). Table 2 lists the
volume distribution of the gas pores shown
in Fig. 7.
The 3D size distribution of the total
porosity can be readily derived, and the
best-fit curve for the size was created as a
function of the step plot of percentage, as
shown in Fig. 8A.
Special attention should be paid to the
negative number of pores in the 3D size dis-
tribution, which is primarily caused by in-
herent cumulative error (Ref. 37). Based on
the fitted function of v(x), the correlation of
the maximum volume V(t) and maximum
diameter t can be established as shown in
Fig. 8B. The total pore volume V(t) can be
calculated using the product NvV(t).
Thus, the porosity p(t) of the hybrid welds
under a set of suitable welding parameters
is simply expressed as follows:
V(t)/V (1)
where V is the volume of the specified
welds. It is assumed that V is solely related
to the welding parameters instead of the
size of the pores. It is suggested that a
longer weld pool results in a lower poros-
ity inside the welded joints.
Two assumptions are made to correlate
the total porosity p(t) with the effective
heat input (Q =(
)/v, where
are the energy efficiencies of the
laser and arc heat source, respectively; P
and P
are the total output laser power and
arc heat source power; and v is the weld-
ing speed): V=a
Q, and N
, where a
and a
are undetermined constants, and
is the total retention time of weld pool. By
substituting these equations into Equation
1, the following alternative relationship
can be obtained:
V(t) (2)
where c is an undetermined constant re-
lated to the welding process.
It can be clearly seen that Q not only
can trigger the elemental redistribution in
welds, but it can also drive the production
of gas pores and voids. Therefore, the
welding heat input Q is the principal fac-
tor that determines the mechanical prop-
erties of welded joints. The following sec-
tion is focused on the detailed quantifica-
tion of this relationship between the
tensile strength with the heat input Q and
the porosity p(t).
Strength Model
Different models have been estab-
lished to nondestructively determine the
mechanical properties of commercial Al-
Zn-Mg-Cu alloys (Refs. 3841). However,
little research has been published on the
relationship of the strength to variations in
the strengthening alloying elements,
porosity, and welding heat inputs.
Elastic Modulus-Tensile Strength
In the present formulation, the true
stress-strain responses of the 7075-T6
alloy and its hybrid welded joints are as-
sumed to obey similar exponential func-
tions; therefore, the offset yield strength

at =0.002 is

= B(0.002)

= 0.002E (4)
where B and n are the strength coefficient
and the hardening parameter, respec-
At the uniaxial UTS, the differential of
the load P is zero, which gives an analyti-
cal relationship between the tensile
strength and the spot area A in the form
of dA/A=d/ when necking occurs. Ad-
ditionally, the volume constraint gives the
correlation dL/L=dA/A, where L is the
specimen length. Then the strain at the
necking point
can be obtained as

= n (5)
Based on the strain energy theory at a
given strain, is
= Bn
/1+n (6)
The relationship of the tensile strength
with the elastic modulus E is given by
/E= n
Modeling Weld Strength
The mechanical properties of engi-
neering materials are generally deter-
mined by their chemical composition and
microstructure, but the properties are also
sensitive to various macro- and microdis-
continuities. Gas porosity is considered to
be this type of damage. Therefore, we can
establish a strength model by dividing the
overall property into two main parts: one
part arises from the metallurgical aspect in
the absence of discontinuity, and the other
arises only from microdamage, including
gas porosity, voids, microcracks, and in-
clusions, in the absence of metallurgical
modification of the structures and ele-
ments. Therefore, the elastic modulus can
be rewritten as follows:
where E
is the corresponding measure of
weld flaws induced by gas pores, and E
the value of the BM. Thus, the practical
elastic modulus E
is expanded as follows:
where E
is the contribution of the mi-
crostructure in terms of chemical compo-
sition, and E
can be measured through
tensile tests, as shown in Fig. 9.
The correlation coefficient (R
, with a
value of 0.9230) suggests a good correlation
between the measured E
with the given
heat inputs. By incorporating Equations
79 and establishing a best-fit equation, we
can obtain the following:
p t
cQ V t
= + ( )

= + ( )

1 1
1 1

10 ( )

Table 3 Computed Mechanical Properties of the Hybrid 7075-T6 Welds Based on Strength
Model of Hybrid Welds
Q (J/m) E
70.18 266.68 50.79 517.98 98.64
72.43 275.23 52.42 519.14 98.86
77.49 294.46 56.08 521.01 99.22
Mean 73.37 278.79 53.10 519.38 98.91
Table 4 Predicted Properties of the Hybrid 7075-T6 Welds
Q (J/m)
(MPa) Error (%) Weakening (%)
259.56 0.46 49.43
269.27 0.12 51.28
290.37 0.39 55.30
Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:38 PM Page 69
If Equation 7 is applied to the mi-
crostructure-induced strength, the gas
porosity-induced strength of the welds,
and base 7075-T6 materials, the practical
tensile strength can eventually be ex-
pressed as follows:



) (11)
Verification of Strength Model
To verify the proposed strength model,
three sets of hybrid laser arc welds were
conducted. The corresponding porosity
p(t) from Equation 1, the maximum gas
pore diameter t, and the measured ulti-
mate strength
were conveniently ac-
quired. For the first heat input Q
(t)=0.0117, t
=102 m, and

=260.77 MPa. For the second heat
input Q
, p
(t)=0.0038, t
=84 m, and

=269.60 MPa. For the third heat
input Q
, p
(t)=0.0024, t
=107 m, and

=289.23 MPa. The UTS of the BM
=525.10 MPa, and this UTS corre-
sponds to E
=66.21 GPa. By substituting
the data from the above three cases into
Equation 2, the corresponding constants
can be obtained: c
=2589.00, c
and c
=925.55. As a result, the mean con-
stant is c=1510.74.
Based on this empirical constant c, we
can expediently predict the porosities for
the three heat inputs: p
(t)=0.0056, and p
(t)=0.0039. Finally,
we can compute the mechanical strengths
of the welded joints by combining Equa-
tions 7 and 8 with 10, in which the harden-
ing parameter n is 0.18 for the welded
7075-T6 joints. Table 3 lists the calculated
data for E
, and
The alloying-element-induced mi-
crostructure plays the dominant role in
defining the static properties of hybrid
welds, compared with porosity-induced
discontinuities. In other words, the essen-
tial change of the strengthening phases in-
side the welds produces the softening be-
havior. However, the mechanical
performances of the welds are sensitive to
internal discontinuities, such as gas pores,
voids, microcracks, inclusions, segrega-
tions, and impurities when undergoing re-
versed loading and unloading (Refs.
By using the experimental data from
Table 3, the practical ultimate tensile
and softening behavior can
easily be predicted in terms of the com-
puted UTS, as given in Table 4.
It is apparent that the predicted mate-
rial performance agrees with the experi-
mental results, which validates the pro-
posed strength model in terms of the
elements and porosities, as analyzed from
SR-XRF and SR-XRM, respectively.
There is a nearly linear relationship be-
tween the elastic modulus and heat input
for the hybrid welds, compared to that of
the base 7075-T6 material. It is thought
that the inhomogeneity and complex
residual stress leads to greater stiffness.
This type of asymmetry might be visible
from the weld geometry, mechanical prop-
erties, chemical composition, and mi-
crostructure. Furthermore, the disconti-
nuities resulted from the microcracks are
susceptible to significant stress concentra-
tions, which easily generate localized yield
zones, even when the load level is small.
It would be of interest to clarify the fol-
lowing issues in the future. First, the
mechanism of the larger elastic modulus
of welded joints is not clear and requires
further metallurgical proof and character-
ization. Second, the composition and
structure parameters of the newly ob-
served phases or particles should be iden-
tified, characterized, and related to the
complex mechanical behaviors inside the
PMZ near the HAZ. Finally, the accumu-
lated elemental Zn and Cu might corre-
late with the evolution of the strengthen-
ing phases and microsegregations,
formation of hot cracks, and variation of
the hardness. Relevant results will be pre-
sented in subsequent research.
This paper systematically reports a new
quantitative perspective on the softening
behavior of hybrid 7075-T6 butt joints. Sig-
nificant physical softening is observed as a
steep loss in hardness and strength as a re-
sult of the welding process. Elements and
gas pores in the welds are measured using
SR-XRF and SR-XRM, respectively. A
new strength model is then formulated
and validated using the experimental re-
sults. From the present study, the follow-
ing conclusions are obtained:
1. The heat input has great influence on
the strength loss due to welding. A greater
heat input produces a wider softening re-
gion, a wider FZ, and, thus, a lower hard-
ness. The FZ has the lowest hardness at
approximately 95 HV, which produces a
notable decrease in mechanical proper-
ties. This trend is consistent with the
strength variation in terms of the UTS.
2. The strengthening elements Zn and
Cu change dramatically inside the hybrid
7075-T6 welds. The HAZ contains the max-
imum content, and the minimum is found in
the center of the FZ. Because of its higher
melting temperature, Zn evaporates rap-
idly, whereas less Cu collects in the FZ
probably because of inverse segregation. It
is generally thought that the dilution of FM
plays a pronounced effect on the redistrib-
ution of strengthening elements.
3. There are a great number of un-
known grown precipitates found inside the
columnar dendritic grain on the PMZ with
about 100 m width. Either side of the
PMZ has few such triangular particles
whose size varies from 0.1 to 2.5 m.
These precipitated phases contain a large
amount of Zn and a little Fe.
4. The largest size of the metallurgical
pores varies from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. The for-
mulated porosity, p(t)=cQ
V(t), was
found to be proportional to the negative
square of the heat input and maximum di-
ameter of the gas pores.
5. The microstructure-induced
strength without discontinuity and poros-
ity-induced strength without structural
changes are treated independently to es-
tablish a new strength model. It is found
that this model is in agreement with the
experimental data from the heat inputs
and porosity.
6. The predicted results show that the
porosity-induced strength loss has little in-
fluence on the overall strength of the 7075-
T6 joints, whereas the variation in ele-
ment-induced microstructures dominates
the strength.
7. The elastic modulus of the hybrid
welds is greater than that of the base 7075-
T6 aluminum material. Additionally, the
elastic modulus appears to linearly in-
crease with the increase in the heat input.
Financial support from the National
Nature Science Foundation of China
(Grant No. 51005068), the National Basic
Research Program of China (973 Pro-
gram, Grant No. 2011CB 711105-1) and
the Open Research Fund Program of the
State Key Lab of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body (Grant
No.: 31115030) is gratefully acknowl-
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Wu Supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:38 PM Page 71

Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) be-
tween ferritic low-alloy steels and
austenitic alloys are commonly used in
power-generation plants. The less-expen-
sive low-alloy steels are used in the low-
temperature regions of the plant, while
the higher temperatures in the super-
heater regions require the superior corro-
sion resistance and greater creep strength
of more-expensive austenitic alloys. In a
typical power plant, there can be thou-
sands of DMWs, which are frequently cy-
cled between room temperature and
650C (Ref. 1). The DMWs are prone to
premature failure due to differences in
chemistry, thermal expansion, and creep
strength between the two alloys (Refs. 1,
2). Premature failure of these DMWs can
result in forced plant outages that can cost
a power company $250,000$850,000 per
day in lost revenue (Ref. 3). The failures
occur from simultaneous metallurgical
and mechanical factors, including devel-
opment of strength gradients during both
welding and service, formation of a weak
carbon-depleted zone due to carbon mi-
gration, and concentration of stress from
thermal cycling that causes accelerated
creep failure.
The microstructure of DMWs in the
as-welded condition consists of a sharp
concentration gradient across the weld in-
terface that separates the ferritic and
austenitic alloys. During fusion welding,
the combination of the high alloy content
of the austenitic filler metal and fast cool-
ing rate produces a hard martensite band
in the partially mixed zone (PMZ) (Refs.
2, 4, 5). High temperatures encountered
during either postweld heat treatment
(PWHT) or service provide the activation
energy for carbon diffusion to occur down
the chemical potential gradient from the
ferritic steel toward the austenitic alloy
(Refs. 1, 611). This can lead to formation
of a soft carbon denuded zone near the in-
terface on the ferritic steel, and nucleation
and growth of carbides on the austenitic
side that have very high hardness. These
large differences in microstructure and
hardness occur over very short distances
across the weld interface (~ 50100 m)
(Refs. 2, 6, 12). A band of carbides also
forms along the weld interface in the fer-
ritic side of the joint (Ref. 8). The differ-
ence in hardness across the weld interface
increases with increasing aging time due to
nucleation and growth of the interfacial
carbides (Ref. 6). At the same time, strain
is localized along the carbon denuded
zone due to differences in creep strength
(Refs. 1315) while localized stresses de-
velop due to differences in thermal expan-
sion coefficients of the steels (Refs. 16,
17). As a consequence of the hardness and
strength gradients, these stresses are con-
centrated in the weak carbon-depleted
zone, generating creep voids around car-
bides that lead to eventual creep rupture
(Refs. 16, 18).
There are two distinct morphologies of
these carbides that can evolve in DMWs
during aging (Refs. 1, 1822). Type I car-
bides are the ones most frequently ob-
served. These carbides form very close to
the weld interface (~ 1 m) in the HAZ of
the ferritic steel. These carbides initially
form with a spherical shape, but gradually
acquire a lenticular morphology and can
eventually form regions of continuous or
semicontinuous carbides as they grow and
coalesce. The Type II carbides generally
form as a wide band and are associated
Fabrication and Characterization
of Graded Transition Joints for
Welding Dissimilar Alloys
A GTAW system employing dual wire feeders was used to fabricate graded joints
between 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and three austenitic alloys, and all cases showed a
relatively smooth transition in composition
Functionally graded materials have potential for joining dissimilar materials in
many applications. In this work, graded transition joints were fabricated for joining
ferritic and austenitic alloys. A gas tungsten arc welding system employing dual wire
feeders was used to fabricate graded joints between 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and three
austenitic alloys, including IN800, IN82, and 347 stainless steel. All three joint com-
binations were characterized to determine compositional variations, microhardness
profiles, and microstructural evolution. Tensile tests were also performed to evaluate
the high-temperature mechanical properties. In all cases, a relatively smooth transi-
tion in composition was achieved over ~ 50 mm, which represents an increase in
length of approximately three orders of magnitude compared to composition gradi-
ents observed in traditional dissimilar metal welds. Measured composition data from
the transition joints were converted to Ni and Cr equivalents and used with the
Schaeffler diagram to predict the phase distribution along the joints, and good agree-
ment was obtained between the observed and predicted results. Peaks in hardness
were observed along the joints and attributed to the formation of martensite. The ten-
sile properties from 20 to 650C were generally within the range of those expected
for the end member alloys except for the T22-IN82 joint, which exhibited slightly
lower yield and tensile strengths. Solidification cracking was observed in the T22-800
joints in the region that exhibited a fully austenitic solidification mode.
Cr-Mo Steels
Stainless Steels
Graded Transition Joints
( are with the Dept. of Materi-
als Science & Engineering, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pa.
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 72
with the martensite region that forms
within the PMZ. For DMWs prepared
with nickel-based filler metals, the Type I
carbides that form along the interface pro-
vide sites for nucleation and growth of
creep cavities that eventually lead to pre-
mature cracking. For older DMWs made
with stainless steel filler metals, cracking
typically occurs along the prior austenite
grain boundaries (PAGBs) in the ferritic
HAZ at a location of about one or two
grains away from the weld interface.
Several different approaches have been
taken to extend the service life of DMWs.
Nickel-based filler metals reduce the coef-
ficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mis-
match between the austenitic and ferritic
steels. Due to the low solubility and low dif-
fusivity of carbon in Ni-based alloys, carbon
migration is reduced over the service life of
the weld (Refs. 6, 9, 19, 23, 24). The Ni-
based fillers can improve the weld lifetime
by a factor of five compared to austenitic
filler metals (Ref. 23).
Another approach is to separate the
carbon and stainless steels with a material
of intermediate thermal expansion,
known as a trimetallic joint. Several
nickel-based alloys, notably Inco Alloy
800/800H, have a CTE intermediate be-
tween the two steels and have been used
as suitable candidates. Studies on
trimetallic joints (Refs. 19, 25, 26) have
shown a fourfold increase in the lifetime
and a 38% reduction in stress compared to
traditional DMWs. However, failure has
still been observed, indicating that the
steep CTE, microstructure, and property
gradients are still problems.
Building on the idea of the trimetallic
joint, graded transition joints could be de-
veloped to replace
DMWs with an inter-
mediate section in
which the composition
varies continuously
along its length. The
graded joint smoothly
transitions from the
ferritic steel composi-
tion to the stainless
steel composition, allowing two similar
welds to replace the one dissimilar weld.
By continuously grading the composition,
the sharp changes in both composition
and properties of traditional DMWs
would be extended over the whole length
of the component, potentially eliminating
many of the factors that promote failure.
Functionally graded steels have been
produced by a number of different re-
search groups. Mohandesi et al. (Refs. 27,
28) have used transport processes, specif-
ically diffusion of alloying elements, to
produce functionally graded steels with
layers of ferrite, austenite, bainite, and
martensite. Coco et al. (Ref. 29) created
graded Fe-C and Fe-Mn-C steels by par-
tial decarburization. While these tech-
niques appear to work well for low-alloy
and carbon steels, compositional control
of high-alloy steels and other alloys re-
quires other methods. A preliminary study
by Farren et al. (Ref. 30) demonstrated
that a functionally graded material
(FGM) that transitioned from carbon to
stainless steel could be fabricated by the
Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
process. The FGM exhibited a gradual
change in microstructure and hardness,
indicating the sharp gradients in DMWs
can be eliminated.
This paper describes the fabrication,
characterization, and testing of graded
joints with a smooth transition in composi-
tion, microstructure, and properties that
can be used for joining ferritic alloys to
austenitic alloys. The transition joints were
fabricated by a dual-wire gas tungsten arc
welding process and characterized by opti-
cal and electron microscopy, hardness test-
ing, and high-temperature tensile testing.
Future applications of the graded joints are
joining ferritic and austenitic alloys in the
power generation industry.
Three types of graded transition joints
were fabricated: T22 steel to IN82, T22
steel to IN800, and T22 steel to 347 stain-
less steel. These combinations were se-
lected based on previous experience and
their use in fossil-fired power plants. Most
DMWs are currently welded with IN82
filler metal, and IN800 is often used as an
intermediate section between ferritic and
austenitic steels to reduce the CTE gradi-
ent. The T22 - 347 grade was explored to
understand the behavior of a direct transi-
tion between a ferritic and austenitic steel.
Although the LENS system is useful
for making graded transition joints (Ref.

