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TI : Cng ngh LTE v cc k thut truyn d liu

Ging vin hng dn :Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn
Sinh vin thc hin : Hunh Duy Quang- 0851040037
L c Vng - 0851040067
Lp : DV08




Thnh ph H Ch Minh, thng 9/2012




LI CM N

















Nhm thc hin ti

Hunh Duy Quang
L c Vng



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n
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- Mt ln na xin trn trng cm n!



NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN


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Ngy .. thng .. nm 2012
Gio vin hng dn







ThS. Bi Th Bch Tuyn



NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN

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Ngy .. thng .. nm 2012








Gio vin phn bin
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 5


MC LC

CC THUT NG V T VIT TT ...................................................................... 7
DANH MC HNH V V BNG BIU ................................................................. 14
CHNG 1: M U ................................................................................................ 18
CHNG 2: TNG QUAN CNG NGH LTE ..................................................... 21
2.1. Gii thiu chng : ......................................................................................... 21
2.2. Qu trnh pht trin LTE : ............................................................................ 21
2.3. im vt tri ca LTE so vi mng khc : ................................................ 26
2.3.1. LTE v 3G : ........................................................................................... 26
2.3.2. LTE v WIMAX : ................................................................................. 29
CHNG 3: KIN TRC MNG LTE ................................................................... 31
3.1. Gii thiu chng : ......................................................................................... 31
3.2. Kin trc mng LTE : .................................................................................... 31
3.3. Cc ng giao tip gia li vi mng truy cp v tuyn : ........................ 43
3.4. Cc ng giao tip vi c s d liu ngi dng : .................................... 43
3.5. Cu trc chuyn vng Roaming : ................................................................. 44
3.6. Kt ni vi cc mng khc : ........................................................................... 45
3.7. Cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN : ........................................................... 45
3.8. Cc giao thc trong cu hnh kin trc c bn ca h thng : .................. 47
3.9. Mt s c tnh ca knh truyn: ................................................................. 51
3.9.1. Tri tr a ng:. ............................................................................... 51
3.9.2. Cc loi fading :. ................................................................................... 51
3.9.3. Dch tn Doppler : ................................................................................ 51
3.9.4. Nhiu MAI i vi LTE :..................................................................... 52
CHNG 4: TRUY CP V TUYN TRONG LTE ............................................. 53
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 6

4.1. Gii thiu chng : ......................................................................................... 53
4.2. Truyn d liu hng xung : ....................................................................... 53
4.2.1. K thut truy cp phn chia theo thi gian chia theo tn s trc
giao OFDM : ......................................................................................................... 54
4.2.2. K thut a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA : .... 61
4.2.3. Truyn d liu hng xung : ............................................................. 65
4.2.4. Cc knh iu khin hng xung : ................................................... 66
4.2.5. Peak to Average Power Ratio ca OFDM (PAPR) : ......................... 67
4.3. Truyn ti d liu hng ln : ....................................................................... 71
4.3.1. SC-FDMA : ........................................................................................... 72
4.3.2. Cc tham s ca SC-FDMA: ............................................................... 75
4.3.3. Truyn dn d liu hng ln : .......................................................... 77
4.3.4. So snh OFDMA v SC-FDMA : ........................................................ 79
4.4. K thut MIMO : ........................................................................................... 80
CHNG 5: M PHNG OFDMA, SC-FDMA V PHN TCH H THNG 84
5.1. Gii thiu chng : ......................................................................................... 84
5.2. M phng h thng : ....................................................................................... 84
5.2.1. Chng trnh m phng OFDMA : ........................................................... 84
5.2.2. M phng SC-FDMA : ................................................................................ 92
5.3. Phn tch h thng : ........................................................................................ 98
CHNG 6: KT LUN ......................................................................................... 103
TI LIU THAM KHO ......................................................................................... 106


LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 7


CC THUT NG V T VIT TT

3GPP
Third Generation
Partnership Project
T chc chun ha mng di ng th
h th 3
A
AAS Adaptive Antenna System H thng antenna thch ng
ACK
Acknowledgement (In
ARQ Protocols)
Bo nhn (trong giao thc ARQ)
ACLR
Adjacent Channel
Leakage Ratio
H s r r knh ln cn
AGW
Access Gateway (in
LTE/SAE)
Cng truy nhp
AM
Acknowledged Mode
(RLC Configuration)
Ch bo nhn (cu hnh RLC)
AMC
Adaptive Modulation And
Coding
M ha v iu ch thch nghi
ARQ
Automatic Repeat-
Request
Yu cu lp li t ng
B
BCCH
Broadcast Control
Channel
Knh iu khin qung b
BCH Broadcast Channel Knh qung b
BER Bit-Error Rate T l li bit
BLER Block-Error Rate T l li khi
BM-SC
Broadcast/Multicast
Service Center
Trung tm dch v
broadcast/multicast
BPSK
Binary Phase-Shift
Keying
Kha dch pha nh phn
BS Base Station Trm gc
BSC Base Station Controller Khi iu khin trm gc
BTC Block Turbo Code M turbo khi
BTS Base Transceiver Station Trm thu pht gc
C
CC Convolutional Code M chp
CDM
Code-Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo m
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 8

CDMA
Code Division Multiple
Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
CN Core Network Mng li
CP Cyclic Prefix Tin t tun hon
CPC
Continuous Packet
Connectivity
Kh nng kt ni gi lin tc
CPICH Common Pilot Channel Knh hoa tiu chung
CQI Channel Quality Indicator Ch th cht lng knh truyn
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check Kim tra tnh d tun hon
CS Circuit Switched Chuyn mch knh
D
DCCH
Dedicated Control
Channel
Knh iu khin dnh ring
DCH Dedicated Channel Knh dnh ring
DFE
Decision Feedback
Equalization
Cn bng hi tip quyt nh
DFT
Discrete Fourier
Transform
Bin i fourier ri rc
DFTS-OFDM
DFT-Spread OFDM, See
Also SC-FDMA
OFDM tri ph DFT, cng c xem
nh l SC-FDMA
DL Downlink ng xung
DL-SCH
Downlink Shared
Channel
Knh chia s ng xung
DPCCH
Dedicated Physical
Control Channel
Knh iu khin vt l dnh ring
DPCH
Dedicated Physical
Channel
Knh vt l dnh ring
DPDCH
Dedicated Physical Data
Channel
Knh d liu vt l dnh ring
DRX Discontinuous Reception S thu nhn khng lin tc
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel Knh lu lng dnh ring
DTX
Discontinuous
Transmission
S pht khng lin tc
E
E-DCH
Enhanced Dedicated
Channel
Knh dnh ring nng cao
eNodeB E-UTRAN NodeB NodeB E-UTRAN
EPC Evolved Packet Core Li gi ci tin
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 9

ETSI
European
Telecommunication
Standards Institute
Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u
F
FCC
Federal Communications
Commission
Hi ng truyn thng lin bang
FDD
Frequency Division
Duplex
Song cng phn chia theo tn s
FDM
Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
FDMA
Frequency Division
Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s
FFT Fast Fourier Transform Bin i fourier nhanh
G
GERAN GSM EDGE RAN Mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM EDGE
GPRS
General Packet Radio
Services
Dch v v tuyn gi tng hp
GSM
Global Sytem For Mobile
Communications
H thng truyn thng di ng ton
cu
H
HARQ Hybrid ARQ ARQ hn hp
HSCSD
High Speed Circuit
Switched Data
D liu chuyn mch knh tc
cao
HLR Home Location Register Thanh ghi nh v thng tr
HS-DSCH
High-Speed Downlink
Shared Channel
Knh chia s ng xung tc
cao
HSDPA
High Speed Downlink
Packet Access
Truy nhp gi ng xung tc
cao
HSPA High Speed Packet Access Truy nhp gi tc cao
HSUPA
High Speed Uplink Packet
Access
Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao
I
IEEE
Institute Of Electrical And
Electronics Engineers
Vin k s in v in t
IFFT Inverse FFT FFT o ngc
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem H thng con a truyn thng IP
IMT-2000
International Mobile
Telecommunications
2000
Vin thng di ng quc t 2000
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 10

IR Incremental Redundancy S d tha gia tng
ITU
International
Telecommunications
Union
Hip hi vin thng quc t
L
LTE Long Term Evolution S pht trin di hn
M
MAC Medium Access Control iu khin truy nhp mi trng
MBMS
Multimedia
Broadcast/Multicast
Service
Broadcast a truyn thng/dch v
multicast
MBS
Multicast And Broadcast
Service
Dch v multicast v broadcast
MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple
Ouput
Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra
MSC Mobile Switching Center Trung tm chuyn mch di ng
N
NAK
Negative
Acknowledgement (In
ARQ Protocols)
Bo nhn tht bi (trong giao thc
ARQ)
NodeB
NodeB, a logical node
handling
transmission/reception
in multiple cells.
Commonly, but not
necessarily,
corresponding to a base
station
Mt node logic iu khin vic pht
v thu trong nhiu t bo. C khi cn
xem nh tng ng vi mt trm
gc.
O
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
trc giao
OFDMA
Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s
trc giao
P
PAPR
Peak to Average Power
Ratio
H s cng sut nh trn trung bnh
PAR Peak to Average Ratio
H s nh trn trung bnh (ging
nh PAPR)
PCCH Paging Control Channel Knh iu khin tm gi
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 11

PCH Paging Channel Knh tm gi
PCI
Pre-coding Control
Indication
Ch th iu khin tin m ha
PDCCH
Physical Downlink
Control Channel
Knh iu khin ng xung vt l
PDCP
Packet Data Convergence
Protocol
Giao thc hi t d liu gi
PDSCH
Physical Downlink
Shared Channel
Knh chia s ng xung vt l
PDU Protocol Data Unit n v d liu giao thc
PHY Physical layer Lp vt l
Q
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
iu ch bin cu phng
QoS Quality of Service Cht lng dch v
QPSK
Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying
Kha dch pha cu phng
R
RAN Radio Access Network Mng truy nhp v tuyn
RB Resource Block Khi ti nguyn
RF Radio Frequency Tn s v tuyn
RLC Radio Link Protocol Giao thc lin kt v tuyn
RNC
Radio Network
Controller
Khi iu khin mng v tuyn
ROHC
Robust Header
Compression
Nn tiu mnh m
RRC Radio Resource Control iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn
RS Reference Symbol K hiu tham kho
RSN
Retransmission Sequence
Number
S th t truyn li
S
SC-FDMA Single Carrier FDMA FDMA n sng mang
SDMA
Spatial Division Multiple
Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo khng
gian
SFBC
Space Frequency Block
Coding
M ha khi khng gian-tn s
SIR
Signal To Interference
Ratio
H s tn hiu trn nhiu
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 12

SNR Signal To Noise Ratio H s tn hiu trn tp m
T
TD-CDMA
Time Dvision-Code
Division Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo m v
thi gian
TDD Time Division Duplex Song cng phn chia thi gian
TDM
Time Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian
TDMA
Time Division Multiple
Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo thi
gian
TD-SCDMA
Time Division-
Synchronous Code
Division Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
ng b, phn chia theo thi gian
TF Transport Format nh dng truyn ti
TFC
Transport Format
Combination
S kt hp nh dng truyn ti
TM
Transparent Mode (RLC
Configuration)
Ch trong sut (cu hnh RLC)
TTI
Transmission Time
Interval
Khong thi gian truyn dn
U
UE
User Equipment, the
3GPP name for the
mobile terminal
Thit b ngi dng, tn 3GPP t
cho thit b u cui di ng
UL Uplink ng ln
UL-SCH Uplink Shared Channel Knh chia s ng ln
UM
Unacknowledgement
Mode (RLC
Configuration)
Ch khng bo nhn (cu hnh
RLC)
UMTS
Universal Mobile
Telecommunications
System
H thng vin thng di ng ton
cu
UTRA
Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access
Truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton
cu
UTRAN
Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network
Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t
ton cu
W
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 13

WCDMA
Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access
a truy nhp bng rng phn chia
theo m
V
VoIP Voice Over IP Thoi qua IP
Z
ZC Zadoff-Chu Chui Zadoff-Chu





LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 14

DANH MC HNH V V BNG BIU

CHNG 2
Hnh 2.1 S tm lt s pht trin ca h thng TTDD.
Hnh 2.2 L trnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc.
CHNG 3
Hnh 3.1 S chuyn i cu trc UTRAN sang E-UTRAN.
Hnh 3.2 Kin trc EPS.
Hnh 3.3 Cc thnh phn trong mng EPS.
Hnh 3.4 eNodeB kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh.
Hnh 3.5 MME kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh.
Hnh 3.6 Cc kt ni S-GW ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh.
Hnh 3.7 P-GW kt ni ti cc node logic khc v cc chc nng chnh.
Hnh 3.8 PCRF kt ni ti cc nt logic khc & cc chc nng chnh.
Hnh 3.9 Cu trc chuyn vng truy cp vi P-GW trong mng nh.
Hnh 3.10 Kin trc lin mng vi 3G UMTS.
Hnh 3.11 Ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin trong EPS.
Hnh 3.12 Ngn xp giao thc mt phng ngi dng trong EPC.
Hnh 3.13
Cc ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin v mt phng
ngi dng cho giao din X2.
CHNG 4
Hnh 4.1 Truyn n sng mang.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 15

Hnh 4.2 Nguyn l ca FDMA.
Hnh 4.3 Nguyn l a sng mang.
Hnh 4.4 So snh ph tn ca OFDM vi FDMA.
Hnh 4.5 Tn s-thi gian ca tin hiu OFDM.
Hnh 4.6 Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau.
Hnh 4.7 Bin i FFT.
Hnh 4.8 S to ra chui tn hiu OFDM.
Hnh 4.9 Chui bo v GI hay tin t vng CP.
Hnh 4.10 Tc dng ca chui bo v.
Hnh 4.11 OFDM v OFDMA.
Hnh 4.12 Cu trc khung loi 1.
Hnh 4.13 Cu trc khung loi 2.
Hnh 4.14 Cu trc ca khi ti nguyn.
Hnh 4.15 Ghp knh theo thi gian-tn s OFDMA.
Hnh 4.16 Pht v thu OFDMA.
Hnh 4.17 S xut hin nh vt tri trong h thng a sng mang.
Hnh 4.18 CCDF ca PAPR iu ch QPSK vi cc gi tr L khc nhau.
Hnh 4.19 OFDMA v SC-FDMA.
Hnh 4.20 Thu pht SC-FDMA trong min tn s.
Hnh 4.21 S khi DFT-s-OFDM.
Hnh 4.22 Khung con ng ln LTE v cu trc khe.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 16

