1935

41

POPULATION—ILLITERACY
STo. 33.—ILLITERATE PERSONS 10 YEARS OS1 AGE AKD OVER-.

N

UNITED STATES, 1920 AND 1930, AND BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS, 1930
NOTE.—For definition of urban population, see Table 7. Illiteracy in this and subsequent tables is defined as inability to write in any language, regardless of ability to road. Per cents represent proportion
illiterate in the total number of persons of given class and age
All classes i
Division, sex, and age
Number
United States, 1920S.. 4,931,905
598, 794
10 to 20 years
21 years and over._ 4, 333, 111
I], 955,112
Urban, total
,2,076,703
Rural, total

United States, 1930-- 4, 283, 753
Mates..
. . ,2,198,29S
Females
_.
10 to 20 years ._.
21 years and over ,
Urban, total
10 to 20 years
21 years and over..
Rural, total
10 to 20 years
,
21 years and over..
NVw England
10 to 20 years
21 years and overUrban, total
Rural, total
Middle Atlantic
10 to 20 years
21 years arid o\teiv.
Urban, total
Rural, total
East JTorfch. Central.,.
10 to 20 years
a i y e a i s a n t i over,.
"Urban, total
Rural, total
Wast ITrarth Central..
10 to 20 years
21 years and over..
Urban, total
Rural, total
South Atlantic
10 to 20 years
2i years and over..
Urban, total
Rural, total
East South Central...
10 to 20 years
21 years and over..
Urban, total
Rural, total

2, 085, 460
420, 538
3,8G3, 215
1, 800, 604
65,803
1,734,741
, 483,149
354, 675
2,128, 474

Per

Native white,
native
parentage
Number

Per

Native white,
foreign or
mixed parentage

Foreign-born
white

Pel- Number Per Number
Number cent
cent

6.0 1,109, 875

2.5

1S2,697

0.8 I, 763,140

2.7
7.1
4.4
7.7

1.3
3.0

30,330
102, 358
55, 020
77,077

5G, 595 5.7 329,174
ll, 707,145 13.7 1,512, 987
>1,327, 520 13.0 402,170
1.4 436,220 IS. S 1,4K> 991

171,504
938, 311
155, 493
954,382

4.3
4.4
4.3
1.6
5.3
3.S
.5
4.0
6.0
2.8
7.3

577,312
409,157
131,151
855,318
103, 227
17, 056
146,171
828, 242
114, 095
709,147

3

Q

1.8

118, 865

1,304,084

2.2

G2,736
53,920
17,015
99, C50

573,977
730,107
7,582
290,502

.2
.7
3.0
1.3
3.8

60, 369
9, 661
50, 708
56, 296
7,354
48, 942

, 058,845
6,325
II, 052,520
245, S39
1,257
243,982
210,048
1,000
209,046
17!), 423
30, 023
636,479
4, 307
(532, 272
546, 551
89,928
281, 645
1,337
2S0,308
232, 547
49, 098
61,982
222
61, 700
28,156
23,820

3.7
.3
4.7
3.8
3.1
3.5
.4
4.5
3.7
2.9
2.1
.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.4
.4
1.8
1.4
1.5
8.3
4.1
10.2
4.7
10.5
9.6
4.2
12.0
5.4
11.5
7.2
3.6
8.7
4.4
8.9
4.2
1.7
5.1
1.9
5.7
2.1
.4
2.6
1.7
3.1

Per
cent

13.1 1,842,161
13.0
27.4
13.4
2J5.5

1, 513, 892 16.3
8.1 301, 949 17.8
11.9 711, 943 15.1
1.3 207, 242
7.5
10.3 .1,306,650 20.0
10.0
395,849
1.3
22, 550
10.4
373,293
9.4 1,113,043
1.5
184, 686
9.6
933,357
4,187
11.6
83
1.1
4,104
12.1
3,089
11.6
1,098
11.5
32,223
12.2
1.8
1,275
12.7
30, 948
11.9
25,044
15.0
6,579
8.8
36, 454
1.0
779
9.2
35, 075
8.8
30, 204
8.0
6,250
4.8
21,170
1.0
845
5.0
20, 325
5.6
12,936
4.3
8,234
662, 055
10.4
109,
534
1.5
552, 521
10.8
157,
917
9.8
504,138
12.1