Fig. 1 Picture of a T22 plate that had 50 layers of T22-Alloy 800 graded
material added through the GTAW process to create graded joints, which were
subsequently machined into the tensile bar geometry shown on the right.
Fig. 2 EDS composition (top) and hardness traces of traditional DMW
demonstrating the sharp gradients in composition and properties (Ref. 4).
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 73
30), several significant drawbacks of the
LENS process have been recognized dur-
ing the course of this work. First, the sys-
tem is only capable of producing alloys
from powders. Unfortunately, many alloys
are not readily available in powder form,
particularly for the size ranges required by
the LENS powder feeders. Thus, fabrica-
tion of custom powders is typically re-
quired, which can be quite expensive. Sec-
ond, previous research with the LENS
process (Ref. 31) has shown that only
about 514% of the powder is actually de-
posited, with the remaining being wasted.
As a result, it is difficult to control the heat
flow and deposit composition with pow-
ders because the precise amount of pow-
der that enters into the liquid pool is un-
known. Last, the
deposition rate of
the LENS process
is extremely slow,
making fabrica-
tion of large parts
impractical. Thus,
a gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW)
process using dual
wire feeders was
developed. In this
system, wires
rather than pow-
ders are used, so
all of the material
is fed directly into
the melt pool and
the composition
can be more pre-
cisely controlled.
In addition, the
wires are more
readily available
and generally less
expensive. The
use of wire feeders
also allows for much higher deposition
rates of ~3 kg/h compared to the LENS
system with a deposition rate of only ~0.2
All wire compositions are listed in
Table 1. The diameter of the wires was
0.035 in. (0.9 mm). A 6.35 76.2 610
mm (0.5 3 24 in.) plate of T22
(2.25Cr-1Mo) steel (composition pro-
vided in Table 1) was clamped between
two water-cooled copper plates. Material
was deposited onto the edge of the T22
plate, and after each layer the copper
plates were raised to ensure repeatable
welds were made for each layer. The total
feed rate of the two wires was maintained
at a constant 1.27 m/min (50 in./min), and
individual wire speeds were varied with
each new layer to adjust the composition
and manufacture the grade. The first layer
was deposited with the T22 and austenitic
wire feed rates at 1.25 and 0.025 m/min (49
and 1 in./min), respectively. The second
layer was deposited with the T22 filler
metal at 1.22 m/min (48 in./min) and
austenitic filler metal at 0.05 m/min (2
in./min). These changes continued until 50
layers were deposited. Once the grade was
complete, two inches of additional pure
austenitic material was deposited so that
tensile bars could be machined with the
entire grade contained in the gauge length
of the test sample. A wire brush and
ethanol were used to clean each layer after
cooling. The welding parameters were a
travel speed of 1 mm/s, a total wire feed
rate of 1.27 m/min (50 in./min), a current
of 250 A, a voltage of 13 1 V, and a root
opening of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.).
All graded joints were examined by ra-
diographic X-ray analysis to detect any
cracks or other defects. As shown in Fig. 1,
tensile bars were machined from the
plates so that the entire grade was con-
tained in the reduced section. Tensile tests
were performed at 20, 250, 350, 450,
550, and 650C in air using an exten-
someter at a strain rate of 0.127
mm/mm/min (0.005 in./in./min) through
yield and then 1.27 to 2.54 mm/mm/min
(0.05 to 0.10 in./in./min) to fracture. Two
samples were tested at each temperature.
Additional samples were cut from the
graded transition joints for metallo-
graphic analysis. The samples were
mounted in cold-setting epoxy, ground
using SiC papers, and polished using 6-
and 1-m diamond and 0.05-m colloidal
silica. The T22 half of the grade was
etched using 2% Nital for 57 s. The alloy
IN800 and IN82 halves were immersion

MARCH 2013, VOL. 92
Fig. 3 Plot of EDS and microhardness data as a function of distance for an
as-welded T22-347 graded joint. Vertical lines correspond to phase boundaries
from the Schaeffler diagram (A austenite, F ferrite, M martensite).
Fig. 4 EDS composition data for each of the three graded joint combi-
nations plotted as nickel and chromium equivalents on the Schaeffler dia-
gram, which was used to determine the positions of the phase boundaries
drawn as dark vertical lines in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 Plot of EDS and microhardness data for as-welded T22-IN82 graded
joint. Vertical lines correspond to phase boundaries from the Schaeffler diagram
(A austenite, M martensite). Lettered arrows correspond to locations of pho-
tomicrographs shown in Fig. 6.
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 74
etched with Marbles reagent for 510 s,
while the 347 half was electrolytically
etched using Lucass reagent at 3 V for 15
s. Photomicrographs were recorded using
an Olympus BH-2 optical microscope and
Pax-It software. Microhardness measure-
ments were performed on the graded
joints using a Leco M400-FT hardness
tester with a 10-g load, 15-s dwell time, and
50-m spacing between indents.
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
(EDS) composition analysis was con-
ducted using a Hitachi 4300 FE scanning
electron microscope (SEM) with an
EDAX X-ray detector. An accelerating
voltage of 20 kV was used for line scan
measurements with 100-m spacing and
20-s dwell time. A set of standards of each
material (T22, 347, 800, IN82) whose com-
position had been confirmed by wet chem-
ical analysis was used for calibration of the
EDS measurements.
Results and Discussion
As described previously, the sharp gra-
dient in the composition, microstructure,
and properties across the weld interface of
DMWs between ferritic and austenitic al-
loys is the primary cause of premature fail-
ure. An example of the sharp concentra-
tion gradients in a conventional DMW is
shown in Fig. 2 as a basis for comparison,
where composition data are plotted as a
function of distance across the weld (Ref.
4). The primary alloying elements, nickel
and chromium, both decrease sharply
from 12 and 17 wt-% in the stainless steel
to <1 wt-% in the ferritic steel. These
composition changes occur over a distance
of only ~80 m. The abrupt compositional
changes lead to steep property gradients
as well, as seen in the microhardness tra-
verse in Fig. 2. The hardness increases
from 200 Knoop in the ferritic steel to a
maximum of 600 Knoop in the partially
mixed zone before decreasing back to 250
Knoop in the stainless steel. The peak in
hardness is associated with a band of
martensite that forms along the weld

Table 1 Certified Compositions (wt-%) of the Alloy Wires Used to Construct the Graded Joints
Material Al C Cr Cu Mn Mo Nb Ni Si Ti Fe
2.25Cr-1Mo 0.01 0.07 2.39 0.14 0.59 0.94 0.00 0.05 0.47 0.00 95.33
Alloy 800H 0.42 0.09 20.97 0.27 1.03 0.16 0.15 34.65 0.44 0.56 41.12
347 0.00 0.05 19.43 0.13 1.68 0.20 0.63 9.13 0.46 0.00 68.23
Inconel 82 0.00 0.10 20.00 0.50 3.00 0.00 2.50 67.00 0.50 0.75 3.00
Fig. 6 Representative photomicrographs from the T22-IN82 graded joint. Letters correspond to arrows in Fig. 5: A Tempered martensite; B transition
between tempered martensite and lath martensite; C transition between martensite and austenite; D austenite.
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 75
The goal of graded transition joints is
to eliminate these sharp composition and
property gradients. Figure 3 shows micro-
hardness and composition data for a T22-
347 graded joint as a function of distance.
Note the composition changes gradually
over a distance of ~50 mm, compared to
~50100 m that is typically observed for
conventional DMWs. The microhardness
data also show that the sharp changes in
hardness have been elongated over a
much greater distance compared to tradi-
tional DMWs.
The expected distribution of phases
along the joint can be understood by con-
verting the composition data to chromium
and nickel equivalents for use on the
Schaeffler diagram (Ref. 32). For this, the
concentration of major alloying elements
was measured directly via EDS. Concen-
trations of carbon and minor alloying ele-
ments were determined with the approach
previously described by DuPont and
Kusko (Ref. 4). The dilution within each
location was first calculated with the
measured composition data of the major
alloying elements. The concentration of
carbon and minor alloying elements was
then estimated by backcalculation from
knowledge of the known dilution and filler
metal compositions. Figure 4 shows the re-
sults plotted on the Schaeffler diagram
(composition data for the other grades are
also provided on this plot). Combination
of the results shown in Figs. 3 and 4 per-
mit estimation of the phase distribution
within the joints, and these locations are
shown on the compositional plot in Fig. 3.
Note that the increase in hardness that be-
gins at ~9 mm corresponds reasonably
well to the point in the grade where
martensite is expected to form. The hard-
ness then gradually decreases across the
martensite region from ~400450 HV at
20 mm to ~200 HV at 55 mm, which is the
nominal hardness for T22.
Similar trends in the composition and
microhardness data were observed for the
T22-IN82 and T22-800 graded joints as
shown in Figs. 5 and 7, respectively. These
graded joints also have a gradual change
in composition over ~50 mm. Light opti-
cal photomicrographs are provided in Fig.
6 for the T22-IN82 joint as an example of
the microstructures observed in the
graded joints. Each photomicrograph cor-
responds to one of the phase fields pre-
dicted by the Schaeffler diagram. The mi-
crostructure shown for the 50-mm
location (Fig. 6A) consists of tempered
martensite, as expected for the T22 end of
the joint. The photomicrograph at 43 mm
(Fig. 6B) shows the transition between the
tempered martensite of the T22 base
metal and the as-quenched lath marten-
site that forms where the composition be-
gins to change. Figure 6C, at 38 mm, shows
the transition between the austenite +
martensite to the single-phase austenite
region. Finally, the micrograph from 8 mm
(Fig. 6D) corresponds to the austenitic mi-
crostructure observed for IN82. Similar
microstructures were observed for the
T22-347 and T22-800 joints.
Hardness peaks correspond to regions
of the joints where the martensite phase is
stable. The width of the martensite-
containing regions varies for all three
joints, from ~35 mm for the T22-347 to
only ~10 mm for the T22-IN82. As de-
scribed in previous work (Ref. 4), this is
due to the variations in the width of the
compositional gradients for each transi-
tion joint. The steepest concentration gra-
dient occurs for the T22-IN82 joint, where
the nickel and chromium contents de-
crease from 67 and 20 wt-%, respectively,
in the IN82 down to <1 and 2 wt-% in the
T22. This steep concentration gradient re-
sults in a relatively narrow martensite
band, as seen in Fig. 5. Conversely, the
T22-347 joint has a smaller gradient in
composition and a wider martensite band
Fig. 3. The variation in the width of the
martensite band is due to the variation in
martensite start (Ms) temperature with
composition (Ref. 4). It is known that al-
loying elements such as Ni, Cr, Mn, and
Mo reduce the Ms temperature (Ref. 34).
Thus, for the IN82, the large composition
gradient pushes the Ms temperature
below room temperature at a relatively
short distance from the T22/graded joint
interface. This stabilizes the austenite at a
concomitantly short distance from the in-
terface, producing a relatively thin
martensite layer. In contrast, the relatively
small concentration gradient of the
T22/347 grade causes the Ms temperature
to drop below room temperature at a
larger distance from the interface, thus
producing a larger martensite layer.
The hardness gradients observed in the
transition joints occur over distances of
~510 mm and are considerably less se-
vere than those observed in conventional
DMWs in which the same hardness gradi-
ents occur over ~240 m (Refs. 4, 6). The
effect of the local hardness changes needs
to be determined with long-term creep
testing. Any possible detrimental effect
may be minimized by more gradual
changes in composition across the graded
joint in the regions where martensite is
known to form. This will be evaluated in
future work.
Figures 810 show the tensile proper-
ties as a function of temperature for each
of the graded joints. Also shown on the
plots are minimum values (shown as solid
lines) for the T22, 347, 800, and IN82 ma-
terials (elongation data are not available
for the IN82 as deposited filler metal). A
schematic tensile bar shows the failure lo-
cations as dotted lines for each test tem-
perature, and the phase boundaries based
on the variation in composition from the
Schaeffler diagram are also indicated as
solid vertical lines.
The ductility and yield strength results
for the T22-347 and T22-IN800 grades fall
within the range for the end member al-
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 76-s

