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1.2. EPENTHESIS: Process or change in which successive sounds are separated by an intervening segment.

E.g. the [b] of thimble developed between an adjacent [m] and [l]: cf. Old English ymel.
i!ewise of processes in morphology or morphophonology: e.g. [i] in horses can be described as an
epenthetic vowel inserted between [s] and ["] in underlying [h[reversec][long]s] # ["].
$he insertion of a letter or sound within a word% e.g. b in thimble.
&n philology% applied to the phonetic process by which an unetymological sound is added to a given word when
it is not present in its antecedent. E'amples: chimney pronounced as ()t[integral]&mbl&(% with substitution of (mbl(
for (mn(* remembrance pronounced as rememb+er+ance. ,istorical e'amples: daffodil from earlier affodil
-current from the ./c. to the .0c.1% from medieval atin. affodillus -related to asphodel1* empty from Old English
aemtig -no +p+1.
1.3. PARAGOGE: $he addition of a letter or syllable to a word in some conte'ts or as a language develops
-e.g. t in peasant cf. 2rench paysan1.
2 ELISION: $he suppression of a letter or syllable.
there's from there is
2.1 APHAERESIS: $he loss of an initial segment of a word.
special from especial* cute from acute
2.2 SYNCOPE: $he shortening of a word by omitting a middle segment.
symbology instead of symbolology
2.3 APOCOPE: $he loss of a final segment of a word.
curio from curiosity* cinema from cinematograph
3. ASSIMILATION: &n phonetics% )the influence e'ercised by one sound segment upon the articulation of
another% so that the sounds become more ali!e% or identical) -3. 4rystal% A First Dicitonary of Linguistics and
Phonetics% .5671. Especially for a final n to become m in connected speech under the influence of a following
labial. E'ample: )om probation)% )a milliom pounds)% )have beem put). &n ancient times assimilation accounts for
such words as atin illuminatio )illumination) from in+ # lumen% luminis% and atin irrationalis )irrational) from in+ #
8ound change or process by which features of one element change to match those of another that precedes or
follows. E.g. &talian scritto )written) derives from atin scriptu-m1 by the assimilation of a bilabial -p1 to a
following dental -t1.
PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION: 9ssimilation in which elements are changed to match features of
elements that precede them. E.g. the ending +s is voiced ["] in words li!e sees [si[long]"]% but in writes or
weeps it is assimilated to the preceding voiceless consonant -[r:its]% [wi[long]ps]1.
REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION: 9ssimilation in which elements are changed to match features of
elements that follow them. E.g. the [!] of atin -written le'1 is voiceless in contact with the suffi' +[s] which
follows* -legis1.
. !ISSIMILATION: 4hange or process by which two sounds in a se;uence become less ali!e or different.
E.g. 2rench p<lerin )pilgrim) is from atin peregrin-us1 )foreigner) by% among other things% dissimilation to l of the
first of two r)s.
". SONORI#ATION $ VOI%ING: Voice& sounds are those produced with voice or distinguished by a greater
element of voice from those classed as voicele''. E.g. in the production of [bil] -bill1 the vowel and final
consonant are voiced throughout* the initial consonant is distinguished by an earlier voice onset time from the
voiceless [p] of [pil] -pill1.
(. RHOTA%ISM: =eplacement by r. $hus% in the history of atin% a single s% as in the infinitive suffi' +se% was
generally )hot*ci+e& between vowels: e.g. rege+se )to rule) > regere -cf.% with a preceding consonant% es+se )to
9 special% e'cessive% or idiosyncratic use of (r(% such as rolling one)s rs in a stage 8cottish accent
,. METATHESIS: 4hange or process by which the order of successive sounds is changed. E.g. wasp derives
from a metathesi"ed form% with s before p% of a word attested in Old English both as w?sp and as w?ps or
$he transposition of letters or sounds in a word. @hen the transposition is between the letters or sounds of two
words% it is popularly !nown as a )8poonerism)% of which a well+!nown specimen% attributed to the =evd @. 9.
8pooner -.6AA+.5B71% warden of Cew 4ollege% O'ford% is )Din;uering congs their titles ta!e).
E'amples include the transposition of the p and s in hasp -cf. Old English h?pse1* the s and ! in non+standard
a'-e1 )as!) -Old English ascian1* the r and i in third -Old English ridda1 and thrill -Old English yrlian1* the r and
u in curled -Eiddle English crolled% crulled1.
-. HAPLOLOG.: 8poradic change in which successive syllables% etc. which are similar in form are reduced to
one. E.g. ate atin idololatria )worship -+latria1 of idols) was reduced to forms such as 2rench idFlatrie
$he omission of a sound when this is repeated within a word -e.g. 2ebruary pronounced1.
/. METANAL.SIS: 4hange in the position of a word boundary. E.g. ewt became newt by a shift of the
boundary in an ewt% napron became apron by the opposite shift in a napron.
8ome nouns have lost an initial n that has been transferred to the indefinite article: an adder from a nadder% an
apron from a naperon% an umpire from a noumpere. 4onversely% the n of an has sometimes been transferred to
a following noun: a newt from an ewt% a nic!name from an e!ename.
