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Regulates osmotic pressure

Regulates > 60 enzyme systems


Aids in photosynthesis
Favors translocation of
photosynthates
Stomatal regulation of water loss
Enhances N uptake & protein
synthesis
Functions in the plant
Groundnut plot with potash
Groundnut plot without potash
Junagadh, Gujarat State (India), Sep 2000
POTASSIUM
Promotes root growth & stronger stems
Increases resistance to cold & water
stresses
Reduces pest & disease attack
Enhances crop quality (size, color,
protein, oil, vitamins, etc.)
Extends shelf life
+K
+K
-
-
K
K
- -K K K75 K75 K150 K150
Positive effects of K fertilization
POTASSIUM
+K
+K
-
-
K
K
Positive effects of K fertilization
No K
with K
grains
Bananas in storage for 19 days
-K
+K
POTASSIUM
spikes
Which crops are the biggest users of potash?
In USA, corn is the major consumer of potash. Over 40% of
the potash used is applied to corn.
In China, where farmers grow 2 or 3 crops a year, rice is
the largest consumer. An estimated 25% of the potash is
applied to rice.
In Brazil, roughly 70% of the potash is used on soybean,
sugar cane and corn.
In Malaysia, oil palm is the single largest consumer of
potash. As much as 75% of the potash is used on oil palm.
POTASSIUM

K K K K
K K K K
K
+
- - - -
K
+
K
+
K
+
Soil clay minerals
(illite, vermicullite, etc.)
I
n
t
e
r
l
a
t
t
i
c
e
(
K

f
i
x
e
d
,

t
r
a
p
p
e
d
)
Exchange positions
(K adsorbed)
K
K
K
Soil primary minerals
(micas, feldspars)
Structural K
K
K
K
K
In Soil Solution
Plant
uptake
Leaching
Soil solution
Exchangeable
Non-
Exchangeable
Mineral
Fertilizer K
K
K
+
K K
READILY AVAILABLE
1 - 4 %
UNAVAILABLE
92%
SLOWLY AVAILABLE
2 - 6%
weathering
desorption
adsorption
POTASSIUM IN SOILS
dissolves K
+
Cl
-
leaching
K
+
K
+
K
+
K
+
Crop
uptake
Leaching
(sandy soils)
Soil
solution
Absorbed

K
+
- - - -
K
+
K
+
K
+
Soil clays
KCl
POTASSIUM APPLICATION
K products are water soluble
K nutrient content in fertilizer is expressed on a
K
2 2
O
O
basis
basis (in %). Although there is no K as such in
the fertilizer
K fertilizers should be convert to K cation (K
+
) in
order to be absorbed by the plant roots.
K fertilizers have no negative environmental effect
Characteristics
POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS
MOP (muriate of potash) or potassium chloride is: KCl
K
2
O content is 60-62%
MOP is completely soluble
Characteristics
MOP is mined from underground ores (IberPotash), or is the
result of crystallization from brine, either from solution mining
of KCl ore or precipitation fromhypersaline lakes (Dead Sea)
MOP can be red, pink or white, naturally minor amounts of
iron impurities give a reddish color.
The color does not affect chemical composition and all have the
same agronomic effectiveness
MOP is produced in different grades: standard, fine, granular,
fertigation
Manufacture
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE - MOP
MOP is the most common K fertilizer
MOP is the K fertilizer with highest K2O content
MOP is the cheapest K fertilizer per kg fertlizer & per K2O unit
Can be mixed with other fertilizers, and is a common ingrendient
in NPK bulk blends
Can be used in fertigation (only white potash, Ferti-K grade)
It contains chloride, an important micronutrient
Not recommended for chloride-sensitive crops (such as tobacco,
avocado, and some grenhouse vegetables and flowers)
Not recommended under saline soils and/or saline waters
Limitations
Advantages
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE - MOP
WHEN IT COMES TO POTASH,
CROPS ARE COLOR-BLIND
AS LONG AS THE POTASH CONTAINS THE CORRECT
CHEMICAL AND NUTRIENT CONTENT, CROPS DO NOT
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
WHITE POTASH AND RED POTASH
Both red and white potash are chemically the same salt: potassium
chloride (KCl)
Both have equal amounts of potassium (60 %) and chloride (47%)
Both are highly water soluble, being of equivalent agronomic
effectiveness
THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE IN THE AGRONOMIC
VALUE OF RED AND WHITE POTASH
POTASH FOR FERTIGATION
(MICROIRRIGATION)

White White potash gives a clear,


clean and pure solution

Red Red potash solution contains iron


impurities which can clog the
drippers
POTASH IS AN IDEAL K SOURCE :
High K content in the irrigation solution
Compatible with N and P fertilizers
Fully soluble in irrigation water
Fast dissolution
IS ONE AGRONOMICALLY BETTER THAN THE OTHER?
NO CLOGGING OF DRIPPERS NO CLOGGING OF DRIPPERS
Only WHITE KCl is suitable
for Fertigation
46 Kg Cl
9
6

K
g
K
C
l
50 Kg K
=
60 Kg K
2
O
4 Kg others (*)
(*) mainly MgCl
2
, CaCl
2
and NaCl
COMPOSITION OF POTASH (MOP)
the K fertilizer which has the highest K content
the cheapest K fertilizer
TO APPLY 150 KG K
2
O YOU NEED:
K
2
SO
4
300 kg
50%
KNO
3
326 kg
46%
KCl
KCl
250 kg
250 kg
60 %
60 % % K
2
O
THE POTENTIAL OF POTASH :
A 10 HECTARE RICE FARM APPLYING
POTASSIUMAT A RATE OF 120 KG K
2
O/HA
WILL APPLY 200 KG POTASH / HA
WILL NEED 2 TON POTASH PER YEAR !
MOP COSTS LESS PER:
Kg fertilizer
K
2
O unit
POTASH (MOP)
For direct application and bulk blending
POTASH STANDARD GRADE
RED
RED
WHITE
WHITE
For NPK granulation, liquid solutions and SOP
production (from MOP)
POTASH FINE GRADE
For bulk blending and direct application
RED
RED
WHITE
WHITE
POTASH GRANULAR GRADE
For application through irrigation systems (fertigation)
Approved for organic agriculture
FERTI-K