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Maestra - Ingls I


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Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones
La antologa de ingls I comprensin de textos representa un enfoque accesible a la
comprensin de textos en ingls para propsitos especficos. Se trata de un mtodo
dinmico de induccin al lenguaje, diseado para usarse por el alumno y maestro,
dentro y fuera de clase, aumentando el dominio del idioma ingls a travs del estudio
de diferentes tipos de lecturas.
Se ha creado La antologa de ingls comprensin de textos con el siguiente propsito:
hacer ms fcil el perfeccionamiento y la fluidez de su ingls, para as incrementar sus
oportunidades de xito en la comprensin de textos en ingls.
Nuestro sistema de aprendizaje ha sido diseado para hacer uso de sus conocimientos
previos del ingls y ampliarlos, presentando el vocabulario y las frases en contextos
relevantes y estimulantes, que adems ponen nfasis en las cuatro aptitudes del
lenguaje: la lectura, la escritura, el lenguaje hablado y la comprensin del idioma.

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1. Texto narrativo o cronolgico Pagina 1
1.1 Nuclear energy Pagina 1
1.2 The birdman of Alcatraz Pagina 3
2. Texto descriptivo Pagina 6
2.1 Wanted Pagina 6
3. Reconocer la distribucin de un texto Pagina 8
3.1 Strike against the pentagon Pagina 10
4. Determinar la funcin de un texto Pagina 11
5. Identificar la organizacin de un prrafo

Pagina 17
6. Comprensin de lectura
6.1 Green taxes
6.2 Camping trips

Pagina 21

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1. Texto narrativo o cronolgico
Este tipo de texto presenta al lector una exposicin de hechos que pueden o no
desarrollarse en orden cronolgico. Un caso particular de una secuencia de hechos es
el que incluye los flashbacks, interrupciones en la secuencia cronolgica que introduce
hechos ocurridos con anterioridad y que son de importancia para la comprensin.-
Ejemplos de este tipo de texto son los que presenta un peridico, un cuento o un

Skim the following passage
1.1 Nuclear energy
Nuclear power is obtained from the energy which can be released from the
nucleus of an atom. Until the twentieth century man used water, wood and
the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) as sources of power. During the first quarter
of the twentieth century physicist investigated the structure of the atom.
In 11 Rutherford split the atom artificially. Thirteen years later the neutron
was discovered. In 139 Hahn and Strassman investigated the action of
neutron on uranium-235. They found that it was split into equal pieces. This
process is known as fusion. It releases great amounts of energy. The
neutrons that are released in fusion produce fusion in other atoms. This is
known as a chain reaction. On 2
December 1942 Enrico Fermi and his
colleagues produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction.
Since then the atomic energy has been used in war and peace. In 1951
electricity was first produced by using the heat from a nuclear reactor. More
recently nuclear energy has been used to power submarines. Nuclear
batteries are now being used in cardiac pacemakers. More and more
countries are building nuclear power stations to produce electricity.

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Match the following events with its corresponding time of occurrence.
1. Use of atomic energy in war and peace a. 1900-1925
2. Increasing use of nuclear energy to produce
b. Before the 20

3. Depend on wood, water and fossil fuels c. Present moment
4. Investigation of the structure of the atom d. After 1942
5. Production of first controlled nuclear chain reaction e. Three years after
the discovery of
Reports of series of events refer

What happened The event Rutherford split the atom

When things happened

The time of an event

Rutherford split the atom in 1919.
Events can be located:
In present time

past present future

Countries are building nuclear
power stations.
In the past

past Present future

In 1919 Rutherford split the atom

We can relate past events to present time:


past Present future

Since 1942 atomic energy has
been used for peace and war.
We can refer to events without locating them in time:

past Present future

Fusion releases energy.

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1.2 Read the following text The birdman of Alcatraz. Answer the questions.