.7
16, 049
14, 080
2,415
.3
.3
1,934
13,
034
.7
.9
12,146
0, 998 .5
.3
4,903
6,051 1.6
9,177 1.1
.5
30, 803
.6
52,050
.3
C. 715
.3
6, 564
.6
23, 97S
.7
45, 486
.4
21, 245
.4
23,135
<J, 448 1.0
28,915 1.0
30, 587
.6
.7
79, 697
3,305
.2
.2
7,424
27, 282
.9
.7
72, 273
14,882
.4
.4
27, 727
15, 705 1.1
51, 970 1.1
.8
15, 562
S3, 376
1,572
.3
6,211
13, 090
47, 005 1.1
6,182
.5
12,354
10,380
40,922 1.1
31, 328
4,202
3.9
310, 381
ISO
483
41,905 1.7
31,148
3,719
4.9
268, 470 1.4
21, C04
2,228
38, 590 5.3
9,724
1,974
271, 791
7.4
4,238
2,078
268, 052 5.1
18
137
1.1
38, 82fi 2.3
4,220
1,
941
7.6
6.3
229, 220
2,721
740
0.8
24, 955 1.7
1,517
1,332
9.6
243,097 0.4
9.4
15,958
10,181
West South Central...
172, 286 2.7
2.0
91
1,150
1.2
10 to 20 years
24, 052
9.6
15,867
9,031
21 years and over..
148, 234 3.3
7.8
7,594
2,920
Urban, total
1.0
23,
214
8,3(34
11.6
7,252
Rural, total
149,072 3.7
5.6
15,962
Mountain
2,31fl
26, 730 1.5
1.0
93
354
10 to 20 years
.5
2,702
5.7
15,860
1,0132
21 years and over..
24,023 2.0
4.9
6,522
833
Urban, total
.7
4,611
6.2
9,440
1,483
Rural, total
22,119 2.1
4.8
56,443
Pacific
.
4,997
.3
9,917
.6
334
884
10 to 20 years
.2
1,533
6.1
56,112
4,113
.3
21 years and over..
8,384
4.1
33,727
2,
S2fi
.2
Urban, total
3,738
22,719 J 7.0
2,Q71
.5
Rural, total
6,179
1
Includes Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and other nomvhite not shown separately.
!
Figures for native white of foreign or mixed parentage and for foreign-born -wflite
persons of the Mexican race who were given a separate classification in 1930,
Source; Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce.
245, 270
5,460
239, 810
198, 234
47, 036
757, 223
10, 0fl2
738, 16G
621, 593
135, 635
442, 084
13, 607
428, 457
315, 746
126, 318
156,088
9,771
140, 207
03, 093
92,975
1, C12, 523
153,182
859,341
220, 729
791, 794
727, 861
98,970
628.891
321,541)
606,312
675,791
101,159
574,032
157.892
517,899
120,866
13,462
10.7,4Q4
22,478
98,388
14.6,082
5,865
140, 217
79,290
6G, 792

Negro

452, 082
flfi, 503
392, 519
93, 01!)
359, 003
302, 280
35, 082
267, 218
70, 728
231, 552
1,070
51
1,019
622
44S
2,371
50
2, 321 ,
1, 090 !
881

2.3
11.2
22.4
10.3
20.2
5.5
.5
7.0
4.7
11.0
S.7
,7
4.1
3.3
7,3
4,7
.5
5.7
4.3
9.3
7.6
1.5
9.2
5.9
14.1
19.7
9.5
25.0
13.2
23.2
22.0
9.2
28.0
14. S
25.2
17.0
ft. 5
21.6
11.4
20.0
4.1
1.1
4.8
3.4
5.8
3.1
,4
3.6
2.5
6.9

