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Science Field Trip

Electrical
Circuits
A Virtual Tour of Winter
Festival of Lights Celebrations

A Lesson on Recognizing Electrical


Hazards in Everyday Life
from the Electrical Circuits Module

www.sciencecompanion.com
Science Companion Field Trips
A “Science in Real Life” Series
Come on a virtual field trip matching
module sample lessons with current events!
Lights, Lights, Bring on the Lights!
The Winter Solstice
comes every December
21st or 22nd. It occurs
when the Earth’s
northern hemisphere is
tilted on its axis farthest
away from the sun. (This
tilt is what causes days
, 2 0 0 9
ber21
to get shorter; the Earth

Decem
actually closer to the
sun in the winter.) The
actual Solstice lasts
only an instant!

Right after the


Solstice, the
days begin to
get longer
again. But
because the days are still so short, we
have to make our own light this time
of the year.

And for thousands of years, people


have celebrated light during this
darkest part of the year.
A few celebrations...

A marvelous
dragon of light
in a
Chinese
New Year Festival
parade.

C h i n a

Lamps from
a Diwali Festival
of Light
India

Christmas lights on a
house in Pennsylvania.

Do you have lights at your house this winter?


Turn the page to for a great lesson on electricity and safety!
Levels 3-5

Science Companion ®

Electrical Circuits
Teacher Lesson Manual
Developers
Belinda Basca, Colleen Bell, Diane Bell, Annie Holdren, and Lauren Satterly

Editors
Wanda Gayle and David Sherman

Art, Graphics, and Production


Lineworks, Inc.; Picas & Points, Plus (Carolyn Loxton)

Pedagogy and Content Advisors


Jean Bell, Max Bell, Kim Copeland*, Cindy Buchenroth-Martin, Fabian Pease*, David Sherman, and Robert
Ward
* Indicates a scientist or science educator who contributed advice or expertise, but who is not part of the Chicago
Science Group. Ultimately, responsibility for what is included or omitted from our material rests with the Chicago
Science Group.

www.sciencecompanion.com

2009 Edition

Copyright © 2006 Chicago Science Group.

All Rights Reserved.

Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part
of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or
retrieval system without prior written permission of the publisher.

SCIENCE COMPANION®, EXPLORAGEAR®, the CROSSHATCH Design™, and the WHEEL Design® are trademarks of
Chicago Science Group and Chicago Educational Publishing.

ISBN 1-59192-305-0

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
Table of Contents
Welcome to Science Companion
Philosophy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Cross-Curricular Integration and Flexible Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Unit Overview
Lessons at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Unit Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Preparing for the Unit


Electrical Circuits Science Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Science Library and Web Links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Before You Begin Teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Lessons
1 Discovering What Happens
When Something Is Electrically Charged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2 Exploring Static Electricity Further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3 Discovering How to Light a Bulb* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4 Making More Light Connections* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5 Making More Effects with Electric Current*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6 Identifying Conductors and Insulators*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7 Recognizing Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

* Indicates a core lesson

Teacher Background Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Standards and Benchmarks


Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Benchmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Materials
Classroom Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
ExploraGear Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Teacher Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS | Table of Contents | 


Philosophy
Scie nce C ompa nio n
W elcome to

Almost anyone who has spent time with children is struck by the
tremendous energy they expend exploring their world. They ask
“why” and “how.” They want to see and touch. They use their minds
and senses to explore the things they encounter and wonder
about. In other words, children are already equipped with the basic
qualities that make a good scientist.

The goal of the Science Companion curriculum is to respond to


and nourish children’s scientific dispositions by actively engaging
their interests and enhancing their powers of inquiry, observation,
and reflection. Learning by doing is central to this program.

Each Science Companion lesson incorporates interesting and


relevant scientific content, as well as science values, attitudes,
and skills that children in the elementary grades should begin
to develop. These “habits of mind,” along with science content
knowledge, are crucial for building science literacy and they are an
integral part of the Science Companion program. Be aware of them
and reinforce them as you work with children. With experience,
children will develop the ways they demonstrate and use the
following scientific habits of mind.

Habits of Mind
Wondering and thinking about the natural and physical world
Children’s curiosity is valued, respected, and nurtured. Their
questions and theories about the world around them are
important in setting direction and pace for the curriculum.
Children are encouraged to revise and refine their questions and
ideas as they gain additional information through a variety of
sources and experiences.