The story of Robert Stroud has been written many different ways. Some say he was a troubled
boy from a broken home who accidentally killed someone. Others say he was a cold, vicious
man, a murderer who should have been executed . Others fall somewhere in the middle. All
of them agree on one thing, though, Robert Stroud is one of the most famous American
criminals of all time.
Robert Stroud was 19 when he killed a man in dispute over a dancer girl in Juneau, Alaska. He
was sentenced to 12 years at McNeil Island Prison in Washington State. Prison life was hard.
After two years there, Stroud stabbed a fellow prisoner who had told the authorities Stroud
was stealing food from the kitchen. Six months were added to his sentence. In 1912 he was
transferred to Leavenworth Prison in Kansas.
Stroud had received only a third grade education. Some people thought he was stupid,
including his cell mate who was taking some correspondence courses. Stroud decided he
would like to do the same. Within three years he had received diplomas from Kansas State
University in engineering, music, mathematics and theology. Stroud was now prepared for his
release in the near future.
In march 1916, shortly after he was to be freed, Stroud killed one of the guards. He had been
very angry over not being able to see his brother, who had come all the way from Alaska to
visit him. He was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to hang. Strouds mother would not accept
this. She petitioned President Woodrow Wilson and his wife. She impressed them with
descriptions of her sons studies. Just eight days before he was to hang. Strouds sentence was
changed to life in solitary confinement.
One day Stroud found two baby birds in the exercise yard at Leavenworth. He raised them with
the help of bird books. From that point on, his interest in ornithology became a passion. He
bought some canaries, did experiments in canaries diseases, and studied and wrote about his
findings. After a while, prison official tore down the wall between Strouds cell and another
empty cell to make more room for Strouds canaries. He obtained laboratory equipment and
studied chemistry, veterinary medicine, and bacteriology.
By 1931 Stroud was an expert on the care and raising of canaries. He corresponded with other
bird lovers all over the world. He wrote some articles that were smuggled out of prison and
published. In 1942 he published a book called Strouds Digest of the Disease of Birds. It was
considered the best work in the field. Meanwhile, Strouds work was making him very well
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known. Too well known. People began to ask for Strouds release. This angered some prison
In 1942 Stroud was transferred to Alcatraz He was ordered to leave all his birds, his books, and
other personal property behind. That personal property had amounted to quite a lot. It weight
1,144 pounds and filled five containers. It included, among other things, 30 empty birdcages,
158 bottles, cans, boxes beakers of chemicals, and laboratory equipment. There were about
250 bird magazines, over 20 books on chemistry and microscopes, and many other catalogs
and medical books. There were 85 pounds of various seeds, 118 feeding dishes, and 22 birds.
In prison on a rocky island in San Francisco Bay, Stroud was deprived of all of this.
He turned then to the study of law and wrote an unpublished book on federal prison reform.
He became known as the Birdman of Alcatraz. He was subject of newspaper and magazine
articles, a book and a movie.
The Birdman was kept in isolation for 42 years, longer than any federal prisoner in history, in
1959, in poor health but still seeking parole, he was transferred to the Federal Medical Center
in Springfield, Missouri, where he died four years later. He had spent 56 years in prison.

Order of events
Number the sentences to show the correct order.
_____ Stroud started taking correspondence courses.
_____ Stroud was sent to a prison in Washington State.
_____ Stroud was transferred to Alcatraz.
_____ Stroud killed a man in a dispute over a dance-hall-girl.
_____ Stroud was transferred to Leavenworth Prison in Kansas.
_____ Stroud became interested in ornithology.
_____ Stroud became famous as the Birdman of Alcatraz.

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What is the meaning of the underlined words? Circle the letter of the correct answer.

1. Robert Stroud was said to be cold and
vicious man.
a. Cruel with a desire to hurt
b. Insane
c. Moody

2. People said that Robert Stroud should be
a. put in prison
b. killed as lawful punishment
c. sent to another country

3. Stroud was sentenced to 12 years in prison
a. recognized
b. given admission
c. given punishment

4. Stroud stabbed a prisoner.
a. poisoned
b. strangled with his hands
c. struck with a pointed weapon

5. Strouds sentence was changed to life in
solitary confinement.
a. kept in prison for the rest of his life
b. kept completely alone in prison
c. kept in prison and made to work

6. Stroud became interested in
a. The study of diseases
b. The study of birds
c. The study of animals

7. His articles on birds were
smuggled out of prison and
a. Removed legally
b. Transferred
c. Taken out illegally

8. In Alcatraz, Stroud was deprived of
all his personal property.
a. prevented from using
b. delayed from using
c. thinking of using

9. Stroud began to study law and
wrote a book on prison reform.
a. improvements in conditions
b. organization of prisoners
c. violence in prison