10. METAPHON.: 8ound change in which one or more phonetic features of a vowel come to match those of a
vowel in an adjacent syllable: thence of phonological processes that result from it or are formally similar.
11. GLI!E $ VO%ALI#ATION: 9ny audible transition from one sound to another.
A gradually changing sound made in passing from one position of the speech+organs to another.
12. 1OL2 $ POP3LAR ET.MOLOG.: $he process by which a form is reshaped to resemble another form% or
se;uence of forms% already in the language. E.g. 2rench beauprG )bowsprit) was derived historically by the
reshaping of 3utch boegspriet% or a similar loan from another Hermanic language% into a compound apparently
formed from beau )beautiful) and prG )meadow).
$he popular perversion of the form of words in order to render it apparently significant) - Oxford English
Dictionary1. E'amples include: hiccough -a later spelling of hiccup under the mista!en impression that the
second syllable was cough1* tawdry -from a sil! )lace) or nec!tie associated with the East 9nglian saint 8t
9udrey% much worn by women in the .Ic. and early .0c.* the final t of )8aint) wrongly carried across to the
name1* under weigh -an alteration of original under way1* @elsh rarebit -first recorded in .06/ as )an
etymologi"ing alteration) of the earlier @elsh rabbit1.
13. H.PER%ORRE%TION: The use of an incorrect form by a spea!er trying to avoid ones that are
stigmati"ed. E.g. some English spea!ers have or used to have a dialect with no [h]. Jut )dropping an h) is and
was stigmati"ed* so% in trying to avoid the stigma% they might use [h] even when it is not there in the prestige
form: e.g. [ha:mful] for armful% where it is h4pe)co))ect% as well as for harmful.
9 term used by some sociolinguists for instances in which spea!ers adopt forms closer to the standard than
those they normally use.
III 9 METONYMY: =eferring to a concept by an attribute of it.
the crown referring to a monarch.
III 9 SYNECDOCHE: =eferring to a concept by a part of it.
All of the big names in the field were there!
III -. METAPHOR: 2igure of speech in which a word or e'pression normally used of one !ind of object% action%
etc. is e'tended to another. $his may lead to 5et*pho)ic ch*n6e in meaning.
9 figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another. $he comparison is implicit% lac!ing such
words as li!e or as.
III 3 E3PHEMISM: 9 mild or vague e'pression substituted for one thought to be too harsh or direct -e.g. pass
over for die1.
III %AL73E: 9 word or e'pression which has been formed by translation of a corresponding word or
e'pression in another language. E.g. 2rench gratte+ciel )s!yscraper) -lit. )scratch+s!y)1 is a cal;ue on English
s!yscraper. 9lso called a lo*n t)*n'l*tion.
9 compound or comple' loan in which% rather than borrow an e'pression directly% spea!ers analyse the parts
and replace them with similar native forms: 9mE s!yscraper adopted into 2rench as gratte+ciel -scrape+s!y1%
into Herman as @ol!en!rat"er -cloud+scrape1.
III " 8ORRO9ING: 9ny language% under appropriate circumstances% borrows le'ical material from other
languages% usually absorbing the e'otic items or translating them into native e;uivalents. $he item borrowed is
not returned% because it never left the source language and in any case changes in the transfer.
$he preconditions for borrowing are:
-.1 4lose contact in especially multilingual situations
-K1 $he domination of some languages by others -for cultural% economic% political% religious1% so that material
flows )down) from those )high) languages into )lower) vernaculars.
-B1 9 sense of need% users of one language drawing material from another for such purposes as education
and technology.
-A1 Prestige associated with using words from another language.
&ndividuals may use an e'otic e'pression because it seems to them to be the most suitable term available% the
only possible term -with no e;uivalent in any other language1% or the most impressive term.
III " 8LEN!: 9lso amalgam% fusion. 9 word formed by fusing elements of two other words% Lportmanteau
wordsM . Jlending is related to abbreviation% derivation% and compounding% but distinct from them all.
Ej: O'bridge% formed from O'ford and 4ambridge. Eany begin and end as nonce words% li!e chimpanutang
and orangorilla. Others serve as slogans: 4ocacoloni"ation asserting that a country has been ta!en over by
9merican values.
9lthough blending is distinct from derivation% it may affect it. 2orms li!e electrocute -.667s1 bring electro+ and
e'ecute together so as to suggest a suffi' +cute that means )!ill by means of).
8everal recent combining forms have emerged from such blending: econo+ in econometrics% +nomics in
$he elements of blends are sometimes presented separately in print: for e'ample% contractions of high
technology: ,i+$ech% ,i$ech% ,i$ec.

III A%RON.M: 9n abbreviation formed from the first letters of a series of words and pronounced as one word:
C9$O from Corth 9tlantic $reaty Organi"ation* radar from radio detection and ranging.
8ome le'icologists regard the acronym as a !ind of initialism* others see it as contrasting with the initialism% in
which case that term is restricted to abbreviations that are pronounced only as se;uences of letters:JJ4.
&n this entry% acronyms and initialisms are treated as distinct. &nformally% it is not unusual for both !inds of
abbreviation to be lumped together as letter words% and there are many grey areas between them.