Fig. 7 Plot of EDS and microhardness data as a function of distance for as-welded T22-800 graded
joint. Vertical lines correspond to phase boundaries from the Schaeffler diagram (A austenite, M
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 76
loys, while the tensile strength is close to
that of the lower strength material at each
temperature. In general, yielding followed
by eventual fracture is expected to occur in
the weakest region of the joint. However,
there are other factors to consider when
interpreting tensile data from graded ma-
terials. For example, the overall yield
strength can be increased due to con-
straint of deformation in a soft region
from a hard neighboring region that re-
stricts plastic flow. This could account for
the yield strength of the graded joint being
above that of the weaker alloy for the
T22/347 and T22/800 transition joints. In
addition, work hardening of the soft re-
gion can produce a shift of the fracture
from the region of initial deformation to
another region.
The data in Fig. 9 for the T22-IN82
joint demonstrate that this alloy combina-
tion exhibits yield and tensile strengths
slightly below the nominal alloy proper-
ties. All of the failures occurred close to
the T22 side of the joint, which may be at-
tributed to the reduced tensile strength of
T22 relative to IN82. The 20C results
shown in Fig. 9 are similar to those ob-
served by Slaughter (Ref. 35) in DMWs
between T22 and 304 stainless steel made
with IN82 filler metal. The conventional
T22-IN82-304 DMW exhibited yield and
tensile strengths of 298 and 503 MP and
failed in the T22 base metal. This is simi-
lar to the values of 300 and 490 MPa for
the T22-IN82 graded joint that also failed
very close to the T22 side of the joint.
The T22-800 graded joint exhibited
solidification cracking as shown in the ra-
diographs in Fig. 11 and light optical
photomicrographs in Fig. 12. (Samples
for tensile testing were extracted from
crack-free locations.) The cracks are
concentrated in an area of the X-ray that
appears the lightest, indicating higher
density associated with the fcc austenite
phase. This light (high-density) region
extends from 11 to 22 mm along the
grade and, as shown in Fig. 7, occurs in
the fully austenitic region. Also note that
the cracks are located along the grain
boundaries, which is typical for solidifi-
cation cracks. It is well known that alloys
that solidify as primary austenite are
more prone to solidification cracking.
Alloy 800 is not commonly used in filler
metal form as done in this research. The
results presented here indicate that fur-
ther work would be required to identify
the cause of cracking. Composition mod-
ifications may be needed before this
alloy is used in a transition joint. At this
point, it appears more appropriate to uti-
lize the T22-IN82 transition joint in favor
of the T22-800 combination in order to
avoid this problem, since the IN82 end of
the transition is compatible with many
other austenitic alloys.
Functionally graded transition joints
were fabricated using a dual-wire GTAW
process and used for microstructural and
mechanical property characterization.
The following conclusions can be drawn
from this work.
1. The transition joints exhibited a
smooth transition in composition over a
distance of ~50 mm, which is significantly
longer than the concentration differences
typically observed in traditional dissimilar
metal welds that occur over distances of
~50100 m.
2. Measured composition data from the
transition joints were converted to Ni and
Cr equivalents and used with the Schaeffler
diagram to predict the phase distribution
along the joints, and good agreement was
obtained between the observed and pre-
dicted results.
3. Peaks in hardness were observed
along the joints and were attributed to
the formation of martensite.
4. The tensile properties from 20 to
650C were generally within the range of
those expected for the end member alloys
except for the T22-IN82 joint, which ex-
hibited slightly lower yield and tensile
5. Solidification cracking was ob-
served in the T22-800 joints in the region
that exhibited a fully austenitic solidifica-
tion mode.
Work is in progress to evaluate the
aging and creep-rupture behavior of
these joints and will be reported in future
The authors gratefully acknowledge fi-
nancial support through National Science
Foundation Grant No. CMMI-0758622,
the NSF Center for Integrated Materials
Joining Science for Energy Applications,
Grant IIP-1034703, PPL Corp., Contract
00474836, The Idaho Engineering Labo-
ratory through Contract IIP-1034703, and
the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technol-
ogy Alliance. Useful technical discussions
with Ruben Choug and Robert Schneider
of PPL Corp. and Ron Mizia and Mike
Patterson of INL are also gratefully ap-
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Fig. 8 Plots of percent elongation, yield strength, and tensile strength as a function of temperature for a
graded transition joint between T22 and 347. The minimum nominal alloy data (Refs. 13, 14, 36) are shown
for comparison. The failure locations for each temperature are shown by the dotted lines on the schematic
tensile bar above, along with the phase boundaries from the Schaeffler diagram.
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 77
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14. Data Sheets on the Elevated-Temperature
Properties of 18Cr-12Ni-Nb Stainless Steel Tubes
for Boilers and Heat Exchangers (SUS 347H TB).
2001. 1-3 (National Research Institute for Met-
als, Japan).
15. Nath, B. 1982. Creep rupture and creep
crack growth behavior of transition joints. In-
ternational Conference on Welding Technology
for Energy Applications pp. 597621.
16. Parker, J. D. 1994. High temperature
failure of thick-section, low alloy steel to stain-
less steel transition weld. Materials at High Tem-
peratures 12: 2533.
17. Tucker, J., and Eberle, F. 1956. Devel-
opment of a ferritic-austenitic weld joint for
steam plant application. Welding Journal 35:
529-s to 540-s.
18. Parker, J. D., and Stratford, G. C. 2001.
The high-temperature performance of nickel-
based transition joints: I. Deformation behavior.
Materials Science and Engineering A299: 164173.
19. Parker, J., and Stratford, G. 1999. Re-
view of factors affecting condition assessment
of nickel based transition joints. Science and
Technology of Welding & Joining 4: 2939.

