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CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Connective Tissues
- Supportive tissues
Functions:
1. Connect and bind tissues
2. Protect body organs
3. Framework for movement of muscles
4. Transport substances
Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
Cartilages
Bone
Blood

Parts of Connective Tissue:
1. Cells
- scattered, fewer in number

2. matrix
- More matrix than cells
- Varies in consistency
a. liquid (watery)
b. rubbery/gelatinous
c. tough/mineralized


3. Intercellular fibers elastic
reticular
collagen

LOOSE CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
1. Areolar Connective Tissue












Description:
Most abundant tissue type
Semi-fluid with ground substance
Elastic, collagenous, reticular fibers running though the matrix
With empty spaces in the matrix
Function:
- binds organs together


Areolar Connective Tissue
Elastic fiber

Nucleus of the
fibroblast
Collagen fiber
Mast cell
2. Adipose Tissue











Description:
consists of adipocytes (cells that store fats)
nucleus and cytoplasm peripherally located (signet ring appearance)
Adipose lobules
Location:
subcutaneous layer of the skin, padding around joints
Function:
Provides an insulating layer beneath the skin
Padding/cushion for organs
* Loose Connective Tissue Adipose 400X
nucleus
cell membrane
3. Reticular Tissue






Description:
consist of network of reticular fibers and reticular cells
Location:
stroma (supporting framework) of liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
Function:
support of organ
filters and removes worn-out blood cells in the spleen and microbes in lymph
nodes

* Reticular Connective Tissue 1000X
spleen
reticular fibers
DENSE CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
Dense Connective Tissue
- fibers are compactly arranged
- classified based on arrangement of fibers
a. Dense Regular Connective Tissue




Description:
Consist mainly of collagen fibers arranged in organized manner
Fibroblasts squeezed in between collagenous fibers
Location:
tendons, ligaments

Dense Regular Connective Tissue 400X
tendon with densely packed parallel collagen fibers
fibroblast cell nuclei

2. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue







Description:
collagen fibers arranged in irregular manner with few fibroblasts
Location:
perichondrium of cartilage, periosteum of bones, dermis of skin


Dense Irregular Connective Tissue 400X
dermis of skin (see slide 12)
non-parallel
collagen fibers
CARTILAGES
1.Hyaline Cartilage











Description:
Glassy/clear cartilage
fine collagen fibers
Chondrocytes appear singly or in isogenous group of cells cell nest
Surrounded with perichondrium
Weakest type of cartilage

Location:
trachea, larynx, bronchi, anterior ends of ribs, ends of bones

- Cartilage cells are named based on their function:

_____blasts cells responsible for forming
the matrix
_____cytes cells responsible for maintaining the matrix
- mature cartilage cells
______clasts cells responsible for remodeling or resorption of
matrix
Hyaline

Lacuna
chondrocyte
Perichondrium
Hyaline Cartilage 400X
1 to 4 chondrocytes in lacuna
2. Fibrocartilage







Description:
few and smaller chondrocytes scattered along small amount of
matrix
bundles of collagenous fibers within the matrix
no perichondrium
Strongest type of cartilage
Location:
pubic symphysis, intervertebral disc



Fibrocartilage 400X
chondrocyte in lacuna
collagen fibers
1
2
3
3. Elastic cartilage








Description:
consists of chondrocytes located in a threadlike network
of elastic fibers within the matrix
Surrounded with perichondrium
Location:
auricle of the external ear, epiglottis, auditory
(Eustachian) tube
Elastic cartilage
Chondrocyte
Elastic
fibers
Lacuna
BONE/OSSEOUS TISSUE

2 Types of Bone Tissue:
1. Compact bone (external)
- solid
2. Spongy (cancellous)bone
internal



Osteon or Haversian System:
- basic unit of compact bone
4 parts of osteon:
1. Lamellae
- concentric rings of matrix that
consists of mineral salts (give
hardness to the bones
- fibers
2. Lacunae
- small spaces between lamellae
that contain the mature bone
cells
3. Canaliculi
- network of minute canals
containing the processes of
osteocytes
4. central (Haversian) canal
- contains blood vessels and
nerves

* Supportive Connective Tissue Bone 400X
osteocyte in lacuna central canal
of osteon
canaliculi
Types of bone cells:
1. Osteoblasts
- bone building cells
- synthesize and secrete collagen needed to build the matrix
2. Osteocytes
- mature bone cells
- matrix
3. Osteoclasts
- endosteum
- bone resorption/ bone restoration
BLOOD/ VASCULAR TISSUE
Vascular Tissue
- composed of:
a. matrix
- plasma (fluid)

b. cells
- wbc, rbc and platelets

c. intercellular fibers
- found in the plasma

Types of cells
1. Red blood cell
- erythrocytes
- hemoglobin
- in mammals during maturation
rbc lose their nuclei
lower vertebrates nucleus is
retained

2. White blood cell
- leukocytes
- nucleated
- body defense
- distinguished based on the staining
reactions and cytoplasmic
granules

Types of wbc according to the number of
nucleus and cytoplasmic granules:

1. Granulocytes

a. neutrophil
- most numerous
- 3 to 5 lobes
- polymorphonuclear
wbc (multinucleated)

b. Eosinophil
- 2 lobes
- orange- red granules
c. Basophil
- S shaped nucleus
- dark purple to black
granules
2. Agranulocytes
a. Lymphocytes
- produce antibodies
- large nucleus that
almost occupy the entire
cell


b.monocyte/mononuclear
wbc
- bean shaped nucleus

3. Platelets
- thrombocytes
- small, non-nucleated,
colorless, non-motile
cells
- fragments of
megakaryocytes
- participate in blood
clotting

MUSCULAR TISSUE

Properties of Muscular Tissue:
1. Excitability ability to respond to stimuli
2. Contractility ability to shorten forcefully
3. Extensibility ability to stretch
4. Elasticity ability to resume resting length after
contraction

Muscle Tissue
Tissue with cells having fibers specialized for contraction.
Skeletal Muscle (Striated, voluntary)
Cylindrical
multinucleated
attached to the skeleton
Smooth Muscle (Non-striated, involuntary)
Cells are long and tapered (spindle/fusiform)
Organized into sheets of muscle
Centrally located nucleus
Cardiac Muscle (Striated, involuntary)
Intercalated disc
Branched cells, mononucleated or binucleated
Striated

* Skeletal Muscle 1000X
striations across
muscle fiber
nucleus
long parallel fibers
Smooth Muscle 400X
intestinal wall
* Smooth Muscle (teased) 400X
spindle shape cell
nucleus
* Cardiac Muscle 1000X
intercalated disc
striations
short branching cells; intercalated discs at cell junctions
nucleus
NERVOUS TISSUE
NEURON
- nerve cell (cell body and all processes)
- structural & functional unit of Nervous
System
Cell Body

Axon
- long cell process
- conduct impulses away from the
cell body
- surrounded by neuroglia (myelin
sheath) speeds up conduction of
impulses

Dendrites short branching processes




Types of Neurons:
1. Multipolar neuron
- many dendrites and one axon
ex. neurons in the CNS
2. Bipolar neuron
- two processes
- one axon and one dendrite
ex. neurons in the retina of the eye
neurons in the nasal cavity
3. Monopolar neurons
- one process extending from the
cell body
- divides into two processes
- single axon
- small dendrite like extensions at
the periphery

Nervous Tissue 400X
nucleus
neuroglial cells
motor neuron
processes
cell body
multipolar neuron