.
in 1920 mciuaa

1937

POPULATION

41

ILLITERACY

No. 33.—ILLITERATE PERSONS 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER: CONTINENTAL
UNITED STATES, 1920 AND 1930, AND BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS,
1930
NOTE.—For definition of urban population, see Table 7. Illiteracy in this and subsequent tables is
defined as inability to write in any language, regardless of ability to read. Per cents represent proportion illiterate in the total number of persons of given class and age
All classes i
Division,sex, and age
Number
United States, 1920 2_. 4,931,905
598,794
10 to 20 years
21 years and over.. 4,333,111
1, 955,112
Urban, total
2,976, 793
Rural, total

Native white,
native
parentage

Per Number
cent

Native white,
foreign or
mixed parentage

Per Number
cent

Foreign-born
white
Number

Negro

Per
cent Number cent

6.0 1,109, 875

2.5

132, 697

0.8 1, 763, 740

13.1 1, 842,161

22.9

2.7
7.1
4.4
7.7

1.3
3.0

30,339
102,358
55,620
77,077

56,595 5.7
329,174
1,707,145 13.7 1, 512,987
.5 1,327, 520 13.0 402,170
1.4
436,220 13.3 1, 439,991

13.0
27.4
13.4
28.5

171,
938,
155,
954,

564
311
493
382

3.8

1,304, 084 9.9
1.8
116, 665
16.3
62,736
573,977 8.1
17.6
801,949
577, 312 2.1
53,929
730,107 11.9
711,943 15.1
409,157 1.5
17,015
.8
7,582
7.5
1.3
207,242
131,151
99,650
1,296,502 10.3 1, 306, 650 20.0
855,318 2.2
60,369
1,058,
848
.4
395,
849
10.0
163, 227
9,661
.2
6,325 1.3
22,556
2.3
.2
17, 056
.5 1,052, 520
50,708
373,293 11.2
146,171
.7
10.4
245,239 9.4 1,118,043 22.4
56,296 1.0
823,242 3.0
7,354
1,257
10.3
.5
114,095 1.3
184, 686
1.5
48,942 1.2
243,982 9.6
709,147 3.8
933,357 29.2
5.5
16,049
.6
4,187
,7 210,046 11.6
14,080
2,415
.5
.3
1,000 1.1
83
.3
1,934
.7
13,634
7.0
4,104
12,146
.9 209,046 12.1
.3
9,998
4.7
4,903
.5 179,423 11.6
6,051 1.6
30,623 11.5
1,098
11.0
9,177 1.1
.5
836,479
3.7
30,893
12.2
32,223
.6
52,050
6,715
4,307 1.8
.7
.3
.3
1,275
6,564
23,978
4.4
632,172
.7
30,948
.6
12.7
45, 486
21,245
3.3
.4
25,644
.4 546, 551 11.9
23,135
7.3
9,448 1.0
6,579
28,915 1.0
15.0
.6 281, 645 8.8
4.7
36,454
.7
30,587
79, 897
.2
.5
1, 337 1.0
.2
3,305
779
7,424
5.7
.9
27,282
.7 280, 308 9.2
35,675
72,273
4.3
.4 1 14,882
30,204
.4 232, 547 8.8
27,727
9.3
49,098 8.9
15,705 1.1
6,250
51,970 1.1
.5
7.6
21,170
15, 562
51, 982 4.9
53,276
.3
1.5
845
1,572
222 1.0
6,211
.6
9.2
51, 760 5.0
20,325
13,990
47,065 1.1
5.9
.4
28,156 5.6
12,936
5,182
.5
12,354
14.1
23,826 4.3
8,234
10,380
.6
40,922 1.1
19.7
4,202
31, 328 10.4 662,055
310, 381 3.9
9.5
180 1.5
109,534
483
41,905 1.7
25.0
552,
521
3,719
31,148
10.8
1.0
4.9
268,476
13,2
21,
604
157,917
2,228
9.8
.6
38,590 1.4
9,724 12.1 504,138 23.2
1,974 1.5
271, 791 5.3
5.1
22.0
4,288 7.4
2,078
1.2
452, 082
288,052 2.3
9.2
18 1.1
59, 563
137
.5
38,826 6.3
28.0
392,
519
4,220
7.6
1,941
1.3
229,226
14.8
93,019
2,721 6,6
746
.6
24,955 1.7
1,517 9.6
359, 063 25.2
1,332 2.8
243,097 6.4
15,958 9.4
302,280
17.0
10,181 2.0
172,286 2.7
91 2.0
35, 062
1,150 1.1
24,052 1.2
267,218
3.3
15,867
9,031
21.6
2.2
9.6
148,234 1.0
70, 728
7,594 7.8
2,929 1.1
11.4
23,214
8,364 11.6 231, 552 20.0
7,252 3.0
149,072 3.7
5.6
15,962
4.1
.4
2,316
1,070
26,730 1.5
93 1.0
1,1
.2
354
.5
51
2,702
4.8
15,869 5.7
.4
1,019
1,962
24,028 2.0
4.9
3.4
6,522
622
.3
833
.7
4,611
9,440 6,2
448
5.8
1,483
.5
22,119 2.1
2,871
3.1
58,446
4,997
4.9
.3
.8
9,917
50
.4
334
884
.6
.2
.2
1,533
2,321
3.6
56,112
4,113
5.1
.3
.3
8,384
1,690
2.5
33,727
2,326
4.1
.2
.2
3,738
22,719 7.0
2, 671
681
.6
.5
6,179
1
Includes Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and other nonwhite not shown separately.
2 Figures for native white of foreign or mixed parentage and for foreign-born white in 1920 include
persons of the Mexican race who were given a separate classification in 1930.
Source: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce.