&n structural terms% there are three !inds of acronym: -.1 etter acronyms% such as C9$O% radar. -K1 8yllabic
acronyms% such as 9sda -9ssociated 3airies1 and sitcom -situation comedy1. -B1 ,ybrids of these% such as
4o8&=9 -4ouncil for 8mall &ndustries in =ural 9reas1 and E9$4OC -microwave aerospace terminal control1.
8yllabic acronyms% currently fashionable in many languages% are related to word blends such as brunch and
electrocute. 8ome two+syllable and three+syllable forms are: 9moco 9merican Oil 4ompany* op+ed opposite
the editorial page -journalese1* sitcom situation comedy -television drama1.
III ( HOMON.M.: $he relation between words whose forms are the same but whose meanings are different
and cannot be connected: e.g. between pen )writing instrument) and pen )enclosure).
3istinguished from polysemy in that the meanings cannot be connected: therefore the words are treated as
different le'ical units. 9lso distinguished from cases of conversion: e.g. for either of these homonyms% that of
pen -noun1 to pen -verb1% between forms identical in both sound and spelling -such as the two words pen1 and
those that are the same in spelling only -homographs1 or in sound regardless of spelling -homophones1.
III , 9I!ENING O1 MEANING: Enlargement of the class of entities that a word denotes: e.g. the meaning of
bird% formerly )young bird)% was e'tended% in the early history of English% to mean )bird) in general.
III 10 H.PER8OLE: $he use of e'aggerated terms not in order to deceive but to emphasi"e the importance or
e'tent of something.
P*tte)n' o: ;o))owin6.

9ny language% under appropriate circumstances% borrows le'ical material from other languages% usually
absorbing the e'otic items or translating them into native e;uivalents. 8ome languages borrow more than
others% and borrow more from some sources than others. English has borrowed massively from 2rench% atin%
and Hree!% significantly from &talian% 8panish% Herman% 3anish% and 3utch% and to varying degrees from every
other language with which it has come in contact. $he 4annon corpus of .B%I6B new English words shows that
this process continues unabated* the .%7K5 transfers listed in the corpus entered English from 6A languages
-.560 + 51 as follows: 2rench K/N% 8panish and Oapanese both 6N% &talian I.BN% atin I..N% Hree! IN%
Herman /./N% and 00 languages contributed . + B5 items each. ,ere% only the Oapanese element brea!s the
traditional pattern% in which European languages predominate.
Re*'on' :o) ;o))owin6.
$he preconditions for borrowing are: -.1 4lose contact in especially multilingual situations% ma!ing the mi'ing
of elements from different languages more or less commonplace. -K1 $he domination of some languages by
others -for cultural% economic% political% religious% or other reasons1% so that material flows )down) from those
)high) languages into )lower) vernaculars. -B1 9 sense of need% users of one language drawing material from
another for such purposes as education and technology. -A1 Prestige associated with using words from another
language. -/1 9 mi' of some or all of these. &ndividuals may use an e'otic e'pression because it seems to
them to be the most suitable term available% the only possible term -with no e;uivalent in any other language1%
or the most impressive term. Euch of the vocabulary of 2rench entered English in the Eiddle 9ges because
2rench was the language of political and social power and the channel through which mainland European
culture reached Jritain. Euch of the vocabulary of atin entered English during the =enaissance -directly or via
2rench1 because atin was the European language of religion% education% and learning. @hile so prestigious a
language could provide time+hallowed resources% there was little encouragement to develop the resources of
relatively insignificant vernaculars li!e English. &n the late K7c% English sometimes serves in its turn as a !ind of
atin in the main because both have been languages of empire. $hus% as part of the Ealaysian Hovernment)s
educational programme based on Ealay -intended to unify the nation)s ethnic groups1% the already polyglot
scientific and technical vocabulary of English has been massively adopted into Ealay: see Ealay.
Re*'on' :o) )e'i'tin6 ;o))owin6.
isteners and readers have their own responses to the use of an e'otic term% and these responses affect their
inclination to repeat it. 9lthough such reactions are not properties of the item itself% the associations formed
may affect its new use% so that it may remain in a limited field% such as 2rench oeuvre and auteur in English
literary criticism. 8uch a term may not be understood outside its field or may be considered pretentious.
,owever% some items are so universally apt that they swiftly occupy a niche in the language at large% such as
2rench garage and clichG. &n addition% there may be personal and communal reasons for resisting the influ' of
foreignisms: for e'ample% a protectionist language policy -as in &celand1% on the grounds that the community is
small and linguistically fragile* a sense of past oppression -as in such e'+colonial countries as $an"ania% where
8wahili is promoted as a national medium rather than English1* and pride in the home language and culture -as
in &ran1. 9ll three factors were present in the 4anadian province of Puebec in the .507s% when official
legislation militated against English influence on 2rench.
!i::<'ion *n& *&*pt*tion.
