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Compounds, Mixtures,

and Reactions
Unit II-Part 5
Classifying Matter
Matter
Pure Substances Mixtures
Elements Compounds
Homogeneous Heterogeneous
Fe, O H
2
O, CO
2
milk, tea
Rocky Road ice
cream, muddy
ater
What is a Pure Substance?
A pure substance is a classification of
matter that includes both elements and
compounds
Pure substances cannot be separated by
physical means such as distillation,
filtration, or chromatography
Elements
We have already studied elements

An element is made of one kind of atom

ound on the periodic table


What Is Compound?
A compound is a pure substance that is
created by ! or more elements chemically
reacting and "oining together
#$% &a'l, (
!
), ')
!
, &(
*
, &a(')
*
, and
'
+
(
,!
)
+
&otice that elements combine in many
-ays to make compounds
#$% (
!
), (
!
)
!
, '), and ')
!
Why !o Compounds "orm?
'ompounds form to allo- elements to
become more stable

&a is flammable -hen it comes in contact


-ith (
!
), and 'l
!
is a to$ic gas

&a'l is a very stable compound that is


neither flammable nor to$ic .in normal
/uantities0
'ompounds that are e$tremely unstable
-ill break do-n to form the more stable
elements
#o$ !o Compounds "orm?
'ompounds form by the interaction
bet-een the nuclei and valence electrons
of ! or more elements
1(# )'1#1 2U3#% an element is most
stable -ith 4 valence electrons

Elements $ill %oin chemically to get &


'alence electrons
#$% ')
!
% o$ygen has + valence electrons
and carbon has 5
If the carbon shares ! -ith each o$ygen,
everyone -ill have 4 valence electrons6
What !o Compounds #a'e (o !o With
My )ife?
'ompounds are the substances that make
up A33 living and non-living things
#$amples% Where -ould you be -ithout%
(
!
)7-ater

&a'l7table salt
'
*
(
4
)7rubbing alcohol
'
55
(
84
)
+
7an e$ample of an
unsaturated fat
What Is A Mixture?
! " mixture is t#e p#ysical combination o$ 2 or more
substances
! %t is important to understand t#at a mixture is not
c#emically combined
! Mixtures can be separated by p#ysical means suc#
as $iltration, distillation, and c#romatograp#y
! Mixtures can be di&ided into 2 groups
Homogenous mixtures
Heterogeneous mixtures
#o$ !o Mixtures Form?
!
Mixtures $orm by p#ysically '(unking) 2 or
more substances toget#er
!
Remember no c#emical c#ange is
occurring
!
*#e $ormation o$ a mixture is not a result
o$ loering energy
What Is a Homogenous Mixture?
A homogeneous mi$ture is a mi$ture that is evenly
distributed
(omogeneous mi$tures are commonly called
solutions9
:olution ; :olute < :olvent
:olute% =stuff> being dissolved
:olvent% =stuff> doing the dissolving
1he solvent is present in greater /uantity
1he solute is present in the lesser /uantity
#$% :alt -ater% :alt;solute, Water;solvent
What Is a #eterogeneous Mixture?
A heterogeneous mi$ture is a mi$ture that
is unevenly distributed9
#$amples%

Iced tea% 1he ice is floating at the top


and therefore is not evenly distributed
throughout the tea

'he$ ?i$% @ou may find a different


number of pretAels or 'he$ cereal in each
handfulB therefore, the mi$ture is
unevenly distributed
#o$ re Mixtures Important (o My
Life?
!
+e encounter mixtures e&ery#ere in our
li&es
!
+#ere ould you be it#out,

%ce cream

-ool.aid

S#ampoo

Soup

Milk

Orange (uice
#o$ Can We Change Matter Into *e$
Substances?
'hemical reaction .also kno-n as a
chemical change0 is a change in a
substance or substances that results in a
totally ne- substance
#$% !(
!
.g0 < )
!
.g0 !(
!
).g0
&otice that the reactants .the substances
you start -ith0 combine to form a ne-
substance .the product0
#o$ !o I +no$ If Chemical Reaction
#as ,ccurred?
1here are 5 indicators of a chemical reaction
,9 #volution of a gas
!9 #volution of light
*9 #volution of heat
59 'olor change
59 #volution of a precipitate
Precipitate% an insoluble substance that is
produced as result of a chemical reaction
Why !o Chemical Reactions ,ccur?
'hemical reactions occur to produce a
more stable product than the e$isting
reactants
#$% !&a.s0 < 'l
!
.g0 !&a'l.s0
C1he sodium is highly unstable and the
chlorine gas is some-hat unstable9 1he
resulting :odium 'hloride is D#2@ stable9
CCIt is important to understand that the
products have totally different properties
than the reactants
Where !oes (he Matter -o?
It is important to understand that -hen
matter undergoes a chemical reaction .ie
a chemical change0 it does not disappear
or appear

1he atoms are rearranged and form ne-


bonds, but no matter is lost nor gained
1his is called the 3a- of 'onservation of
?atter
What +ind of Chemical Reactions !o I
Experience?
1he acidic milk and basic baking soda that
produce ')
!
gas -hen a cake bakes
Paper burning to produce ashes, ')
!
, and
(
!
) vapor
(ydrogen pero$ide decomposing to
produce -ater and o$ygen gas