United States, 1930- . 4,283, 753
2,198,293
Males
2,085,460
Females...420, 538
10 to 20 years __.
21 years and over. 3,863,215
1,800,604
Urban, total
65,863
10 to 20 years
21 years and over. 1,734,741
2,483,149
Itaral, total
354,675
10 to 20 years
2,128,474
21 years and over245,270
New England
5,460
10 to 20 years
230,810
21 years and over- 198,234
Urban, total
47, 036
Rural, total
757, 228
Middle Atlantic
19, 062
10 to 20 years
21 years and over.. 738,166
621,593
Urban, total
135, 635
Bural, total._
East TTorth Central... 442, 064
10 to 20 years
13, 607
21 years and over— 428,457
315, 746
Urban, total-.
126,318
Rural, total
West Forth Central-. 156, 068
9, 771
10 to 20 years
21 years and over.. 146,297
Urban, total
63,093
Rural, total
92, 975
South Atlantic
, C12, 523
10 to 20 years...>.. 153,182
21 years and over- 859, 341
Urban, total
220,729
Rural, total
791, 794
East South Central... 727,881
10 to 20 years
98,970
21 years and over121,549
Urban, total
Rural, total
606,312
West South Central.-. 675, 791
101,159
10 to 20 years
21 years and over- 574, 632
Urban, total
157,892
517,899
Rural, total
Mountain
120,886
13, 462
10 to 20 years
21 years and over.. 107,404
Urban, total
22,478
Rural, total
Pacific.
146,082
10 to 20 years
5,865
21 years and over- 140,217
Urban, total
79,290
Rural, total
66,792

4.3

4.4
4.3
1.6
5.3
3.2
.5
4.0
6.0
2.8
7.3
3.7
.3
4.7
3.8
3.1
3.5
.4
4.5
3.7
2.9
2.1
.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.4
.4
1.8
1.4
1.5
8.3
4.1
10.2
4.7
10.5
9.6
4.2
12.0
5.4
11.5
7.2
3.6
8.7
4.4
8.9
4.2
1.7
5.1
1.9
5.7
2.1
,4
2.6
1.7
3.1