Hnh 4.23 Cp pht ti nguyn ng ln LTE.
Hnh 4.24 Pht v thu hng ln LTE.
Hnh 4.25 So snh OFDMA & SC-FDMA.
Hnh 4.26 M hnh SU-MIMO v MU-MIMO.
Hnh 4.27 Ghp knh khng gian.
Bng 4.1 S lng khi ti nguyn cho bng thng LTE khc nhau.
Bng 4.2 Tham s cu trc ng xung (FDD&TDD).
CHNG 5
Hnh 5.1 H thng ng xung OFDMA.
Hnh 5.2 M phng OFDMA.
Hnh 5.3 D liu u vo.
Hnh 5.4 Tn hiu sau khi qua iu ch 16QAM.
Hnh 5.5 Tn hiu OFDMA.
Hnh 5.6 Tn hiu OFDMA cng vi nhiu tp.
Hnh 5.7 Tn hiu sau khi bin i FFT.
Hnh 5.8 Tn hiu thu c pha thu.
Hnh 5.9 H thng thu pht Sc-FDMA.
Hnh 5.10 D liu chuyn t S-P.
Hnh 5.11 D liu sau khi iu ch.
Hnh 5.12 Tn hiu sau khi qua FFT.
Hnh 5.13 Tn hiu sau khi qua IFFT.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 17

Hnh 5.14 Kt qu thu c sau khi chn CP.
Hnh 5.15 Tn hiu sau khi qua knh truyn.
Hnh 5.16 Tn hiu nhn c.
Hnh 5.17 B CP.
Hnh 5.18 Sau bin i FFT.
Hnh 5.19 Sau bin i IFFT.
Hnh 5.20 Chui bit nhn c.
Hnh 5.21
th Ber so snh gia c Rayleigh v khng c Rayleigh trong LTE
Hnh 5.22 th biu din so snh cc iu ch QPSK, QAM trong LTE
Hnh 5.23 PAPR OFDMA & SC-FDMA

LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 18

CHNG 1: M U
Ngnh cng nghip vin thng chng kin nhng pht trin ngon mc trong nhng
nm gn y. Khi cng ngh mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G cha c thi
gian khng nh v th ca mnh trn ton cu th ngi ta bt u ni n cng
ngh 4G (Fourth Generation) t nhiu nm gn y.
Trong hn mt thp k qua, th gii chng kin thnh cng to ln ca mng
thng tin di ng th h th hai 2G. Mng 2G chia ra lm 2 loi da trn TDMA v
CDMA. Sau mt thi gian pht trin th mng GSM dng TDMA s dng ph bin
Chu u c s dng khp th gii v mng CDMAONE s dng CDMA c s
dng M v mt phn chu . S thnh cng ca mng 2G l do dch v tin ch m
n mang li cho ngi dng, tiu biu l cht lng thoi v kh nng di ng. Tip
ni th h th hai, mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G v ang pht trin nhiu
ni trn th gii. Ci tin ni bt ca mng 3G so vi mng 2G l kh nng cung ng
truyn thng gi tc cao nhm trin khai cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin.
Mng 3G bao gm mng UMTS s dng k thut WCDMA, mng CDMA2000 s
dng mng CDMA v mng TD-SCDMA c pht trin bi Trung Quc. Gn y
cng ngh WIMAX cng c thu nhn vo h hng 3G bn cnh cc cng ngh ni
trn. Tuy nhin, cu chuyn thnh cng ca mng 2G rt kh lp li vi mng 3G. Mt
trong nhng l do chnh l dch v m 3G mang li khng c bc nhy r rt nh
mng 2G.,
Nht nh cung cp mng NTT DoCoMo nh ngha 4G bng khi nim a
phng tin di ng vi kh nng kt ni mi lc, mi ni, kh nng di ng ton cu
v dch v c th cho tng khch hng. NTT DoCoMo xem 4G nh l mt m rng
ca mng thng tin di ng t bo 3G. Quan im ny c xem nh l mt quan im
tuyn tnh trong mng 4G s c cu trc t bo c ci tin cung ng tc
trn 100Mb/s. Vi cch nhn nhn ny th 4G s chnh l mng 3G LTE, UMB hay
WiMAX 802.16m.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 19

Bn cnh , mc d 4G l th h tip theo ca 3G, nhng tng lai ch gii hn
nh l mt m rng ca mng t bo. V d Chu u, 4G c xem nh l kh nng
m bo cung cp dch v lin tc, khng b ngt qung vi kh nng kt ni vi nhiu
loi hnh mng truy cp v tuyn khc nhau v kh nng chn la mng v tuyn thch
hp nht truyn ti dch v n ngi dng mt cch tt nht. Vit Nam, hin nay
3G ang pht trin rm r v tin ln 4G khng cn xa na. Theo thng tin t Tp
on Bu chnh Vin Thng Vit Nam (VNPT), n v ny va ha thnh vic lp t
trm BTS s dng cho dch v v tuyn bng rng cng ngh LTE, cng ngh tin 4G
u tin ti Vit Nam v ng Nam .
n nghin cu v cng ngh LTE l cng ngh mi m v ph hp vi thc
trng hin nay ca Vit Nam v n pht trin da vo cc cng ngh trc m khng
cn phi xy mi hon ton:
Ni dung nghin cu c th:
Chng 1: Khi qut v LTE, lch s pht trin v ni dung trnh by trong
ti.
Chng 2: ti i su vo nghin cu cc k thut truyn d liu ca cng
ngh LTE v trc ht tm hiu v qu trnh i ln ca cng ngh vin thng ca th
gii cng nh Vit Nam. Bn cnh so snh LTE vi cc cng ngh khc nh 3G v
Wimax v cch kha cnh u vit ca n
Chng 3: Cc kin trc mng LTE, s mng v cc thnh phn trong mt
h thng mng s c m t r nt trong ti ny.
Chng 4: Hng nghin cu chnh ca ti, LTE dng 2 k thut truyn d
liu chnh l OFMDA v SC-FDMA cho uplink v downlink. ti s tm hiu su
vo 2 k thut ny, a ra cc lp lun c s l thuyt cht ch, cc bn biu, cc hnh
nh m t r v k thut ny. V nh gi, so snh gia cc k thut vi nhau, cc
u im, khuyt im gip cho ngi c hnh dung r v vn ny.
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Chng 5: S dng phn mm m Matlab 7.11 m phng 2 k thut trn, ni
dung m phng c trnh by trong chng ny, cc hnh nh s c chp li
ngi c hnh dung chi tit v qu trnh m phng. Chng ny s c th ha l
thuyt ca chng trc.
Chng 6 : Tng kt li qu trnh lm c trong qu trnh thc hin n, a
ra cc u im ni bt ca LTE v cc k thut truyn d liu ca n. Thng k s b
kt qu t c v nhng g cha t c trong qu trnh thc hin n. Qua
a ra hng nghin cu mi trong tng lai.
Vit Nam, hin nay 3G ang pht trin rm r v tin ln 4G khng cn
xa na. Theo tin t Tp on Bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT), n v ny va
hon thnh vic lp t trm BTS s dng cho dch v v tuyn bng rng cng ngh
LTE, cng ngh tin 4G u tin ti Vit Nam v ng Nam .
ha nhp vi xu th chung, ngi thc hin chn ti Cng ngh LTE v cc
k thut truyn d liu c c hi nghin cu, tm hiu k hn v cng ngh mi
ny. iu ny ph hp vi xu th pht trin hin ti ca h thng vin thng. Tng lai
khng xa mng thng tin di ng 4G LTE s c ph bin trn ton th gii v Vit
Nam, y l mt bc tin vt bc trong cng ngh truyn thng.









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CHNG 2: TNG QUAN CNG NGH LTE
2.1. Gii thiu chng :
Cng ngh LTE pht trin da theo nhu cu ngy cng tng v cht lng s dng dch
v thoi, truyn dataca ngi s dng. Pht trin da trn h tng mng sn c v
tng cht lng dch v cho ngi s dng. Chng ny lm r v qu trnh pht trin
LTE v lch s ra i, cc so snh gia cc thng s ca LTE so vi cc cng ngh
khc nh Wimax, 3G cng c cp c th trong chng ny nhm lm ngi c
hnh dng s b tng quan ca LTE.
2.2. Qu trnh pht trin LTE :
H thng thng tin di ng pht trin rt mnh m trong thi gian gn y. Cc
bc tin mnh m ca mng c th thy r qua cc qu trnh pht trin h thng thng
tin di ng t 1G n hin nay. Lch s pht trin h thng thng tin di ng c th
tm gn li nh sau :
Th h 1G :
y l h thng thng tin di ng tng t s dng phng thc a truy nhp
phn chia theo tn s FDMA v iu ch tn s FM vi cc c im :
- Phng thc truy nhp: FDMA.
- Dch v n thun l thoi.
- Cht lng thp.
- Bo mt km.
Mt s h thng s dng :
- NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone): s dng bng tn 450Mhz trin khai
ti cc nc Bc u vo nm 1981.
- TACS (Total Access Communication System): trin khai Anh vo nm
1985.
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- AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone System): trin khai ti Bc M vo nm
1978 ti bng tn 800Mhz.
Th h 2G:
H thng mng 2G c c trng bi cng ngh chuyn mch k thut s
(digital circuit-switched). K thut ny chim u th hn 1G vi cc c im
sau:
- Dung lng tng.
- Cht lng thoi tt hn
- H tr cc dch v s liu
- Phng thc truy nhp : TDMA, CDMA bng hp.
Mt s h thng in Hnh :
- GSM (Global System for Mobile Phone) s dng phng thc truy cp
TDMA c trin khai ti chu u.
- D-AMPS (IS-136-Digital Advance Mobile Phone System) s dng
phng thc truy cp TDMA c trin khai ti M.
- IS-95 (CDMA One) s dng phng thc truy cp CDMA c trin
khai ti M v Hn Quc.
- PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) s dng phng thc truy cp TDMA
c trin khai ti Nht Bn.
Th h 3G :
H thng mng c s dng ph bin hin nay, c cc u im mnh m so
vi 2 th h c. y l th h th ba ca chun cng ngh in thoi di ng,
cho php truyn c d liu thoi v ngoi thoi (ti d liu, gi email, tin nhn
nhanh, Hnh nh). 3G cung cp c hai h thng l chuyn mch gi v chuyn
mch knh. H thng 3G yu cu mt mng truy cp radio hon ton khc so
vi h thng 2G hin nay. im mnh ca cng ngh ny so vi 2G l cho php
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truyn, nhn cc d liu, m thanh, Hnh nh cht lng cao cho c thu bao c
nh v thu bao ang di chuyn cc tc khc nhau.
Mng 3G c trng bi tc d liu cao, capacity ca h thng ln, tng hiu
qu s dng ph tn v nhiu ci tin khc. C mt lot cc chun cng ngh di
ng 3G, tt c u da trn CDMA, bao gm: UMTS (dng c FDD ln TDD),
CDMA2000 v TD-SCDMA :
- UMTS (i khi cn c gi l 3GSM) s dng k thut a truy
cpWCDMA. UMTS c chun ho bi 3GPP. UMTS l cng ngh 3G
c la chn bi hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v GSM/GPRS i
ln 3G. Tc d liu ti a l 1920Kbps (gn 2Mbps). Nhng trong
thc t tc ny ch tm 384Kbps. ci tin tc d liu ca 3G,
hai k thut HSDPA v HSUPA c ngh. Khi c 2 k thut ny
c trin khai, ngi ta gi chung l HSPA. HSPA thng c bit
n nh l cng ngh 3,5G.
- HSDPA: Tng tc downlink (ng xung, t NodeB v ngi dng
di ng). Tc ti a l thuyt l 14,4Mbps, nhng trong thc t n ch
t tm 1,8Mbps (hoc tt lm l 3,6Mbps). Theo mt bo co ca GSA
thng 7 nm 2008, 207 mng HSDPA v ang bt u trin khai,
trong thng mi ho 89 nc trn th gii.
- HSUPA: tng tc uplink (ng ln) v ci tin QoS. K thut ny
cho php ngi dng upload thng tin vi tc ln n 5,8Mbps (l
thuyt). Cng trong cng bo co trn ca GSA, 51 nh cung cp dch v
thng tin di ng trin khai mng HSUPA 35 nc v 17 nh cung
cp mng ln k hoch trin khai mng HSUPA.
- CDMA2000: bao gm CDMA2000 1xRTT (Radio Transmission
Technology), CDMA2000 (Evolution -Data Optimized) v CDMA2000
EV-DV(Evolution -Data and Voice). CDMA2000 c chun ho bi
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3GPP2. CDMA2000 l cng ngh 3G c la chn bi cc nh cung
cp mng CdmaOne.
- CDMA2000 1xRTT: chnh thc c cng nhn nh l mt cng ngh
3G, tuy nhin nhiu ngi xem n nh l mt cng ngh 2,75G ng hn
l 3G. Tc ca 1xRTT c th t n 307Kbps, song hu ht cc
mng trin khai ch gii hn tc peak 144Kbps.
- CDMA2000 EV-DO: s dng mt knh d liu 1,25MHz chuyn bit v
c th cho tc d liu n 2,4Mbps cho ng xung v 153Kbps cho
ng ln. 1xEV-DO Rev A h tr truyn thng gi IP, tng tc
ng xung n 3,1Mbps v c bit c th y tc ng ln n
1,2Mbps. Bn cnh , 1xEV-DO Rev B cho php nh cung cp mng
gp n 15 knh 1,25MHz li truyn d liu vi tc 73,5Mbps.
- CDMA2000 EV-DV: tch hp thoi v d liu trn cng mt knh
1,25MHz. CDMA2000 EV-DV cung cp tc peak n 4,8Mbps cho
ng xung v n 307Kbps cho ng ln. Tuy nhin t nm 2005,
Qualcomm dng v thi hn vic pht trin ca 1xEV-DV v a phn
cc nh cung cp mng CDMA nh Verizon Wireless v Sprint chn
EV-DO.
- TD-SCDMA l chun di ng c ngh bi "China Communications
Standards Association" v c ITU duyt vo nm 1999. y l chun
3G ca Trung Quc. TD-SCDMA dng song cng TDD. TD-SCDMA c
th hot ng trn mt di tn hp 1,6MHz (cho tc 2Mbps) hay
5MHz (cho tc 6Mbps). Ngy xut hnh ca TD-SCDMA b y
li nhiu ln. Nhiu th nghim v cng ngh ny din ra t u nm
2004 cng nh trong th vn hi Olympic gn y.


