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Review of Related Literature

Facebook, Happiness and Self-Esteem
According to Gonzales, the study was originally produced to analyze two opposing theories of
communication. The objective self-awareness theory conveys that when an individual focuses attention
on him- or herself, his or her self-esteem may be negatively affected. This focus makes the individual
recall and concentrate on all his or her faults. The hyperpersonal model theorysuggests that when
people focus on themselves, they view themselves in a positive light.
This acebook study supports the hyperpersonal theory. !There are not a lot of theories that have been
tested within the computer-mediated communications field compared to other communication
subfields, so this was e"citing from a theoretical perspective,# Gonzales said.
$egardless of whether we realize it, acebook use does influence our psychological well-being. %aybe
now that we&re aware of its hold, we can become more conscious in how we let it shape our view of
ourselves.
Relationships between Facebook Intensity, Friendship ontin!ent Self-Esteem, and "ersonality
in #$S$ olle!e Students
'nline social networking sites, such as acebook, Google(, and )ebo, have grown in popularity in
recent years and they provide an e"citing new area of study in the field of psychology. acebook
provides individuals with easy access to view personal information about their friends, coworkers, and
even complete strangers *%uise, +hristofides, , -esmarais, .//01. acebook has over 2// million
active users and every month over 3// billion minutes are spent on acebook *acebook, ./441.
Among 5.6. college students, 078 have a acebook account *'nline9ducation.net, ./441. Given the
popularity of online social networking sites, acebook in particular, the current study was designed to
investigate the relationship between acebook use, the importance of :uality of friendships to self-
esteem, and personality in college students.
6ocial relationships are considered by many to be the most important component of human life *9rber
, 9rber, ./441. ;ith the e"pansion of the <nternet and social networking sites, more people are using
technology to communicate with their friends and family online and maintain these interpersonal
connections in novel ways that were not available in previous generations. 6ome researchers initially
believed online activities negatively impacted relationships and feared that virtual communication
would replace face-to-face interactions and deteriorate social bonds. 'thers, however, have found
support for the idea that social networking sites and the <nternet have e"panded methods of staying
socially connected with others and increased relationship closeness and connectedness *)argh ,
%c=enna, .//>? @acobsen , orste, ./44? Aalkenburg , Beter, .//01. 6ocial networking sites, such as
acebook, allow users to add !friends# and keep track of their status, interests, photos, !likes#, and
updates of others& personal information in cyberspace.
<nternet use is related to both positive and negative psychological and social factors, but the key to
understanding these outcomes is through e"amining specific types of <nternet use instead of simply the
amount of time spent online *6hields , =ane, ./441. ;hile using social media can have positive
benefits associated with community engagement, education, social connectedness, and identity
development, it can also lead to risks linked to social rejection, cyberbullying, depression, e"posure to
inappropriate content, and other negative conse:uences related to general well-being *'&=eefee et al.,
./44? Aalkenburg , Beter, .//01. or e"ample, a negative relationship has been found between time
spent using electronic media, including social networking sites, and college grades *@acobsen , orste,
./441. <n college, upper-class students with more acebook friends reported high levels of social
adjustment and stronger attachment to the college than students with less acebook friends, although
freshmen did not benefit from having more acebook friends and actually reported decreased social
and emotional adjustment *=alpidou, +ostin, , %orris, ./441. <n other research on college students, a
positive relationship was found between grade point average and the practice of starting the day using
the <nternet, while a negative relationship was found between grade point average and listening to
music online *6hields , =ane, ./441. %any students watch online news videos first thing in the
morning and these videos, as opposed to listening to music, can be informative and help with course
learning, performance, and social awareness. 6tarting the day online was also negatively related to
symptoms of depression, perhaps because it demonstrates a desire for social connectivity *6hields ,
=ane, ./441.