Jorrowing is sometimes simple and limited -a few words ta!en from anguage 9 into anguage J1% sometimes
comple' and e'tensive -much of the vocabulary of 9 becoming available for use in J% and perhaps 4 and 3 as
well as with 8ans!rit in &ndia% 9rabic in @est 9sia% and atin in Europe1. @hat appears to be a single process
affecting two languages may be multiple% in that an item may be diffused as a pilgrim word into a range of
languages% usually adapting as it goes: -.1 Hree! phantasQa has become 2rench fantaisie% Herman 2antasie%
&talian fantasia% Portuguese fanta"ia% 8panish fantasQa% and English fancy% along with fantasy% fantasia% and
archaic phantasy. -K1 atin planta -sprout% offspring1 passed into &talian as pianta% Old English and Old 2rench
as plante% 8panish llanta% Portuguese chanta% Herman Pflan"e% @elsh plant% and Old &rish as cland% whence it
became Haelic clann -offspring% family% stoc!% race1. Joth plant and clan are now English words. -B1 8ans!rit
dhyana -meditation1 passed into Pali as jhana% into 4hinese as chRan% then into Oapanese as "en. Joth dhyana
and Sen are now English words.
$here is a continuum in borrowing% from words that remain relatively alien and unassimilated in pronunciation
and spelling -as with blasG and soirGe from 2rench1% through those that become more or less acclimati"ed -as
with elite rather than Glite% while retaining a 2renchli!e pronunciation% and garage with its various
pronunciations1 to forms that have been assimilated so fully that their e'otic origin is entirely obscured -as with
coc!roach% from 8panish cucaracha% and chocolate through 8panish from Cahuatl chocolatl1.
9 word ta!en from a typologically or genetically related language would appear to be more easily assimilated
than one ta!en from a very different !ind of language. i!e English% 8panish is an &ndo+European language
written in the =oman alphabet% and so the absorption of items li!e armada and guerrilla into English offers few
problems. ,owever% some elements may be too alien for convenient absorption: for e'ample% although
Ee'ican 8panish chili and taco have been easily absorbed% the phrase frijoles refritos has posed a problem%
because the order of noun and adjective and the double plural are not native to English. 9s a result% the loan
translation refried beans has become the choice for non+bilinguals. On the other hand% 4hinese is a tone
language usually written ideographically* in theory% this should deter transfer% but large+scale English+4hinese
and 4hinese+English borrowing has gone ahead without much difficulty% English for e'ample ac;uiring chow
mein% ginseng% !aolin% taipan% and tea(char.
Lin6<i'tic e::ect' o: ;o))owin6.
$ransfers may have an influence on such basic aspects of a language as its pronunciation% spelling% synta'%
and semantics. $he local system usually overwhelms the ac;uisition* thus% when numbers of items with
aspirated voiced stops came into English% spelled with h% the consonantal system remained unchanged% bhang
being pronounced li!e bang% dhow li!e dow% ghat li!e gat. ,owever% transfers into English from 2rench may be
pronounced as closely as possible to the 2rench -as with raison d)Ttre% sabotage1% or with concessions to
2rench and adaptations into English -the various pronunciations of garage1. Eorphological impact may
introduce different plural forms: for e'ample% such sets as Hree! criterion(criteria% thesis(theses% atin
appendi'(appendices% stimulus(stimuli% &talian graffito(graffiti% and ,ebrew cherub(cherubim% !ibbut"(!ibbut"im.
,owever% such adoptions are not always stable% and conflict may occur between foreign and nativi"ed forms%
as with cactus(cacti U cactuses. Perhaps the largest morphological impact on English has been the addition of
2rench% atin% and Hree! affi'es such as dis+% pro+% anti+% +ity% +ism% and such combining forms as bio+% micro+%
+metry% +logy% which replaced many of the original Hermanic affi'es in English. Only rarely do affi'es from other
sources establish themselves to any degree in English: for e'ample% the suffi' +ni!% from =ussian% as in
!ol!ho"ni!% and Viddish% as in !ibbut"ni!% and nativi"ed% as in beatni! and peaceni!.
2in&' o: wo)&' ;o))owe&.
Couns ma!e up the highest proportion of transfers% followed by adjectives. Werbs are usually few% with even
fewer adverbs and grammatical words li!e pronouns. ,owever% the replacement of the Old English third+
person plural hie by Old 3anish they shows that such transfers sometimes occur. $he .%7K5 recent transfers in
the 4annon corpus brea! down into 5.I nouns -such as art trouvG% honcho% pita1% 6I adjectives -such as
gauchesco% !itschy% Camibian1% .K verbs -such as francici"e% nosh% vinify1% B interjections -arigato from
Oapanese% ciao from &talian% inshallah from 9rabic1% and .K bound forms -including atto+ from
3anish(Corwegian% +ni! from =ussian% and ur+ from Herman1. $his does not% however% mean that nouns are
most and interjections least easily transferred* nouns in any case predominate in a language. &n terms of such
proportions% interjections are at least as easily borrowed% when the conditions are appropriate% as the
worldwide spread of 9mE OD testifies. Phrases are also commonly transferred% as with drame X clef and
roman X clef from 2rench into English. 8entences are less common% although English has a tradition of using
short atin and 2rench sentences li!e $empus fugit and 4)est la vie.
8o))owin6' into En6li'h.