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H thng 4G LTE :
LTE l th h th t tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS
th h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii.
m bo tnh cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004
3GPP bt u d n nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng
ngh di ng UMTS vi tn gi Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra
yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim chi ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp
dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng tn hin c v bng tn mi, n
gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v gim ng k nng lng
tiu th thit b u cui. Cc mc tiu ca cng ngh ny l:
- Tc nh tc thi vi bng thng 20Mhz.
- Ti ln: 50 Mbps.
- Ti xung: 100 Mbps.
- Dung lng d liu truyn ti trung bnh ca mt ngi dng trn
1Mhz so vi mng HSDPA Rel.6.
- Ti ln: gp 2 n 3 ln.
- Ti xung: gp 3 n 4 ln.
- Hot ng ti u vi tc di chuyn ca thu bao l 0-15 km/h. Vn
hot ng tt vi tc t 15-120 km/h. Vn duy trc c hot
ng khi thu bao di chuyn vi tc t 120-350 km/h (thm ch
500 km/h ty bng tn).
- Cc ch tiu trn phi m bo trong bn knh vng ph sng 5km,
gim cht t trong phm vi n 30km. T 30-100km th khng hn
ch.
- di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng tn
1.25Mhz, 1.6 Mhz, 10Mhz, 15Mhz v 20Mhz c chiu ln v chiu
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xung. H tr c hai trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng
nhau hoc khng.
t c mc tiu ny, s c rt nhiu k thut mi c p dng, trong
ni bt l k thut v tuyn OFDMA (a truy cp phn chia theo tn s
trc giao), k thut anten MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). Ngoi ra
h thng ny s chy hon ton trn nn IP (all-IP Network), v h tr c hai
ch FDD v TDD.

Hnh 2.1 S tm lt s pht trin ca h thng TTDD
2.3. im vt tri ca LTE so vi mng khc :
2.3.1. LTE v 3G :
S khc nhau :
Hin nay cng ngh 3G cho php truy cp internet khng dy v cc cuc
gi c Hnh nh. 4G LTE pht trin da trn cng ngh 3G. V mt l
thuyt, mng khng dy s dng cng ngh LTE c tc nhanh hn mng
3G t 4 n 10 ln. Tc ti a ca 3G l tc 14Mbps cho down v
5.8Mbps cho up. Vi cng ngh LTE tc c th t 100Mbps i vi
ngi dng di ng v 1Gbps i vi ngi dng c nh.
3G s dng cc di tn c nh quc t :
- UL : 1885-2025 MHz
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- DL : 2110-2200 MHz
- Tc : 144kbps-2Mbps
- rng BW : 5MHz
4G s dng :
- Bng tn s dng : 700Mbps-2.6Gbps vi mc tiu tr thp, tc
cao, cng ngh truy cp sng v tuyn gi d liu ti u.
- Tc d UL : 100Mbps BW 20 MHZ
- Tc DL : 50Mbps
- S dng 2 anten thu mt anten pht. tr nh hn 5ms v rng
BW linh hot l u im ca LTE so vi WCDMA.
- BW t 1.25MHz, 2.5MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, 20MHz.
- Hiu qu tri ph tng 4 n 10 ln s ngi dng/cell so vi
WCDMA.
u im ni bt :
- Tc truyn d liu rt cao so vi 3G.
- Tng tnh hiu qu so vi s dng ph v gim thi gian tr.
- Cu trc mng s n gin hn v khng cn s dng chuyn mch
knh na.
- Hiu qu tri ph tng 4 n 10 ln user/cell so vi WCDMA.
- rng bng tn linh hot.
Cc ng dng to nn u im so vi 3G :
- Hiu sut ph cao.
o OFDM DL :
- Chng nhiu a ng.
- Hu ht d liu ngi dng t hn di ng.
o SC-FDMA UL :
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- PAPR thp.
- Ngi dng trc giao trong min tn s.
o MIMO
- Tc d liu cao :
o Thi gian ci t v thi gian delay chuyn tip ngn.
o Tr HO v thi gian ngt ngn : TTI ngn, trng thi RRC n
gin.
- Gi thnh r :
Kin trc mng n gi, gim cc thnh phn ca mng.
- Cht lng dch v cao :
o S dng cc tn s cp php m bo cht lng dch v,
LTE s dng cc di tn s khc nhau : 2100, 1900, 1700,
2600, 900, 800 MHz.
o Lun lun th nghim (gim thi gian tr trong iu khin
nh tuyn ).
o Gim tr kh hi ( round trip delay ).
- Tn s ti s dng linh hot :
o Gim nhiu lin cell v tn s ti s dng ln hn 1.
o S dng 2 di tn s :
- Di 1 : h s ti s dng ln hn 1cng sut pht cao
hn.
- Di 2 : ph cn li.
o Cc user cnh cell : s dng di 1 SIR tt.
o Cc user trung tm cell : s dng ton b bng tc d
liu cao.
- Dung lng v vng bao ph ca WCDMA UL b gii hn bi can
nhiu: can nhin bn trong cell v can nhiu lin cell. Nhng i vi
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LTE th do tnh trc giao nn can nhiu trong cng 1 cell c th
khng xt n v gim can nhiu inter-cell bng ti s dng cc b,
thm cc anten c th trit can nhiu.
2.3.2. LTE v WIMAX :
V cng ngh, LTE v Wimax c mt s khc bit nhng cng c nhiu im
tng ng. C hai cng ngh u da trn nn tng gi IP. C hai u dng k thut
MIMO ci thin cht lng truyn/nhn tn hiu, ng xung t trm thu pht n
thit b u cui u c tng tc bng k thut OFDM h tr truyn ti d liu a
phng tin v video. Theo l thuyt, chun Wimax hin ti (802.16e) cho tc ti
xung ti a l 70Mbps, cn LTE d kin c th cho tc n 300Mbps. Tuy nhin,
khi LTE c trin khai ra th trng c th Wimax cng s c nng cp ln chun
802.16m (cn c gi l Wimax 2.0) c tc tng ng hoc cao hn.

Hnh 2.2 L trcnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc
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ng ln t thit b u cui n trm thu pht c s khc nhau gia 2 cng
ngh. WiMax dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access mt
bin th ca OFDM), cn LTE dng k thut SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency
Division Multiple Access). V l thuyt, SC-FDMA c thit k lm vic hiu qu
hn v cc thit b u cui tiu th nng lng thp hn OFDMA.
LTE cn c u th hn WiMax v c thit k tng thch vi c phng thc
TDD (Time Division Duplex) v FDD (Frequency Division Duplex). Ngc li,
WiMax hin ch tng thch vi TDD (theo mt bo co c cng b u nm nay,
WiMax Forum ang lm vic vi mt phin bn Mobile WiMax tch hp FDD). TDD
truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 1 knh tn s (dng phng thc phn chia thi
gian), cn FDD cho php truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 2 knh tn s ring
bit. iu ny c ngha LTE c nhiu ph tn s dng hn Wimax. Tuy nhin, s khc
bit v cng ngh khng c ngha quyt nh trong cuc chin gia WiMax v LTE.
Hin ti WiMax c li th i trc LTE: mng WiMax c trin khai v
thit b WiMax cng c mt trn th trng, cn LTE th sm nht cng phi n
nm 2010 ngi dng mi c tri nghim. Tuy nhin LTE vn c li th quan trng
so vi WiMax. LTE c hip hi cc nh khai thc GSM (GSM Association) chp
nhn l cng ngh bng rng di ng tng lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th
trng di ng ton cu vi khong 2,5 t thu bao (theo Informa Telecoms & Media)
v trong 3 nm ti c th chim th phn n 89% (theo Gartner). Hn na, LTE cho
php tn dng dng h tng GSM c sn (tuy vn cn u t thm thit b) trong khi
WiMax phi xy dng t u.
Thng qua phn trnh by chng va ri, ngi vit m t kh r nt v lch
s pht trin ca mng vin thng v qu trnh i ln ca cng ngh LTE, bn cnh
cng a ra cc so snh c th cc thng s k thut ca LTE so vi cc cng ngh
khc nhm a ra s vt tri ca LTE, mt cng ngh mi m v s c p dng
rng ri trong tng lai.
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CHNG 3: KIN TRC MNG LTE
3.1. Gii thiu chng :
Chng 2 m t tng quan v LTE cng nh cc thng s k thut ca n v
rt ra cc im mnh ca LTE so vi cc cng ngh khc. H thng 4G c xy
dng nhm chun b mt c s h tng di ng chung c kh nng phc v cc dch v
hin ti v tng lai. C s h tng 4G c thit k vi iu kin nhng thay i, pht
trin v k thut c kh nng ph hp vi mng hin ti m khng lm nh hng n
cc dch v ang s dng. hiu r hn v cu trc LTE th chng ny s gii thiu
v cu trc mng LTE gm cc phn t trong mng LTE v cc chc nng ca cc
thnh phn (UE, eNodeB, MME, S-GW, P-GW, PCRF, HSS), cc ng giao tip
gia mng li vi mng truy cp v tuyn, vi ngi dng, cc cu trc chuyn vng
hoc kt ni vi mng khc.
3.2. Kin trc mng LTE :
Nh ni trn, LTE c thit k h tr cho cc dch v chuyn mch
gi, i lp vi chuyn mch knh truyn thng. N hng n cung cp cc kt ni IP
gia cc UE v PDN, m khng c bt k s ngt qung no i vi nhng ng dng
ca ngi dng trong sut qu trnh di chuyn. Trong khi thut ng LTE cp quanh
s tin trin vic truy cp v tuyn thng qua E-UTRAN, n cn c kt hp cng
vi cc phng din ci tin khng v tuyn di thut ng SAE bao gm mng li
gi ci tin EPC. LTE cng vi SAE to thnh h thng gi ci tin EPS.
Hnh 3.1 cho chng ta thy cc thnh phn chnh ca 1 mng li v mng v
tuyn LTE (b) v cu thnh phn chnh ca mng UMTS. Chng ta thy mng LTE t
phc tp hn do cc eNodeB c kt ni vi nhau hoc kt ni trc tip ti mng li
nn cc RNC b g b. Cc chc nng ca RNC c chuyn mt phn sang trm c
s v mt phn sang nt Gateway ca mng li. V khng cn RNC na nn cc
eNodeB thc hin chc nng qun l d liu truyn ti mt cch t lp v m bo
dch v.
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a b
Hnh 3.1: S chuyn i cu trc UTRAN sang E-UTRAN
Hnh 3.2: Kin trc EPS

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Hnh 3.3: Cc thnh phn trong mng EPS
EPS cung cp cho ngi dng mt kt ni IP n PDN truy cp Internet, dch
v VoIP. Mt thng bo in hnh kt hp vi QoS. Nhiu thng bo c th thit lp
cho ngi dng nhiu dng QoS khc nhau ni n PDN.
Hnh 3.3 ch ra cu trc mng EPS bao gm nhiu thnh phn trong mng v
giao din chun. lp cao th mng bao gm Core Network (EPC) v mng truy cp
E-TRANS. lp di th bao gm kt ni truy cp gia eNodeB v UE.
Cc phn t trong mng 4G:
Thit b ngi dng UE :
UE l thit b m ngi dng u cui lin lc. N bao gm cc thit b
nh in thoi thng minh hoc th d liu nh nhng ngi dng trong mng
2G, 3G. UE cha modun nhn dng thu bao ton cu (USIM). UE c s
dng khi USIM kt ni vi thit b u cui (TE). USIM c dng nhn
dng v xc thc ngi dng ly kha bo mt nhm bo v vic truyn ti
trn giao din v tuyn.




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E-UTRAN NodeB (eNodeB) :
eNode B l trm gc c tng cng mi, c tn l Evolved NodeB da
trn tiu chun 3GPP, n l mt BTS c tng cng cung cp giao din
khng gian LTE v thc hin qun l ti nguyn v tuyn cho h thng truy
nhp tin tin. N bao gm cc chc nng sau: eNodeB c trch nhim v nhiu
chc nng ca mt phng iu khin (CP), v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn
(RRM) (nh vic s dng v tuyn bao gm phn b ti nguyn da trn yu
cu, u tin v lp lch trnh theo yu cu QoS v lin tc gim st tnh hnh s
dng ti nguyn. eNodeB c vai quan trng trong qun l tnh di ng. iu
khin eNB v o c phn tch mc ca tn hiu v tuyn c thc hin bi
UE. Hnh 2.4 cho thy cc kt ni vi eNB vi cc nt logic v cc chc nng
ca eNB. Trong tt c cc kt ni eNodeB c th l trong mi quan ht mt-
nhiu hoc nhiu- nhiu. Cc eNB c th phc v ng thi nhiu UE trong
vng ph sng ca n nhng mi UE ch c kt ni ti mt eNB trong cng
mt thi im. Cc eNB s cn kt ni ti cc eNB ln cn vi n trong khi
chuyn giao c th cn thc hin. UMTS th UTRAN gm 2 b phn l
NodeB v RNC v 2 b phn ny thc hin chc nng nh ca E-UTRAN ca
LTE.
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Hnh 3.4: eNodeB kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh
Thc th qun l tnh di ng (MME) :
MME l thnh phn iu khin chnh trong EPC. N l my ch mt v tr
an ton ti cc c s iu hnh, ch hot ng trong cc CP v khng tham gia
vo con ng ca UP d liu. MME c kt ni logic vi UE, v kt ni ny l
knh iu khin chnh gia UE v mng. Cc chc nng chnh ca MME :
- Xc thc v bo mt : Khi mt UE ng k vo mng ln u, MME
s khi to xc thc bng cch thc hin: n tm danh tnh thng tr
ca UE, hoc t cc mng truy cp trc , yu cu t b phc v
thu bao thng tr (HSS) trong mng ch ca UE cc iu kin
chng thc c cha cc m lnh chng thc tr li cc cp tham s
gi th thch UE v so snh vi tr li nhn c t UE. MME lp
li chc nng xc thc khi cn thit hoc theo chu k bo v thng
tin lin lc khi vic nghe trm v t s thay i ca bn th ba tng
ng trai php. bo v s ring t cho UE th MME cng phn b
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 36

cho mi UE mt m tm thi gi l m nhn dng tm thi duy nht
ton cu (GUTI).
- Qun l tnh di ng : MME theo di v tr tt c cc UE trong khu
vc ca mnh , khi mt UE ng k vo mng ln u, MME s to
mt li vo cho UE v tn hiu vi v tr ti HSS trong mng ch ca
UE. MME yu cu ti nguyn thch hp c thit lp trong eNodeB,
cng nh trong cc S-GW m n la chn cho UE. Cc MME sau
tip tc theo di v tr ca UE hoc l da theo mc ca eNB, nu
UE vn kt ni, tc l truyn thng ang hot ng hoc mc
khu vc theo di (TA). MME iu khin cc thit lp v gii phng
ngun ti nguyn da trn nhng thay i ch hot ng ca UE.
MME cng tham gia vo vic iu khin tn hiu chuyn giao ca UE
trong ch hot ng gia cc eNB, S-GW hoc MME. Mt UE
trng thi rnh ri n s bo co v tr ca n hoc l nh k, hoc l
khi n chuyn ti mt khu vc theo di. Nu d liu nhn c t
bn ngoi cho mt UE rnh ri, MME s c thng bo, n s yu
cu cc eNB trong TA c lu gi cho UE ti v tr nh ca UE.
- Qun l h s thu bao v dch v kt ni : vo thi im UE ng k
vo mng, MME xc thc xong th cc MME s lu tr thng tin ny
sut thi gian phc v UE bao gm cc kt ni vi mng d liu gi
c phn b ti cc mng tp tin nh km. Cc MME s t ng
thit lp mc nh phn t mang, cho php cc UE kt ni IP c bn.
iu ny bao gm tn hiu CP vi eNB v S-GW. Ti bt k thi
im no sau ny, cc MME c th cn ti c tham gia vo vic
thit lp phn t mang dnh ring cho cc dch v c hng li x
l cao hn.
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 37

Hnh 3.5 cho thy cc kt ni MME n cc nt logic xung quanh v
tm tt cc chc nng chnh ca giao din ny. V nguyn tc th
MME c th kt ni vi bt k MME khc trong h thng nhng
c gii hn trong mt nh iu hnh duy nht. Cc kt ni t xa
gia cc MME c th c s dng khi mt UE i xa, trong khi i
ng k vi mt MME mi sau tm kim nhn dng thng tr
mi ca UE, sau ly nhn dng thng tr ca UE, m nhn dng
thu bao di ng quc t (IMIS), t MME truy cp trc . Cc
MME kt ni vi MME khc s dng trong chuyn giao. UMTS
th khng c thc th qun l tnh di ng, nhng thnh phn qun l
xc thc v bo mt v qun l h s thu bao v dch v kt ni l
thnh phn MSC/VLR.

