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Chapter 6: Fans, Blowers, and Compressors

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition


by Stephen Hall

This Excel workbook includes Visual Basic for Application function subroutines.
Macros must be enabled for them to work.
The following Text Boxes contain the syntax for the functions.
Copy them to the worksheet where you want to use the functions for ready reference.
Function ZSI(P, T, Pc, Tc)
' calculates compressibility factor, Z, using SI units
' P = gas pressure, kPa
' T = gas temperature, C
' Pc = gas pseudo-critical pressure, atm
' Tc = gas pseudo-critical temperature, C

Function ZUS(P, T, Pc, Tc)


' calculates compressibility factor, Z, using US units
' P = gas pressure, psia
' T = gas temperature, F
' Pc = gas pseudo-critical pressure, psia
' Tc = gas pseudo-critical temperature, F

Problem Statement:
Calculate the shaft (brake) power of a reciprocating compressor
Inputs
Fluid
flow rate
Inlet pressure
Inlet temperature
Discharge pressure
Number of stages

m3/h at inlet conditions


kPa-absolute
C
kPa-absolute

Air
500.0
101.3
25.0
900.0
2

Intermediate Lookup Values and Calculations


Overall compression ratio
Compression ratio per stage
Gas constant
MW
heat capacity ratio
density at inlet
mass flow rate

R
k
kg/m3
kg/s

8.88
2.98
8,314.47
29.0
1.4
1.19
0.16

Outputs
Reciprocating Compressor - GPSA Shortcut Formula
C
See Text for values
F
R
N
Q
m3/h at 100 kPa
Adjustment for high speed compressor (see text)
Brake Power (shaft power)

kW

0.013
1.08
2.98
2
506.5
0.1
46.6

cfm at inlet conditions


psia
F
psia

lb/ft3
lb/s

cfm at 14.5 psia

hp
kw

Air
294.0
14.7
77.0
130.5
2

Air

8.88
2.98
10.73
29.0
1.4
0.074
0.36

9.52
3.09
10.73
29.0
1.4
0.074 density = (P M) / (R T)
0.52

0.030
1.08
2.98
2
298.1
0.1

0.030
1.08
3.09
2
427.8
0.2

63
47.22

103
76.59

422
14.7
77
140
2

motor efficiency

0.949
80.70

p
p

2
1

Problem Statement:
Calculate the hydraulic and shaft (brake) power of a compressor
Inputs
Fluid
flow rate
m3/h at inlet conditions
Inlet pressure
kPa-absolute
Inlet temperature
C
Discharge pressure
kPa-absolute
Number of stages
Intercooler temperature approach
C
Polytropic Efficiency

Air
500.0
101.3
25.0
900.0
2
5
0.70

500.0
206.8
40.2
900.0
3
5
0.70

Intermediate Lookup Values and Calculations


Overall compression ratio
Compression ratio per stage
Gas constant
MW
Critical pressure
Critical temperature
heat capacity ratio
density at inlet
mass flow rate

R
atm
C
k
kg/m3
kg/s

8.88
2.98
8,314.47
29.0
39.0
(140.0)
1.4
1.19
0.16

4.35
1.63
8,314.47
45.5
41.5
101.9
1.4
3.61
0.50

Outputs
Stage 1
Compressibility factor using Redlich-Kwong EOS
Inlet compressibility
Z
Discharge compressibility
Average compressibility

0.9995
1.0005
1.0000

0.9716
0.9735
0.9725

Polytropic compression
Polytropic exponent
Stage discharge pressure
Discharge temperature
Polytropic head
Polytropic gas power

1.69
301.94
192
117.64
27.66

1.69
337.64
110
31.07
22.27

0.9988
1.0015
1.0001

0.9550
0.9588
0.9569

1.69
30.00
3.47

1.69
45.18
5.80

n
kPa-absolute
C
kN-m/kg
kW

Stage 2
Compressibility factor using Redlich-Kwong EOS
Inlet compressibility
Z
Discharge compressibility
Average compressibility
Polytropic compression
Polytropic exponent
Stage inlet temperature
Stage inlet density

n
C
kg/m3

Stage discharge pressure


Discharge temperature
Polytropic head
Polytropic gas power

kPa-absolute
C
kN-m/kg
kW

Stage 3
Compressibility factor using Redlich-Kwong EOS
Inlet compressibility
Z
Discharge compressibility
Average compressibility
Polytropic compression
Polytropic exponent
Stage inlet temperature
Stage inlet density
Stage discharge pressure
Discharge temperature
Polytropic head
Polytropic gas power