10. In 1959 Stroud was still seeking
a. asking to be tried again
b. asking to be forgiven for his
c. asking to be let out of prison
for good behavior
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2. Texto descriptivo

Un texto descriptivo es aqul en el que se describen personajes ambientes u objetos,
presentndose con riqueza de detalles para comprometer al lector en la historia y/o hacer la
lectura ms concreta y viva. Existen, por ejemplo, descripciones de personas, de objetos, de
substancias, etc..
Un tipo muy comn de descripciones son las de comparacin y contraste. En una comparacin
se sealan aquellas caractersticas que son similares entre personas, objetos, etc. En el contraste,
se hace referencia a las diferencias existentes entre ellas.

2.1 Read the description in the following page rapidly.

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Answer the questions below.

1. Suggest a purpose for the given description.

2. What is it describing?

3. What is it?
a. a notice b. an ad c. an extract from a

4. What does it mention?
a. dimensions b. behavior c. color d. physical properties

5. Do you know what the mans name is? Why?

6. Who drew the picture?

7. What do the police think the man did?

8. Are the police sure about how many men were with this man?
How do you know?

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9. Why do think this poster is limited to department circulation?
10. Where can you see wanted posters?

3. Reconocer la distribucin de un texto: Apoyo visuales y tipogrficos.
Lograr la comprensin general de un texto, significa saber cul es el tema a tratar y que
aspectos generales de dicho tema se incluyen en la informacin. Para obtener este
conocimiento no es indispensable comprender lnea por lnea, ms bien consiste en saber
interpretar la primera impresin que recibimos del texto a travs de los elementos que saltan
a la vista, smbolos y tipogrficos.
Por smbolos visuales entendemos que son las ilustraciones, diagramas, grficas, mapas y
esquemas impresos que no llevan informacin verbal o lineal en el texto. Estos smbolos
representan un recurso valioso que nos acerca a la comprensin. Los smbolos tipogrficos nos
ayudan a identificar fcilmente los ttulos, subttulos, nmeros y palabras clave por medio de
recursos tipogrficos tales como el tamao y tipo de letra (cursiva, negrita), subrayado,
colores, fuentes, etc.

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3.1 Lee el siguiente texto Strike Against the Pentagon y contesta las siguientes
1. En donde encuentras este tipo de texto?

2. Qu entiendes solamente con las imgenes?

3. Cuntos tipos de letra encuentras en el texto? Cul es su funcin?

4. Cul crees que es el propsito del texto?

5. Cuntos visuales encuentras en el texto? Cules son?

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September 11, 2001

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Universidad de las Naciones
4. Determinar la funcin de un texto: Argumentivo expositivo, descriptivo, narrativo-

Saber la funcin de un texto nos ayuda a identifica la informacin tanto general como
especifica dentro del mismo, inclusive podemos predecir el final antes de terminar la
lectura. Al conocer la funcin del texto tenemos en cuenta la distribucin de la
informacin y esto nos facilitar la identificacin de elementos requeridos en la
evaluacin de la lectura.

Lee rpidamente los siguientes artculos e identifica la funcin de los textos.

A. The Definition of Human Rights as Conceived by the First School.

B. Second School for interpretation of Human Rights Apart from Freedom.

C. The Development of Human Rights in Secular Legislation.

Escoge la respuesta adecuada en base a la informacin de los textos anteriores.

1. En el texto expositivo el autor nos menciona los derechos humanos practicados por:
a. Algunos individuos b. La autoridad c. La sociedad

2. El texto descriptivo contiene:
a. 3 prrafos b. 6 prrafos c. 5 prrafos

3. En el texto expositivo el autor relaciona los derechos humanos con:
a. La actividad diaria b. La libertad c. La educacin6

4. En el texto cronolgico el autor menciona que la constitucin del ao______ establece
a todos libres y con iguales derechos.
a. 1776 b. 1789 c. 1791

5. En el texto descriptivo la idea del prrafo 4 es una.
a. definicin b. ejemplificacin c. comentario

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6. En el texto descriptivo el autor relaciona un ao con un pas y son:
a. Francia - 1791 b. Francia - 1789 c. Francia 1776