Fig. 9 Plots of percent elongation, yield strength, and tensile strength as a function of temperature for graded
transition joints between T22 and IN82. The minimum nominal alloy data (Refs. 13, 37) are shown for com-
parison (except percent elongation data for IN82). All failures occurred between the dotted lines on the
schematic tensile bar above. Also shown are the phase boundaries from the Schaeffler diagram.
Fig. 10 Plots of percent elongation, yield strength, and tensile strength as a function of temperature for
a graded transition joint between T22 and Alloy 800. The minimum nominal alloy data (Refs. 13, 3840)
are shown for comparison. The failure locations for each temperature are shown by the dotted lines on
the schematic tensile bar above, along with the phase boundaries from the Schaeffler diagram.
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:36 PM Page 78

20. Parker, J. D., and Stratford, G. C. 2001.
The high-temperature performance of nickel-
based transition joints: II. Fracture behavior. Ma-
terials Science and Engineering A 299: 174184.
21. Ryder, R., et al. 1984. Dissimilar metal
weld failures in power plants Causes and
remedies. Trends in Electric Utility Research.
22. Roberts, D., Ryder, R., and Viswanathan,
R. 1985. Performance of dissimilar welds in serv-
ice. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 107:
23. Williams, J. A., and Parker, J. D. 1994.
Effect of thermal cycling on creep behavior of
2.25Cr-1Mo/Type 316 steel dissimilar metal
welds. Materials Science and Technology 10:
24. Jones, W. 1974. Heat treatment effect on
2CrMo joints welded with a nickel-base elec-
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25. King, J. F., Sullivan, M. D., and Slaughter,
G. M. 1977. Development of an improved stain-
less steel to ferritic steel transition joint. Welding
Journal 56(11): 354-s to 358-s.
26. Bhaduri, A. K., et al. 1992. Performance
of a trimetallic transition joint. Materials at High
Temperatures 10: 4550.
27. Mohandesi, J. A., and Shahosseine, M.
H. 2005. Transformation characteristics of func-
tionally graded steels produced by electroslag
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tions A 36A: 34713476.
28. Mohandesi, J. A., Shahosseinie, M. H.,
and Namin, R. P. 2006. Tensile behavior of func-
tionally graded steels produced by electroslag
remelting. Metallurgical and Materials Transac-
tions A 37A: 21252132.
29. Coco, L., et al. 2008. The mechanical re-
sponse of compositionally graded materials.
Materials Science and Engineering: A 483484:
30. Farren, J. D., DuPont, J. N., and
Noecker, F. 2007. Fabrication of a carbon
steel-to-stainless steel transition joint using di-
rect laser deposition A feasibility study.
Welding Journal 86: 55-s to 61-s.
31. Unocic, R., and DuPont, J. 2004. Process
efficiency measurements in the laser engi-
neered net shaping process. Metallurgical and
Materials Transactions B 35: 143152.
32. Scheaffler, A. 1949. Constitution dia-
gram for stainless steel weld metal. Metal
Progress 56: 680.
33. Regina, J., DuPont, J., and Marder, A.
2007. The effect of chromium on the weldabil-
ity and microstructure of Fe-Cr-Al weld
cladding. Welding Journal 86(6): 170-s to 178-s.
34. Grange, R., and Stewart, H. 1946. Trans.
AIME 167: 467490.
35. Slaughter, G. M., and Housley, T. 1964.
The welding of ferritic steels to austenitic stain-
less steels. Welding Journal 43(10): 454-s to
36. Data Sheets on the Elevated-Temperature
Properties of 18Cr-10Ni-Nb Stainless Steel Tube
for Boilers and Heat Exchangers (ASME SA-
213/SA-213M Grade TP347HFG). 2010. 1-2
(National Research Institute for Metals,
37. Klueh, R. L., and King, J. F. 1977. Ele-
vated-Temperature Tensile Properties of ERNiCr-
3 Weld Metal. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge Na-
tional Laboratory.
38. Data Sheets on the Elevated-Temperature
Properties of Iron Based 21Cr-32Ni-Ti-Al Alloy
for Heat Exchanger Seamless Tubes (NCF 800H
TB). 1998. 1-2 (National Research Institute for
Metals, Japan).
39. Data Sheets on the Elevated-Temperature
Stress Relaxation Properties of Iron Based 21Cr-
32Ni-Ti-Al Alloy for Corrosion-Resisting and Heat-
Resisting Superalloy Bar (NCF 800H-B). 1999. 1-2
(National Research Institute for Metals, Japan).
40. Data Sheets on the Elevated-Temperature
Properties of Iron Based 21Cr-32Ni-Ti-Al Superal-
loy for Corrosion-resisting and Heat-resisting Su-
peralloy Plates (NCF 800H-P). 2000. 1-2 (National
Research Institute for Metals, Japan).
Fig. 11 X-ray radiographs of as-welded T22-800 graded joint showing evidence of so-
lidification cracking: A Light-colored (more dense) region showing cracks through-
out that region of the grade; B close-up view of the cracks.
Fig. 12 Light optical photomicrographs of solidi-
fication cracks in T22-800 graded joint.
Bentrup supplement March 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 2:15 PM Page 79
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 80-s

Grade 91 steel, known as the modified
9Cr-1Mo-V, designated as P91 for pipe
and plate (ASTM A335 P91), and T91 for
tube (ASTM A213 T91), is a creep-en-
hanced ferritic steel that has been widely
used in power-generating applications as a
header, superheater, and reheater. Ini-
tially developed by Sikka et al. (Ref. 1), the
alloy was to have an improved strength
and toughness for liquid metal fast
breeder reactor. Then the alloy was mod-
ified by adding vanadium, nickel, alu-
minum, niobium, and nitrogen to become
the modified 9Cr-1Mo-V steel. Properties
such as high thermal conductivity, better
resistance to stress corrosion cracking,
lower thermal expansion coefficient, and
high resistance to thermal fatigue made
Grade 91 a better replacement for lower
alloy steels for piping and vessels. With su-
perior mechanical properties such as
yield, ultimate tensile, and creep rupture
strengths matching or exceeding that of
9Cr-1Mo, 2
4Cr-1Mo, HT9, EM12, and
304 stainless, Grade 91 was identified
(Ref. 2) as a material of choice in the
petrochemical and nuclear industry.
The as-received material of Grade 91
undergoes normalizing-and-tempering
heat treatment to achieve better mechan-
ical properties. The ASME code requires
that the steel be normalized at
10381149C and tempered at a mini-
mum temperature of 732C. A fully tem-
pered martensite matrix, with finely dis-
persed carbides, and carbo-nitrides pre-
cipitation on the grain boundaries, is the
typical microstructure. The carbides are of
-type, M being metallic elements,
mainly Cr and Fe, Mn, and Mo if present;
and the grain boundary carbonitrides are
of MX-type, M being Nb and V, and X
being C and N (Ref. 3).
When the as-received material under-
goes manufacturing processes such as weld-
ing, the mechanical properties will change
due to phase transformations, including the
formation of fresh martensite. It becomes
necessary to conduct a postweld heat treat-
ment (PWHT) below the A
for some period of time to temper the
martensite and achieve the desired mi-
crostructure and mechanical properties.
Because the degree of martensitic harden-
ing depends upon the material chemical
composition and welding conditions, the
correct control of time and temperature for
the PWHT becomes critical. Instead of only
performing tempering, it would be better to
do both normalizing and tempering after
welding to achieve better creep properties
as suggested by Santella et al. (Ref. 4).
The impact toughness as influenced by
PWHT becomes important when control-
ling the delayed weld cracking during man-
ufacturing, the room-temperature pressure
testing, and startup of a unit after installa-
tion and maintenance. Although various
papers have been published on impact
toughness of the weld metal Grade 91
(Refs. 57), the toughness of the heat-
affected zone (HAZ) has not been studied
in detail. The objective of this paper is to
study the impact toughness of the HAZs in
Grade 91 joints as affected by PWHT both
below and above the A
Experimental Procedure
Welding and Heat Treatment
ASTM A335 P91/ASME SA335 P91 pipe
Effect of Postweld Heat Treatment on
the Toughness of Heat-Affected Zone
for Grade 91 Steel
After investigating the impact toughness of the heat-affected zone for
Grade 91 steel welds, it was discovered that 760C for 2 h
postweld heat treatment can significantly increase the cross-weld toughness
of the heat-affected zone
Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ)
Grade 91
Postweld Heat Treatment
B. SILWAL, L. LI (, A. DE-
CEUSTER, and B. GRIFFITHS are with the De-
partment of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,
Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
Presented during the AWS Professional Program at
FABTECH 2012, Las Vegas, Nev.
The impact toughness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) for Grade 91 steel welds
has been experimentally investigated. The as-welded multipass HAZ has a significant
scatter in toughness, due to variations in the Charpy notch location and the path of
fracture propagation. The cross-weld Charpy specimen gives a toughness value that
can be attributed to contributions by the weld metal, various HAZ regions, and the
base metal. The microstructure evolution of various HAZ regions during postweld heat
treatment (PWHT) has been investigated and used to explain the toughness changes.
A 760C for 2 h PWHT can significantly increase the cross-weld toughness of the HAZ.
The measured weld HAZ toughness can be understood using a linear additive model
that employs as the inputs the toughness values of various HAZ regions reproduced
on the Gleeble. The toughness of the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ)
recovers the slowest as a function of increasing PWHT temperature, and remains low
until a 730C heat treatment. To guarantee an adequate HAZ toughness, a PWHT of
at least 730C is recommended. Postweld heat treatment above the A
will result in the formation of fresh martensite, which decreases the toughness and in-
creases the hardness of all HAZ regions. Postweld heat treatment 20C below the A
temperature for 2 h has produced the highest toughness and lowest hardness of all
HAZ regions.
SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:39 PM Page 80