Social and "sycholo!ical orrelates of Internet #se amon! olle!e Students
The advent of the widespread use of the <nternet in the 400/s was met with both fear and enthusiasm
regarding the potential impact on social relationships and psychological well-being *)argh ,
%c=enna, .//>1. Cowever, a relatively early study by =raut and associates *=raut et al., 400D1 seemed
to set the tone for much of the research that would follow. They found that use of the <nternet appeared
to increase loneliness, depression, and stress among a sample of 470 adults. They called this the
!<nternet Barado"# in that a technology that theoretically would increase communication could instead
have negative social and psychological effects. 9ven though the results actually reversed in a follow-up
study published several years later *=raut et al. .//.1, the original study inspired a significant amount
of research designed to assess potential negative effects of <nternet use. Eoung and $ogers& *400D1
study was also influential in generating interest in the relationship between <nternet !addiction# and
depression.
Accordingly, studies on <nternet addiction have proliferated *)yun et al. .//0? +hou, +ondron, ,
)elland, .//21. 6urprisingly, relatively few of the studies have focused on college students, even
though college students have been found to have both high levels of <nternet use *=andell, 400D? Bew
<nternet and American Fife, .//.1 as well as depression *American Bsychiatric Association, .//0?
Beterson, .//.? Aoelker, .//G1. The studies on college students differ in terms of whether they measure
<nternet addiction or simply <nternet use, and the specific social and psychological variables they
investigate. The results are mi"ed H some studies find negative relationships *e.g., %orahan-%artin ,
6chumaker, .///? %orahan-%artin , 6chumaker, .//G1, some positive relationships *e.g., %organ ,
+otton, .//G1, and others no relationships *e.g., Anderson, .//41.
Facebook, self-esteem and loneliness
The main findings about <nternet usage relevant to our study are that loneliness is animportant predictor
of problematic internet use *+eyhan, , +eyhan, .//D1 and that it can also be determined as both the
cause and effect of problematic internet use *=im, Fa$ose, ,Beng, .//01. Anderson *.//41 found that
especially among men there is a small percentage of people that use the <nternet to an e"tent that self-
reportedly interferes in a negative way withtheir social life. =raut et al. *400D1 found that greater
<nternet use increases both lonelinessand depression. 6everalstudies *=alpidou, +ostin, , %orris, ./44?
%ehdizadeh ./4/? Tucker, ./4/1 found that people who spent more time on acebook were
more likely to have low self-esteem.+onnecting these results with the often recreated finding that low
self-esteem and a greater sense of loneliness are connected *e.g. 6tephan, aeth, , Famm 40DD1 and
the notion thatmost of the time spent on the <nternet in general is being spent on acebook
*Aevermann,./4/? Gaudin, .//0? ;hitney, ./4/1 H which means that the reported findings for
highinternet use should generally be applicable to acebook too H we come to the conclusion
thatgreater acebook use is associated with low self-esteem and a feeling of loneliness. )ut the picture
is not all that clear, as some researchers like )urke, %arlow and Fento *./4/1 arguethat the connection
between intensive use of online social networks and loneliness e"isted inthe past, but with the social
networks becoming ever more popular, it does not anymore.
Self-"resentation %$&' (arcisissim and self-esteem on facebook
<n psychology, self-esteem is deIned as a person&s overall self-evaluation of his or her worth.4.
<mplicit and e"plicit self- esteem are subtypes of self-esteem. <mplicit self-esteem is an automatic,
unconscious self-evaluation? e"plicit self-esteem is a more conscious, reJective self-evaluation.4.
$egardless of the type of self-esteem, one of the most pervasive facts about this construct is that all
humans have a vital need to main- tain andKor raise it.4 Barallel to this line of thought, it can be
e"pected that individuals will strive for positive self- presentations in both online and ofJine social
settings. <t is also likely that people with low self-esteem will be even more eager to engage in online
activities that may raise their self- esteem.4 )y doing so, it may provide an outlet for the hoped- for
possible self to be e"pressed.4 Cowever, with regard to online impression management, =ra Lmer and
;inter did not Ind any differences between self-presentation and low and high self-esteem users.4
These contradictory results warrant further research within the emerging Ield of online self-
presentation.