n
C
kg/m3
kPa-absolute
C
kN-m/kg
kW

900.00
200
119.63
28.13

551.25
116
31.57
22.62

0.9964
1.0048
1.0006

0.9244
0.9318
0.9281

1.69
30.00
10.35
2,682.62
200
119.68
-

1.69
45.18
9.48
900.00
116
31.57
22.62

Total gas power


Add for mechanical losses

kW
kW

55.79
5.00

67.51
5.39

Brake power (shaft power)

kW

60.78

72.91

cfm at inlet conditions


psia
F
psia
F

psia
F
lb/ft3
lb/s

Air
294.0
14.7
77.0
130.5
2
10
0.70

8.88
2.98
10.73
29.0
573.0
(220.0)
1.4
0.074
0.36

B
r

0.9995
1.0005
1.0000

n
psia
F
ft-lbf/lbm
hp

1.69
43.80
379
39,349
37.06

0.9988
1.0015
1.0001

n
F
lb/ft3

1.69
87.00
0.22

a
ke

P
o
w
er

psia
F
ft-lbf/lbm
hp

130.50
394
40,088
37.75

0.9964
1.0048
1.0006

n
F
lb/ft3
psia
F
ft-lbf/lbm
hp

1.69
87.00
0.64
388.83
394
40,108
-

hp
hp

74.81
5.62

hp

80.43

Problem Statement:
Calculate the shaft (brake) power of a compressor by interpolating the Pressure-Enthalpy data table

Inputs
Fluid
flow rate
m3/h at inlet conditions
Inlet pressure
kPa-absolute
Inlet temperature
C
Discharge pressure
kPa-absolute
Number of stages
Intercooler temperatureCapproach
Isentropic Efficiency
Intermediate Calculation
Overall compression ratio
Compression ratio per stage
Density
kg/m3

Air
500.0
101.5
25.0
900.0
2
5
0.80

The data tables give enthalpy and entrop


the values to change to enter data for a d

Beginning with the compressor inlet pres


a) follow a constant entropy path from in
b) increase the temperature, at constant
(a)
c) capture the enthalpy change for the st
d) cool the gas to a temperature near the
e) look up the new enthalpy
f) repeat for stages 2 and 3

8.87
2.98
1.19

The x and y scales on the chart adjust au


expanded to encompass the full range o

Results
Enthalpy of Compression
kJ/kg
Work
kJ/h
kW
Mechanical losses in the compressor
Shaft power
kW

291.52
173,083
48.08
4.71
52.79

Result

Stage-by-Stage Calculations by Interpolating the P-E Data


Point
Pressure Enthalpy Temperature
Entropy
1
1.02
298.43
25.00
6.86
Stage 1
2
3.02
417.78
143.32
6.88
3
3.02
447.61
177.25
4
3.02
302.87
30.00
6.56
Stage 2
5
9.00
416.74
142.87
6.56
6
9.00
445.20
174.83
7
9.00
301.67
30.00
6.24
Stage 3
8
26.80
393.44
121.09
6.20
9
26.80
416.38
144.84
10
26.80
297.47
30.00
5.92

Comment
Inlet conditions
Compress with constant entropy
Apply isentropic compression efficiency
Cool with intercooler
Compress with constant entropy
Apply isentropic compression efficiency
Cool with intercooler
Compress with constant entropy
Apply isentropic compression efficiency
Cool with aftercooler

Data

Source: Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th Edition, Table 3-212

Fluid:

Air

Temperature

deg K
200
220
240
260
280
Pressure Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy
bar
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
1
199.7
219.8
239.9
260.0
280.2
5
197.7
218.1
238.5
258.8
279.1

300
350
Enthalpy
Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
300.3
350.7
299.4
350.0

10
20
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
800
1000

195.2
190.1
179.7
163.9
158.7
148.8
129.2
117.6
111.7
109.0
108.5
111.4
116.0

216.1
211.9
203.5
191.1
187.1
179.4
163.2
152.2
145.6
142.0
140.1
142.0
146.1
157.4

236.7
233.2
226.3
216.1
212.9
206.7
193.4
183.6
177.1
173.2
170.5
171.7
175.3
185.9

257.3
254.3
248.5
240.0
237.3
232.2
221.0
212.5
206.6
202.7
199.7
200.5
203.6
213.7
226.4

277.8
275.2
270.2
263.1
260.8
256.4
247.0
239.6
234.3
230.8
227.8
228.4
231.2
240.3
253.2

298.3
296.0
291.7
285.6
283.7
279.9
271.8
265.5
260.8
257.7
254.8
255.4
258.1
267.3
279.5