&n the following sections% arranged according to the world)s major regions% is a wide selection of languages
from which at various times and in various ways English has borrowed. $he samples are organi"ed so as to
suggest the proportions in which material from other languages is present in English% but no section see!s to
be e'haustive and the historical dimension -for e'ample% the periods when particular words entered English1 is
not e'plored. &n some cases% the intermediary languages through which material has passed are indicated.
The A5e)ic*'.
-.1 9lgon;uian% including 9bna!i% 4ree% Eicmac% Ojibway% Carragansett% 8hawnee: caucus% chipmun!% hic!ory%
manitou% moccasin% moose% mus!rat% opossum% papoose% pecan% pemmican% persimmon% pow+wow% rac-c1oon%
s!un!% s;uash% s;uaw% succotash% toboggan% tomahaw!% wampum% wapiti% wigwam% woodchuc!. -K1 9leut and
&nuit: anora!% igloo% !aya!% par!a. -B1 9raucanian through 8panish: coypu% poncho. -A1 9rawa!an% especially
through 8panish: barbecue% caci;ue% hammoc!% iguana% potato% tobacco% savanna-h1. -/1 4arib% especially
through 8panish: cannibal% canoe% hurricane% macaw% mai"e% manatee% papaya(pa-w1paw% peccary% tomalley%
yucca. -I1 4ree!: catalpa% tupelo. -01 Cahuatl through 8panish: avocado% a'olotl% cacao(cocoa% chili(chilli%
chocolate% coyote% mescal% ocelot% peyote% teocalli% tomato. -61 Puechua through 8panish: alpaca%
char;ui(jer!y% coca-ine1% condor% guanaco% guano% llama% pampas% puma% ;uinine% vicuna. -51 $upi+HuaranQ
through 2rench% Portuguese% 8panish: buccaneer% cashew% cayenne% cougar% ipecac-uanha1% jaguar% manioc%
petunia% tapioca% tapir% toucan.
-.1 9fri!aans: aardvaar!% aardwolf% apartheid% Joer% commando% dorp% !op% !opje(!oppie% outspan% spoor%
springbo!% tre!. -K1 Jantu languages% including Dongo% 8wahili% $swana% Yhosa% Sulu: boma% bwana%
chimpan"ee% impala% impi% indaba% mamba% marimba% tsetse% "ombie. -B1 @est 9frican languages% including
Ewe% 2anti% ,ausa% Eandingo% mainly through the 9tlantic creoles: anansi% gumbo% harmattan% juju% ju!e-bo'1%
mumbo+jumbo% o!ra% voodoo% yam* perhaps banjo% ja"". -A1 Ealagasy: raffia. -/1 Dhoisan languages: gnu%
A'i*: 9e'te)n.
-.1 9rabic% through European languages: admiral% albatross% alchemy% alcohol% alcove% alembic% algebra% al!ali%
almanac% apricot% arsenal% assassin% assegai% attar% aubergine% a"imuth% bedouin% caliph% cipher(cypher% emir%
ga"elle% genie(jinn% ghoul% giraffe% ha"ard% jasmine% !ismet% Doran% lemon% maga"ine% minaret% mohair%
monsoon% Eoslem% nadir% saffron% sash% scarlet% se;uin% shei!-h1% sherbet% simoom(simoon% sirocco% sofa%
syrup% talisman% tariff% "ero* direct or through 9fro+9sian languages: ayatollah% harem% hashish% henna%
hoo!a-h1% imam% &slam% jihad% !affir% mue""in% mufti% mujahedin% mullah% Euslim% nadir% PurRan% safari% sahib%
salaam% 8haria% shay!h% "enith. -K1 9ramaic: abbot% !addish% pharisee. -B1 ,ebrew% especially through Hree!%
atin% and Viddish: alphabet% amen% bedlam% camel% cherub% cinnamon% hosanna% Oehovah% manna% maudlin%
nard% nitre% rabbi% seraph% shemo""le% simony% sodomy* more or less direct: behemoth% cabal% 4abala%
cha"an(ha"-"1an% golem% hallelujah% leviathan% messiah% sabbath% shalom% shibboleth% $almud% $orah% Vahweh.
-A1 Persian through European languages: arsenic% a"ure% chec!% chec!mate% magus(magic% paradise% peach%
pilaf% pistachio% spinach% talc* direct or through 9sian languages: ba"aar% caravan(caravanserai% dervish% durbar%
jac!al% !ha!i% !ios!% lilac% maidan% mogul% pilau(pulao% pyjamas(pajamas% shah% shawl% tiara% tulip% turban. -/1
$ur!ish($atar: bosh% caftan(!aftan% cai;ue% coffee% cossac!% divan% horde% !avass% !han% !umiss% mammoth%
pasha% $artar% tur!ey% tur;uoise% yoghurt(yogurt(-4anE1 yoghourt.
A'i*: So<the)n *n& So<th=E*'te)n.