Seeking answers through exploration and investigation


Children actively seek information and answers to their questions
by trying things out and making observations. They continually
revise their understanding based on their experiences. Through
these investigations, children learn firsthand about the “scientific
method.” They also see that taking risks and making mistakes are
an important part of science and of learning in general.

Pursuing ideas in depth


Children have the opportunity to pursue ideas and topics fully,
revisiting them and making connections to other subjects and
other areas in their lives.

 | ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS | Philosophy


Observing carefully

Scie nce C ompa nio n


Children are encouraged to attend to details. They are taught to

W elcome to
observe with multiple senses and from a variety of perspectives.
They use tools, such as magnifying lenses, balance scales, rulers, and
clocks, to enhance their observations. Children use their developing
mathematics and literacy skills to describe, communicate, and record
their observations in age-appropriate ways.

Communicating clearly
Children are asked to describe their observations and articulate
their thinking and ideas using a variety of communication tools,
including speaking, writing, and drawing. They learn that record
keeping is a valuable form of communication for oneself and
others. Children experience how working carefully improves one’s
ability to use one’s work as a tool for communication.

Collaborating and sharing


Children come to know that their ideas, questions, observations,
and work have value. At the same time, they learn that listening
is vitally important, and that exchanging ideas with one another
builds knowledge and enhances understanding. Children discover
that they can gain more knowledge as a group than as individuals,
and that detailed observations and good ideas emerge from
collaboration.

Developing critical response skills


Children ask, “How do you know?” when appropriate, and are
encouraged to attempt to answer when this question is asked of
them. This habit helps develop the critical response skills needed
by every scientist.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS | Philosophy | 


E L E C T R I C al circuits
C luster 2
C u rre n t E lectricity

Lesson
7 Recognizing
Electrical Hazards in
Everyday Life
A Quick Look

Big Idea Overview


Some materials allow
In this final lesson of the Electrical Circuits Unit, students extend
electrical current to flow
their understanding of conductors and insulators by identifying
more easily than others. It is
potential electrical hazards, discussing what makes the illustrated
important to avoid electrical
situations hazardous, and thinking about what precautions they
hazards by using electricity
can take to prevent electrical hazards.
safely.

Process Skills Key Note


• Communicating • For more information about the science content in this lesson,
• Observing see the “Putting Current Electricity to Work” section of the
Teacher Background Information on page 122.
• Explaining

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102 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


Standards and Benchmarks
Lesson
7
Notes
By examining illustrations of electrical hazards, students
consider materials that conduct electric current. This furthers
their understanding of Physical Science Standard B (Light, Heat,
Electricity, and Magnetism): “Electrical circuits require a complete
loop through which an electrical current can pass.”
The students’ experiences in this lesson also provide exposure to
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Standard F (Personal
Health, Grades 5-8): “The potential for accidents and the existence
of hazards imposes the need for injury prevention. Safe living
involves the development and use of safety precautions and the
recognition of risk in personal decisions.”

Lesson Goals
• Recognize the applications of conductors and insulators in
everyday life.
• Identify electrical hazards in everyday life.
• Strategize ways to prevent electrical hazards.

Assessment Options
• Throughout this lesson, listen to students’ ideas and questions
about electrical safety in relation to conductors and insulators.
Their ideas and questions can be used as an assessment of their
understanding of criteria C-D on Assessment 2.
• This is the last lesson of the Electrical Circuits Unit, so it is
a good opportunity to assess the children’s understanding
of electricity. See the Electrical Circuits Assessment Book for
summative assessments of the concepts and skills presented in
this unit.

Teacher Master 3, Assessment 2

Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 103


Materials
Item Quantity Notes
Classroom Supplies
Overhead projector 1 To display overhead transparencies.
Curriculum Items
Overhead Transparency “Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor”
Overhead Transparency “Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor”
Electrical Circuits Science Notebook, pages 20-23
Electrical Circuits Assessment 2 “Current Electricity” (optional)
Family Link Home Activity “Is Your Home Safe?” (optional)

Preparation
Notes q Set up the overhead projector.
q Copy the Family Link Home Activity “Is Your Home Safe?” for
each child to take home.

Vocabulary
electrocute. . . . . . . . . To be seriously injured or killed by
electric current.
hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . A possible source of danger.
short circuit. . . . . . . . A circuit with an easy path for the current
that bypasses the rest of the circuit. This
allows too much current to flow and
produces so much heat that it may cause
a fire.