349.2
347.7
344.6
340.4
339.0
336.5
330.9
326.5
323.2
320.9
319.1
319.9
322.6
331.6
343.4

Interpolated Enthalpy at stage discharge pressures


Stage 1
3.022416 198.3255 218.6317 238.9379 259.1753
279.444 299.68149 350.2189
Stage 2
9
195.58
216.404 236.9736
257.528 277.9976
298.4672 349.3216
Stage 3
26.79975 191.6445 213.2556
234.14 255.1667 275.9511 296.73556 348.0622
Pressure Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
bar
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
1
6.463
6.559
6.647
6.727
6.802
5
5.994
6.092
6.18
6.262
6.337
10
5.786
5.885
5.975
6.058
6.134
20
5.568
5.672
5.765
5.849
5.927
40
5.33
5.444
5.543
5.632
5.712
60
5.174
5.298
5.404
5.497
5.581
80
5.051
5.186
5.299
5.396
5.484
100
4.949
5.095
5.214
5.315
5.406
150
4.757
4.919
5.051
5.161
5.257
200
4.631
4.796
4.932
5.048
5.149
250
4.544
4.706
4.843
4.961
5.064
300
4.48
4.637
4.773
4.891
4.995
400
4.386
4.537
4.669
4.786
4.89
500
4.317
4.463
4.593
4.708
4.811
600
2.263
4.406
4.533
4.646
4.749
800
4.318
4.442
4.553
4.653
1000
4.482
4.582

Entropy
Entropy
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
6.871
7.026
6.406
6.563
6.204
6.361
5.998
6.158
5.786
5.95
5.657
5.824
5.562
5.733
5.486
5.661
5.343
5.525
5.238
5.426
5.155
5.348
5.088
5.283
4.983
5.181
4.905
5.103
4.842
5.041
4.745
4.943
4.672
4.869

Enthalpy data table

ables give enthalpy and entropy at pressure and temperature combinations. Values are in RED text; these are
to change to enter data for a different ccompound.

with the compressor inlet pressure and temperature, the P-E tables are interpolated to:
constant entropy path from inlet conditions to the stage discharge pressure
e the temperature, at constant pressure, by applying the isentropic efficiency to the amount of enthalpy gain in

the enthalpy change for the stage


gas to a temperature near the inlet temperature; this is performed at constant pressure
the new enthalpy
or stages 2 and 3

y scales on the chart adjust automatically to fit the pressure range entered in the Input section. To see the chart
to encompass the full range of enthalpy data, click the "Reset Chart Area" button.

Entry Point into Table and Interpolation Ratio


Pressure InterpolationTemperature
Interpolation
1 0.009251
with constant entropy
1 0.687232
opic compression efficiency
8 0.503986
1 0.687232
with constant entropy
2 0.847997
opic compression efficiency
8 0.479819
2 0.847997
with constant entropy
2
2.42222
opic compression efficiency
8 0.179888
4
0.42222

400
500
600
800
1000
Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
401.2
503.4
607.5
822.5
1,046.8
400.8
503.2
607.4
822.6
1,046.9

Interpolation of the Enthalpy Data Table


Compression enthalpy

149.18

142.34

Add these values together


for total enthalpy of
compression

1200
1400
1600
1800
Enthalpy
Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
1,278.0
1,515.0
1,764.0
2,017.0
1,279.0
1,516.0
1,764.0
2,017.0

400.2
399.1
397.0
394.0
393.1
391.3
387.5
384.5
382.3
380.9
380.0
381.3
384.2
393.8
405.1

502.9
502.4
501.5
500.6
499.8
499.0
497.5
496.6
496.0
495.9
496.8
499.1
502.6
512.3
524.4

607.3
607.2
606.9
606.8
606.7
606.6
606.6
607.0
607.6
608.5
611.0
614.3
618.5
625.8
641.2

822.7
823.0
823.7
824.3
825.1
825.8
827.8
829.9
832.2
834.5
839.4
844.6
850.1
862.0
875.1

1,047.2
1,047.7
1,048.8
1,050.0
1,051.1
1,052.4
1,055.5
1,058.7
1,062.0
1,065.3
1,072.0
1,078.8
1,085.5
1,099.3
1,113.3

1,279.0
1,280.0
1,281.0
1,283.0
1,284.0
1,286.0
1,290.0
1,294.0
1,298.0
1,302.0
1,310.0
1,318.0
1,326.0
1,341.0
1,356.0

