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# Training on

Industrial
Hydraulics
NFI Industrial Automation
Training Academy
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What Does Hydraulics means?
Consist of two words
Hydro Water
Aulus - Pipe
Work done by fluid in pipes
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Hydraulics in Day to Day Life
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Father of Hydraulics?
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William George
Armstrong
(1810 1900)
First Barron
Armstrong
Joseph Bramah
(1748 - 1814)
Invented Power
Press
Bramah Press
Law of Hydraulics
Pascals Law
- Bernoulli Principle
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1

C
m
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
1Cm
2
10 Cm
2
100 kg
10
kg
1
0

C
m
ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED.
WHAT IS GAINED BY FORCE IS SACRIFICED IN THE
DISTANCE MOVED.
WORK DONE = FORCE x DISTANCE MOVED
W = F x d
W = F x d
= 10 Kg x 10 Cm
= 100 Kg-Cm
W = F x d
= 100 Kg x 1 Cm
= 100 Kg-Cm
MOVING THE SMALL PISTON
10 Cm DISPLACES
1 Cm
2
x 10 Cm = 10 Cm
3
OF LIQUID
10 Cm OF LIQUID WILL
MOVE LARGER PISTON
ONLY 1Cm.
10 Cm
2
x 1 Cm = 10 Cm
3
Q = A x h
Typical Units of Pressure
The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per
square meter (N/m
2
or kgm
1
s
2
).
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1 Bar = 14.69 psi = 100 kilo pascal
Typical Units of Flow
CFM = Cubic feet per minute
Cubic meter per hour = M*M*M/Hour
Litres per minutes = l/min
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Types of Flow
Laminar
Turbulent
Laminar flow is preferred
in fluid power systems
over turbulent flow
because it is more
efficient and loses less
energy.
Types of Flow
Fluids that are thick and
flow with difficulty have
high viscosity, while
liquids that are thin and
flow easily have low
viscosity.
Viscosity of Fluid
A Saybolt viscometer is a
test instrument used to
measure fluid viscosity.
Flow of Fluid
A flow meter is a
meter that is used to
measure the flow of
fluid (in gpm) within a
system.
Fluid Losses
Resistance to fluid flow generates friction and the resulting energy is
converted into heat.
Basic Hydraulic System
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Example: Hydraulic Jack
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Example: Motor Reversing System
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b. Motor-Reversing System. A power-driven pump operating a reversible rotary motor. A
reversing valve directs fluid to either side of the motor and back to the reservoir. A relief valve
protects the system against excess pressure and can bypass pump output to the reservoir, if
pressure rises too high.
Example: Motor Reversing System
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Example: Cylinder in Series
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Example: Cylinder in Parallel
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Hydraulic Pumps
1. Single Stage Centrifugal Pump
2. Lobe Pump
3. Internal/External Gear Pump
4. Axial Piston Pump
Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric
motor) into hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used then to operate an
actuator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow.
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Pump
1. Single Stage Centrifugal Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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Pump
1. Lobe Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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Pump
1. External Gear Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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For constant flow/pressure application
4000 psi = 275 bar
Low Cost & Dirt Tolerance
Used to charged pump to pressurize
the lnlet of vane & axial pump
Pump
1. Internal Gear Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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Pump
Vane Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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Pump
1. Axial Piston Pump
Converts mechanical energy into Hydraulic energy
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For high Pressure Application
7250 psi ~ 10000 psi
Good Service Life
Variable Displacement Capability
Pump Ratings
Typical factors determining nature of Pumps
Displaced Volume or Displacement = Q (l /min) or (l/rev)
Nominal Speed = in rpm
Maximum Pressure = in Bar or psi
Tank Capacity = in litres
Maximum Flow = l/min or l/sec
Fixed Type Variable Type
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Comparing Pumps
Typical factors determining nature of Pumps
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Parameter Piston/ Axial
Pump
Vane Pump Gear Pump
Pressure 10000 psi 4000 psi 4000 psi
Power Density Highest medium Lowest
Efficiency Highest medium Lowest
Dirt Tolerance Lowest medium Highest
Noise & Vibration Moderate
behaviour
Quietest &
vibration free
Noisy & high
vibration
Size & weight Very Heavy Heavy Lightest
Life Expectancy Long life &
repairable
Long life &
repairable
Short life
Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements
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Cooler
Filter
Air Filter
Fluid Cooler
Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements
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Cooler
Fluid Cooler
Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements
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Filter
Air Filter
Full Flow Type Filter
Proportional Type Filter
Accumulator
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Filter
Gas Loaded Accumulator
Accumulator
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Filter
Piston Type Accumulator
Hydraulic Fluid Conditioning Elements
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Filter
Hydraulic Actuation System
Elements of Actuation System
1. Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
2. Valves Directional Control Valves (DCV)
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Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Used to produce linear motion
Single Acting Cylinder
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Used to produce linear motion
Single Acting Cylinder
Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Return
Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Extend
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Double Acting Cylinder
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Used to produce linear motion
Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Double Acting Cylinder
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Used to produce linear motion
Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Double-Acting 2-Cushion Cylinder
Double Acting Cylinder with Cushion
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Used to produce linear motion
Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
A double ended piston rod makes a cylinder stronger against side
load, as it has two bearings at the widest distance possible. This type
of cylinder is often mounted with rods fixed and the cylinder itself
moving to displace a part.
Double Acting Double Rod Cylinder
Double-Acting Double-Rod Cylinder
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Used to produce linear motion
Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Hydraulic Motors
Rodless Cylinder
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Used to produce linear motion
Hydraulic Actuation System
Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
Gear type Motor
Piston Force
Dependent on the air pressure, the cylinder diameter, and the frictional
resistance of the sealing components.
F
th
= A . p
F
th
= Theoretical piston force in N.
A = Useful piston area in cm.
p = Operation pressure in kPa.
F
n
= Effective piston force in Newton (N)
F
R
= frictional force (3-20%) in Newton (N)
F
n
= A. p (F
R
+F
F
)
Single Acting Cyl.
F
n
= A. p F
R
Double Acting Cyl.
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Elements of Actuation System
1. Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
2. Valves
Pressure-control
Flow- (volume-) Control,
Directional-control
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Pressure Relief Valve
Pressure Relief Valve
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Pressure Relief Valve
Pressure Relief Valve
Simple, direct-acting relief valve has no
adjusting screw and therefore opens at
a fixed, pre-set pressure as controlled
by setting of compression spring.
Adjustable, direct-acting relief valve blocks
flow through the valve until force of system
pressure on the poppet overcomes the
adjustable spring force and downstream
pressure.
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Pilot Operated Pressure Relief Valve
Pressure Relief Valve
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Pressure Regulating/Reducing Valve
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Pressure Regulating/Reducing Valve
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Sequence Valve
Sequence Valve
Valves Directional Control Valves (DCV)
1. Allowing the passage of fluid and directing it to particular
lines
2. Canceling fluid as required by blocking their passage and
/ or
3. Relieving the fluid back to reservoir
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Elements of Actuation System
1. Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
2. Valves
Pressure-control
Flow- (volume-) Control,
Directional-control
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Flow Control Valve Gate Valve (Throttle)
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Flow Control Valve Globe Valve (Throttle)
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Needle Valve (Throttle)
Variable Throttle Valve
Flow Control Valves: Check Valve
The check valve allows oil flow in one direction and blocks it
in the opposite direction.
Check Valve
Spring Loaded
Check Valve
Pilot to Open
Check Valve
Pilot to Close
Check Valve
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Hydraulic Actuation System
Elements of Actuation System
1. Actuators Hydraulic Cylinders
2. Valves
Pressure-control
Flow- (volume-) Control,
Directional-control
2/2 Directional Control Valves (DCV)
2/2 Spring return
Valve with Lever
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2/2-Way - Lever with Spring Return
2/2 Spring return
Valve with Lever
Detent
2/2 Pilot Operated
Valve
3/2 Directional Control Valves (DCV)
3/2 Spring return
Valve
3/2 Spring return
Pilot Valve
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3/2-Way NC - Manual Button with Spring Return
3/2-Way NC - External Pilot with Spring Return
4/2 Directional Control Valves (DCV)
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4/2-Way NC - Manual Button with Spring Return
4/2-Way NO - External Pilot with Spring Return
4/2 Spring return
Valve
4/2 Spring return
Pilot Valve
4/3 Directional Control Valves (DCV)
To stop the cylinder in between
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4/3-Way NC - Lever with Detent
4/3-Way NC - Double External Pilot Control
4/3 Lever with Detent
4/3 Double Pilot Valve
Hydraulics Exercises
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1) Draw a hydraulic circuit to actuate two Single Acting Spring Return
cylinder with one 3/2 Valve
2) Draw a hydraulic circuit to actuate Double acting Cylinder with 4/2 Valve
?
?
Hydraulics Flow Lines & Connections
Hydraulic Pressure Source Reservoir/ Sump
Pneumatic T Connector
Hydraulics other Fittings
Hydraulic hoses
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Electro- Hydraulics
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Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Hydraulic Circuit to control
automatically typically referred to DCV
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Electro- Hydraulics
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Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Pneumatics Circuit to control
automatically typically referred to DCV
Solenoid
Solenoid Ratings: 24 VDC, 220 VAC
S7 S6
Hydraulics Exercises
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1) Draw an Electro- pneumatic circuit to actuate Single acting cylinder with
3/2 solenoid valve actuated by Toggle switch
2) Draw a pneumatic circuit to actuate & latch Double acting Cylinder with
4/3 Spring return Solenoid Valve
?
S2 S1
4/3-Way NC - Double Electrical Control
Hydraulics Applications
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Hydraulics Applications
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