was used as base metal. The as-received
pipe had an 8.625 in. (219 mm) outer di-
ameter, 1.143 in. (29 mm) thickness, and
was normalized for 8 min at 1060C and
tempered for 45 min at 786C. The chem-
ical composition of the material is given in
Table 1.
Two 5-in.- (127-mm-) long pipes were
welded together by gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) and flux cored arc welding
(FCAW) processes. The double-V weld
groove had a 60-deg included angle with a
1.5-mm root face. The same process was re-
peated eight times to conduct a full factorial
design of the welding process parameters of
maximum and minimum preheat tempera-
ture, interpass temperature, and heat input
(as mentioned maximum being high and
minimum being low hereafter). Gas tung-
sten arc welding was used for the root pass
with 300 A DC and 1.27 m/min wire feed
speed, and FCAW was used for the filling
passes with 26.1 and 27 V arc voltage and
6.35 and 7.62 m/min wire feed speed. The
0.14 m/min linear travel speed was main-
tained by a stepper motor controlled fixture.
Pure argon shielding was used for GTAW
and mixed 75/25 argon/CO
shielding was
used for FCAW. The filler metal was 1.2-
mm-diameter ER90S-B9 for GTAW, and
ER91T1-B9 for FCAW. The linear travel
speed was 0.292 m/min.
Sixteen Type-K thermocouples were
placed on different locations from the
edge of the weld groove to measure the
temperature profile. Two 8-channel data
loggers were used to record the tempera-
ture measurements with a sampling fre-
quency of 5 Hz. After welding, the loca-
tions of the thermocouples were
remeasured relative to the weld interface
line, which was assumed to have experi-
enced the melting temperature. The mi-
crostructure from the HAZ of the as-
welded specimen was then analyzed, and
the HAZ locations were identified and
measured from the weld interface. For in-
stance, the intercritical heat-affected zone
(ICHAZ) was identified to be about 2.1
mm from the weld interface for weld #5.
The thermocouple located at or near 2.0
mm from the weld interface was then iden-
tified as that representing the ICHAZ
thermal cycle.
The interpass temperature was also
maintained with the use of a ceramic pad
heater and surface temperature probe
Fig. 1 Schematic of the Charpy coupon extraction and location of the
notch relative to the weld metal on the left and HAZ in the base metal.
Fig. 2 Measured and Gleeble-simulated thermal cycle for the
is programmed temperature that duplicates the
measured temperature, and TC1 is the actual temperature achieved
in the specimen on the Gleeble.
Table 1 Chemical Composition of Grade 91Base Material and Filler Metals (wt-%)
ER90S-B9 E91T1-B9 Base Metal
C 0.097 0.1 0.11
Mn 0.56 0.79 0.37
Si 0.25 0.28 0.37
S 0.004 0.008 0.002
P 0.006 0.02 0.016
Cr 8.83 9.1 8.47
Ni 0.307 0.55 0.08
Mo 0.928 0.88 0.94
Nb 0.064 0.03 0.071
N 0.03 0.05 0.0476
47 ppm
Ti 0.001
Al 0.002 0.001 0.002
V 0.197 0.2 0.19
Cu 0.013 0.04
As 0.003 0.002
Sn 0.003 0.008
Sb 0.003 0.002
B 0.0007
Zr 0.001
CO 0.028
Ca 0.003
Ta 0.001
W 0.005
3 ppm
Ni+Mn 0.867 1.34
Table 2 Average Impact Energy Values for Various Simulated HAZs, and the Base
and Filler Metals in Both the As-Welded and Heat-Treated Conditions
Condition As-welded (J) PWHT: 760C-2H (J)
Base Metal (BM) 229 242
Weld Metal (WM) 7 56
CGHAZ 10 184
FGHAZ 75 246
ICHAZ 180 239
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MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 82-s

with an accuracy of temperature control at
10C. The preheat temperature before
welding was between 150 and 250C. The
interpass temperature during welding was
between 200 and 300C. A pneumatic
descaler and wire brushing were used for
slag removal. A postweld bake-out at
250C temperature for 4 h was conducted
with temperature-controlled ceramic heat
pads. Subsequently, the as-welded joints
were PWHT in a furnace for 2 h at various
Impact Test
Charpy impact specimens were ex-
tracted in the pipes longitudinal direction
from the middle thickness of both the as-
welded and PWHT joints. Standard Charpy
impact V-notch specimens (10 10 25
mm) were prepared according to ASTM
A370 (Ref. 8). All specimens were
macroetched to reveal the fusion boundary,
which served as the location for the notch so
that the fracture path would traverse the
HAZ Fig. 1. Three specimens in the as-
welded condition and four specimes in the
PWHT condition were impact tested at
room temperature. Standard metallo-
graphic procedure was followed to prepare
the specimens for optical microscopy. The
polished specimens were etched with the
Nital (10% nitric acid in methanol) or Le
Pera reagent (4% picric acid in ethanol
mixed with a 1% sodium metabisulfite in
distilled water in an 1:1 volume ratio) to an-
alyze the microstructure.
Microstructure Simulation
To magnify the small HAZ regions so
that large samples of similar microstruc-
ture can be tested, a Gleeble 1500D was
used to simulate the multipass welding
process. The measured thermal cycle for
each individual HAZ was reproduced in
three smooth Charpy specimens. As an ex-
ample, the thermal cycle for the as-welded
coarse-grained heat-affected zone
(CGHAZ) is shown Fig. 2. The simu-
lated samples were then heat treated at
different temperatures from 600 to 840C
with a temperature difference of 40C.
Notches were machined in the middle of
the test specimens. Two specimens for
each tempering temperature were tested
and both results were reported.
The average energy values for these
pure metals (of the simulated HAZ re-
gions, fusion zone, and base metal) are
listed in Table 2. This method of creating
simulated samples by using the thermal
cycle is different from most previous stud-
ies, because not only the first peak tem-
perature but also the subsequent temper-
ature peaks by multipasses were applied to
achieve similar properties of the as-
welded samples. The transformation tem-
peratures A
, A
, M
, and M
ture for the Grade 91 base metal were also
measured using dilatometry on the Glee-
ble. The specimen was heated at a rate
of 100/min from room temperature to
728C, then the heating rate was switched
to 28/h to heat to 1300C, at which point
the specimen was allowed to naturally cool
to room temperature. A precise exten-
someter measured the diameter change
Fig. 3 Charpy impact test results from specimens in the as-welded condition for different welding parameters.
Fig. 4 Fracture path of an example of Charpy impact-tested, as-welded
specimen. The fracture originated from the notch (in the lower-left cor-
ner), passed through the weld metal, HAZ, and base metal.
Fig. 5 Charpy impact test results for joints heat treated at 760C for 2 h. The
joints were made using different welding parameters.

SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:39 PM Page 82


during the entire heating and cooling
Results and Discussion
Toughness of the HAZ
The impact energy values for the
HAZs in the as-welded samples are shown
in Fig. 3. The average impact energy ex-
ceeds 180 J for the as-welded samples. The
difference in impact energy values with
different process parameters during weld-
ing is not significant, although a greater
preheat temperature (250C) seems to
have produced wider scatter in impact en-
ergy of the HAZ. Lower preheat (150C)
seems to have produced a much narrower
scatter band in impact energy of the HAZ.
A few as-welded samples have impact en-
ergy values close to 30 J.
An inspection of the fracture path re-
veals the propagation of fracture in these
low toughness specimens originates from
the notch and passes through the weld
metal, HAZ, and base metal Fig. 4. The
weld metal in the as-welded condition has
an impact energy of 7 J. Clearly, the meas-
ured impact energy is a sensitive function
of the position of the
notch for the heteroge-
neous weld joint. Similar
observations have been
made by other re-
searchers, such as
Moitra et al. (Ref. 10)
and Jang et al. (Ref. 11),
in a study of the effect of
notch location on impact
toughness of weld metal
and HAZ.
After a PWHT at
760C for 2 h, the im-
pact energy of all HAZ
specimens has increased
consistently Fig. 5.
The minimum energy
level for joints made
using different welding
parameters is 220 J. The wide scatter of
impact energy levels for the as-welded
weld HAZ has been narrowed down. An
inspection of fractography of tested
specimens revealed the fracture paths to
be consistently starting from the notch,
traversing the HAZ and base metal.
None of the fracture paths in the heat-
treated samples has deviated into the
weld metal, which after the 760C for 2 h
heat treatment, has the impact toughness
increased from 7 to 56 J.
Contribution to Toughness by Individual
The Gleeble-simulated microstruc-
ture is verified to be similar to that from the
Fig. 6 A Microstructure of the CGHAZ from weld test #5; B the corresponding simulated multipass CGHAZ microstructure. Nital etching.
Fig. 7 Charpy impact energy results of different HAZs after PWHT
at various temperatures for 2 h.
Fig. 8 A XRD spectrum of the as-received base metal Grade 91;
B magnified lower 2 angle portion showing an M
carbide peak;
C XRD spectrum of a specimen air-cooled from 840C, showing
broadening of peaks, indicated by the arrows, due to fresh martensite.
SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:39 PM Page 83
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 84-s

HAZs of the welded samples. An example
comparison of microstructures for the
CGHAZ is shown in Fig. 6. The two mi-
crostructures not only share the same grain
size, but also the martensitic substructure,
size, and amount of carbide particles. Such
simulated microstructure for the entire
cross-section of the Charpy specimen en-
ables an accurate evaluation of impact
toughness of individual HAZs.
The Charpy impact results of the simu-
lated HAZ samples heat treated at various
temperatures for 2 h are shown in Fig. 7.
Among the three HAZ regions, the ICHAZ
exhibits the highest toughness, while the
CGHAZ has the lowest toughness and fine-
grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ) has
an intermediate toughness. The CGHAZ
exhibits the lowest impact energy following
a 600C, 2-h heat treatment. This low tough-
ness remains until the PWHT temperature
is at 720C. The impact energy of CGHAZ
then increases significantly when the
PWHT temperature is 760C. A PWHT at
800C results in the peak toughness for the
CGHAZ. The impact toughness then de-
creases when the PWHT temperature is
840C. The ICHAZ toughness remains at
220 J for PWHT temperatures below 760C,
and reaches the peak value following an
800C heat treatment. The ICHAZ tough-
ness also decreases when the PWHT tem-
perature is 840C. The FGHAZ toughness
increases with a higher PWHT temperature
between 600 and 720C. After the 720C
PWHT, the FGHAZ toughness has in-
creased to the same level as that of the
ICHAZ. Further increases in the PWHT
temperature from 720C result in the exact
same toughness for both the FGHAZ and
ICHAZ. A notable trend is that all HAZ re-
gions reach the peak toughness following an
800C PWHT; and all HAZ regions lose
toughness following an 840C PWHT.
The measured impact toughness re-
ported in Fig. 5 represents the total energy
for the fracture to traverse the entire speci-
men. The fracture path may have traversed
the weld metal, various HAZ zones, and the
base metal. As a first approximation, we can
consider the total impact energy (E
) to
be consisted of a linear summation of con-
tributions by various zones as follows:
= (E
+ E
+ E
) +
+ E
where E
is the energy contribution
of the CGHAZ, E
is the energy
contribution of the FGHAZ, E
is the
energy contribution of the intercritical
is the energy contribution of
the weld metal, and E
is the contribu-
tion of the base metal.
Because the Charpy specimen has a
uniform width, the contribution of indi-
vidual zones to the total Charpy impact
energy can be calculated using the meas-
ured fracture length in each zone. For ex-
ample, for the contribution of base metal
) to the total impact energy, the fol-
lowing formula can be used:
where L
is the length of the fracture
path that falls in the base metal, L
the total length of the fracture path of the
Charpy specimen, and E
is the meas-
ured impact energy of the pure base
metal. Similar definitions can be made for
for the CGHAZ, E
for the
FGHAZ, and E
for the ICHAZ, re-
E =
E' (2)