1938

POPULATION—ILLITERACY
No. 33.—ILLITERATE PERSONS 10 YEARS OP AGE AND OVER: CONTINENTAL
UNITED STATES, 1920 AND 1930, AND BY GEOGEAPHIC DIVISIONS, 1930
NOTE.—For definition of urban population, see Table 7. Illiteracy in this and subsequent tables is
defined as inability to write in any language, regardless of ability to read. Per cents represent proportion illiterate in the total number of persons of given class and aga
All classes >
Division,sex,and age
Number
United States, 1830 J ..| 931,905
10 to 20 years
21 years and ovor..
Urban, t o t a l . . .
Rural, total

Native white,
native
parentage

Native white,
foreign or
mixed parentage

Per
Per
cent Number cent Number
6.0

698,794
333, 111
955,112
970,793

United States, 1930.. ,283,763
Malos
19S, 293
086,400
Females
10 to 20 years . . . . 420, 638
21 years and over-. 863, 215
800,604
Urban, total
65, 883
10 to 20 years
21 years and over.. 734,741
483,149
Eural, total
10 to 20 years
354,075
21 years and over.. 128, 474
245, 370 3.7
New England
6,400
.3
10 to 20 years
21 years and ovor.. 239, 810 4.7
Urban, total
198,234 3.8
Bural, total
47, 036 3.1
Middle Atlantic
757,223 3.6
10 to 20 years
.4
19,062
21 years and over. 738,106 4.6
Urban, total
621,693 3.7
Rural, total
135, 035 2.9
East North Central... 442,084 2.1
.3
10 to 20 years
13, «07
21 years and over. 428,467 2.7
Urban, total
315,740 2.3
Bural, total
126, 318 1.9
West North Central.. 156,068 1.4
9,771
10 to 20 years
.4
21 years and over.. 140,297 1.8
Urban, total
63,093 1.4
Eural, total
92,975 1.5
South Atlantic
, 1,012,523 8.3
163,182 4.1
10 to 20 years
21 years and over. 869, 341 10.2
220, 720 4.7
Urban, total
791,794 10.5
Rural, total
East South Central... 727,861 9.6
10 to 20 years
98,970 4.2
21 years and over_ 028.891 12.0
Urban, total
121,649 S.4
Rural, total
000,312 11,5
West South Central.. 676,791 7.2
10 to 20 years
101,159 3.0
21 years and over. 574,632 8,7
Urban, total
167.892 4.4
Rural, total
617,899 8.9
Mountain
120,866 4.2
10 to 20 years
13,402 1.7
21 years and over. 107,404 5.1
Urban, total
22,478 1.9
Rural, total
98,388 5.7
Paoiflo.
148,082 2.1
5,885
.4
10 to 20 years
21 years and over. 140,217 2.6
Urban, total
79,390 1.7
Rural, total
66,792 3.1

109,875
171,564
938,311
156,493
964,382

Negro

Per
Per
Per
cant Number cent Number cent

2.5

132,697

0.8

763,740

13.1

843,161

.0

3.8

30,339
102,358
65,620
77,077

56,595
707,146
327,620
436,220

5.7
13.7
13.0
13.3

329,174
612, 987
402,170
439, 991

1.8
577,312
409,157
131,151
866,318
163,227
17,O5S
146,171
8S3,242
114,096
709,147
14, 080
1,934
12,146
4,903
9,177
52,060
6,564
45,486
23,135
28,916
79,697
7,424
72,273
27,727
61,970
53,376
6,211
47,065
12, 354
40,922
310,381
41,906
268, 476
38, 600
271, 791
268, 062