7. En el texto descriptivo el autor compara el derecho con la:
a. Libertad b. Independencia c. Proteccin

8. En el texto expositivo el autor considera que esta escuela naci en el siglo:
a. XVIII b. IXX c. Ambos

9. En el texto descriptivo el autor menciona que el derecho es protegido por:
a. La ley b. El juez c. Las personas

10. En el texto cronolgico el autor inicia el primer prrafo con:
a. Una opinin b. Ejemplos c. Una cita

A. Second School for interpretation of Human Rights Apart from Freedom:
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In addition to the previous school that relates the concept of human rights with
the concept of freedom. Another school emerged after the Second World War
in the terrain of human rights. This school rejected the notion to mix between
human rights and common freedoms. The proponents of this school believe
that freedom is the capability to do something or the ability to refrain from
doing something. That is to say, the individual is not subjected to act in
accordance with certain authoritative imperatives of state. This is why
freedoms are practiced by all people, but because they are practiced by vis--
vis the state.
Human rights are derived from the concept of right which is much wider than
freedom as it concludes freedom. There are certain rights, which cannot be said
or interpreted as freedoms necessarily include the right for doing something
(right to freedom).
The meaning of right, according to this school, is totally different from the
common meaning known to positivist. The advocates of this school believe that
right is the interest that is protected by law whether or not such right is
pertaining to the individual as human (i.e. for the sake of humanity or not).
There are rights established by law for individuals without being considered as
human rights.
Based on the forgoing premises, human rights on the forgoing premises, human
rights can be defined as rights that are to be recognized to the interest of the
individual for the simple for the simple fact of being a human being. They are
different from secular rights in the sense that they do not require legal
protection so that they can be claimed for.
The aforementioned review of the concept of human rights in Islamic law and
secular laws, it is clear from this that the concept of human rights in Islam is
specific and well-defined in the Quran and Sunnah. Whereas the concept of
human rights in the Western thought is subject to different schools of
interpretations which so far have not reached a consensus for a comprehensive
definition of human rights.

B. The Development of Human Rights in Secular Legislation:
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As for the evolution of human rights in the secular legislation, it could be
said that the concept of human rights in ancient societies was based on the
notion that right was for the might and force. Whoever is powerful used to
enjoin all the rights, while the weak were deprived of all rights in most of
the times. There was no protection for the individuals rights. Personal
freedom of other freedoms were neither known nor established. Slavery
was commonly practiced and socially stratum systems were the basis for
social structure. The people were enslaved, women were degraded, and
most of the rights were not recognized.

In the beginning of the thirteenth century (that corresponds to the seventh
century of hijra), the countries started to declare the human rights which
people are entitled to. In Britain, the Magna Charter was issued in 1215 as a
result of a popular revolution against the monarch. In 1628, the Magna
Charter was supplemented by another document, which was the bill of
rights in 1689. Another document, which was the Declaration of Rights
followed in 1701.

In 1776 the American independence was granted which included in its
principles the human rights such as the right of the individual to equality,
freedom, life, and happiness.

The American constitution was amended several times in respect of human
rights such as freedom of faith, sanctify of life, property and house;
freedom of litigation, prohibition of incrimination unless for proper and just
trial; prohibition of slavery, and the mandate of equality. These rights were
honored between 1789 and 1791. In France, The law of human rights and
citizen rights was enacted in 1789. It was followed by the constitution of
1791 that prescribed that people are born free and have equal rights; and
that the purpose of each state is to maintain the natural human rights that
cannot be ignored These rights included freedom, property, security,
opposition of repression, and that people are the source power. The
declaration also provided for the explanation of freedom of thought and
expression, freedom of private property, as well as the prohibition of
confiscation of private property except for public necessity and against fair
compensation in advance, i.e., that no one shall be confined, arrested or
accused except by due process of the law and that no trial shall be passed
except by a competent court of law. And that there shall be no charge of
conviction except for an offense defined and specified by a prior enacted