Table 3 Sample Calculation of Contributions of Base Metal and HAZ to the Total Impact
As-welded PWHT: 760C-2H
(mm) 0.5 0.7
(mm) 0.7 0.8
(mm) 0.3 0.5
(mm) 6.0 6.0
(J) 0.6 16
(J) 9 24
(J) 6 15
(J) 203 187
(J) 220 243
(J) 210 257
Difference (%) 5 5
The L
value is the measured fracture length, E
value is the calculated contribution to impact
energy by CGHAZ, E
is calculated total impact energy, and E
is the measured total impact energy from
the welded sample.
Fig. 9 Average Vickers hardness values of different HAZ zones
after PWHT at various temperatures for 2 h.
Fig. 10 The microstructure of ICHAZ heat treated at 840C for 2 h and air cooled. Etched
with Le Pera reagent, the microstructure constituents include white-etching martensite (M), tan-
etching ferrite (F), and dark-etching tempered martensite (TM).
SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/15/13 1:58 PM Page 84

spectively. Experimentally measured im-
pact toughness data from the simulated
HAZ, base metal, and pure weld metal are
listed in Table 2 for the as-welded and
760C-2H heat-treated conditions.
Tested Charpy toughness specimens
were polished and etched to reveal the mi-
crostructure along the fracture path as
shown in Fig. 4. Measurements of the length
of fracture path that falls in each mi-
crostructure zone were taken. Sample cal-
culations to predict the total Charpy impact
energy are shown (Table 3). Impact energy
data shown in Table 2 and measured frac-
ture length fractions are used as input pa-
rameters for the calculations. Compared
with the experimental impact energy value
), the calculated total energy (E
) is
within 5% difference. Using this linear
summation method, a cross-weld HAZ
toughness test result can be understood if
the test specimen is measured metallo-
graphically for the fracture length and
toughness of individual HAZ zones are
Evolution of Microstructure during PWHT
The as-received material of Grade 91
has undergone a normalization at 1060C
and tempering at 786C. The as-received
microstructure consists of fully tempered
martensite and ferrite along with finely
dispersed M
-type carbide. Figure 8A
and B show the XRD analysis of the as-
received material, indicating the ferritic
(bcc) crystal system for the tempered
martensite and existence of M
The transformation temperatures iden-
tified by dilatometry for slow heating and
air cooling are A
= 818, A
= 925, M
= 394, and M
= 230C for the as-
received base material. The equilibrium
temperature based on Mn and Ni con-
tent is also estimated using the following
formula (Ref. 12)
(C) = 845.5 43.9 (Mn + Ni)
9 (Mn + Ni)
and found to be 822C,
which is very close to
the slow-heating A
identified by dilatome-
try. If the PWHT tem-
perature is above the
austenite will start to
form, which on-cooling
will transform to fresh
martensite. A reduc-
tion in toughness will
be observed because of
such untempered
martensite. Figure 7
shows the significant
reduction in the meas-
ured toughness for all
HAZ regions following
an 840C PWHT. Since
840C is above the A
temperature, this
toughness reduction is due to martensite
formation. Figure 8C provides the evidence
of martensite formation in a specimen air
cooled from 840C. Fresh martensite and
tempered martensite in Grade 91 share
most of the XRD signatures, except the sub-
tle broadening of the peaks near their bases
(Ref. 3). Comparison of Fig. 8A and C does
show a broadening of peak bases due to
fresh martensite. The arrows in Fig. 8C in-
dicate the traces of fresh martensite in the
Further evidence of fresh martensite
formation for PWHT at temperatures
higher than the A
is provided by the hard-
ness of microstructure. Figure 9 shows the
changes in hardness of various HAZ re-
gions as a function of the PWHT tempera-
ture. Because the microstructure is hetero-
geneous, a 1000-g load has been used during
the Vickers hardness measurements to
maximize the indentation size, so that an
average hardness is obtained. Compared
with the toughness results shown in Fig. 7,
the hardness curves show an inverse trend
as a function of the PWHT temperature
the minimum hardness at 800C PWHT
corresponds to the maximum toughness.
The significant increase in hardness follow-
ing the 840C PWHT can be attributed to
the fresh martensite. Microstructural evi-
dence for martensitic transformation for
PWHT above the A
temperature is avail-
able after etching the specimens with the Le
Pera regent, which reveals the fresh marten-
site in white, ferrite in tan, and tempered
martensite and bainite in a dark color (Ref.
9). In Fig. 10, the microstructure of ICHAZ
following an 840C, 2-h PWHT is shown to
contain approximately 15 vol-% fresh
martensite, 25 vol-% ferrite, and 60 vol-%
tempered martensite.
The CGHAZ has experienced a peak
temperature between 1100C and the
melting temperature of 1382C, during
which there is a complete dissolution of
carbides and significant grain growth of
the high-carbon and high-alloy-containing
austenite. Fresh martensite that forms
upon cooling is strong and brittle. Al-
though it has been tempered by subse-
Fig. 11 Microstructure of CGHAZ after heat treatment at the following
for 2 h: A 640C; B 800C; C 840C. Nital etching.
SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/15/13 2:05 PM Page 85
MARCH 2013, VOL. 92 86-s

quent thermal cycles in the multiple welds,
the tempered martensite microstructure
in the CGHAZ is still brittle Fig. 6.
With a PWHT at 640C, more tempering
of martensite has occurred, but the mi-
crostructure is virtually identical with that
of the as-welded CGHAZ Fig. 11A.
Therefore, the toughness of CGHAZ re-
mains low until the PWHT temperature is
further increased to above 720C Fig. 7.
The microstructure of 800C heat-treated
CGHAZ shows the tempering of marten-
site to ferrite with associated carbide pre-
cipitation. Although the grain size re-
mains the same as the as-welded condition
(average 30-m), there are new finer fer-
rite subgrains and annealing twins formed
Fig. 11B. The CGHAZ in this mi-
crostructure has the highest impact tough-
ness. The PWHT at 840C refines the
grain size and coarsens the carbide parti-
cles but produces the brittle fresh marten-
site, as explained earlier Fig. 11C. The
toughness decreases from the 800C
PWHT value.
The fine-grained HAZ has experienced
a peak temperature above A
(925C) but
below the temperature for austenitic grain
growth. The austenitized FGHAZ has an
average grain size of 8 micrometers that
transforms to martensite on-cooling. The
as-welded microstructure following multi-
bead welding is tempered martensite Fig.
12A. A PWHT at 640C produces tempered
martensite and some ferrite with dispersed
carbide particles Fig. 12B. Toughness is
recovered to above 100 J following the
PWHT at 640C. The FGHAZ also shows
the maximum toughness and minimum
hardness following a PWHT at 800C due to
a microstructure of fine-grained ferrite with
fine dispersed carbide particles Fig. 12C.
The PWHT at 840C increases the grain size
and coarsens the carbide particles but pro-
duces the brittle fresh martensite Fig.
12D. The toughness therefore decreases
from the 800C PWHT value.
The intercritical HAZ has experienced
a peak temperature between the A
, therefore is partially austenitized on-
heating. The multibead as-welded mi-
crostructure is a mixture of base metals
ferritic constituent and newly formed and
tempered martensite Fig. 13A. The
180-J toughness of ICHAZ is contributed
mostly by the base metal, which has a
toughness of 230 J. A PWHT at 640C fur-
ther tempers the martensite, but since the
toughness is governed by the dominating
base metal, no significant changes in the
toughness are observed Fig. 13B. The
ICHAZ also shows the maximum tough-
ness and minimum hardness following a
PWHT at 800C due to a microstructure
of fine-grained ferrite with fine dispersed
carbide particles Fig. 13C. The PWHT
at 840C increases the grain size and
coarsens the carbide particles but pro-
duces the brittle fresh martensite Fig.
13D. The toughness decreases from the
800C PWHT value.
The impact toughness of the HAZ for
Grade 91 steel welds has been experimen-
tally investigated via measured thermal cy-
cles, Gleeble simulations, and microstruc-
tural analysis. The as-welded multipass
HAZ has a significant scatter in toughness
due to variations in the Charpy notch loca-
tion and path of fracture propagation. The
cross-weld Charpy specimen gives a tough-
ness value that can be attributed to contri-
Fig. 13 Microstructure of ICHAZ in the following conditions for 2 h: A As-welded; B after heat
treatment at 640C; C 800C; D 840C. Nital etching.
Fig. 12 Microstructure of FGHAZ in the following conditions for 2 h: A as-welded; B after heat
treatment at 640C; C 800C; and D 840C. Nital etching.
SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/14/13 4:39 PM Page 86

