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Journal Entries
Analyzing transactions and recording them as journal entries is the first step in the accounting cycle. It begins at
the start of an accounting period and continues during the whole period. Transaction analysis is a process which
determines whether a particular business event has an economic effect on the assets, liabilities or equity of the
business. It also involves ascertaining the magnitude of the transaction i.e. its currency value.
After analyzing transactions, accountants classify and record the events having economic effect via journal
entries according to debit-credit rules. Frequent journal entries are usually recorded in specialized journals, for
example, sales journal and purchases journal. The rest are recorded in a general journal.
The following example illustrates how to record journal entries:
Example
Company A was incorporated on January 1, 2010 with an initial capital of 5,000 shares of common stock having
$20 par value. During the first month of its operations, the company engaged in following transactions:
Date Transaction
Jan
2
An amount of $36,000 was paid as advance rent for three months.
Jan
3
Paid $60,000 cash on the purchase of equipment costing $80,000. The remaining amount was
recognized as a one year note payable with interest rate of 9%.
Jan
4
Purchased office supplies costing $17,600 on account.
Jan
13
Provided services to its customers and received $28,500 in cash.
Jan
13
Paid the accounts payable on the office supplies purchased on January 4.
Jan
14
Paid wages to its employees for first two weeks of January, aggregating $19,100.
Jan
18
Provided $54,100 worth of services to its customers. They paid $32,900 and promised to pay the
remaining amount.
Jan
23
Received $15,300 from customers for the services provided on January 18.
Jan
25
Received $4,000 as an advance payment from customers.
Jan
26
Purchased office supplies costing $5,200 on account.
Jan
28
Paid wages to its employees for the third and fourth week of January: $19,100.
Jan
31
Paid $5,000 as dividends.
Jan
31
Received electricity bill of $2,470.
Jan
31
Received telephone bill of $1,494.
Jan
31
Miscellaneous expenses paid during the month totaled $3,470
The following table shows the journal entries for the above events.
Date Account Debit Credit
Jan 1 Cash 100,000
Common Stock 100,000
Jan 2 Prepaid Rent 36,000
Cash 36,000
Jan 3 Equipment 80,000
Cash 60,000
Notes Payable 20,000
Jan 4 Office Supplies 17,600
Accounts Payable 17,600
Jan 13 Cash 28,500
Service Revenue 28,500
Jan 13 Accounts Payable 17,600
Cash 17,600
Jan 14 Wages Expense 19,100
Cash 19,100
Jan 18 Cash 32,900
Accounts Receivable 21,200
Service Revenue 54,100
Jan 23 Cash 15,300
Accounts Receivable 15,300
Jan 25 Cash 4,000
Unearned Revenue 4,000
Jan 26 Office Supplies 5,200
Accounts Payable 5,200
Jan 28 Wages Expense 19,100
Cash 19,100
Jan 31 Dividends 5,000
Cash 5,000
Jan 31 Electricity Expense 2,470
Utilities Payable 2,470
Jan 31 Telephone Expense 1,494
Utilities Payable 1,494
Jan 31 Miscellaneous Expense 3,470
Cash 3,470