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Steam Turbine Fundamentals

with an emphasis on
Blade Design Blade Design
Laws of Thermodynamics
The conversion of heat to work is based on two fundamental principles:
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the sum of all energy
entering a system must equal the sum of all energy exiting; energy can
neither be created or destroyed.
The First Law gives no indication of whether or not difficulties will be The First Law gives no indication of whether or not difficulties will be
encountered in making the conversion from one energy form to another.
The Second Law concentrates on the feasibility of energy conversion y gy
processes. It is impossible to convert all of the energy supplied to a
system to useful work; some of the energy is lost or rejected. The more
energy that can be converted, the more efficient the system.
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Rankine Cycle
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Rankine Cycle with Reheat
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Mollier Chart
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Theoretical Steam Rate Tables
Easier To Use!
TSR
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Flow/Power Calculation
Flow Available (lbs/hr) X 75% (Overall Efficiency)
= Power (kWs)
Theoretical Steam Rate (lbs/kw-hr)
Power (kWs)
10 000 lbs/hr X 75
Example: Inlet= 850 psig/825F, Exhaust= 2.0 HgA, Flow= 10,000 lbs/hr
10,000 lbs/hr X .75
6.580 lbs/kw-hr
= 1,140 kWs
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Turbine Principles
Steam turbines are used to convert the heat energy in the steam into
mechanical energy. If the steam turbine drives a generator, then this
mechanical energy will be further converted into electrical energy. mechanical energy will be further converted into electrical energy.
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Steam Turbine Design Philosophies
Impulse
Expansion or pressure drop of steam occurs across only in
the stationary nozzles
Reaction
Expansion or pressure drop of steam occurs across both in
the rotating nozzles and stationary blades the rotating nozzles and stationary blades.
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Impulse and Reaction Turbines
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Impulse Stage Nomenclature
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Ideal Impulse Stage
(abs) Vo
(rel) (Vo-W)
W
NOZZLE
(rel) (Vo-W)
BUCKET
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Impulse Turbine Stage
Also called a Rateau stage
Stationary nozzle accelerates steam into a single rotating row
Design considerations g
Velocity ratio = W/V (Wheel / Steam jet velocity)
Low steam velocity relative to wheel = High W/V
High steam velocity relative to wheel = Low W/V High steam velocity relative to wheel = Low W/V
Optimum design = W/V= .5
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I M P U L S E S T A G E S I M P U L S E S T A G E S
P R E S S U R E
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Impulse Stage Velocity Diagram
V
1
=
V
0
V
V
1
=
V
0
W=.5V0
V
2
=
.
5
3
V
0
W 5V0
V
3
=
.
5
3
V
0
V4
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W=.5V0
Curtis Stage
Composed of one stage of nozzles, followed by two rows of
rotating blades.
These two rows are separated by one row of fixed blades which
has the function of redirecting the steam leaving the first row of
rotating blades to the second row of rotating blades g g
Not as efficient as a Rateau stage
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Curtis Stage
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Modern Single Flow Impulse Turbine
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Reaction Turbine Stage
Stationary nozzles and rotating blades both act as nozzles to y g
accelerate steam
Stage consists of a single row of stationary blades feeding a row Stage consists of a single row of stationary blades feeding a row
of rotating blades
Blades perform more like an airfoil than a paddle wheel
Higher maximum theoretical efficiency levels Higher maximum theoretical efficiency levels
Reaction type stages are often used with Impulse control stages
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R E A C T I O N S T A G E S
P R E S S U R E
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Reaction Stage Velocity Diagram
V2
W=.65V0
V4
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W=.65V0
Typical Reaction Turbine with 2-Row Inlet Control Stage
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Comparison of Turbine Design Types
Impulse
Pressure drop @ stationary nozzle
Reaction
Pressure drop @ both nozzle and rotating
Fewer stages for given energy range
Lower stage velocity ratio (W/V=.5)
blade
Approx 2X the stages for given energy
range
g y ( )
Greater shaft leakage
Reduced stage thrust due to pressure
Higher stage velocity ratio (W/V=.65)
Greater blade tip leakage
Increased stage thrust due to pressure Reduced stage thrust due to pressure
drop across stationary nozzle
Stages physically larger; more robust
Increased stage thrust due to pressure
change across wheel/disc
Stages more delicate; less robust
Req ires balance piston to balance stage Requires balance piston to balance stage
thrust load
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Steam Turbine Design Types
Condensing Turbines
All flow goes straight through to the condenser
Back Pressure or Non-Condensing Turbines
Turbine steam flow exhausts into a plant steam header at p
elevated pressure to supply other plant process requirements
Extraction/Induction Turbines Extraction/Induction Turbines
A percentage of the steam flow is either extracted through
intermediate pressure port(s) to feed a process header or
inducted from process header into the turbine from an inducted from process header into the turbine from an
intermediate pressure port(s)
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Turbine Types
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Steam Turbine Applications
Power Generation - Synchronous Turbines
Constant speed operation typically 3600 RPM
Closed steam cycle with feedwater heaters
Start up sequence = Max RPM @ zero load
Mechanical Drive Turbines
Variable speed operation
Open steam cycle with extraction flows feeding process Open steam cycle with extraction flows feeding process
demand or other turbines
Variable start up and loading requirements determined by
driven equipment driven equipment
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Blade Design Overview
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Bucket & Rotor Design Considerations
Mechanical Design
Centrifugal Stresses Centrifugal Stresses
Steam Bending Stresses
Natural Frequency Determination through finite
element analysis y
Resonant Vibratory Stresses
Design Configurations
Short Height Blades
Control Stage Blades
Tall Height Blades
Root/Dovetail Attachments Designs
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Blade Stresses
Centrifugal Stress
(Blade weight, Diameter, RPM
2
, Blade Length/Dovetail Section)
Bending Stress g
(Flow, Blade Length/# Blades, Blade Modulus, Diameter, RPM)
ANSYS Analysis
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ANSYS Modeling
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Steady Stress
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VIBRATORY STRESSES
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1st Tangential Mode
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2nd Tangential Mode
Page 34
Page 35
Campbell Diagram
9000
10000
0