butions by the weld metal, various HAZ re-
gions, and the base metal. The microstruc-
ture evolution of various HAZ regions dur-
ing PWHT has been investigated and used
to explain toughness changes.
1. A 760C for 2 h PWHT can signifi-
cantly increase the cross-weld toughness of
the HAZ.
2. The measured weld HAZ toughness
can be understood using a linear additive
model that employs as the inputs the tough-
ness values of various HAZ regions repro-
duced on the Gleeble.
3. The toughness of the CGHAZ recov-
ers the slowest as a function of increasing
PWHT temperature and remains low until
a 730C heat treatment. To guarantee an ad-
equate HAZ toughness, a minimum PWHT
temperature of 730C for 2 h is recom-
mended. This recommendation agrees with
the ASME code required 732C minimum
tempering temperature for the base metal.
4. The upper bound temperature for
HAZ toughness seems to be the A
perature. Postweld heat treatment 20C
below the A
temperature for 2 h has
produced the highest toughness and low-
est hardness of all HAZ regions. Post-
weld heat treatment above the A
perature for 2 h will result in the
formation of fresh martensite, which de-
creases the toughness and increases the
hardness of all HAZ regions.
This work has been financially spon-
sored by the Department of Energy
NEUP program. Technical guidance by
Dr. Richard Wright is also gratefully
1. Sikka, V. K., Ward, C. T., and Thomas, K.
C. 1983. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel an im-
proved alloy for steam generator application.
Ferritic Steels for High-Temperature Applications,
Proceedings of the ASM International Confer-
ence on Production, Fabrication Properties, and
Applications of Ferritic Steels for High Tempera-
ture Applications, 6584. Metals Park, Ohio:
ASM International.
2. Sanderson, S. J. 1983. Mechanical prop-
erties of 9Cr1Mo steel. Ferritic Steels for High-
Temperature Applications, Proceedings of the
ASM International Conference on Production,
Fabrication Properties, and Applications of Fer-
ritic Steels for High Temperature Applications,
8599. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International.
3. Pesicka, J., Kuzel, R., Dronhofer, A., and
Eggeler, G. 2003. The evolution of dislocation
density during heat treatment and creep of tem-
pered martensite ferritic steels. Acta Mater. 51:
4. Santella, M. L., Swinderman, R. W., Reed,
R. W., and Tanzosh, J. M. 2010. Martensite trans-
formation, microsegregation, and creep strength
of 9Cr-1Mo-V steel weld metal. ORNL.
5. Sireesha, M., Albert, S. K., and Sun-
daresan, S. 2001. Microstructure and mechan-
ical properties of weld fusion zones in modi-
fied 9Cr1Mo steel. Journal of Materials
Engineering and Performance 10(3): 320330.
6. Arivazhagan, B., Sundaresan, S., and Ka-
maraj, M. 2009. A study of influence of shield-
ing gas composition on toughness of flux-cored
arc weld of modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) steel. Jour-
nal of Materials Processing Technology 209:
7. Barnes, A. 1995. The influence of com-
position on microstructural development and
toughness of modified 9Cr-1Mo weld metals.
Report 509/1995. Abington, UK: TWI.
8. ASTM A370, Standard Test Methods and
Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel
9. LePera, F. S. 1980. Improved etching
technique to emphasize martensite and bainite
in high-strength dual-phase steel. J. Met. 32(3):
38, 39.
10. Moitra, A., Parameswaran, P., Sreeni-
vasan, P. R., and Mannan, S. L. 2002. A tough-
ness study of the weld heat-affected zone of a
9Cr-1Mo steel. Materials Characterization 48:
11. Jang, Y. C., Hong, J. K., Park, J. H., Kim,
D. W., and Lee, Y. 2007. Effect of notch posi-
tion of the charpy impact specimen on the fail-
ure behavior in heat-affected zone. Journal of
Materials Processing Technology 201: 419424.
12. Evaluation of Grade 91 Microstructure
and Creep Rupture Strength as a Result of Heat
Treatment Around the Intercritical Zone. March
2009. EPRI Report 1015818. Palo Alto, Calif.
The Welding Journal staff encourages an exchange of ideas with you, our readers. If youd like to ask a question,
share an idea or voice an opinion, you can call, write, e-mail or fax. Staff e-mail addresses are listed below, along with
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SILWAL ET AL SUPPLEMENT MARCH 2013layout_Layout 1 2/15/13 2:08 PM Page 87
MARCH 2013 88-s
The six winners were profiled in the magazine. The partici-
pants completed an application in 2012 that involved a lengthy
description and data supporting the plants accomplishments,
improvements, and operations in multiple categories.
The company was notified it would receive the recognition
shortly after the on-site review by one of the magazines editors.
This incredible honor is a credit to our entire team. They are
committed to doing their best and to being the best, every day,
said The Harris Products Group President David J. Nangle.
Industry Notes
Sciaky, Inc.s Direct Manufacturing system, based on additive
manufacturing principles, was featured at Pennsylvania State
Universitys Technology Showcase on Additive Manufactur-
ing. The event took place January 8 and 9 at the Penn Stater
Conference Center and Center for Innovative Materials Pro-
cessing through Direct Digital Deposition facility.
Allegheny Technologies Inc.s lean duplex stainless steel, ATI
2003, has been selected as the material of choice for offshore
topside structural components on an offshore project in the
Norwegian North Sea.
The Welder Training & Testing Institute, Allentown, Pa., has
received its initial accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 through the
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation in me-
chanical testing. This allows acceptance of test and calibration
data internationally, plus it will enable conducting PED test-
ing that meets the European standard.
Hypertherm, Hanover, N.H., has acquired AccuStream, a wa-
terjet cutting products manufacturer. All positions, including
manufacturing, will remain in New Brighton, Minn., and no
workforce reductions or consolidations are planned.
The next-generation Nissan Murano will be assembled by work-
ers at the car companys Canton Manufacturing and Assembly
Plant in Mississippi starting next year.
CRC-Evans Pipeline International, Inc., Houston, Tex., has
recently been awarded an International Safety Award by the
British Safety Council for 2012.
Joining Technologies, Inc., East Granby, Conn., a welding serv-
ices and component manufacturing company founded by
Michael Francoeur, celebrated its 20th anniversary last year.
The welding department at Savannah Technical College, Sa-
vannah, Ga., has been designated a Level 1 and Level 2 SENSE
school by the American Welding Society.
Curtiss-Wright Corp., Parsippany, N.J., acquired the assets of
F.W. Gartner Thermal Spraying, Ltd., which has approximately
115 employees at two facilities in the Houston, Tex., area.
The Bug-O Systems segment on the Viewpoints with Terry
Bradshaw TV program, part of its American Industry Series,
will air depending on the region over the next several months.
The Canonsburg, Pa., company offers operator-controlled
mechanization for welding and cutting.
The Pflugerville Community Development Corp., Texas, has
granted the Pflugerville Education Foundation with $30,000
for the Pflugerville Independent School Districts welding pro-
gram. It will be used to purchase new welding equipment.
Shirin Lakdawala and husband Sabeer Cherawala of Lemont,
Ill., recently opened the newest Metal Supermarketsstore, a
large supplier of small quantity metals, in the Chicagoland area.
Students in the welding and materials joining program at
Columbiana County Career & Technical Center, Lisbon, Ohio,
have settled into their renovated lab and started studying a
new curriculum.
The Independent Welding Distributors Cooperative coordi-
nated Hurricane Sandy relief supplies with Industrial Welding
Supply, Sayreville, N.J., with help from vendor networks and
member distributors in North America, to fill pallets and ship
everything to needed areas.
Tech Air, Danbury, Conn., a distributor of industrial, medical,
and specialty gases and related welding supplies, recently ac-
quired Connecticut-based Esquire Gas Products Co.
continued from page 11
dual-density Mini Lug II sole, while the
4216 has an oil-resistant, rubber/PU auger
sole and nonmetallic toe cap.
Red Wing
(800) 733-9464
Device Safely Collects
Finished Parts
The Econo-Rack collects finished
parts as they come off any bar-fed CNC
lathe. By feeding products onto a
turntable covered by a low-friction, ultra-
high molecular weight material instead of
into an oil-filled collection bucket, it pre-
vents damage to the finished parts and re-
duces mess. The product, which has a 28-
in. diameter and 100-lb load capacity, en-
ables manufacturers to let machine tools
run unattended for extended periods.
Freestanding with adjustable height, it can
be moved from machine to machine and
is useful for Swiss-type applications.
Royal Products
(800) 645-4174
Mini Catalog Showcases
Wheel Products
The manufacturer of caster and wheel
products has published an updated ver-
sion of its mini catalog, which provides
a quick overview of its popular products.
This 16-page compact version of its full
line catalog is a primer on selecting the
proper caster and wheel types, and a snap-
shot of product options offerings. The
three-hole punched, 8- 11-in. catalog
can be used for research, inclusion in pro-
posals, and as a reference for facility and
material handling planning files and proj-
ect books.
Colson Caster Corp.
(800) 643-5515
continued from page 31
NI March 2013_Layout 1 2/15/13 10:35 AM Page 88
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