Hnh 3.5: MME kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng.



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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 38

Cng phc v (S-GW) :
Trong cu hnh kin trc c bn h thng, chc nng cao cp ca S-GW l
qun l ng hm UP v chuyn mch. S-GW l mt phn ca h tng mng
n c duy tr cc phng iu hnh trung tm ca mng.
Khi giao din S5/S8 da trn GTP, S-GW s c ng hm GTP trn tt c
cc giao din UP ca n. nh x gia cc lung dch v IP v ng hm GTP
c thc hin trong P-GW. Ton b iu khin c lin quan ti cc ng hm
GTP, n t MME hoc P-GW. Khi s dng giao din S5/S8 trn PMIP, S-GW
s thc hin nh x gia cc ng dch v IP trong cc ng hm S5/S8 v
ng hm GTP trong giao din S1-U v kt ni vi PCRF nhn thng tin
nh x.
S-GW c vai tr nh trong cc chc nng iu khin. N ch chu trch
nhim v ngun ti nguyn ca ring n, v n cp pht chng da trn cc yu
cu t MME, P-GW hoc PCRF t m cc hnh ng c thit lp, sa i
hoc xa sch cc phn t mang cho UE. Nu cc lnh trn c nhn t P-GW
hoc PCRF th S-GW cng s chuyn tip cc lnh ti MME n c th
iu khin cc ng hm ti eNodeB. Tng t, khi MME bt u c yu cu
th S-GW s bo hiu ti mt trong hai P-GW hoc PCRF ty thuc vo S5/S8
c da trn GTP hoc PMIP tng ng. Nu giao din S5/S8 c da trn
PMIP th d liu trong giao din s c cc lung gi IP trong mt ng
hm GRE truyn ti mi UE. Khi trong giao din S5/S8 da trn GTP mi
phn t mang s c ng hm ca ring nh. Do S-GW h tr PMIP S5/S8
c trch nhim lin kt cc phn t mang, v d : nh x cc lung gi IP trong
giao din S5/S8 vo cc phn t mang trong giao din S1. Chc nng ny trong
S-GW c gi l chc nng lin kt phn t mang v bo co s kin
(BBERF). Bt k ni m tn hiu phn t mang bt u, BBERF lun nhn cc
thng tin lin kt phn t mang t PCRF.
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 39

Trong khi di chuyn gia cc eNodeB, S-GW hot ng nh nt cui di
ng a phng. MME s lnh S-GW chuyn sang ng hm t mt
eNodeB khc. MME cng c th yu cu S-GW cung cp ti nguyn ng
hm cho d liu chuyn tip khi c nhu cu cn chuyn d liu t eNodeB
ngun ti eNodeB ch trong thi im UE c chuyn giao v tuyn. Cc t nh
hung di chuyn cng bao gm s thay i t mt S-GW ti mt ci khc, v
MME s iu khin s thay i ny cho ph hp bng cch loi b cc ng
hm trong S-GW c v thit lp chng trong S-GW mi. i vi tt c cc
lung d liu thuc v mt UE trong ch kt ni th S-GW s chuyn tip d
liu gia eNodeB v P-GW. Tuy nhin khi mt UE ch nhn ri th cc
ngun ti nguyn ny trong eNodeB s c gii phng, cc ng dn d liu
c kt thc trong S-GW. Nu S-GW nhn c gi d liu t P-GW th n s
lu cc gi vo b m v yu cu MME bt u nhn tin ti UE. Tin nhn s
lm cho UE ti ch ti kt ni, v khi cc ng hm c ti kt ni th cc
gi tin t b m s c gi v. S-GW s theo di d liu trong cc ng
hm v n cng c th thu thp cc d liu cn thit cho vic hch ton v tnh
chi ph ca ngi dng.
Hnh 3.6 cho thy S-GW kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v danh sch cc
chc nng chnh trong giao din ny. Mt S-GW c th phc v cho mt khu
vc a l nht nh vi mt tp gii hn cc eNB , v tng t c mt tp gii
hn ca cc MME iu khin khu vc . S-GW c th kt ni vi bt k P-GW
no trong ton b mng li v P-GW s khng thay i trong khi di chuyn,
trong khi S-GW c th nh v li trong khi UE di chuyn. UMTS th l thnh
phn GMSC c chc nng kt ni vi mng bn ngoi.
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 40


Hnh 3.6: Cc kt ni S-GW ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh
Cng mng d liu gi (P-GW) :
Cng mng d liu gi (P-GW, PDN-GW) l tuyn bin gia EPS v cc
mng d liu gi bn ngoi. N l nt cui di ng mc cao nht trong h
thng, v n hot ng nh l im IP ca cc thit b cho UE. N thc hin
chc nng chn lu lng v lc theo yu cu bi dch v cp.
in hnh l P-GW cp pht cc a ch IP cho UE, v UE s dng n
giao tip vi cc my ch IP khc trong cc mng bn ngoi. ( v d nh
Internet ). N cng c th l PDN bn ngoi m UE c kt ni cp pht
cc a ch l s dng bi cc UE, cc ng hm P-GW cho tt c lu
lng vo mng . a ch IP lun c cp pht khi UE yu cu mt kt ni
PDN, n s din ra t nht l khi UE c gn vo mng, v n c th xy ra sau
khi c mt kt ni PDN mi. Cc P-GW thc hin chc nng nh cu hnh my
ch ng (DHCP) khi cn, hoc truy vn mt my ch bn ngoi, cung cp a
ch cho UE. a ch IPv4 hoc IPv6 hoc c hai ty theo yu cu.
P-GW bao gm c PCEF, c ngha l n thc hin cc chc nng chn lu
lng v lc theo yu cu bi cc chnh sch c thit lp cho UE v cc dch
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 41

v ni n, n cng thu thp cc bo co thng tin chi ph lin quan. Lu lng
UP gia P-GW v cc mng bn ngoi di dng cc gi tin IP thuc v cc
dng dch v IP khc nhau. . Nu giao din S5/S8 hng ti S-GW l da trn
GTP th P-GW thc hin nh x cc dng d liu IP ti cc ng hm GTP,
cc P-GW thit lp cc phn t mang c bn da trn yu cu qua PCRF hoc
t S-GW, m chuyn tip cc thng tin t MME. Nu giao din S5/S8 l da
trn PMIP, P-GW s nh x tt c cc lung dch v IP t cc mng bn ngoi
thuc v mt UE ti mt ng hm GRE duy nht, v tt c cc thng tin iu
khin ch c trao i vi PCRF. P-GW cng c chc nng gim st cc lung
d liu cho mc ch hoch ton cng nh cho ngn xen theo lut. P-GW l
im cui di ng mc cao nht trong h thng. Khi mt UE di chuyn t mt
S-GW ti mt ci khc, cc phn t mang phi c chuyn vo P-GW. P-GW
s nhn c ch dn chuyn cc lung t cc S-GW mi. i vi UMTS
th thnh phn thc hin chc nng ny l SGSN v GGSN c chc nng phc
v chuyn mch gi.

Hnh 3.7: P-GW kt ni ti cc node logic khc v cc chc nng chnh
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 42

Hnh 3.7 cho thy P-GW kt ni n cc im logic v cc chc nng ca
giao din ny.
Chnh sch v tnh cc ti nguyn (PCRF) :
L phn t mng chu trch nhim v chnh sch v iu khin tnh cc
(PCC). N to ra quyt nh v cch x l cc dch v v QoS, v cung cp
thng tin cho PCEF c t trong P-GW, v nu c p dng cho c BBERF
c t trong S-GW, cho vic thit lp cc phn t mang thch hp v vic
lp chnh sch. PCRF l mt my ch v thng c t vi cc phn t CN
khc ti cc trung tm iu hnh chuyn mch. Chc nng tnh cc trong
UMTS c thc hin SGSN v GGSN.

Hnh 3.8: PCRF kt ni ti cc nt logic khc & cc chc nng chnh
My ch thu bao thng tr HSS :
L kho d liu thu bao cho tt c cc d liu UE thng xuyn. N ghi li
v tr ca ngi s dng mc ca nt iu khin mng tm tr, chng hn
nh MME. N l mt my ch c s d liu v c duy tr ti cc phng trung
tm ca nh iu hnh. HSS lu tr bn gc ca h s thu bao, trong cha
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 43

cc thng tin v cc dch v c p dng i vi ngi s dng, bao gm thng
tin v cc kt ni PDN c cho php, v liu c chuyn ti mt mng tm tr
ring c hay khng. HSS cng lu nhng nhn dng ca cc P-GW c s
dng. Kha thng trc c s dng tnh ton xc thc v c gi ti
mng tm tr xc thc ngi dng v cc kha pht sinh tip sau m ha
v bo v tnh ton vn l c lu tr ti cc trung tm xc thc(AUC), thng
l mt phn ca HSS. Trong tt c cc tn hiu lin quan ti cc chc nng ny
th HSS phi tng tc vi MME. Cc HSS s cn phi c kh nng kt ni vi
mi MME trong ton b h mng li, ni m cc UE ca n c php di
chuyn. i vi mi UE, cc h s HSS s ch ti mt MME phc v ti mt
thi im, v ngay sau l bo co v mt MME mi m n phc v cho UE,
HSS s hy b v tr ca MME trc. i vi UMTS th thnh phn lu tr
thng tin thu bao l HLR.
3.3. Cc ng giao tip gia li vi mng truy cp v tuyn :
Giao din v tuyn s dng trong E-UTRAN l S1 v X2. Trong S1 l giao
din v tuyn kt ni gia eNodeB vi mng li. S1 chia lm 2 loi l S1-U l giao
din gia eNodeB v SAE-GW v S1-MME l giao din kt ni gia eNodeB v
MME. X2 l giao din gia cc eNodeB vi nhau. UMTS th c giao din I
U
kt ni
UTRAN vi CN, giao din I
Ub
kt ni NodeB vi RNC, giao din I
Ur
kt ni gia cc
RNC vi nhau nhng ko c giao din kt ni gia cc NodeB vi nhau do cc Node
ny khng c kt ni vi nhau.
3.4. Cc ng giao tip vi c s d liu ngi dng :
Mt ng giao tip quan trng na trong cc mng li LTE l ng giao tip
S6 ni gia cc MME v c s d liu lu tr thng tin thu bao. Trong
UMTS/GPRS/GSM, c s d liu ny c gi l HLR (Home Location Register).
Trong LTE, HLR c s dng li v c i tn thnh HSS (Home Subscriber
Server). V c bn, HSS l mt HLR ci tin, v cha thng tin thu bao cho GSM,
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 44

GPRS, UMTS, LTE. ng giao tip S6 dng giao thc Diameter da trn IP. HSS l
mt c s d liu kt hp, v n c s dng ng thi bi cc mng GSM, UMTS
v LTE thuc cng mt nh cung cp dch v mng. V th, ngoi ng giao tip S6
dnh cho LTE ra, n tip tc hu thun ng giao tip MAP truyn thng.
3.5. Cu trc chuyn vng Roaming :
Mt mng hot ng trong mt quc gia c gi l mng di ng mt t cng
cng PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). Chuyn vng, ni ngi dng c cho
php kt ni n cc PLMN khc, l mt im ni bt ca mng di ng, v LTE/SAE
cng khng phi l ngoi l. Khi ngi s dng chuyn vng, h s c kt ni n
E-UTRAN, MME v S-GW ca mng LTE khch. Tuy nhin, LTE/SAE ch cho php
s dng P-GW hoc ca mng khch hoc ca mng nh. S dng P-GW mng nh
cho php ngi s dng truy cp cc dch v ca mng nh ngay khi ang trong
mng khch. Mt P-GW trong mng khch cho php mt ngt cc b (local
breakout) i vi mng gi internet trong mng khch.