Teaching the Lesson


Engage
Introductory Discussion
1. Review which materials made the best conductors and
insulators. Some of these questions could help students
remember what they learned in Lesson 6 and introduce
today’s topic:
• Which materials made the best conductors? (Metals.
Students may also mention liquids such as salt water or
lemon juice.)

104 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


• Which materials made the best insulators? (Glass, rubber,
wood, or plastic)
Notes
• Are some objects made of both conductors and
insulators? Give some examples. (Light bulbs and extension
cords)

• Are humans conductors or insulators of electric current?


(Answers may vary. In general, humans are poor conductors.)
Use the students’ responses
Why? (Humans contain lots of water and salt, which conduct
to these questions as an
electric current, but humans only conduct strong electricity,
assessment of how well they
like current from the power outlets in a house or power lines.)
understand conductors and
2. Introduce the concept of electrical hazards to the students. insulators.
Remind students that a hazard is a possible source of danger.
Solicit additional ideas from the following questions:
• How dangerous do they think the electricity they used in
their battery and bulbs circuits was? (In general, not very
dangerous because the electric current was not very strong.)
• How dangerous do they think the electricity in power
lines, outlets inside of buildings, and other sources of high
electric current are? (Very dangerous, because the electric
current in them is extremely strong.)

3. Discuss conductors and insulators in relation to electrical


hazards:
• Why do they need to be careful when using electricity?
(Humans are made up of water, which is a conductor of
electricity. If a strong electric current flows through them,
they could get seriously hurt.) Introduce the term electrocute
as being seriously injured or killed by electric current.

• What precautions do they think utility workers take when


they work on power lines? (They wear insulators such as
special insulated boots, hardhats, and gloves to protect
themselves.)

4. Point out that there are two different types of dangers


associated with electricity: (1) electricity flowing through a
person, and (2) having so much electric current that things
heat up and cause fires (often caused by a short circuit).
5. Explain that today they will be using their knowledge of
conductors and insulators to identify indoor and outdoor
electrical hazards.

Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 105


Explore
Notes
Recognizing Electrical Hazards
Working in pairs, students identify and describe indoor and
outdoor electrical hazards from two illustrations in their science
notebooks.

1. Partner the students with one another.


2. Instruct the students to open their science notebooks to
pages 20 and 22.
3. Tell the class that while working with their partner, they
need to identify as many electrical hazards as they can from
the two illustrations. As they do so, they should explain why
they think the scene is hazardous and what can be done to
prevent the hazard by completing science notebook pages
21 and 23.

Science Notebook pages 20-23

106 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


Reflect and Discuss
Notes
Sharing
Display the Overhead Transparencies “Find the Electrical
Hazards—Indoor” and “Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor.” Big Idea
Have the class share which electrical hazards they identified in
Some materials allow
the illustrations, why they think they are hazardous, and what
electrical current to flow
could prevent those types of hazards. See the table below for
more easily than others. It is
possible discussion items:
important to avoid electrical
Electrical Hazard Why do you What do you hazards by using electricity
think it is think can be safely.
hazardous? done to prevent
the hazard?
Extension cord has too Plugging too many Do not plug too
many cords plugged things into one many things into
into it extension cord is one extension cord,
dangerous. This especially items
could make the that require a lot of
electric appliances or electricity such as a
the extension cord hair dryer or an electric
overheat, and possibly heater.
start a fire.
Using the hairdryer in Since water and Never use electrical
the bathtub humans are appliances where they
conductors of could fall into water.
electricity, accidentally
dropping the hairdryer
in the bathtub could
cause the child to be
electrocuted. Overhead Transparency:
“Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor”
Baby putting fingers Electrical outlets Make sure all electrical
into electrical outlet carry very strong and outlets have baby-
dangerous amounts of proof covers or safety
electric current. caps on them.
Using a fork to pry A metal fork is a Never put any type
something out of the conductor of electric of object (especially
toaster current, so using metal) into an electric
one in an electrical appliance. Always
appliance might hurt unplug toasters before
the man. trying to get anything
out of them.
Pulling on the If the boy pulls on Always grasp the plug,
extension cord the middle of the not the cord, to unplug
cord rather than the an appliance cord from
solid plug, he might an outlet.
damage the wires
inside and make them
break, causing a short
circuit and perhaps a
fire.
(continued on next page)

Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 107


(continued from previous page)

Notes Electrical Hazard Why do you What do you


think it is think can be
hazardous? done to prevent
the hazard?
Playing in the tree with The electricity from Never climb trees
a power line running the power line is very that have power lines
through it dangerous. running through them.
Flying the kite near a If the kite gets tangled Never fly kites near
power line in the power line, the power lines.
electricity from the
power line could travel
down the kite string
and electrocute the
girl.
Electrical cord resting Water is an excellent Keep extension cords
in the pool of water conductor of away from water.
electricity. The
electricity from the
Overhead Transparency: cord may travel
“Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor” through the water,
making it dangerous
for anyone who
touches the water. It
may also cause a short
circuit and possibly a
fire.
Girl climbing the fence Any type of electric Never play near or on
near substation unit might carry electrical units.
dangerous amounts of
electricity, especially
if there is a warning
about “high voltage”.
Boy standing on top of Any type of electric Never play near or on
the utility box unit might carry electrical units.
dangerous amounts of
electricity.

Synthesizing
1. Review again the two different types of dangers associated
with electricity: (1) electricity flowing through a person, and
(2) having so much electric current that electrical appliances
or extension cords heat up and cause fires (often caused by
a short circuit). Display the overhead transparencies again
and have the class differentiate which type of danger each
electrical hazard was associated with. (In general, all of the
hazards in the illustrations deal with electricity flowing through
a person, except for the example of too many cords in one
extension cord and the dangers of a short circuit.)

108 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


2. Point out that seeing the words “High Voltage” near anything
is an indication of great danger, so they should stay away
from it. The girl in the illustration should not be climbing or
Notes
playing anywhere near a sign that warns of high voltage; she
is putting herself in a life-threatening situation.
3. Generate a list of precautions the class should follow to
prevent electrical hazards. Preventive rules might include:
• Never use electrical appliances near water.

• Never play near power lines or other electrical units.

• Never plug too many cords into one extension cord.

• Do not pull on cords.

• Always unplug electrical appliances (such as a toaster) if


something gets stuck in them and you are going to try to
remove it.

• Always stay away from areas with signs warning of high


voltage.

Ongoing Learning
Science Center Materials: Poster board,
Place a variety of materials in the Science Center for students to markers, colored pencils,
rulers
create Electrical Safety posters to display in either the classroom
or around their school.

Family Link
Distribute the Family Link Home Activity “Is Your Home Safe?”
In this link the children do a home inspection with a parent or
another adult to look for possible electrical hazards.

Teacher Master 7, Family Link

Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 109


Extending the Lesson
Notes
Language Arts Extension
The Shocking Truth
Have the students query friends and family to find whether
anyone they know has ever had a shock from electric current.
Interview the person as a journalist would and have the student
tell the story to the class. Possible questions might include:

• Who was involved?


• What happened?
• Where did the incident happen?
• When did it happen?
• How could it have been avoided?
• How has the person’s behavior around electricity changed
since the incident?

110 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


Overhead Transparency: Overhead Transparency:
“Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor” “Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor”

Science Notebook page 20 Science Notebook page 21

Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 111


Science Notebook page 22 Science Notebook page 23

Teacher Master 3, Assessment 2 Teacher Master 7, Family Link

112 | Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life


Electrical Circuits | Lesson 7 | Electrical Hazards in Everyday Life | 113
Electrical Circuits Unit
Teacher Masters/Visual Pack:
Table of Contents
Introductory Letter to Families
Welcome to the Electrical Circuits Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Assessments
Electrical Circuits Assessment 1: Static Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Electrical Circuits Assessment 2: Current Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Electrical Circuits Assessment 3: Observing and Describing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Electrical Circuits Assessment 4: Predicting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Family Links
Batteries (Lessons 3, 4, and 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Is Your Home Safe? (Lesson 7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Overhead Transparencies
Bulb and Battery Circuit (Lesson 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Inside a Light Bulb (Lessons 4 and 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Inside an Extension Cord (Lessons 4 and 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Identifying Conductors and Insulators (Lesson 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

ISBN: 1-59192-307-7
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-P001-17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08

2009 Edition. Copyright © 2006 Chicago Science Group. All Rights Reserved.
Electrical Circuits Assessment 2: Current Electricity
As you evaluate students’ discussions and work, determine how well they understand the
following:
Assessment Criteria:
A. For an electric B. The flow of C. Some materials D. It is important
current to flow, electric current allow electric to avoid electrical
there must be a can produce current to flow hazards by using
complete path light, heat, more easily than electricity safely.
or loop for it to sound, motion, or others.
follow around a magnetic effects.
circuit and return
Students’ Names to its source.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Assessment 2: Current Electricity Electrical Circuits Teacher Master 
Name: Date:

Family Link with Science—Home Activity

Is Your Home Safe?