-.1 ,indi(Zrdu: bungalow% crore% dacoit% deodar% dinghy% dungaree% ghee% gym!hana% la!h(lac% loot% paisa%
pa!ora% =aj% samo-o1sa% shampoo% tandoori% tom+tom% wallah. -K1 Oavanese: bantam% bati!% gamelan% jun!. -B1
Ealay: amo!(amuc!% bamboo% caddy% camphor% cassowary% coc!atoo% dugong% durian% gec!o% gingham% gong%
!ampong(compound% !apo!% !ris% lory% mangosteen% orangutan(orang+outang% paddy% pangolin% rattan% sago%
sarong. -A1 Ealayalam: betel% coir% copra% ginger% tea!. -/1 Earathi: mongoose. -I1 8ans!rit through various
languages: ashram% avatar% banya% banyan% beryl% brahmin% carmine% cheetah% chint"% chutney% crimson%
juggernaut% jungle% jute% lac;uer% mandarin% palan;uin% pundit% sapphire% sugar% suttee* more or less direct:
ahimsa% asana% ashrama% atman% avatara% bodhisattva% brahmana% Juddha% cha!ra% guru% hatha yoga% !arma%
lingam% maharaja-h1% mahatma% mantra% Eaya% nirvana% raja-h1% rani(ranee% satyagraha% sutra% swasti!a% yantra%
yoga% yogasana. -01 8inhala: anaconda% tourmaline. -61 $agalog: boondoc!% ylang+ylang. -51 $amil: catamaran%
cheroot% curry% mango% mulligatawny% pariah. -.71 $elugu: bandicoot.
A'i*: %ent)*l *n& E*'te)n.
-.1 4hinese languages: china% chin+chin% chopstic!s% chopsuey% chow chow% chow mein% fan+tan% ginseng%
gung+ho% !aolin% !etchup(catsup% !owtow% !ung fu% litchi(lichee(lychee% lo;uat% mahjong% pe!oe% sampan% tai chi%
taipan% $ao% tea% yang% yen% yin. -K1 Oapanese: ai!ido% ban"ai% bonsai% bushido% futon% geisha% hai!u% hara+!iri%
judo% jujitsu% Dabu!i% !ami!a"e% !imono% !oan% mi!ado% sa!e% samisen% samurai% sayonara% 8hinto% shogun%
soy-a1% sushi% teriya!i% tofu% tycoon% yen% Sen. -B1 $ibetan: lama% ya!% yeti. -A1 $ungus: shaman.
E<)ope: the %eltic l*n6<*6e'.
-.1 Jreton through 2rench: bijou% dolmen% menhir. -K1 4eltic before Haelic% @elsh% Jreton% and 4ornish% and
through atin% 2rench% and Old English: ambassador(embassy% bannoc!% bard% brac!et% breeches%
car(carry(career( carriage( cargo(carpenter(charge% crag% druid% minion% peat% piece% vassal(valet(varlet. -B1
4ornish: porbeagle% wrasse. -A1 Haelic% general: bog% cairn% clarsach% coronach% crag% crannog% gab(gob%
galore% s!ene% us;uebaugh(whis!-e1y* &rish: banshee% blarney% brogue% colleen% hooligan% leprechaun% lough%
macushla% mavourneen% poteen% shamroc!% shebeen% shillelagh% smithereens% spalpeen% $ory* 8cottish: caber%
cailleach% cairngorm% clachan% clan% claymore% corrie% glen% loch% lochan% pibroch% plaid% ptarmigan% slogan%
sporran% strath% trews% trousers. -/1 @elsh: bug% coracle% corgi% cromlech% cwm% eisteddfod% flannel% flummery.
E<)ope: the Ge)5*nic l*n6<*6e'.
-.1 3anish: sm[rrebr[d(smorrebrod. -K1 3utch% including 2lemish and ow Herman -but not 9fri!aans: see
9frica1: bluff% boor% boss% brandy% bully% bump!in% clamp% clipper% coleslaw% coo!ie% cruise% dapper% derric!% dope%
drill% drum% easel% frolic% golf% grime% hun!% !in!% landscape% loiter% poppycoc!% rant% runt% scow% s!ipper% sled%
sledge% sleigh% slim% smac!% smuggle% snap% snoop% splint% spoo!% stoop% yacht% yawl. -B1 Herman: blit"-!rieg1%
dachshund% fahrenheit% fla!% fran!furter% gloc!enspiel% gneiss% hamburger% hamster% !affee!latsch% !indergarten%
!itsch% leberwurst% leitmotiv% ni'% pret"el% ;uart"% realpoliti!% sauer!raut% schadenfreude% schmalt"% schnit"el%
schwa% strafe% walt"% weltanschauung% weltgeist% yodel% "eitgeist. -A1 &celandic: au!% eider% geyser% saga. -/1
Corse: anger% balderdash% bing% blea!% blether% blin!% bloom% blunder% blur% call% clamber% cree!% croo!% die% dirt%
dowdy% do"e% dregs% egg% fellow% flat% flaunt% flaw% flec!% flimsy% gasp% gaunt% ga"e% girth% glint% glitter% gloat%
happen% harsh% in!ling% !ic!% !ilt% law% leg% loan% mee!% midden% muc!% muggy% nasty% nudge% oaf% odd% raise%
root% scalp% scant% scowl% seat% s!erry% s!ewer% s!id% s!ill% s!in% s!ull% s!y% sniff% snub% s;uall% s;ueal% ta!e% they%
thrall% thrift% thrust% ugly% vole% want% wea!% window. -I1 Corwegian: fjord(fiord% floe% !ra!en% !rill% lemming% s!i%
slalom. -01 8cots% in English at large: balmoral% burn% canny% carfuffle% collie% cosy% eerie% eldritch% forebear%
glamour% glengarry% gloaming% glower% gumption% guddle% lilt% pony% raid% rampage% uncanny% wee% weird%
wi"ened% wraith* mainly in 8cotland: ashet% bogle% bonnie% burn% cleg% dreich% dwam% fornent% furth of% glai!it%
glaur% hochmagandy% howf% leal% lowp% outwith% scunner% speir% stot% thole% trauchle. -61 8wedish: glogg%
ombudsman% sm\rga]sbord(smorgasbord% tungsten. -51 Viddish: chut"pah% shlemiel% shlep% shloc!% schmalt"y.