C. The Definition of Human Rights as Conceived by the First School:
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This is the European school for human rights. The proponents of this assert
that the concept of human rights is a new notion that covers what has been
known now as common entitlements of rights and freedoms.
This school of thought was established in Europe in the eighteenth century and
nineteenth century. It includes most of the contemporary European scholars of
European constitutional jurisprudence. From this school came out the
contemporary American thought of human rights. The proponents of this
school concede that human rights are common freedoms, i.e. entitlements that
are available for the choice of people without fear, deception, coercion or
threat. Human rights are specific entitlements of different types and spectrum
that are enacted by the legislature under certain conditions of thought so as to
be practiced by secular arrangement. Or, it is a position given to the
individual that it will allow him not to be prevented by the public authority to
practice certain acts. This means that the essence of human rights is the
commitment of the public authority to refrain from intervening with the
physical and moral activities of the individual. Freedom can also be interpreted
as the free acknowledgment of the individual without being subjected to any
external pressure or manipulation to determine his conduct by himself.
Based on the above definitions, we can determine the distinctive characteristics
of human rights as common freedoms in view of the notions proposed by those
scholars. According to this concept, human rights are related to the concept of

5. Identificar la organizacin de un prrafo
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El prrafo es un grupo de oraciones que hablan sobre una idea principal. Usualmente
un prrafo est dividido en tres partes:
a. Topic sentence: la primera oracin da a conocer la idea principal del prrafo.

b. Supporting Sentences : Las siguientes oraciones son las que desarrollan la idea
principal, dando detalles y ejemplos.

c. Cocluding sentence: Por lo regular es la ltima oracin del prrafo. Puede tener
varias funciones, puede resumir el prrafo, dar una solucin reafirmar la
primera oracin, o dar una opinin.

What is the topic of the sentence?
1. There is nothing like a commercial to ruin an evening's TV entertainment. Before a
show even starts, two or three commercials begin the viewing. Then, as the action
builds and tension mounts, another two or three minutes of ads break the mood. At
the end of the show, the announcer says, "We'll be right back," but it's just a trick to
get you to stay tuned for still more commercials. The program is really already over.

A. there is nothing
B. commercials
C. an evening's TV entertainment

1. The town where I grew up was so small we had more mules than people. It wasn't,
however, such a bad place to live. The acres and acres of open space and the crisp
country air are things that I will never forget. And the friendships that I made in those
early years will last forever, as will the countless memories. In spite of what some
people say about life in small towns, Grub Gulch is a place I'll always think back on

A. ? mules
B. ? memories
C. ? Grub Gulch
2. The shuttle Columbia marked the beginning of a new era in space. Early space
explorations involved short flights into orbit and eventually to the moon. However,
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scientists were more concerned about whether such flights could be done at all, than
about using space for new scientific research. The shuttle meant that a continuing link
to the world of space could be maintained, and eventually a space station could be
constructed. With the Columbia, humans were first able to examine the uses of space
itself for scientific purposes.

A. ? a new era in space
B. ? the shuttle Columbia
C. ? the beginning

3. It is not easy adjusting to the customs of the United States. For one thing, Americans
are very informal. For example, older people and even teachers expected me to use
their first name right away. Both the food and the meal times are different from home,
so I sometimes eat when I am not hungry. Finally, the language can be a real challenge,
especially when one asks for directions and is not understood.

A. ? the United States
B. ? Americans
C. ? adjusting to customs in the U.S.

4. Making bread is not difficult, and it gives the cook some exercise, too. The first step is
to soak the yeast in water with a little honey. Let it rest for 10-15 minutes. Then the
yeast mixture is added to flour and water and stirred, first with a spoon and then with
both hands until the dough is firm enough to knead on a floured board. Scoop the
mixture out of the bowl and let it rest for moment before kneading and folding over
and over. Put it back in the bowl with a damp cloth cover and let it rise for an hour or
two. After several kneadings and risings and kneading again, when arms and hands are
finally beginning to ache, the bread is baked until crusty and flavorful.

A. ? making bread
B. ? the cook
C. ? some exercise

Identify the topic sentence of each paragraph.

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1. (A) In Chinese families in new Hong Kong, both wife and husband usually work outside
the home. (B) Yet, they still preserve traditional roles within their family. (C) The wife
will usually see to the meals and cleaning, and the children are her special concern. (D)
In contrast, the husband makes the major decisions, such as what schools the children
will attend and what family investments should be made. (E) Thus, the Hong Kong
family combines both old and new in its lifestyle.

2. (A) I excitedly began my stay in Rome at an international airport. (B) However, my first
day in Italy was traumatic. (C) As I left the plane, I saw many signs in Italian, only a few
of which made sense. (D) I followed a mob to the Baggage Claim, and waited until the
carousel stopped, but I didn't see my luggage. (E) My bags had been mistakenly
delivered to the Lost and Found Office. (F) After hours of waiting, I got through
Customs, and I was really relieved to see my friend Angela, who took me to her home.