Hnh 3.9: Cu trc chuyn vng truy cp vi P-GW trong mng nh
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 45

3.6. Kt ni vi cc mng khc :

Hnh 3.10: Kin trc lin mng vi 3G UMTS
EPS cng h tr kt ni v chuyn giao vi cc mng dng k thut truy cp v
tuyn khc nh GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000 v WIMAX. Kin trc c ch ra trn
Hnh. S-GW hot ng nh mt trm di ng (mobility anchor) dng kt ni vi
cc k thut 3GPP nh GSM v UMTS trong khi P-GW cho php kt ni vi cc mng
khng phi ca 3GPP nh CDMA 2000 hay WIMAX. Trong UMTS th kt 3G kt ni
vi cc mng khc thng qua MSC/VLR kt ni vi PSTN v GGSN kt ni vi mng
Internet.
3.7. Cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN :
Knh vt l: cc knh vt l s dng cho d liu ngi dng bao gm:
- PDSCH: ph ti c ch.
- PUSCH: c dng mang d liu ngi dng.
- PUCCH: c chc nng lp biu ACK/NACK.
- PDCCH: lp biu ACK/NACK.
- PBCH: mang cc thng tin c trng ca cell.
Knh logic: c nh ngha bi thng tn n bao gm:
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 46

- Knh truyn b iu khin (BCCH): c s dng truyn thng
tin iu khin h thng t mng n tt c cc my di ng trong cell.
Trc khi truy nhp h thng, u cui di ng phi c thng tin
pht trn BCCH bit c h thng c lp cu hnh nh th no,
nh bng thng h thng.
- Knh iu khin tm gi (PCCH): c s dng tm gi cc u
cui di ng v mng khng th bit c v tr ca chng cp
v v th cn pht cc bn tin tm gi trong nhiu .
- Knh iu khin ring (DCCH): s dng truyn thng tin iu
khin ti/ t mt u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho cu
hnh ring ca cc u cui di ng nh cc bn tin chuyn giao khc
nhau.
- Knh iu khin a phng (MCCH): s dng truyn thn tin cn
thit thu knh MTCH.
- Knh lu lng ring (DTCH): c s dng truyn s liu ca
ngi s dng n/ t mt u cui di ng. y l kiu logic c
s dng truyn tt c s liu ng ln ca ngi dng v s liu
ng xung ca ngi dng khng phi MBMS.
- Knh lu lng a phng (MTCH): c s dng pht cc dch
v MBMS.
Knh truyn ti:
- Knh qung b (BCH) c khun dng truyn ti c nh do chun
cung cp, s dng c pht thng tin trn knh logic.
- Knh tm gi (PCH): c s dng pht thng tin tm gi trn
knh PCCH, PCH h tr thu khng lin tc (DRX) cho php u
cui tit kim cng sut c quy bng cch ng v ch thc thu PCH
ti thi im quy nh trc.
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 47

- Knh chia s ng xung (DL-SCH): l knh truyn ti pht s
liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr cc chc nng ca LTE nh
thch ng tc ng v lp biu ph thuc knh trong min thi
gian v min tn s. N cng h tr DRX tiu gim cng sut u
cui di ng m vn m bo cm gic lun kt ni nh c ch CPC
trong HSPA. DL-DCH TTI l 1ms.
- Knh a phng(MCH): c s dng h tr MBMS. N c
c trng bi khun dng truyn ti bn tnh v lp biu bn tnh.
Trong trng hp pht a s dng MBSFN, lp biu v lp cu hnh
khun dng truyn ti c iu phi gia cc tham gia pht
MBSFN.
3.8. Cc giao thc trong cu hnh kin trc c bn ca h thng :
Hnh 3.11: cho thy cc giao thc CP lin quan n kt ni ca UE ti mt
PDN. Cc giao din t mt MME c th hin bi hai phn, phn pha trn l cc
giao thc hng ti E-UTRAN v UE, phn di hin th cc giao thc hng ti cc
cng. Lp NAS c 2 giao thc l EMM v ESM. Cc giao thc gm:
Qun l tnh di ng EPS (EMM): iu khin tnh di ng ca UE trong
h thng. Bao gm cc chc nng kt ni vo, tch ra t mng v thc hin
cp nht v tr (cp nht khu vc theo di TAU) n din ra trong ch nhn
ri.
Qun l phin EPS (ESM): iu khin vic qun l phn t mang gia UE
v MME, v n c s dng b sung cho E-UTRAN trong vic qun l
phn t mng.
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 48


Hnh 3.11: Ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin trong EPS
iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC): kim sot vic s dng ti nguyn
v tuyn. N qun l bo hiu ca UE v cc kt ni d liu v n bao gm
chc nng chuyn giao.
Giao thc hi t d liu gi (PDCP): nn tiu IP (UP) v bo v s ton
vn (CP).
iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC): c trch nhim phn on v ghp
ni cc PDCP-PDU truyn cho giao din v tuyn, thc hin vic sa li
vi phng php yu cu truyn li t ng (ARQ).
iu khin truy cp mi trng (MAC): lp k hoch d liu theo cc u
tin v ghp knh d liu ti cc khi truyn ti lp 1. Lp MAC cng cung
cp vic sa li vi HARQ.
Lp vt l (PHY): y l lp 1 ca giao din v tuyn LTE-UU.
Cc giao thc c s dng khi S5/S8 da trn GTP:
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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 49

- Mt phng iu khin giao thc ng hm GPRS (GTP-C): qun l
kt ni UP trong EPC. Bao gm bo hiu QoS v cc thng s khc.
Nu GTP c s dng trong giao din S5/S8 th n cn qun l cc
ng hm GTP-U. GTP-C cng thc hin cc chc nng qun l di
ng trong EPC.
- Truyn ti UDP-IP: giao thc d liu n v ( UDP) v IP c s
dng nh l truyn ti IP cn bn v tiu chun. UDP c s dng
thay v giao thc iu khin truyn dn (TCP) bi v cc lp cao hn
c cung cp s truyn ti tin cy vi c ch khc phc li v
truyn li. Cc gi tin IP trong EPC c th c vn chuyn trn mt
lot cc cng ngh lp 1 v lp 2.
Cc giao thc c s dng khi S5/S8 da trn PMIP:
- IP di ng y nhim (PMIP) : PMIP l giao thc khc cho giao din
S5/S8. n gi vic qun l tnh di ng, nhng khng bao gm cc
chc nng nh qun l phn t mang. Tt c cc lu lng thuc v
mt kt ni ca UE vi mt PDN ring l c x l nh nhau.
- IP : PMIP chy trc tip trn IP, v n c s dng nh l truyn ti
IP tiu chun.

Hnh 3.12: Ngn xp giao thc mt phng ngi dng trong EPC.

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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 50

Mt phng ngi dng giao thc ng hm GPRS (GTP-U): c
s dng khi S5/S8 da trn GTP, l ng hm gi cc gi tin ca
ngi dng gi IP cui v mt mng chuyn EPS. N s dng trong giao
din S1-U.
ng gi nh tuyn chung (GRE): s dng giao din S5/S8 kt hp
vi PMIP. L mt IP trong ng hm IP vn chuyn tt c cc d
liu thuc v mt kt ni vi UE ti PDN.

Hnh 3.13: Cc ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin v mt phng
ngi dng cho giao din X2
Giao din X2 c s dng trong khi di chuyn gia cc eNodeB, v
X2AP bao gm cc chc nng cho s chun b chuyn giao v duy tr
tan b s lin h gia cc eNodeB ln cn. UP trong giao din X2 c
s dng cho chuyn tip d liu tm thi trong qu trnh chuyn giao, khi
cc giao din v tuyn c ngt kt ni pha ngun v cha kt ni
li pha ch. Chuyn tip d liu l c thc hin cho cc d liu
hng xung, khi cc d liu hng ln c th c iu chnh hiu qu
bi UE.


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SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 51

3.9. Mt s c tnh ca knh truyn:
3.9.1. Tri tr a ng: Tn hiu nhn c bao gm tn hiu thu trc tip v cc
thnh phn phn xa. Tn hiu phn x n sau tn hiu trc tip v n phi truyn
qua mt khong di hn v nh vy n s lm tng nng lng thu c tri
rng theo thi gian. Khong tri tr l khong chnh lch thi gian gia tn hiu
thu trc tip v tn hiu thu phn x cui cng. Trong thng tin v tuyn, tri tr
c th gy nn nhiu xuyn k t nu h thng khng c cch khc phc. i
vi LTE, s dng OFDMA trnh nhiu xuyn k t ISI.
3.9.2. Cc loi fading : l s bin i cng tn hiu sng mang cao tn ti anten
thu do s thay i khng ng u v ch s khc x ca kh quyn, t, nc
trn ng truyn sng v tuyn i qua.
Rayleigh fadingg: l loi fading sinh ra do hin tng a ng v xc
sut mc thu tn hiu th b suy gim so vi mc tn hiu pht i tun
theo phn b Rayleigh.
Fading chn lc tn s v fading phng :
- Bng thng kt hp l mt php o thng k ca di tn s m
knh xem nh l phng. W
c
1/2D: vi D l tri tr thi gian a
ng.
- Fading phng l W
c
>W
th
nn lm thay i u tn hiu sng mang
trong mt di tn s.
- Fading chn lc tn s l W
c
<W
th
nn thay i tn hiu sng mang
vi mc thay i ph thuc tn s.
3.9.3. Dch tn Doppler :
L hin tng m tn s thu c khng bng tn s ca ngun ht v ngun
thu. Khong dch tn doppler f=f
0
v/c.
i vi LTE, khc phc doppler th ngi ta chn khong cch gia cc sng
mang ln (f= 15KHz).
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 52

3.9.4. Nhiu MAI i vi LTE :
ng ln s dng k thut SC-FDMA, n nhy cm vi dch tn. Cc user
khc nhau lun c dch tn s sng mang CFO. Khi tn ti nhiu CFO, tnh trc giao b
mt, nhiu lin sng mang (ICI) v MAI (Multi Access interfence) to ra lm gim
cht lng tn hiu thu c. Mt phng php trit ICI cng nh MAI l da trn cc
k hiu hoa tiu khi. Cc user khc nhau giao tip vi trm gc ti cc khe thi gian
khc nhau. Phng php ny ly trc tip thnh phn nhiu bng cch li dng cc k
hiu hoa tiu khi, v vy n khng cn s dng c lng CFO nhiu ln. Sau ma
trn can nhiu c khi phc li v nh hng ca cc CFO c th trit d dng bng
cch s dng phng php o ma trn.
Phn trnh by va ri nu cc phn cu trc mng ca h thng LTE c s
dng trong thc t, cc kt ni gia cc thnh phn con trong mng cng c m t
c th. i km theo cc c tnh ca knh truyn c s dng trong LTE, cc nhiu
cng c cp c th trong chng ny. Qua gip ngi c c ci nhn hnh
dung hn v LTE.

LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 53

CHNG 4: TRUY CP V TUYN TRONG LTE
4.1. Gii thiu chng :
Kt thc chng 3, chng v phn kin trc mng ca LTE, chng tip theo
s cho ngi c hiu r v cng ngh truy cp v tuyn c s dng trong LTE.
LTE s dng k thut OFDMA cho truy cp ng xung v SC-FDMA cho truy cp
ng ln. Kt hp ng thi vi MIMO, cc k thut v lp biu, thch ng ng
truyn v yu cu t ng pht li lai ghp. Sau y l mt vi k thut tiu biu.
4.2. Truyn d liu hng xung :
H thng truyn dn ng xung ca LTE da trn cng ngh OFDM v
OFDM c nhiu u im:
OFDM c th loi b hin tng nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI nu di chui
bo v GI ln hn tr truyn dn ln nht ca knh truyn.
Thc hin vic i chui d liu t ni tip sang song song nn thi gian
symbol tng ln nn s phn tn theo thi gian gy bi tri tr do ng
truyn dn a ng gim xung.
Ti u hiu qu ph tn do cho php chng ph gia cc sng mang con.
Hn ch c nh hng ca fading bng cch chia knh fading chn lc tn
s thnh cc knh con phng tng ng vi cc tn s sng mang OFDM
khc nhau.
OFDM ph hp vi vic thit k h thng truyn dn bng rng, nh hng
ca s phn tp v tn s (frequency selectivity) i vi cht lng h thng
c gim thiu nhiu so vi h thng truyn dn n sng mang.
Cu trc my thu n gin.
Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu trong min tn s.
Tng thch vi b thu anten tin tin.


LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 54

4.2.1. K thut truy cp phn chia theo thi gian chia theo tn s trc giao
OFDM :

Hnh 4.1: Truyn n sng mang

Hnh 4.2: Nguyn l ca FDMA

Hnh 4.3: Nguyn l a sng mang
OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca phng php iu ch FDM. Chia lung
d liu thnh nhiu ng truyn bng hp trong vng tn s s dng, trong cc
sng mang con trc giao vi nhau. Do vy ph tn hiu ca cc sng mang ph ny
c php chng ln ln nhau m pha u thu vn khi phc li c tn hiu ban u.
S chng ln ph tn hiu ny lm cho h thng OFDM c hiu sut s dng ph ln
hn nhiu so vi k thut iu ch thng thng.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 55


Hnh 4.4: So snh ph tn ca OFDM vi FDMA

Hnh 4.5: Tn s-thi gian ca tin hiu OFDM

LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 56

Hnh 4.6: Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau
Mt vn gp phi OFDM trong h thng thng tin di ng l cn dch cc
tn s tham kho i vi cc u cui pht ng thi. Dch tn ph hng tnh trc giao
ca cc cuc truyn dn n nhiu a truy cp. V vy n rt nhy cm vi dch tn.
LTE ngi ta chn khong cch gia cc sng mang l 15KHz, i vi khong cch
ny l khong cch ln i vi dch tn Doppler.
iu ch tn hiu OFDM, ngi ta s dng bin i FFT v IFFT cho bin
i gia min thi gian v min tn s.