1,516.0
1,517.0
1,519.0
1,521.0
1,522.0
1,524.0
1,529.0
1,533.0
1,538.0
1,542.0
1,552.0
1,561.0
1,570.0
1,588.0
1,606.0

1,765.0
1,766.0
1,768.0
1,770.0
1,772.0
1,774.0
1,779.0
1,783.0
1,789.0
1,794.0
1,804.0
1,814.0
1,824.0
1,844.0
1,863.0

2,018.0
2,019.0
2,021.0
2,023.0
2,025.0
2,027.0
2,033.0
2,038.0
2,043.0
2,049.0
2,059.0
2,070.0
2,080.0
2,101.0
2,121.0

400.9251 503.2626 607.4313 822.5687 1046.869 1278.68723 1515.687


1764
2017
400.2912 502.9456 607.3152 822.6848 1047.154
1279
1516 1764.848 2017.848
399.3467 502.4733 607.1578 822.8422 1047.627
1279
1516 1766.422 2019.422
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
7.161
7.389
7.579
7.888
8.138
6.698
6.927
7.116
7.426
7.676
6.497
6.727
6.917
7.226
7.477
6.295
6.52
6.716
7.027
7.277
6.09
6.323
6.515
6.826
7.077
5.967
6.202
6.396
6.708
6.96
5.878
6.116
6.311
6.624
6.877
5.807
6.048
6.244
6.559
6.812
5.677
5.922
6.121
6.439
6.693
5.581
5.831
6.033
6.353
6.608
5.506
5.76
5.963
6.286
6.542
5.443
5.7
5.906
6.23
6.488
5.344
5.605
5.813
6.142
6.401
5.267
5.531
5.741
6.072
6.333
5.205
5.47
5.681
6.014
6.277
5.108
5.374
5.586
5.922
6.136
5.034
5.3
5.513
5.85
6.115

Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
kJ/(kg-C)
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
8.349
8.531
8.695
8.695
7.887
8.069
8.233
8.233
7.688
7.87
8.034
8.034
7.489
7.671
7.835
7.835
7.289
7.473
7.636
7.636
7.172
7.355
7.52
7.52
7.089
7.273
7.437
7.437
7.024
7.208
7.373
7.373
6.906
7.092
7.256
7.256
6.822
7.009
7.173
7.173
6.757
6.944
7.108
7.108
6.703
6.891
7.056
7.206
6.618
6.808
6.972
7.123
6.55
6.743
6.907
7.058
6.495
6.69
6.854
7.005
6.407
6.605
6.769
6.921
6.337
6.539
6.703
6.856

Enthalpy-Pressure Diagram for Air

Pressure, bar, absolute

10

nthalpy Data Table

1
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

hese values together


al enthalpy of

Interpolation

2000
2500
Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
2,279.0
3,011.0
2,278.0
2,981.0

Constant Temperature
298.15 416.4657
303.15
Enthalpy
Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
298.4
418.0
303.5
297.5
417.7
302.6

416.02
303.15
Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
417.6
303.5
417.2
302.6

394.24
Enthalpy
kJ/kg
395.4
394.9

2,279.0
2,279.0
2,281.0
2,284.0
2,285.0
2,288.0
2,294.0
2,299.0
2,304.0
2,310.0
2,321.0
2,332.0
2,343.0
2,365.0
2,386.0

2,974.0
2,970.0
2,969.0
2,969.0
2,971.0
2,972.0
2,977.0
2,982.0
2,988.0
2,993.0
3,004.0
3,015.0
3,026.0
3,049.0
3,071.0

296.4
294.1
289.7
283.5
281.6
277.7
269.5
263.1
258.3
255.2
252.3
252.9
255.6
264.8
277.1

417.1
416.1
414.2
411.6
410.7
409.0
405.6
403.0
401.0
399.8
399.2
400.7
403.7
413.3
424.7

301.5
299.3
295.0
289.1
287.2
283.5
275.5
269.3
264.7
261.7
258.9
259.5
262.2
271.4
283.5

416.7
415.6
413.7
411.1
410.2
408.6
405.1
402.5
400.5
399.3
398.7
400.2
403.2
412.8
424.2

301.5
299.3
295.0
289.1
287.2
283.5
275.5
269.3
264.7
261.7
258.9
259.5
262.2
271.4
283.5

394.3
393.2
391.0
387.8
386.9
385.0
381.0
377.8
375.5
374.0
373.0
374.2
377.1
386.6
398.0