3. (A) When I was a kid, we used to make what we called "pie a la mud." (B) It wasn't a
complicated process, but nonetheless, it took patience and a keen sense of backyard
etiquette. (C) Mud, of course, was the main ingredient. (D) We carefully squashed the
mud into mom's pie pan and let it dry in the hot afternoon sun. (E) Once the texture
was acceptable, we carefully removed the marvelous cuisine and covered it with garlic
and salt and grade A gravel. (F) What an afternoon snack!


4. (A) George's nose made an impression that you never forgot. (B) I don't mean he stuck
it in the butter or the pudding, but considering how big it was, it's hard to see how he
didn't. (C) For George had a nose that made other noses look tiny and inadequate. (D)
His nose could have been a ship's prow. (E) When he ran, his nose ran interference. (F)
It parted the air and the indifference before him. (G) It was magnificent.

5. (A) Two days ago, I experienced one of the most terrible days of my life. (B) Early in
the morning my car wouldn't start, so I was late to work. (C) Later that day, around
lunch time, I lost my briefcase. (D) Then that evening at dinner, my dog decided to join
the Foreign Legion. (E) I think I'll move to the South Pole.

A. B. C. D. E.
A. B. C. D. E. F.
A. B. C. D. E. F.
A. B. C. D. E. F. G.
A. B. C. D. E.
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6. (A) All night, especially after our campfire went out, the stars brightened, packed
together, erupted in hard, bright light that was white and sometimes blue and even
red. (B) Finally toward dawn, the sky began to lose its stars. (C) Then the lip of the sky
paled. (D) Next the surrounding peaks of the mountains whitened and then dissoved
into roses. (E) At last, slowly, the sun goldened everything. (F) Dawn in the Sierras was
almost a religious experience.

7. (A) The food service on this campus is pretty terrible. (B) The cafeteria is always
crowded. (C) There is not much of a choice of food. (D) It's the same old eggs for
breakfast and hamburgers for lunch and dinner. (E) They never have rice dishes or
pasta. (F) Finally, and worst of all, everything tastes the same. (G) The soup tastes like
the potatoes, which taste like the cakes. (H) It's too bad there's nowhere else to eat on

8. (A) When I bought a car, I thought my problems in getting to school were over. (B)
However, the first thing I discovered was that a parking permit costs almost as much
as a year's bus fare. (C) Then I found out that I had to leave home 10 minutes earlier so
that I could find a parking place. (D) Next, my car broke down just when I had no
money to fix it, so I had to sell it at a loss. (E) Now I'm sure that buying a car doesn't
solve the problem of getting to school; instead, it only creates new problems.

6. Comprensin de lectura
A. B. C. D. E.
A. B. C. D. E.
A. B. C. D. E.
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Green taxes

Many serious threats to humanity's future (from climate change and ozone depletion to air
pollution and toxic contamination) arise largely from the economy's failure to value and
account for environmental damage. Because those causing the harm do not pay the full costs,
unsuspecting portions of society end up bearing them (often in unanticipated ways). People in
the United States, for example, annually incur tens of billions of dollars in damages from
unhealthy levels of air pollution, but car drivers pay nothing at the gas pump for their part in
this assault. Similarly, if farmers pay nothing for using nearby waterways to carry off pesticide
residues, they will use more of these chemicals than society would want, and rural people will
pay the price in contaminated drinking water.

Taxation is an efficient way to correct this shortcoming, and a powerful instrument for steering
economies toward better environmental health. By taxing products and activities that pollute,
deplete, or otherwise degrade natural systems, governments can ensure that environmental
costs are taken into account in private decisions (whether to commute by car or bicycle, for
example, or to generate electricity from coal or sunlight). If income or other taxes are reduced
to compensate, leaving the total tax burden the same, both the economy and the environment
can benefit.

Opinion polls show that a good share of the public thinks more should be spent on protecting
the environment, but most people abhor the idea of higher taxes. By shifting the tax base
away from income and toward environmentally damaging activities, governments can reflect
new priorities without increasing taxes overall.