Hnh 4.7: Bin i FFT
Chiu di bin i FFT l 2
n
vi n l s nguyn. Vi LTE, chiu di c th l
512 hoc 1024... Ta s dng bin i IFFT pht i, ngun d liu sau khi iu ch
bin i ni tip sang song song. Sau c a vo b m ha v sp xp, chn
pilot trc khi a vo b IFFT. Mi ng vo tng ng vi tng sng mang ring bit
(thnh phn tn s ring bit ca tn hiu min thi gian) v mi sng mang c iu
ch c lp vi cc sng mang khc. Sau khi bin i IFFT xong, tn hiu c chn
thm tin t vng CP ri chuyn i t song song sang ni tip chuyn ln lung d
liu tc cao trc khi a vo b chuyn tn hiu analog sang digital truyn trn
knh truyn. my thu th ta lm ngc li.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 57


Hnh 4.8: S to ra chui tn hiu OFDM
Chc nng ca cc khi:
Mc ch ca S/P: Ban u d liu u vo vi tc cao c chia
thnh nhiu dng d liu song song c tc thp hn, nhm cc bt li
gn cho cc sng mang, mi sng mang c gn lung d liu
truyn i (v d 64QAM th s nhm 6 bit).
Nhim v ca b m ha v sp xp l m ha vi sai d liu trong sng
mang, sau c nh x theo dng kha dch PSK. Cc bt c nh x
theo cch iu ch v d nh QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM
IFFT/FFT: B IFFT bin i nhanh t min tn s sang min thi gian v
FFT th ngc li. OFDM l k thut iu ch a sng mang, trong d
liu c truyn song song nh rt nhiu sng mang con. lm c
iu ny, c mi knh con, ta cn mt my pht sng sin, mt b iu
ch v mt b gii iu ch. Trong trng hp s knh con l kh ln th
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 58

cch lm trn khng hiu qu, nhiu khi l khng th thc hin c.
Nhm gii quyt vn ny, khi thc hin chc nng bin i
DFT/IDFT c dng thay th ton b cc b to dao ng sng sin,
b iu ch, gii iu ch dng trong mi knh ph. FFT/IFFT c xem
l mt thut ton gip cho vic thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT nhanh
v gn hn bng cch gim s php nhn phc khi thc hin php bin
i DFT/IDFT.
Ta c th hnh dung n gin nh sau:
Chui tn hiu vo X(k) , 0 k N-1
Khong cch gia cc tn s sng mang l : f
Chu k ca mt k t OFDM l : Ts
Tn s trn sng mang th k l f
k
= f
0
+ kf, gi s f
0
= 0, suy ra:
f
k
= nf
Tn hiu pht i c th biu din di dng :

=
A H
=
1
0
2
) ( ) (
N
k
ft k j
a
e k X t x
,
s
T t s s 0
Nu ly mu tn hiu vi mt chu k T
s
/N, tc l chn N mu trong mt
chu k tn hiu, phng trnh trn c vit li nh sau :

=
A H
= =
1
0
/ 2
) ( ) ( ) (
N
k
N fT nk j
s
N
n
a a
s
e k X T x n x

Nu tha mn iu kin 1 = A
s
fT ,
) (
1
s
T
f = A
, th cc sng mang
s trc giao vi nhau; lc ny, phng trnh trn c vit li :
{X(k)} . ) ( ) (
1
0
/ 2
IDFT N e k X n x
N
k
N nk j
a
= =

=
H

Phng trnh trn chng t tn hiu ra ca b IDFT l mt tn hiu ri rc
cng c chiu di l N nhng trong min thi gian.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 59

Ti b thu, b DFT c s dng ly li tn hiu X(k) ban u .
Tht vy, ta c :

N nk j
N
n
a
e n x n DFT k X
/ 2
1
0
a
*
) ( } ) ( {x ) (
H

= =

=
H
=
1
0
1
0
/ ) ( 2
1
) (
N
n
N
m
N k m n j
N
e m X


=
H
= =
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
/ ) ( 2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
N
m
N
n
N
m
N
N k m n j
N
k m N m X e m X o

=

=

1
0
) ( ) (
N
m
k m m X o = ) (k X
y, hm ) ( k m o l hm delta, c nh ngha l :

=
=
=
0 0
0 1
) (
n khi
n khi
n o

Trong thc t FFT/IFFT c xem l mt thut ton gip cho vic thc
hin php bin i DFT/IDFT nhanh v gn hn bng cch gim s php
nhn phc khi thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT. Dng tng qut:
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
( ) : ( ) ( )
( ) : ( ) ( )
N
j kn
N
k
N
j
N
n
IFFT IDFT x n X k e
N
FFT DFT X k x n e
t
t


=
=
=


Khi yu cu truyn i X(k) di dng phc th hin mc iu ch
QAM khc nhau trn cc sng mang khc nhau (hay s bit truyn i trn
cc knh truyn ph l khc nhau), c th s dng b 2N-IFFT/FFT. Tn
hiu vo b 2N-IFFT/FFT l chui tn hiu thc c di 2N, thay th
cho chui tn hiu phc c di N. Nguyn tc to ra chui tn hiu
X(k) c di 2N thay th cho chui tn hiu phc X(k) c di N l:
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 60

+ =
=
=
1 2 ,.., 1 ), 2 (
1 ,..., 1 ), (
) (
*
'
N N n k N X
N n k X
k X

V
) 0 ( Im( ) ( '
) 0 ( Re( ) 0 (
'
X N X
X X
=
=





Mc ch ca vic chn thm tin t vng l c kh nng lm gim hay
loi tr nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI. Mt mu c chiu di T
S
, chui bo v
tng ng l mt chui c di T
G
pha sau c chn ln phn pha
trc ca mu tn hiu nh hnh v pha di. S sao chp ny c tc
dng chng li nhiu xuyn k hiu do hiu ng phn tp a ng.


Hnh 4.9: Chui bo v GI hay tin t vng CP
Nh vy chiu di ca tn hiu l T=T
S
+T
G
. Do hiu ng a ng nn
tn hiu s c thu theo nhiu ng khc nhau. Trong hnh 4.10 (a) th
khng s dng chui bo v nn tn hiu thu sau s b tr mt khong so
vi tn hiu thu trc. Tn hiu thu c my thu s l tng hp ca tt
c cc tuyn, cho thy tn hiu sau s chng ln ln tn hiu trc , y
l hin tng nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI. Trong hnh 4.10 (b) th s dng
chui bo v nn d dng b hin tng ny. Trong trng hp T
G

LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 61

MAX
(vi
MAX
l trn truyn dn ti a ca knh) nh hnh v (b) th
phn b chng ln ISI nm trong khong bo v, cn thnh phn tn hiu
c ch vn an ton. my thu s loi b chui bo v v u vo h
thng OFDM m khng b nh hng bi ISI.

Hnh 4.10: Tc dng ca chui bo v
OFDM lng t ha trong min tn s da trn c lng p ng tn s ca
knh. Do n hot ng n gin hn WCDMA v n khng ph thuc vo chiu
di knh nh WCDMA. Trong WCDMA cc cell khc nhau c phn bit bi cc tri
ph khc nhau nhng trong OFDM tri ph khng c gi tr, n s dng cc k hiu
tham kho ring bit gia cc cell v cc anten khc nhau.
4.2.2. K thut a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA :
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 62

LTE s dng OFDMA cho tuyn ln. OFDMA c gi l a truy cp phn
chia theo tn s trc giao la cng ngh a truy cp phn chia theo sng mang trc giao,
l mt dng nng cao ca OFDM.

Hnh 4.11: OFDM v OFDMA
Tri ngc vi phng thc truyn OFDM, OFDMA cho php truy nhp ca
nhiu ngi s dng trn bng thng sn c. Mi ngi s dng c n nh mt ti
nguyn thi gian-tn s c th. Nh mt nguyn tc c bn ca E-UTRAN, cc knh
d liu l cc knh chia s. V d, i vi mi khong thi gian truyn ca 1ms, mt
quyt nh lch biu mi c ly v trong ngi s dng c gn vi cc ngun
ti nguyn thi gian / tn s trong sut khong thi gian truyn ti.
Cc tham s ca OFDMA:
Cu trc khung: c 2 loi cu trc khung, cu trc loi 1 cho ch FDD
v cu trc loi 2 cho TDD,
- Cu trc khung loi 1: khung v tuyn 10ms c chia thnh 20
khe c kch thc nh nhau l 0,5ms. Mt khung con bao gm 2
khe lin tip. 1 khe c 7 k t OFDM trong trng hp CP thng
thng v 6 k t OFDM trong trng hp CP m rng.
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 63


Hnh 4.12: Cu trc khung loi 1
- Cu trc khung loi 2: khung v tuyn 10ms bao gm 2 na
khung vi mi na chiu di 5ms. Mi na khung c chia thnh
5 khung con vi mi khung con 1ms. Ring khung con th 2 ca
mi na khung l c bit c 3 trng DwPTS (khe thi gian dn
hng ng xung), GP (khong bo v), UpPTS (khe thi gian
dn hng ng ln).

Hnh 4.13: Cu trc khung loi 2
Cu trc li ti nguyn: Mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang
con c khong thi gian 1 slot v khong cch gia cc sng mang con l
15KHz dn n kt qu bng thng ti thiu l 180KHz. n v nh nht
ca ti nguyn l thnh phn ti nguyn (RE), n bao gm mt sng
mang con i vi khong thi gian k t OFDM. Mt RB bao gm 84
RE (7x12) hay 72 RE (6x12)
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 64


Bng 4.1: S khi ti nguyn theo bng thng knh truyn

Hnh 4.14: Cu trc ca khi ti nguyn
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 65

Cu hnh
Kch thc
cc khi ti
nguyn


S lng cc
k hiu


Chiu di tin
t vng trong
cc mu
Chiu di tin
t vng s
Tin t vng
bnh thng
Af=15kHz
12 7
160 cho k
hiu u tin
144 cho k
hiu khc
5,2s cho k
hiu u tin
4,7s cho k
hiu khc
Tin t vng
m rng
Af=15kHz
12 6 512 16,7s
Bng 4.2: Tham s cu trc ng xung (FDD & TDD)
4.2.3. Truyn d liu hng xung :

Hnh 4.15: Ghp knh theo thi gian-tn s OFDMA
D liu c cp pht ti UE theo cc khi ti nguyn nh hnh 3.15. Cc khi
ti nguyn khng cn lin k nhau. Trong min thi gian, quyt nh lp biu c th b
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 66

bin i trong mi thi gian truyn ca 1ms v c thc hin trong trm gc
(eNodeB). Cc thut lp biu c tnh n tnh trng cht lng lin kt v tuyn ca
nhng UE khc, tnh trng can nhiu tng th, cht lng cc dch v yu cu, u
tin...


Hnh 4.16: Pht v thu OFDMA
4.2.4. Cc knh iu khin hng xung :
Knh iu khin ng xung vt l (PDCCH) : n phc v cho nhiu mc
ch. Ch yu n c s dng chuyn cc quyt nh lp lch biu ti cc UE ring
l, tc l n c nhim v lp lch biu cho hng ln v hng xung. PDCCH c
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 67

t trong k hiu OFDM u tin ca mt khung con. i vi cu trc khung loi 2,
PDCCH cng c th c nh x vo 2 k hiu OFDM u tin ca trng DwPTS.
Mt knh ch th dng iu khin vt l (PCFICH) c mang trn cc phn t
ti nguyn t trong trong k hiu OFDM u tin ca khung con c s dng ch
ra s lng cc k hiu OFDM cho PDCCH ( c th l 1, 2, 3, hoc 4 k hiu ).
PCFICH l cn thit bi v ti trn PDCCH c th khc nhau, ty thuc vo s lng
ngi s dng trong mt v cc dng tn hiu c truyn trn PDCCH.
Thng tin c mang trn PDCCH c gi l thng tin iu khin ng
xung ( DCI). Ty thuc vo mc ch ca cc thng ip iu khin, cc dng khc
nhau ca DCI s c xc nh.
4.2.5. Peak to Average Power Ratio ca OFDM (PAPR) :
Tn hiu OFDM gm N sng mang ph iu ch c lp nn khi N tn hiu cng
li vi pha ging nhau s to ra mt cng sut nh gp N ln cng sut trung bnh.
T s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR) trong h thng OFDM
c tnh nh sau:


||


||


Trong s(t) l tn hiu sng mang, T l chu k k hiu OFDM. iu c ngha
PAPR c nh gi trn mi k hiu OFDM
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 68


Hnh 4.17 S xut hin nh vt tri trong h thng a sng mang.
Hnh 4.17 minh ha s chng lp cc tn hiu sng mang iu ch to nn nh
vt tri. 4 sng mang con iu c pha bng nhau ti thi im t=0,23. Tn hiu
OFDM thu c ti thi im ny s c nh l 4 ln nh tng tn hiu ring l. PAPR
c tnh t t s ca cng sut nh tc thi ny v cng sut trung bnh ca tn hiu
Tn hiu OFDM c th vit di dng sau:


Ts l chu k k t OFDM. n gin ta gi s l a
k
=1 cho tt c cc sng
mang. Nh th cng sut nh ca tn hiu l
[

] [

]
[


Cng sut trung bnh ca tn hiu
[

] [

]
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 69

= [

]
Nh vy t s PAPR ln nht ca mt h thng OFDM c N sng mang ph l
N. Tuy nhin iu ny xy ra khi tt c sng mang con bng nhau v pha v gi tr nh
mt thi im.
c lng PAPR t tn hiu ri rc.
PAPR l thng s xt ti pha pht v thng c nh gi thng qua hm
phn b tch ly b CCDF( Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function) ca n,
tc l xc sut PAPR ln hn mt gi tr PAPR
0 :




Hm phn phi tch ly b (CDF) ca PAPR i vi tn hiu OFDM s c
tnh nh
(


T ta c hm phn phi tch ly b (CCDF) ca PAPR s l:
(

) (


Ta c >1. Theo[1] th l gi tr ln nht ng vi vic ly mu vt
tri ca OFDM.
Xt b khuch i c thc hin tuyn tnh ha, v gi n
max
l hiu sut cc i
ca b khuch i, quan h gia hiu sut b khuch i n,n
max
v PAPR c m t
nh sau


Khi PAPR =1 (PAPR tnh theo dB bng 0) hiu sut b khuch i t cc i.
Hiu sut gim mt na khi PAPR tng thm 3dB.
Tc ly mu
S
T
LN
ca k hiu OFDM l
LVTN : LTE v k thut truyn d liu GVHD : Th.S Bi Th Bch Tuyn

SVTH: Hunh Duy Quang-L c Vng Page 70

[

k=0,1,.N-1
Khi L=1, cc mu x[k/L] ny c gi l tc ly mu Nyquist. Tn hiu lin
tc theo thi gian c to ra t nhng mu ny bi b lc thng thp ti b pht.i
vi s pht sinh ny, N mu l . Nhng tn hiu qu ly mu c th cha ng thng
tin v cc nh m khng th tm thy trong tn hiu khng s dng qu ly mu ban
u
V vy, cn thit phi qu ly mu tn hiu OFDM c lng chnh xc
PAPR. Nu k t OFDM c chia thnh LN mu, (vi L>1 l h s qu ly mu, cc
mu ny c th c tnh ton bi b IDFT m khng (zero padded IDFT). PAPR s
dng cc mu nh

|(

)|

{|(

)|

}

c lng PAPR cho trng hp c bit L=1, ngha l PAPR c c lng
s dng cc tc Nyquist c nh ngha nh sau :

|(

)|

{|(

)|

}

V ta c


Theo l thuyt
L
bng khi N tr nn ln
Cc phn phi PAPR c th thu c chnh xc bng cch ly qu mu ph hp
L>1.
Hm CCDF vi gii hn trn
(


Vi mi

>0, L
opt
l h s ly mu ti u cho bi
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
0
0
1
1 1

t
opt
L

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Ta hy xt mt v d ly qu mu xem hm phn b CCDF ca PAPR

Hnh 4.18 : CCDF ca PAPR iu ch QPSK vi cc gi tr L khc nhau.
Hnh 4.18 m t mt tch ly b CCDF ca PAPR ng vi cc gi tr qu
mu khc nhau. Vi tc vt tri 2 ln (L=2) so vi Nyquist s cho CCDF ln hn.
V vi tc ly qu mu 4 ln s ci thin CCDF hn na. V n cng gn bng vi
L=16, nh vy khng c ci thin g ng k khi L>4.
4.3. Truyn ti d liu hng ln :
Vic truyn OFDMA phi chu mt t l cng sut nh-n-trung bnh (PAPR) cao,
iu ny c th dn n nhng h qu tiu cc i vi vic thit k mt b pht sng
nhng trong UE. l, khi truyn d liu t UE n mng, cn c mt b khuch i
cng sut nng tn hiu n ln mt mc cao mng thu c. B khuch i
cng sut l mt trong nhng thnh phn tiu th nng lng ln nht trong mt thit
b, v v th nn hiu qu cng sut cng cao cng tt lm tng tui th pin ca my.
3GPP tm mt phng n truyn dn khc cho hng ln LTE. SC-FDMA c
chn bi v n kt hp cc k thut vi PAPR thp ca cc h thng truyn dn n
sng mang, nh GSM v CDMA, vi kh nng chng c a ng v cp pht tn
s linh hot ca OFDMA.