2278.313 2990.383
2278.848 2975.064
2280.422 2964.044
Entropy
Entropy
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
8.983
9.308
8.52
8.832
8.321
8.63
8.121
8.428
7.922
8.229
7.806
8.112
7.723
8.029
7.659
7.964
7.543
7.848
7.46
7.765
7.396
7.701
7.344
7.648
7.261
7.566
7.196
7.501
7.144
7.449
7.06
7.366
6.995
7.302
Temperature
Interpolation

Entropy
kJ/(kg-C)
6.865
6.400
6.198
5.991
5.779
5.650
5.555
5.479
5.335
5.230
5.147
5.079
4.974
4.896
4.833
4.736
4.664

Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
Entropy
kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C) kJ/(kg-C)
7.199
6.881
7.198
6.881
7.145
6.736
6.416
6.735
6.416
6.682
6.535
6.214
6.534
6.214
6.481
6.332
6.008
6.331
6.008
6.279
6.128
5.796
6.127
5.796
6.074
6.006
5.668
6.005
5.668
5.951
5.917
5.573
5.916
5.573
5.861
5.847
5.497
5.846
5.497
5.790
5.717
5.354
5.716
5.354
5.659
5.622
5.250
5.621
5.250
5.563
5.548
5.167
5.547
5.167
5.488
5.485
5.100
5.484
5.100
5.425
5.387
4.995
5.386
4.995
5.325
5.310
4.917
5.309
4.917
5.248
5.249
4.855
5.247
4.855
5.186
5.152
4.757
5.151
4.757
5.089
5.078
4.684
5.077
4.684
5.015

5
8
0.9075 0.164657

6
0.063

8
0.1602

6
7
0.063 0.884837

350

400

450

Interpolation

303.15
Enthalpy
kJ/kg
303.5
302.6

Constant Entropy
6.860
6.880
6.561
6.564
6.245
6.20
Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy Enthalpy
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
297.2
303.4
220.3
221.0
#N/A
#N/A
473.4
482.4
349.4
350.5
254.5
242.3

301.5
299.3
295.0
289.1
287.2
283.5
275.5
269.3
264.7
261.7
258.9
259.5
262.2
271.4
283.5

Entropy
kJ/(kg-C)
6.881
6.416
6.214
6.008
5.796
5.668
5.573
5.497
5.354
5.250
5.167
5.100
4.995
4.917
4.855
4.757
4.684
6
0.063

576.2
707.3
854.5
960.7
1036.2
1105.6
1239.7
1343.0
1430.6
1502.8
1632.4
1742.0
1834.7
1998.4
2129.2

deg K
296.90
470.88
570.17
692.81
827.34
920.89
986.81
1,045.58
1,157.10
1,240.98
1,310.50
1,367.36
1,463.80
1,543.07
1,608.37
1,720.15
1,806.21

587.2
721.3
872.5
978.8
1054.9
1127.8
1261.9
1368.7
1456.5
1528.6
1663.4
1773.1
1868.9
2032.5
2167.6

428.9
524.5
639.2
722.0
781.3
827.9
937.4
1016.8
1083.2
1146.0
1247.8
1332.2
1408.9
1533.5
1640.9

Temperature
deg K
deg K
303.05
220.52
479.68
349.46
580.77
427.95
705.77
521.07
843.40
629.77
936.88
705.95
1,003.27
759.93
1,064.59
801.81
1,176.03
896.29
1,262.53
963.36
1,332.05 1,017.94
1,388.79 1,068.18
1,488.37 1,147.73
1,567.64 1,211.70
1,635.06 1,267.99
1,746.67 1,355.85
1,835.20 1,427.18

430.3
526.1
641.3
724.2
783.5
830.6
940.2
1019.6
1086.6
1149.4
1251.2
1336.1
1412.8
1537.3
1645.8

deg K
221.22
350.51
429.29
522.64
631.75
707.93
761.90
804.25
898.72
965.78
1,020.81
1,071.05
1,150.58
1,214.90
1,271.15
1,358.96
1,430.94

311.5
380.2
466.3
523.9
570.3
607.0
692.6
754.4
803.4
847.6
931.5
999.5
1056.5
1196.2
1255.0

deg K
#N/A
255.76
312.93
381.60
466.35
521.96
565.95
600.38
677.73
732.25
774.36
811.31
879.22
932.26
975.36
1,080.14
1,116.75

295.8
361.7
444.2
497.6
543.3
579.9
658.3
720.1
769.1
810.3
887.3
955.2
1012.4
1152.2
1201.1

deg K
#N/A
243.73
297.52
363.62
445.20
497.15
540.67
575.16
646.73
701.44
743.84
778.59
841.16
894.49
937.88
1,043.77
1,072.35