Europe: Hree!.
-.1 &nflectional endings retained but spelt in the atin style: abiogenesis% aegis% analysis% anemone% antithesis%
automaton% charisma% cinema% crisis% criterion% cyto!inesis% diagnosis% dogma% drama% electron% enigma%
genesis% gnosis% hoi polloi% !erygma% lalophobia% magma% osteoporosis% phenomenon% photon% rhinoceros%
rhododendron% stigma% synthesis% thesis. -K1 @ith atin endings: brontosaurus% chrysanthemum% diplodocus%
hippopotamus% Pliohippus. -B1 Endings dropped or adapted: agnostic% agnosticism% alphabet% alphabetic%
analyst% analytic% anthocyanin% astrobleme% atheism% automatic% biologist% biology% blasphemy% charismatic%
chemotherapy% chronobiology% cinematography% critic% criticism% dinosaur% dogmatic% dogmatism% dramatic%
dramatist% electric% electronic% enigmatic% epistemic% epistemology% gene% genetic% herpetology% narcolepsy%
odyssey% oligarchy% patriarch% phenomenology% photograph% pterodactyl% sympathomimetic. -A1 Eodern:
bou"ou!i% moussa!a% ou"o% rebeti!a% sirta!i% souvla!i.
Europe: atin.
-.1 &nflectional endings retained: addendum% albumen% ape'% area% bacterium(bacteria% cactus% cali'% camera%
cancer% circus% colossus% comple'% datum(data% discus% e;uilibrium% fauna% flora% formula% fungus% genius%
genus% homunculus% honorarium% inertia% interim% late'% locus% medium(media% memorandum% momentum%
onus% opera% ovum% pauper% pendulum% peninsula% propaganda% radium% referendum% series% simile% simple'%
status% stimulus% terminus% vertigo% victor. -K1 9ctual inflected atin verbs used as nouns: audio% audit% caveat%
e'eunt% fiat% floruit% imprimatur% mandamus% video. -B1 2i'ed phrases: ad hoc% a posteriori% de facto% de jure%
e'tempore% -e'1 post facto% post mortem% ;uid pro ;uo% sine die. -A1 Jinomials: ,omo sapiens% Pa' Jritannica%
miles gloriosus% gluteus ma'imus. -/1 Endings dropped or adapted% often through 2rench: add% addition%
additive% agent% agentive% a;ueduct% candle% colo-u1r% colossal% consider% contemplate% decide% decision% erupt%
eruption% general% generic% hono-u1r% hono-u1rable% honorary% igneous% ignite% ignition% ignoble% illiteracy%
illiterate% immoral% immortality% ingenious% ingenuity% literacy% literate% literature% meditate% meditation% meditative%
memorable% memory% moment% momentary% momentous% moral% morality% nobility% noble% pendulous% peninsular%
revise% revision% se'% similar% similarity% temple.
Europe: the =omance languages.
-.1 2rench% Old: allow% bastard% beauty% beef% brush% castle% chivalry% choice% cloister% con;uest% constraint%
court% defeat% destroy% dinner% forest% frail% garden% govern% honest% hostel% interest% judge% loyal% marvel% mutton%
paste% place% poison% por!% priest% push% ;uarter% ;uest% royal% stuff% sure% tempest% tic!et% tric!* Eodern:
aperitif(apGritif% apress!i(apr<s+s!i% avant+garde% bidet% bourgeois-ie1% brasserie% brassiere(brassi<re% cafe(cafG%
camouflage% canard% chateau(ch^teau% chef% chevalier% coup de grace(gr^ce% coup d)etat(Gtat% croissant%
cuisine% debacle(dGbacle(dGb^cle% debut(dGbut% dessert% elite(Glite% esprit de corps% eti;uette%
fiance-e1(fiancG-e1% fricassee(fricassGe% frisson% garage% gourmand% gourmet% hors d)oeuvre% hotel% joie de vivre%
liaison% limousine% lingerie% marionette% morale% nee(nGe% objet d)art% parole% pastiche% patisserie(p^tisserie%
petite% pirouette% prestige% regime(rGgime% ris;ue(ris;uG% silhouette% souvenir% toilette% vignette% voyeur% -K1
&talian% through 2rench: balcony% battalion% brigade% charlatan% design% frigate% granite% s;uadron* direct: alto%
arpeggio% bordello% broccoli% cameo% canto% confetti% contralto% cupola% ghetto% graffiti% grotto% imbroglio% lasagne%
libretto% mo""arella% pasta% piano-forte1% pia""a% piccolo% pi""a% pi""eria% pi""icato% ravioli% risotto% sonata%
seraglio% soprano% spaghetti% staccato% stan"a% studio% tagliatelle% vermicelli. -B1 Occitan(Proven_al% usually
through 2rench: ballad% beret% cocoon% funnel% nutmeg% troubadour. -A1 Portuguese: albino% caste% marmalade%
molasses% palaver. -/1 8panish% adapted: alligator% anchovy% barricade% cas!% cedilla% galleon% grenade%
hoosegow% lariat% ranch% renegade% sherry% stampede% stevedore% vamoose* direct: adobe% armada% armadillo%
borracho% bravado% chili% chinchilla% embargo% guerrilla% hacienda% mos;uito% mulatto% negro% peccadillo% pinto%
pronto% sarsaparilla% silo% sombrero% vigilante.