Foreign-born
white

2.2

.3
.7
.3
1.1
.6
.3
.7
.4
1.0
.7
.2
.9
,4
1.1
.8
.3
1.1
.5
1.1
3.9
1.7
4.9
1.4
5.3
5.1
2.3
6.3
1.7
6.4
8.7
1.2
3.3
1.0
3.7
1.6
.6
2.0
.7
2.1
.3
.2
.3
.2
.6

116,685
62,730
53,929
17, 015
99, 650
60, 369
9,001
50, 708
68,298
7,354
48, 942
16, 048
2,415
13, 634
9,998
0,051
30, 693
6,71S
23, 978
21,245
9,448
30, 587
3,305
27, 282
14,882
16, 705
16, 662
1,672
13, 090
5,182
10, 380
4,202
483
3,719
2,228
1,974
2,078
137
1,941

.6
1.4

.4
.2
.5

1.0
.6
1.2
.7

.5
1.6
.6
.3
.6
.4
1.0
.2
.7
.4
1.1
.5
.3
.6
.4
.6
.8
.3
1.0
.6
1.5
1.2
.S
1.3
.0
2.8
2.0
1.1
2.2
1.1
3.0
.4
.2
.4
.3
.5

., 304,084
573,077
730,107
7,582
1,296,602
., 058,845
0,325
., 052,520
245,239
1,257
243,982
310,046
1,000
209,046
179,423
30,623
636,479
4,307
632,172
546, 561
89,928
381, 845
1,337
280,308
232, 547
40,008
51,082
222
51,760
28,150
23,826
31,328
180
31,148
21,004
9,724
4,238
18
4,220
2,721
1,517
16, 958
91
15,867
7,694
8,364
18,962
93
15,869

1, 613, 892
8.1
801, 949
11.9
711, 943
1.3
207, 242
10.3
300,650
10.0
395,849
1.3
22,556
10.4
373,293
9.4 , 118, 043
l.S
184, 686
9.0
933, 367
4,187
11. S
83
1.1
4,104
12.1
3,089
11.6
1,098
11.5
12.2
1.8
1,276
12.7
30, 948
11.9
26, 644
15.0
0,579
36, 454
8.8
779
1.0
9.2
35, 676
8.8
30,204
8.0
0,250
4.9
21,170
1.0
845
6.0
20, 325
5.6
12,930
4.3
10.4
663,055
1.5
108,534
10.8
562, 521
9.8
167, 917
12.1 504,138
462,082
7.4
69, 563
1.1
392, 519
7.0
93, 019
6.S
9.6
369,063
9.1
302,280
2.0
36,062
9.6
267,218
7.8
70,728
11.6
231,552
5.6
1,070
51
1.0
1,019
5.7
622
4.9
448
0.2
2,371
4.9
•6
60
5.1
2,321
4.1
1,690
7.0
081

13.0
27.4
13.4
28.5
16.3
17.6
15.1
7.5
20.0
9.2
2.3
11.2
23.4
10.3
29.2
5.5
.5
7.0
4.7
11.0
3.7
.7
4.4
3.3
7.3
4.7
.5
5.7
4.3
9.3
7.6
1.5
9.2
5.9
14.1
19.7
6.6
26.0
13.2
23.2
33.0
9.2
28.0
14.8
26.2
17.0
6.5
21.6
11.4
20.0
4.1
1.1
4.8
3.4
6.8
3.1
.4
3.6
2.5
6.9

229, 220
24,965
1,332
243,097
10, 181
172,286
1,150
24,052
9,031
148, 234
2,920
23, 214
7,252
149, 072
2,316
26, 730
354
2,702
1,902
24, 028
833
4,611
1,483
9,440
22,119
.8
56,446
4,997
9,917
.2
334
884
1,533
.3
86,112
4,113
8,384
.2
33
727
2,326
3,738
22,719
2,671
6,179
' Includes Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and other nonwhite not shown separately.
1
Figures for native white of foreign or mixed parentage and for ioreign-born white in 1920 include
persons of the Mexican race who were given a separate classification in 1930.
Source; Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce,

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