R
P
M
5

R
P
M
7000
8000
2
7
0
0
4
1
3
5
5000
6000
q
u
e
n
c
y


(
H
z
)
3000
4000
F
r
e
q
1Rn
1X
1000
2000
1Tn
Page 36
0
1000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Speed (RPM)
1T0
Blade Design Philosophy
Avoid resonance whenever possible
If impractical to avoid all resonances, avoid high response
Coupling of blades at tip with chain link covers and/or with mid-span
tie sleeves
Add damping via chain link covers & tie sleeves
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Over/Under Covers One type of Damping
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Other Types of Shrouding
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High Cycle Fatigue
Cause
When a blade natural frequency equals a stimulus frequency in
th t th the steam path
Effect
High blade alternating stresses exceed the fatigue strength of
the material. This results in crack formation and subsequent
blade failures
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Goodman Diagram
Goodman Diagram
60000
40000
50000

L-0 Stage Blade
Material: 403 SS
Temperature: 128 F
Soderberg Line
30000
40000
A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
Goodman Line
10000
20000
0
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000
Steady State Stress
Acceptable Region
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Bucket Design Considerations
Material Selection
Strength at Temperature
Corrosion
Moisture Moisture
Page 42
Detrimental Affects of Corrosion Pitting
ENDURANCE STRENGTH (403SS)
SMOOTH BAR IN AIR 62.5 KSI SMOOTH BAR IN AIR 62.5 KSI
AS MANUFACTURED 47 KSI
WITH NICKS 21 KSI WITH NICKS 21 KSI
SEVERELY PITTED (DRY STEAM) 10 KSI
SEVERELY PITTED (WET STEAM) 6 KSI SEVERELY PITTED (WET STEAM) 6 KSI
SEVERELY PITTED WITH No Limit
CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT
Page 43
Material Comparison
403 SS M152 Titanium
Tensile Strength 110 ksi 145 ksi 138 ksi Tensile Strength 110 ksi 145 ksi 138 ksi
Yield Strength 80 ksi 115 ksi 128 ksi
Chemistry 12 Cr 12 Cr, 2 Ni,
1.5 Mo, .3 V
6 Al, 4 V
Allowable Tensile
Stress
40 ksi 53 ksi 50 ksi
Stress
Allowable Vibratory
Stress (wet steam)
4 ksi 6 ksi 6 ksi
Erosion Rate 3X 1X 5X
Successful Steam
Turbine Experience
>40 yrs >20 yrs ~20 yrs


Page 44
Blade Material Strengths
180000
120000
140000
160000
M152
TITANIUM
80000
100000
120000
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
422SS
40000
60000
403SS
0
20000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Page 45
Temperature
Blade Protection from Moisture
Stellite Strip w/ 403 SS
Brazed or Welded Brazed or Welded
Blade Materials
Titanium Titanium
17-4 PH
M152
Flame Hardening
Page 46
Erosion Resistance
403SS Flame Hardened M152 Titanium Stellite
Page 47
Modern Aerodynamics
OLD DESIGN NEW DESIGN
Page 48
Blade incidence angle
Stage 6 Blade Incidence
1
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
H
e
i
g
h
t
0 3
0.4
0.5
0.6
n
a
l

B
l
a
d
e

H
Steam
Blade
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
N
o
m
i
n
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Angle (degrees)
Page 49
Optimized blade gauging
Bucket Gauging - Stage 6
1
0 7
0.8
0.9
1
h
t
0 4
0.5
0.6
0.7
i
z
e
d

B
l
a
d
e

H
e
i
g
h
0 1
0.2
0.3
0.4
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
0
0.1
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Blade Gauging
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Tall Blade Profile Progression
3-D BLADE AIRFOIL
ROOT PITCH TIP
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Blade Model
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Summary
This was a brief overview of steam turbine fundamentals
with an emphasis on blade design.
Questions?
Page 53
Contact Info
Thank You! Thank You!
Sandra Simmons
Manager, Steam Turbine Applications g , pp
3100 S. Sam Houston Parkway East
Houston, Texas 77040
ssimmons@turbocare.com
Office: 713 336 1310
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Office: 713-336-1310
Cell: 713-828-4897