You have been studying how to avoid electrical hazards by using electricity safely.
With a parent or another adult, use the checklist below to survey your own home. If
you find any hazards, circle, “needs fixing” and then ask an adult to have them fixed.

Electrical outlets are not overloaded with lots of True or Needs Fixing
plugs.

Electric cords are in good condition. True or Needs Fixing

Electric cords do not run under rugs or furniture True or Needs Fixing
legs or near hot appliances.

Electric appliances are used away from water. True or Needs Fixing

People carry appliances by the handle, not the True or Needs Fixing
cord.

A multipurpose fire extinguisher is kept in the True or Needs Fixing


house.

All danger and warning signs are read and True or Needs Fixing
carefully followed.

Electric appliances that can get hot—such as True or Needs Fixing


heaters, toasters, and light bulbs—are kept away
from things that can burn.

Safety caps are inserted in outlets when small True or Needs Fixing
children are around.

Small appliances are turned off and/or unplugged True or Needs Fixing
when people leave home.

All extension cords, lights, and appliances used True or Needs Fixing
outdoors are labeled for outdoor use.

This activity is optional.

Family Link: Is Your Home Safe? (Lesson 7) Electrical Circuits Teacher Master 
Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

Overhead Transparency: Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7) Electrical Circuits Visual 12
Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

Overhead Transparency: Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7) Electrical Circuits Visual 13
Table of Contents
SECTION ONE: ASSESSMENT BOOK
Introduction to Assessments
Assessment Philosophy.........................................................................5
Assessment Materials............................................................................9

Content Rubrics and Opportunities Overviews


Static Electricity Rubric 1.....................................................................18
Static Electricity Opportunities Overview.............................................19
Current Electricity Rubric 2..................................................................20
Current Electricity Opportunities Overview..........................................21

Skills and Attitudes Checklists and Self-Assessments


Observing and Describing: Checklist...................................................24
Observing and Describing: Self-Assessment.......................................25
Predicting: Checklist............................................................................26

Performance Tasks and Evaluation Guidelines


Static Electricity Cluster (Lessons 1-2):
The Hat and the Hair...................................................................28
Current Electricity Cluster (Lessons 3-7):
Light a Bulb..................................................................................29
Trace the Electric Current............................................................30
What Use is Electricity?...............................................................31
Conductors and Insulators..........................................................32
Design Safe Gloves for an Electrician.........................................33
Electrical Safety...........................................................................34

Quick Check Items and Answer Keys


Static Electricity Cluster (Lessons 1-2)................................................36
Current Electricity Cluster (Lessons 3-7).............................................38

Electrical Circuits | TABLE OF CONTENTS | 


Rubric 2: Current Electricity
Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D
(Lessons 3—5) (Lessons 3—5) (Lessons 6, 7) (Lesson 7)
For an electric The flow of Some materials It is important to
current to flow, electric current allow electric avoid electrical
there must be a can produce current to flow hazards by using
complete path light, heat, more easily than electricity safely.
or loop for it to sound, motion, or others.
follow around a magnetic effects.
circuit and return
to its source.
4 - Exceeds Understands at a Understands at a Understands at Understands at
Expectations secure level (see secure level (see a secure level a secure level
box below) and box below) and (see box below) (see box below)
Explores content shows interest recognizes that and applies and applies
beyond the level in exploring they are energy knowledge knowledge of
presented in the different circuit transfers. to situations electrical hazards
lessons. configurations. involving in their own
electrical safety. environment.

3 - Secure Recognizes Understands Understands that Recognizes


(Meets that electric that the flow of some materials electrical
Expectations) current travels electric current conduct electric hazards and can
only through a can produce current more articulate the
Understands complete loop light, heat, easily than reasons why they
content at the and returns to its sound, motion, or others. are hazards in
level presented source. magnetic effects. terms of safe
in the lessons. electricity usage.