So far, most governments trying to correct the market's failures have turned to regulations,
dictating specifically what measures must be taken to meet environmental goals. This
approach has improved the environment in many cases, and is especially important where
there is little room for error, such as in disposing of high-level radioactive waste or
safeguarding an endangered species. Taxes would be a complement to regulations, not a

Environmental taxes are appealing because they can help meet many goals efficiently. Each
individual producer or consumer decides how to adjust to the higher costs. A tax on air
emissions, for instance, would lead some factories to add pollution controls, others to change
their production processes, and still others to redesign products so as to generate less waste.
In contrast to regulations, environmental taxes preserve the strengths of the market. Indeed,
they are what economists call corrective taxes: they actually improve the functioning of the
market by adjusting prices to better reflect an activity's true cost.
Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones

In a minor form, environmental or so-called green taxes already exist in many countries. A
survey by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development turned up more than
50 environmental charges among 14 of its members, including levies on air and water
pollution, waste, and noise, as well as various product charges, such as fees on fertilizers and
batteries. In most cases, however, these tariffs have been set too low to motivate major
changes in behavior, and have been used instead to raise a modest amount of revenue for an
environmental program or other specific purpose. Norway's charge on fertilizers and
pesticides, for instance, raises funds for programs in sustainable agriculture (certainly a worthy
cause) but is too low to reduce greatly the amount of chemicals farmers use in the short term.

There are, however, some notable exceptions. In the United Kingdom, a higher tax on leaded
gasoline increased the market share of unleaded petrol from 4 percent in April 1989 to 30
percent in March 1990. And in late 1989, the U.S. Congress passed a tax on the sale of ozone-
depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in order, to hasten their phaseout, which the nation has
agreed to do by the end of the decade, and to capture the expected windfall profits as the
chemicals' prices rise. The most widely used CFCs are initially being taxed at $3.02 per kilogram
($ 1.37 per pound), roughly twice the current price; the tax will rise to $6.83 per kilogram by
1995 and to $10.80 per kilogram by 1999. During the first five years, this is expected to
generate $4.3 billion, which multiple effects (a carbon tax for example, would lower both
carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions by discouraging fossil fuel consumption) and because the
taxed activities will decline even before taxes are fully in place, revenues shown in the table
cannot be neatly totaled. But it seems likely that the eight levies listed here could raise on the
order of $ I30 billion per year, allowing personal income taxes to be reduced about 30 percent.

A team of researchers at the Umwelt und Prognose Institut (Environmental Assessment
Institute) in Heidelberg proposed a varied set of taxes for the former West Germany that
would have collectively raised more than 210 billion deutsche marks ($ 136 billion). The
researchers analyzed more than 30 possible "eco taxes," and determined tax levels that would
markedly shift consumption patterns for each item. In some cases, a doubling or tripling of
prices was needed to cut consumption substantially. Halving pesticide use, for example, would
require a tax on the order of 200 percent of current pesticide prices.

Selecciona la opcin correcta.
Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones
1. La valoracin y el registro incorrecto de los daos al medio ambiente
A. afecta por igual a los distintos sectores de la sociedad.
B. hace surgir serias amenazas en relacin al futuro de la vida humana.
C. provoca que todos los sectores de la sociedad paguen los costos.
2. Los gobiernos pueden influir en la toma de decisiones de los ciudadanos con respecto
al medio ambiente a travs de
A. gravar actividades y productos que contaminan y acaban con los recursos
B. la utilizacin de sus economas como un poderoso instrumento para corregir
las deficiencias.
C. la utilizacin, por ejemplo, de la luz solar en vez de carbn para generar
3. Las encuestas de opinin muestran que
A. la gente pagara con gusto ms impuestos para proteger el medio ambiente.
B. la gente piensa que debe gastarse ms para proteger el medio ambiente.
C. una minora piensa que no deben aumentarse los impuestos para proteger el
medio ambiente.
4. Muchos gobiernos consideran que
A. que la proteccin del medio ambiente debe estar regulada.
B. los impuestos ecolgicos pueden sustituir las leyes actuales.
C. los fracasos del mercado econmico han llevado a leyes ms estrictas.
5. Los impuestos ecolgicos
A. impondrn cambios en todos los procesos de produccin.
B. regularn las fuerzas del mercado.
C. son considerados como impuestos correctivos.

Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones
6. La Organizacin para el Desarrollo y la Cooperacin Econmica public un estudio en
el que informa que
A. cada uno de sus 14 miembros ha establecido ms de 50 impuestos verdes.
B. 14 de sus miembros han establecido ms de 50 impuestos ecolgicos.
C. los 50 impuestos ecolgicos que existen en muchos pases se han establecido
entre 14 de sus miembros.
7. El ejemplo de Noruega muestra que el impuesto sobre fertilizantes y pesticidas que
recoge este pas
A. se utiliza para programas de agricultura sostenible.
B. ha reducido la cantidad de substancias qumicas utilizadas.
C. es muy alto y se dedica a una causa encomiable.
8. En los Estados Unidos en 1989 el impuesto aplicado a la venta de los
cloroflorocarbonos se aument
A. aproximadamente al doble de su precio.
B. un poco ms de cuatro veces en relacin a su precio.
C. aproximadamente siete veces en relacin a su precio.
9. Un grupo de investigadores del Instituto de Evaluacin Medioambiental de Heidelberg
A. propuso que el aumento a los impuestos fuera sobre los diferentes artculos
B. se ha propuesto incrementar los impuestos de la ex Alemania Oriental en 136
billones de dlares.
C. propuso impuestos que a la larga modificaran los patrones de consumo de la
ex Alemania Oriental.
10. En relacin al consumo de pesticidas, el artculo dice que
A. fue necesario triplicar los precios para reducir a la mitad el uso de stos.
B. se requerira el aumento del impuesto en 200% para reducir a la mitad el uso
de stos.
C. es necesario duplicar o triplicar su precio para eliminar su utilizacin.

Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones
Camping Trips
There are several opportunities and options for camping throughout the United
States and several different types of camping to choose from. The type of camping
you choose depends on your interests and yourlevel of experience. The different
options include car camping at full facility campgrounds, backcountry camping
with limited facilities, and wilderness camping with no facilities at all and you must
carry out everything you carry in. Many of the U.S. national parks with campgrounds
that accept reservations are part of the National Park Reservation Service. The
official site for the National Park Service where you can make reservations is:
If you prefer backcountry camping, the website offers complete
information and reservations. If you are going camping at a campground, here are
some things to consider and questions to ask when making reservations:
What facilities are available, such as water and power hookups, bathrooms,
showers, picnic tables, and grills.
What is the maximum number of people and vehicles permitted per campsite?
Is there a limit on the number of days or consecutive days you can camp at a park?
Are there other restrictions on length of stay?
What are the restrictions regarding pets in the campground?
Whatever type of camping you choose, please help preserve the beauty of the great
outdoors for yourself and generations to come by camping responsibly.

Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones

1. Cules son los tres tipos de campamento disponibles en los parques nacionales?

2. Si usted est planeando un viaje de campamento, qu debera hacer primero?

3. Cuando deja un campamento estadounidense, qu debe recordar para las
g generaciones futuras?

Maestra - Ingls I

Universidad de las Naciones
1. Arman, Louann. Leech, Patrick. Murria, Janet. Reading Skills for the Social Sciences
Oxford University Press. 1988

2. Alvarez, Guadalupe; Williamson, Marcela. English for law. Centro de Enseanza de
Lenguas Extranjeras. Universidad Autnoma de Mxico. Mexico DF, 1996

3. Chall, J. S., Jacobs, V. A., & Baldwin, L. E. (1990). The reading crisis: Why poor children
fall behind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

4. Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

5. Grellet, F Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge University Press. 2001

6. Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. F. (2001). Reading, writing, and learning in esl: A resource
book for k-12 teachers. New York: Longman.

7. Reutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R. D., Jr. (2007). Strategies for reading assessment and
instruction: Helping every child succeed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

8. Vacca, J. L., Vocca, R. T., Gove, M. K., Burkey, L., Lenhart, L. A., & McKeon, C. (2003).
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10. Yopp, R. H., & Yopp, H. K. (2006). Informational texts as read-alouds at school and
home. Journal of Literacy Research, 38(1), 37-51.

11. International & Comparative Law Quarterly (1986), 35 : 271-301 Cambridge University
Press doi:10.1093/iclqaj/35.2.271
Published online by Cambridge University Press 17 Jan 2008