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4.3.1. SC-FDMA :
Cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c tn hiu PAPR tt hn OFDMA. y l mt trong
nhng l do chnh chn SC-FDMA cho LTE. PAPR gip mang li hiu qu cao
trong vic thit k cc b khuch i cng sut UE, v vic x l tn hiu ca SC-
FDMA vn c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA, do , tham s hng DL v
UL c th cn i vi nhau. Ging nh trong OFDMA, cc my pht trong h thng
SC-FDMA cng s dng cc tn s trc giao khc nhau pht i cc k hiu
thng tin. Tuy nhin cc k hiu ny pht i ln lt ch khng phi song song nh
trong OFDMA. V th, cch sp xp ny lm gim ng k s thng ging ca
ng bao tn hiu ca dng sng pht. V th cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c PAPR
thp hn cc tn hiu OFDMA. Tuy nhin trong cc h thng thng tin di ng b
nh hng ca truyn dn a ng, SC-FDMA c thu ti cc BTS b nhiu gia
cc k t kh ln. BTS s dng b cn bng thch ng min tn s loi b nhiu
ny.

Hnh 4.19: OFDMA v SC-FDMA
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Hnh trn cho thy s khc nhau trong qu trnh truyn cc k hiu s liu
theo thi gian. Trn hnh ny ta coi mi ngi s dng c phn thnh 4 sng
mang con (P = 4) vi bng thng con bng 15KHz, trong mi k hiu OFDMA
hoc SC-FDMA truyn 4 k hiu s liu c iu ch QPSK cho mi ngi s
dng. i vi OFDMA 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn dng thi vi bng tn
con cho mi k hiu l 15KHz trong mi khong thi gian hiu dng T
FFT
ca
mt k hiu OFDMA, trong khi i vi SC-FDMA, 4 k hiu s liu ny
c truyn ln lt trong khong thi gian bng 1/P (P = 4) thi gian hiu dng k
hiu SC-FDMA vi bng tn con bng P x 15KHz (4 x 15 KHz) cho mi k hiu.
Trong OFDM, bin i Fourier nhanh FFT dng bn thu cho mi khi k t,
v o FFT bn pht. Cn SC-FDMA s dng c hai thut ton ny c bn pht
v bn thu.

Hnh 4.20 : Thu pht SC-FDMA trong min tn s
Vic x l tn hiu ca SC-FDMA vn c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA, do ,
tham s hng DL v UL c th cn i vi nhau. Tn hiu SC-FDMA c to ra
bng k thut tri ph DFT-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM).
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Hnh 4.21: S khi DFT-s-OFDM
Vi DFT-S-OFDM, mt DFT kch thc M trc tin c p dng ti mt
khi cc k hiu iu ch M. QPSK,16QAM v 64QAM c s dng nh l cc
phng n iu ch ng ln E-UTRAN, sau ny c ty chn cho UE. DFT bin
i cc k hiu iu ch vo min tn s. Kt qu c nh x vo cc sng mang con
c sn. Trong ng ln E-UTRAN, ch c truyn dn tp trung trn cc sng mang
con lin tip l c cho php. N im IFFT ni m N->M sau c thc hin nh
trong OFDM, tip l thm tin t vng v chuyn i song song thnh ni tip.
S x l DFT l s khc bit c bn gia vic to tn hiu SC-FDMA v
OFDMA. iu ny c th hin bng thut ng DFT-tri-OFDM. Trong mt tn
hiu SC-FDMA, mi sng mang con c s dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin bao
gm tt c cc k hiu iu ch c truyn, k t khi dng d liu u vo c lan
truyn bi s bin i DFT qua cc sng mang con sn c. Tri ngc vi iu ny,
mi sng mang con trong mt tn hiu OFDMA ch mang thng tin lin quan ti cc k
hiu iu ch c th.


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4.3.2. Cc tham s ca SC-FDMA:
Cu trc khung :
Cng tng t nh ng xung gm c 2 loi khung , khung loi 1
dnh cho FDD, khung loi 2 dnh cho TDD. Mi khe mang 7 k hiu SC-
FDMA trong trng hp cu hnh tin t vng thng thng, v 6 k hiu
SC-FDMA trong trng hp cu hnh tin t vng m rng. K hiu SC-
FDMA s 3 ( k hiu th 4 trong mt khe ) mang tn hiu chun cho vic
gii iu ch knh.
Ti nguyn vt l ng ln :
Cc thng s c bn ca truyn dn ng ln LTE c la chn cn
chnh, cng nhiu cng tt, vi cc thng s tng ng ca ng xung
LTE da trn OFDM. Do , khong cch sng mang con DFT-s-OFDM
ng ln tng ng vi f=15 KHz v cc khi ti nguyn bao gm 12
sng mang con c cng c xc nh cho ng ln.
Cng v mt kin trc min thi gian c lm chi tit hn, ng ln
LTE rt ging vi ng xung, nh c th c nhn thy trong hnh 3.16.
Mi khung con ng ln 1ms bao gm hai khe c di bng nhau T
slot

=0.5 ms. Mi khe sau bao gm mt s lng cc khi DFT km theo c
tin t tun hon (Cyclic Prefix - CP). Cng tng t ng xung, hai
di tin t tun hon c nh ngha cho ng ln, tin t tun hon thng
thng v tin t tun hon m rng.
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Hnh 4.22 : Khung con ng ln LTE v cu trc khe.
Mt khung con bao gm hai khe kch thc bng nhau. Mi khe bao gm
6 hoc 7 khi DFTS-OFDM trong trng hp tng ng vi tin t chu
trnh bnh thng v m rng.

Hnh 4.23: Cp pht ti nguyn ng ln LTE
Ngc vi ng xung, cc khi ti nguyn ng ln c n nh
n mt u cui di ng phi lun lun c lin tip nhau trong min tn
s, nh c minh ho trong hnh 4.22. Ch rng, tng t nh ng
xung, khi ti nguyn ng ln c nh ngha nh 12 sng mang con
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DFT-s-OFDM trong sut mt khe 0.5 ms. Ti cng mt thi im,
scheduling ng ln c thc hin trn c s mt khung con 1 ms. Do ,
tng t nh ng xung, n nh ti nguyn ng ln c thc hin
di dng cc cp khi ti nguyn lin tc trong min thi gian.
4.3.3. Truyn dn d liu hng ln :
Lp k hoch ngun ti nguyn hng ln c thc hin bi eNodeB. eNodeB
s cp cc ti nguyn thi gian/tn s nht nh cho cc UE v cc UE thng bo v
cc dng truyn ti m n s dng. Cc quyt nh lp lch biu c th da trn cc
thng s QoS, tnh trng b nh m ca UE, cc thng s cht lng knh ng ln,
kh nng ca UE, cc o c khong cch ca UE, v.v
Vic pht tn hiu trong min tn s c th hin nh trong hnh di. B sung
thm cho OFDMA thuc tnh ca dng sng ph tt hn tri ngc vi vic pht tn
hiu trong min thi gian vi mt b iu ch QAM thng thng. Do nhu cu v
bng tn bo v gia cc ngi dng khc nhau l c th trnh c, tng t nh
nguyn l ng xung ca OFDMA. Nh trong h thng OFDMA, mt tin t vng
cng c thm vo theo nh k, nhng khng phi sau mi k hiu nh l tc k
hiu l nhanh hn trong min thi gian so vi trong OFDMA, cho vic truyn d
liu c th ngn nga c nhiu lin k t v n gin ha vic thit k my thu.
My thu vn cn phi i ph vi nhiu lin k t nh l tin t vng by gi s ngn
cn nhiu lin k t gia mt khi cc k hiu, do s vn cn nhiu lin k t gia
cc tin t vng. Do my thu s chy b cn bng cho mt khi cc k hiu cho n
khi t c tin t vng m ngn chn s lan truyn nhiu lin k t sau .

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Hnh 4.24 : Pht v thu hng ln LTE
LTE h tr c hai l nhy tn bn trong v lin khung con. N c cu hnh
trn mi bi cc lp cao hn cho d nhy c hai bn trong v lin khung con hoc ch
nhy lin khung con l c h tr.
Knh iu khin hng ln vt l (PUCCH) mang thng tin iu khin hng
ln (UCI), tc l thng tin ACK/NACK lin quan ti vic nhn cc gi d liu trong
ng xung, bo co ch s cht lng knh (CQI), thng tin ma trn tin m ha
(PMI) v ch s bc (RI) cho MIMO, v cc yu cu lp k hoch (SR). PUCCH c
truyn trn mt vng tn s dnh ring trong hng ln m n c cu hnh bi cc
lp cao hn. Cc khi ti nguyn PUCCH c t vo c hai bin ca bng thng
ng ln, v nhy tn lin khe c s dng trn PUCCH.






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4.3.4. So snh OFDMA v SC-FDMA :

Hnh 4.25: So snh OFDMA & SC-FDMA
Bn tri hnh trn, M cc sng mang con 15kHz lin k c t vo a
im mong mun trong bng thng knh v mi sng mang con c iu ch vi chu
k k hiu OFDMA l 66,7s bi mt k hiu d liu QPSK. Trong v d ny, bn
sng mang con, bn k hiu c a ra song song. y l cc k hiu d liu QPSK
do ch c pha ca mi sng mang con l c iu ch v cng sut ca sng mang
con vn gi khng i gia cc k hiu. Sau mt chu k k hiu OFDMA tri qua, cc
CP c chn vo v bn k hiu tip theo c truyn i song song. cho hnh nh
nhn c r rng nn cc CP c hin th nh mt khong trng, tuy nhin, n thc
s c lp y vi mt bn sao ca s kt thc ca k hiu tip theo, c ngha l cng
sut truyn dn l lin tc nhng c mt s gin on pha bin ca k hiu. to ra
tn hiu truyn i, mt IFFT c thc hin trn mi sng mang con to ra M tn
hiu min thi gian. Chng ln lut l vec t tng hp to ra dng sng min thi
gian cui cng c s dng truyn dn.
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S to thnh tn hiu SC-FDMA c bt u vi mt qui trnh ng trc c
bit ri sau n cng tip tc mt cch tng t nh OFDMA. Tuy nhin trc ht ta
s xem hnh bn phi ca hnh 3.19. S khc bit r rng nht l OFDMA truyn bn
k hiu d liu QPSK song song trn mi sng mang con, trong khi SC-FDMA truyn
bn k hiu d liu QPSK trong lot bn ln , vi mi k hiu d liu chim M
15kHz bng thng.
Nhn mt cch trc quan, tn hiu OFDMA r rng l a sng mang vi mt k
hiu d liu trn mi sng mang con, nhng tn hiu SC-FDMA xut hin nhiu hn
mt sng mang n ( v th m c SC trong tn SC-FDMA ) vi mi k hiu d liu
c biu din bng mt lot tn hiu. Lu rng chiu di k hiu OFDMA & SC-
FDMA l nh nhau vi 66,7s, tuy nhin, k hiu SC-FDMA c cha M cc k hiu
con m biu din cho d liu iu ch. l vic truyn ti song song ca nhiu cc
k hiu to ra PAPR cao khng mong mun vi OFDMA. Bng cch truyn M cc k
hiu d liu trong dy vo M thi im, SC-FDMA chim bng thng cng nh a
sng mang OFDMA nhng ch yu l PAPR tng t nh c s dng cho cc k
hiu d liu gc. Thm vo cng nhau nhiu dng sng QPSK bng hp trong
OFDMA s lun to ra cc nh cao hn c th thy trong bng thng rng hn, dng
sng QPSK n sng mang SC-FDMA.
4.4. K thut MIMO :
MIMO l mt phn tt yu ca LTE t c cc yu cu y tham vng
v thng lng v hiu qu s dng ph. MIMO cho php s dng nhiu anten
my pht v my thu. Vi hng DL, MIMO 2x2 (2 anten thit b pht, 2 anten
thit b thu) c xem l cu hnh c bn, v MIMO 4x4 cng c cp v a
vo bng c t k thut chi tit. Hiu nng t c ty thuc vo vic s dng
MIMO. Trong , k thut ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing) v pht
phn tp (transmit diversity) l cc c tnh ni bt ca MIMO trong cng ngh
LTE.
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Gii hn chnh ca knh truyn thng tin l can nhiu a ng gii hn v
dung lng theo quy lut Shannon. MIMO li dng tn hiu a ng gia my
pht v my thu ci thin dung lng c sn cho bi knh truyn. Bng cch s
dng nhiu anten bn pht v thu vi vic x l tn hiu s, k thut MIMO c th
to ra cc dng d liu trn cng mt knh truyn, t lm tng dung lng knh
truyn.

Hnh 4.26 : M hnh SU-MIMO v MU-MIMO
Hnh trn l v d v SU-MIMO 2x2 v MU-MIMO 2x2. SU-MIMO y
hai dng d liu trn vi nhau (m ha) ph hp vi knh truyn nht. 2x2 SU-
MIMO thng dng trong tuyn xung. Trong trng hp ny dung lng cell tng
v tc d liu tng. MU-MIMO 2x2 y dng d liu MIMO a ngi dng
n t cc UE khc nhau. Dung lng cell tng nhng tc d liu khng tng.
u im chnh ca MU-MIMO so vi SU-MIMO l dung lng cell tng m khng
tng gi thnh v pin ca hai my pht UE. MU-MIMO phc tp hn SU-MIMO.
Trong h thng MIMO, b pht gi cc dng d liu qua cc anten pht. Cc
dng d liu pht thng qua ma trn knh truyn bao gm nhiu ng truyn gia
cc anten pht v cc anten thu. Sau b thu nhn cc vector tn hiu t cc anten
thu, gii m thnh thng tin gc.
i vi tuyn xung, cu hnh hai anten trm pht v hai anten thu thit
b u cui di ng l cu hnh c bn, cu hnh s dng bn anten ang c xem
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xt. y chnh l cu hnh SU-MIMO, v s dng k thut ghp knh khng gian
vi li th hn cc k thut khc l trong cng iu kin v bng thng s dng v
k thut iu ch tn hiu, SU cho php tng tc d liu (data rate) bng s ln
ca s lng anten pht.
Ghp knh khng gian cho php pht chui bit d liu khc nhau trn cng
mt khi ti nguyn tuyn xung. Nhng dng d liu ny c th l mt ngi dng
(SU-MIMO) hoc nhng ngi dng khc nhau (MU-MIMO). Trong khi SU-
MIMO tng tc d liu cho mt ngi dng, MU-MIMO cho php tng dung
lng. Da vo hnh 2.29, ghp knh khng gian li dng cc hng khng gian
ca knh truyn v tuyn cho php pht cc d liu khc nhau trn hai anten.