2 - Developing Has an Has an Understands that Recognizes a


(Approaches incomplete incomplete wires conduct few electrical
Expectations) understanding understanding electric current, hazards, but does
of how electric that electric but might be not recognize
Shows an current travels. current can skeptical of most of them.
increasing For example, produce light, energy transfer
competency with might recognize heat, sound, through common
lesson content. that there is a motion, or objects, or might
loop, but might magnetic effects. not understand
believe that For example, that some
electricity flows might recognize materials are
out two ways that electric insulators.
from the source current can
and not back to produce light,
it. but does not
realize that it
can produce
sound.
1 - Beginning Does not Does not Does not Does not
understand recognize that understand that recognize
Has no previous how an electric electrical energy some materials electrical
knowledge of current travels. can produce conduct electric hazards.
lesson content. For example, light, heat, current more
might believe sound, motion, or easily than
that electricity magnetic effects. others.
flows one way
from a battery to
a bulb to make
the bulb light up.

20 | Electrical Circuits | CONTENT RUBRICS OPPORTUNITIES OVERVIEWS


Opportunities Overview: Current Electricity
This table highlights opportunities to assess the criteria on Rubric 2: Current
Electricity. It does not include every assessment opportunity; feel free to
select or devise other ways to assess various criteria.

Criterion A Criterion B Criterion C Criterion D


(Lessons 3-5) (Lessons 3-5) (Lessons 6, 7) (Lesson 7)
Lesson 3: Lesson 3: Lesson 6: Lesson 7:
- Introductory - Exploration - Reflective - Reflective
Pre and Formative Opportunities

discussion Lesson 4: discussion discussion


- Exploration - Exploration - Science notebook - Science notebook
- Reflective Lesson 5: pages 15-19 pages 20-23
discussion - Reflective Lesson 7:
- Science notebook discussion - Introductory
pages 6-9 - Science notebook discussion
Lesson 4: pages 12-14
- Exploration
- Reflective
discussion
- Science notebook
pages 10-11
Lesson 5:
- Introductory
discussion
- Exploration
Performance Tasks
Current Electricity Current Electricity Current Electricity Current Electricity
Cluster Cluster Cluster Cluster
Summative Opportunities

Light a Bulb, Light a Bulb, Conductors and Electrical Safety,


page 29 page 29 Insulators, page 34
Trace the Electric What Use is page 32
Current, page 30 Electricity, Design Safe
page 31 Gloves for an
Electrician, page
33
Electrical Safety,
page 34
Quick Check Items
Current Electricity Current Electricity Current Electricity Current Electricity
Cluster Cluster Cluster Cluster
Page 38, items 1-4 Page 39, item 5 Page 39, item 6 Page 39, items 7-8

Electrical Circuits | CONTENT RUBRICS OPPORTUNITIES OVERVIEWS | 21


Electrical Safety
Current Electricity Cluster (Lessons 6-7)

You’re playing a game with your friend Dev when you notice your young
sister Amy crawling towards an electric outlet. She has a metal spoon in
her hand. Your friend Dev tells you not to worry. He tells you that it is
safe for Amy to put the spoon in the outlet. Do you agree or disagree?
Why?

Teacher Note:

Use this assessment after teaching Lesson 7.

Evaluation Guidelines:

When evaluating student answers, consider whether they include the following
elements in their written explanations:

• A metal spoon is a conductor of electric current.

• It is an electrical hazard for a child to put an object such as a metal spoon into an
electric outlet.

• Electric outlets carry large amounts of electric current.

• Amy is a conductor of electric current.

• Advanced responses might note that the metal spoon should be taken away from
Amy immediately and an adult should cover all electric outlets with baby-proof
covers.

34 | Electrical Circuits | Performance Task Evaluation Guidelines


5. (Lesson 5) Put an X next to any effect that electric current can
produce.
_____X____ sound
_____X____ motion
_____X____ light
_____X____ heat
_____X____ magnetism

6. (Lesson 6) Which of the following objects would make a good


conductor of electric current?
a. copper wire
b. silver spoon
c. iron nail
d. all of the above

7. (Lesson 7) Which of the following statements about electrical safety


is FALSE?
a. Never set a radio on the edge of a bathtub while you are taking a
bath.
b. Use baby-proof covers on electrical outlets if you have young
children at home.
c. Use a metal fork if a bagel gets stuck in your toaster.
d. Never fly a kite near a power line.