Europe: the 8lavonic languages.
-.1 4"ech: howit"er% pistol% robot. -K1 Polish: ma"ur!a% pol!a. -B1 =ussian: agitprop% borsch% cosmonaut%
c"ar(tsar% dros-h1!y% glasnost% gulag% perestroi!a% pogrom% sami"dat% samovar% steppe% troi!a% vod!a.
Europe: the uni;ue languages.
-.1 Jas;ue through 8panish: chaparral% jai alai. -K1 2innish: sauna. -B1 ,ungarian: coach% c"ardas(cs`rd`s%
goulash% hussar% papri!a% to!ay. -A1 =omany: nar!% pal.
-.1 9ustralian 9boriginal: billabong% boomerang% corroboree% !angaroo% !oala% !oo!aburra% murree% wallaby%
wombat% yabber% ya!!a(yac!er. -K1 Polynesian% including: ,awaiian aloha% heiau% hula% !apu% lanai% lei%
muumuu% u!ulele(u!elele% wahine* Eaori aroha% iwi% !auri% !iwi% Eaoritanga% marae% moa% ngati% pa!eha%
pohutu!awa% tangata whenua% tangi% toheroa% tuatara% wha!apapa% whare* $ahitian tattoo* $ongan !ava%
aposiopesis: 8ignificant brea!ing off so that the hearer must supply the unsaid words.
"f your father finds out!!!
diaeresis: $he pronouncing of two successive vowels as separate sounds.
dystesis: 9 form of tmesis in which the compound is separated at an inappropriate or
unli!ely position.
a whole nother story

e!!ipsis: $he omission from a sentence of words needed to complete the construction or
" ga#e &ohn a boo% and 'ary a ring! from
" ga#e &ohn a boo% and [& gave] 'ary a ring!
epo"yy : $he introduction of a new word into the language from the names of people with
whom the things or practices they stand for were associated.
boycott from 4apt. 4harles 4unningham Joycott*
mesmeri(e from 2. 9. Eesmer
#e"diadys: $he substitution of conjunction for subordination in e'pressing a compound
try and do better instead of try to do better
#o!o"y: 9 concept that has another concept as a part -see also meronym1.
door is a holonym of %nob
#yper"y : 9 word whose meaning denotes a superordinate -see also hyponym1.
animal is a hypernym of dog
#ypo$orisa: Zse of pet names% nursery words% diminutives% etc.
comfy for comfortable* undies for underwear
#ypo"y: 9 word whose meaning denotes a subordinate -see also hypernym1.
dog is a hyponym of animal
%e""i"&: 9 usually poetic device in which a common noun is replaced by a more colorful
swan$road for ocean* cow house for barn
!itotes: 9 !ind of meiosis where the understatement is achieved by substituting an opposite
and negating it.
)he was not disappointed by the news instead of
)he was thrilled by the news!
eiosis: $he use of understatement to enhance the impression on the hearer.
*he lottery winner was +ust a little excited!
ero"y : 9 concept that is a part of another concept -see also holonym1.
%nob is a meronym of door

paro"oasia: Puns% plays on words% etc. based on similarity between different words or
different senses of the same word.
*he cellist exhibited bass emotions!
*he critics fawned o#er Disney's ,ambi!
perip#rasis: =oundabout wording.
the person to whom " am engaged instead of my fianc-e
p!eo"as: $he use of more words than necessary to give the sense intended.
"t was unanimously agreed upon by everyone!
pro$ata!epsis: 9 figure by which an opponent)s objections are anticipated and answered in
sy!!epsis: 9 figure in which a single word appears to be in the same relationship to two
others% but must be understood in a different sense with each of its pair -see also (eugma1.
"'m lea#ing for greener pastures and ten days!
tesis: 8eparation of the parts of a compound word by insertion of another word between
'e(&a: 9 syllepsis in which the single word fails to give meaning to one of its pair.
)he greeted him with arms and expectations wide!