Hnh 4.27: Ghp knh khng gian
K thut phn tp c bit n t WCDMA release 99 v cng s l mt
phn ca LTE. Thng thng, tn hiu trc khi pht c m ha tng hiu ng
phn tp. MIMO c s dng khai thc vic phn tp v mc tiu l lm tng
tc . Vic chuyn i gia MIMO truyn phn tp v ghp knh khng gian c
th ty thuc vo vic s dng knh tn s.
i vi ng ln, t thit b u cui di ng n BS, ngi ta s dng m
hnh MU-MIMO (Multi-User MIMO). S dng m hnh ny BS yu cu s dng
nhiu anten, cn thit b di ng ch dng mt anten gim chi ph cho thit b
di ng. V hot ng, nhiu thit b u cui di ng c th pht lin tc trn cng
mt knh truyn, nhiu knh truyn, nhng khng gy ra can nhiu vi nhau bi v
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cc tn hiu hoa tiu (pilot) trc giao ln nhau. K thut c cp n, l k
thut a truy nhp min khng gian (SDMA) hay cn gi l MIMO o.
Cc k thut chnh c s dng trong LTE ca qu trnh truyn d liu c
m t rt chi tit trong chng ny, s so snh gia tn hiu truyn i ca 2 k thut
SC-FDMA v OFDMA cho thy s khc nhau ca 2 k thut v l do ti sao phi
s dng 2 cng ngh khc nhau cho 2 ng up v down trong qu trnh truyn d
liu.

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CHNG 5: M PHNG OFDMA, SC-FDMA V
PHN TCH H THNG
5.1. Gii thiu chng :
Sau cc l thuyt c th hin cc phn trn, chng ny s m phng cc
k thut trn km a ra nh gi h thng mt cch c th, cc tn hiu truyn i nh
th no v nhn c sau khi truyn cng c cp trong chng ny.
5.2. M phng h thng :
Chng trnh s dng phn mm matlab 7.11, dng m phng h thng
OFDMA v SC-FDMA c trnh by chng 4.
Cc tham s u vo:
- M=16: bc iu ch QAM
- Fftlength= 128: kch thc khi IFFT v FFT, tng ng vi bng thng
BW=1.25MHz
- Nd=512: d liu u vo l mt chui cc s t nhin.
- Cp_len=0.1*fftlength: kch thc ca CP (cycle prefix)
- Knh truyn a ng c p ng tn s l hm HPA
- Trong qu trnh truyn chu nh hng ca nhiu trng AWGN.
5.2.1. Chng trnh m phng OFDMA :
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Hnh 5.1: H thng ng xung OFDMA
M phng s c nh sau:
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Hnh 5.2: M phng OFDMA
Cc nt A, B, C, D, E, F l cc nt khi chng ta n th cc dng tn hiu s
c hin ra.
Khi n nt A th d liu u vo c hin ra:
y chng ta s dng hm randsrc(1,Nd,0:M-1) to ra mt chui
cc s t nhin
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Hnh 5.3: D liu u vo
Sau khi qua b Serial to Parallel v m ha & sp xp th chng ta c
dng iu ch. Chng ta s dng hm qammod(data,M) iu ch
16QAM. Sau khi qua b iu ch th tn hiu c dng nh sau khi n nt
B nh sau:
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Hnh 5.4: Tn hiu sau khi qua iu ch 16QAM
D liu i qua IFFT :
y chng ta s dng hm ifft(((data_matrix(:,i)),fftlength) vi
data_matrix l tn hiu sau iu ch QAM v c mapping cho ph hp vi
kch thc IFFT ( ma trn by gi tng ng vi 128 hng v 4 ct) bng
lnh reshape(data_modu, fftlength, num_cols), mi symbol QAM s c
gn vo mt sng mang con ( tng ng vi mt mu IFFT).
Chn CP :
Chng ta s dng lnh actua_cp(j,i)=ifft_data_matrix(j+cp_start,i).
Trong j l bin chy t 1 n chiu di ca cp tng ng l 13. Ma trn
cp tng ng gm 13 hng v 4 ct. Sau khi chn cp xong, tn hiu truyn i
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bao gm tn hiu sau khi iu ch IFFT v tn hiu chn CP ifft_data(:,i) =
vertcat(actual_cp(:,i),ifft_data_matrix(:,i));.
Chuyn t song song sang ni tip :
Tn hiu sau khi c chn CP ta chuyn i sang ni tip, s dng lnh
ofdm_signal = reshape(ifft_data, 1, len_ofdm_data). Tn hiu OFDMA c
biu din sau khi n nt C:

Hnh 5.5: Tn hiu OFDMA
Knh truyn :
Tn hiu OFDMA sau khi c iu ch a vo knh truyn vi p
ng truyn l HPA. Nhng tn tn hiu no c bin nm ngoi khong gi
tr ca avg ca b p ng knh truyn th c cng thm vi nhiu hn
tp. Tn hiu sau khi qua knh HPA c biu din sau khi n nt D:
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Hnh 5.6: Tn hiu OFDMA cng vi nhiu tp
To knh truyn a ng s dng lnh
channel = randn(1,fftlength) + sqrt(-1)*randn(1,fftlength)
To ra nhiu trng AWGN
awgn_noise = awgn(zeros(1,length(after_channel)),0);
Receiver :
Tn hiu thu c bn my thu bao gm tn hiu c pht cng vi
nhiu tp v nhiu trng cng recvd_signal = awgn_noise+after_channel;
Sau khi thu c tn hiu , bn my thu thc hin cc bc ngc li bn
pht chuyn i t ni tip ra song song, s dng hm reshape .
Loi b CP : recvd_signal_matrix(1:cp_len,:)=[];
Bin i FFT :
fft_data_matrix(:,i) = fft(recvd_signal_matrix(:,i),fftlength); d liu lc
ny c biu din sau khi n nt E
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Hnh 5.7: Tn hiu sau khi bin i FFT
Bin i song song sang ni tip ta cng dng hm reshape. Gii
iu ch ta c tn hiu sau khi n nt F
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Hnh 5.8: Tn hiu thu c pha thu
5.2.2. M phng SC-FDMA :
Tng t nh m phng OFDMA, ta c s khi h thng :

Hnh 5.9: H thng thu pht Sc-FDMA
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Khi nhn vo A d liu u vo s c chuyn i t ni tip sang song song

Hnh 5.10: D liu chuyn t S-P
Nhn vo B d liu sau khi iu ch 16QAM c bin i FFT

Hnh 5.11: D liu sau khi iu ch
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Tip tc nhn vo cc nt cn li kt qu m phng s xut hin ln lt nh sau :

Hnh 5.12 : Tn hiu sau khi qua FFT

Hnh 5.13 : Tn hiu sau khi qua IFFT

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Hnh 5.14 : kt qu thu c sau khi chn CP

Hnh 5.15 : Tn hiu sau khi qua knh truyn
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Hnh 5.16 : Tn hiu nhn c

Hnh 5.17: B CP
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Hnh 5.18: Sau bin i FFT

Hnh 5.19: Sau bin i IFFT

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Hnh 5.20: Chui bit nhn c
5.3. Phn tch h thng :
th BER
- th so snh gia tn hiu c a ng Rayleigh v khng c
Rayleigh:
Cc thng s nhp vo chng ta c:
o S lng iu ch Fourier l 512
o S lng sng mang l 300
o S lng bt vo l 100000
o Gauss l 64
o B=5MHz
o Fc = 8MHz
o S dng iu ch 16QAM
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o Multipath trng hp mt l khng c, trng hp hai l
100km/h
o Trong hai trng hp u c AWGN
Sau khi chy chng ta c th nh sau:

Hnh 5.21 : th Ber so snh gia c Rayleigh v khng c Rayleigh trong LTE
Nhn hnh 5.21 chng ta thy t l li bit ca tn hiu ch c AWGN th c t l li bt
thp hn tn hiu c thm nhiu Rayleig rt nhiu. Li bt ca tn hiu c Rayleigh rt
cao.
- th BER so snh gia cc iu ch
Cc thng s nhp vo chng ta c:
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o S lng iu ch Fourier l 512
o S lng sng mang l 300
o S lng bt vo l 100000
o Gauss l 64
o B=5MHz
o Fc = 8MHz
o S dng iu ch trng hp mt l QPSK, trng hp
hai l 16QAM v trng hp ba l 64QAM
o Trong hai trng hp u c AWGN

Hnh 5.22: th biu din so snh cc iu ch QPSK, QAM trong LTE
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Nhn vo hnh 5.22 chng ta thy t l li bt ca iu ch QPSK l thp hn so vi
iu ch 16QAM v 64 QAM, iu ny cho chng ta thy iu ch cng cao th xc
sut li bt cng cao.

th biu din PAPR ca OFDMA v SC-FDMA
Cc thng s l iu ch 16QAM, tng s sng mang l 512, BW= 5MHz



Hnh 5.23 : PAPR OFDMA & SC-FDMA
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Nhn vo hnh 5.23 chng ta thy t l cng sut nh so vi trung bnh ca h
thng SC-FDMA thp hn h thng s dng OFDMA. Nu PAPR thp th h thng
khng i hi my pht phi c cng sut ln truyn i, nn gim thiu gi thnh
ca my pht. LTE th SC-FDMA c s dng my pht ca UE gim ti
cng sut pht ca UE. y l im cn bn m LTE hn Wimax. Nu nh Wimax
th s dng ng ln v ng xung u s dng OFDMA, nn my pht ca n
phi l mt my pht cng sut ln my thu c th thu c tn hiu iu ch.














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CHNG 6: KT LUN
3GPP LTE (The Third Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution),
cng ngh di ng c pht trin v chun ha bi 3GPP (Chu u), c xem l
ng c vin trin vng nht cho cng ngh mng di ng 4G. Hin ti vn cha c
quyt nh chnh thc ci no s l 4G, tuy nhin vi nhng u im vt tri ca mnh
LTE s dn dn tin ln cng ngh 4G, n l mt ng vin sng gi. Cc u im ca
LTE c m t kh r trong bo co, cc kin trc mng, cc thng s k thut cng
c nu r. V quan trng nht l phn truyn d liu ca cng ngh LTE phn no
lm r cc u im m LTE c c trong mi trng cnh tranh mnh m vi cc cng
ngh ng thi.
Ngi thc hin ti chn ti ny nhm nng cao s hiu bit, ng thi
y cng l ti mi m, ph hp vi thc t. Ni dung ca n tm hiu v cng
ngh LTE ni chung v cc k thut truyn d liu ni ring ca cng ngh LTE qua
a ra cc im vt tri ca LTE so vi cc cng ngh ng thi khc nh 3G,
Wimax
Ni dung c trnh by kh r rng trong bi bo co, qua rt ra nhng g
t c v cha t c:
t :
- V phn l thuyt ti nu r v 2 k thut truyn d liu
trong LTE, a ra cc nhn xt c th km bng so snh v im
vt tri ca LTE so vi cc cng ngh khc. Qua cho thy r
im mnh ca LTE m c nh gi l ng c vin trong cng
cuc cnh tranh 4G.
- V phn m phng : s dng phn mm Matlab m phng 2 k
thut tin tin c s dng trong cng ngh LTE l OFDMA cho
downlink v SC-FDMA cho uplink. Thc hin m phng c th
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ca mt thng tin khi gi i v nhn c, cc nh hng ca
knh truyn, xc xut li, PAPR cng c nu r trong phn
ny.
Tuy nhin vn cn vi vn cha t c trong ti ny gm c
Cha t :
Cc k thut khc ca LTE cha c cp ti trong bi bo co
m ch nu r v ni dung ca 2 k thut OFDMA v SC-FDMA
nn cn thiu st v cc k thut khc ca LTE nh MIMO
T cc im cha t c trn nhm thc hin ti rt ra hng nghin cu
trong tng lai l:
Thc hin thm qu trnh tm hiu cc kin thc l thuyt v lp vt l,
cc th tc truy cp km theo cc ng dng c s dng bi cng ngh
LTE.
Tip tc tm hiu v pht trin cc cc k thut khc trong LTE nh
MIMO-OFDM, MIMO2x2,4x4 v cc dn chng minh ha khc. Qua
a ra nh gi c th v kt qu t c.
So snh mt cch c th cc im u, khuyt ca LTE so vi 3G v
Wimax lm sng t im mnh ca LTE v l do LTE c coi l ng
c vin sng gi nht cho th h di ng th 4.
Theo ng nh yu cu ra t trc, n ny lm ni bt nhng u im
ca cng ngh LTE, cng nh cc k thut tin tin c s dng trong cng ngh ny.
Tuy vn cn ang c tip tc nghin cu, th nghim v pht trin nhng vi nhng
kt qu bc u rt kh quan cng nh li th v kin trc mng n gin v kh
nng d dng tch hp vi cc mng 3G v 2G hin ti m khng cn thay i ton b
c s h tng mng c, cng ngh LTE chng t c tim nng mnh m ca
mnh so vi cc cng ngh i th m in hnh l WiMAX. Cho d c ra i mun
hn so vi WiMAX ( c trin khai trn th trng), cng ngh LTE mi ny vn
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c tnh cnh tranh cao trong tng lai, v ngoi nhng u im sn c, LTE cn nhn
c rt nhiu s ng h ca cc i gia trong ngnh cng ngh vin thng, nh
Ericsson, Nokia-Siemens Networks, Alcatel-Lucent, T-Mobile, Vodafone, v cc tp
on ln khc mi gia nhp nh China Mobile, Huawei, LG Electronics, NTT
DoCoMo v Samsung.

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TI LIU THAM KHO
[1] LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced Harri Holma &Antti Toskala.
[2] LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX: Towards IMT-Advanced Networks Najah
Abu Ali, Abd-Elhamid M. Taha, Hossam S. Hassanein.
[3] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala both of Nokia Siemens Netwworks, Filand; LTE
for UMTS-OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[4] M phng cc h thng thng tin v tuyn s dng Matlab- Trn Xun Nam.
[5] Matlab v ng dng trong vin thng- Phm Hng Lin
[6] Cc ngun trn Internet
http://www.en.wikipedia.org
http://www.vi.wikipedia.org
http://www.vntelecom.vn
http://www.google.com.vn
http://wiki.hsc.com/