8. (Lesson 7) True or False? If false, rewrite the statement to make it


true.
Human beings can conduct electric current. ___________ True

Electrical Circuits | QUICK CHECK ANSWER KEYS | 39


Name _________________________________ Date____________________________

Electrical Safety

You’re playing a game with your friend Dev when you notice your young
sister Amy crawling towards an electric outlet. She has a metal spoon in
her hand. Your friend Dev tells you not to worry. He tells you that it is
safe for Amy to put the spoon in the outlet. Do you agree or disagree?
Why?

Electrical Circuits | ASSESSMENT MASTERS | 49


5. Put an X next to any effect that electric current can produce.
__________ sound
__________ motion
__________ light
__________ heat
__________ magnetism

6. Which of the following objects would make a good conductor of


electric current?
a. copper wire
b. silver spoon
c. iron nail
d. all of the above

7. Which of the following statements about electrical safety is FALSE?


a. Never set a radio on the edge of a bathtub while you are taking a
bath.
b. Use baby-proof covers on electrical outlets if you have young
children at home.
c. Use a metal fork if a bagel gets stuck in your toaster.
d. Never fly a kite near a power line.

8. True or False? If false, rewrite the statement to make it true.


Human beings can conduct electric current. ___________

Electrical Circuits | ASSESSMENT MASTERS | 51


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor

Identify as many electrical hazards as you can on the picture below. Then complete the table on
the following page.

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

20 Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7)


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor


Possible responses include:

What do you think can


Why do you think it is be done to prevent the
Electrical Hazard hazardous? hazard?
Extension cord has too many Plugging too many things into Do not plug too many things
cords plugged into it one extension cord could make into one extension cord,
the electric appliances or the especially items that require a
extension cord overheat, and lot of electricity such as a hair
possibly start a fire. dryer or an electric heater.

Using the hairdryer in the Since water and humans are Never use electrical appliances
bathtub conductors of electricity, where they could fall into water.
accidentally dropping the
hairdryer in the bathtub
could cause the child to be
electrocuted.

Baby putting fingers into Electrical outlets carry very Make sure all electrical outlets
electrical outlet strong and dangerous amounts have baby-proof covers or
of electric current. safety caps on them.

Using a fork to pry something A metal fork is a conductor of Never put any type of object
out of the toaster electric current, so using one in (especially metal) into an electric
an electrical appliance might appliance. Always unplug
hurt the man. toasters before trying to get
anything out of them.

Pulling on the extension cord If the boy pulls on middle of the Always grasp the plug, not the
cord rather than the solid plug, cord, to unplug an appliance
he might damage the wires cord from an outlet.
inside and make them break,
causing a short circuit and
perhaps a fire.

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7) 21


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor

Identify as many electrical hazards as you can on the picture below. Then complete the table on
the following page.

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

22 Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7)


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor


Possible responses include:

What do you think


Why do you think it is can be done to prevent
Electrical Hazard hazardous? the hazard?
Playing in the tree with a power The electricity from the power Never climb trees that have
line running through it line is very dangerous. power lines running through
them.

Flying the kite near a power line If the kite gets tangled in the Never fly kites near power lines.
power line, the electricity
from the power line could
travel down the kite string and
electrocute the girl.

Electrical cord resting in the Water is an excellent conductor Keep extension cords away from
pool of water of electricity. The electricity from water.
the cord may travel through the
water, making it dangerous for
anyone who touches the water. It
may also cause a short circuit and
possibly a fire.
Girl climbing the fence near Any type of electric unit might Never play near or on electrical
substation carry dangerous amounts of units.
electricity, especially if there is a
warning about “high voltage”.

Boy standing on top of the Any type of electric unit might Never play near or on electrical
utility box carry dangerous amounts of units.
electricity.

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7) 23


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor

Identify as many electrical hazards as you can on the picture below. Then complete the table on
the following page.

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

20 Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7)


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor

What do you think can


Why do you think it is be done to prevent the
Electrical Hazard hazardous? hazard?

Find the Electrical Hazards—Indoor (Lesson 7) 21


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor

Identify as many electrical hazards as you can on the picture below. Then complete the table on
the following page.

Used with the permission of Alliant Energy®

22 Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7)


Date:

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor

What do you think


Why do you think it is can be done to prevent
Electrical Hazard hazardous? the hazard?

Find the Electrical Hazards—Outdoor (Lesson 7) 23


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