) Literature Review of Research on Facebook #se
The term Msurveillance& was first used by Fampe and his colleagues *.//71 in one of the most
influential studies on acebook. According to them, !acebook may foster relationship building by
allowing users to track other members of their community# *Fampe et al., .//7, p.4731. <n other words,
acebook users keep in touch with their peers by retrieving information about them on the website,
keeping track of their activity, reading what they write, or looking at what they post on their wall. The
researchers carried out two surveys among first-year students at %ichigan 6tate 5niversity, and found
that surveillance is mostly employed to keep in touch with high school friends. 6imilarly, Neynep
Tufekci *.//D1 treated the concept of Msocial grooming& intended as the !interest in e"changing and
browsing social information about friends and ac:uaintances# *Tufekci, .//D, p.22/1. 6he carried out a
A Fiterature $eview of $esearch on acebook 5se The 'pen +ommunication @ournal, ./4., Aolume 7
G0 study investigating how social networks& use and adoption are related to social grooming. )asing
her research on a preliminary :ualitative study with focus groups consisting of 24 college students, she
developed a paper-and-pencil survey to carry out a :uantitative study among 34G college students, and
attempting to answer the research :uestions. The findings show that acebook users are more interested
in social grooming as opposed to non-users and that social grooming appears to be one of the most
attractive features of the website. According to the study carried out by Fampe et al. *.//71 acebook
users employ surveillance to find out information about people with whom they have any sort of
connection, even weak ones such as being in the same class. Cowever, it is rarely the case that users
employ the website to find new friends with the intention of continuing the relationship offline.
=eeping in touch in acebook can be seen as a sort of Mstalking,& as users can gather information about
other people by simply observing without directly being involved in an interaction
ontin!encies of Self-*orth and Social-(etworkin!-Site +ehavior
'nline social media represent signiIcant new opportuni- ties for involvement in broader media
cultures. +elebrities and everyday people alike use microblogging platforms like Twitter to
communicate with MMfollowers&& and MMfans,&& and provide personal photos to be commented upon and
dis- cussed by friends and strangers. An evolving culture of transparency and disclosure has been noted
and often la- mented by scholars of traditional mass media,> yet the use of online platforms for intimate
self-e"pression has become a key component of the overall social environment for many.
Brevious studies have found relationships between tradi- tional mass media and new media behaviors,2
suggesting that a cultural fascination with celebrity may contribute to the ways new communication
platforms are appropriated. This study focuses on a particular type of media-sharing behavior, the
sharing of personal photos, as well as several other typesof ordinarysocial-network
site*6O61behavior.As cameras have become ubi:uitous and ever present *primarily as they have been
integrated with mobile communication devices1, photography has become more than an archival
process. Bhotos do not just commemorate important events and special occasions, but record our
everyday lives and so- cial interactions. 5nlike the te"tual media that has formed the basis of online
communication for most of its e"istence, per- sonal photos are intrinsically intimate, even as the
ubi:uity of Bhotoshop promotes skepticism about the truthfulness of images. +ounts and ellheimer7
suggest that photo sharing serves to enhance the social presence of individuals to their close friends and
family, and helps establish a common social milieu among groups. Cowever, when presented in public
or semipublic fora such as a lickr album or acebook proIle, photos may signal the e"istence of
relationships, a desire for relationships, or even a desire for attention.
'nline social media represent signiIcant new opportuni- ties for involvement in broader media
cultures. +elebrities and everyday people alike use microblogging platforms like Twitter to
communicate with MMfollowers&& and MMfans,&& and provide personal photos to be commented upon and
dis- cussed by friends and strangers. An evolving culture of transparency and disclosure has been noted
and often la- mented by scholars of traditional mass media,> yet the use of online platforms for intimate
self-e"pression has become a key component of the overall social environment for many.
Brevious studies have found relationships between tradi- tional mass media and new media behaviors,2
suggesting that a cultural fascination with celebrity may contribute to the ways new communication
platforms are appropriated. This study focuses on a particular type of media-sharing behavior, the
sharing of personal photos, as well as several other typesof ordinarysocial-network
site*6O61behavior.As cameras have become ubi:uitous and ever present *primarily as they have been
integrated with mobile communication devices1, photography has become more than an archival
process. Bhotos do not just commemorate important events and special occasions, but record our
everyday lives and so- cial interactions. 5nlike the te"tual media that has formed the basis of online
communication for most of its e"istence, per- sonal photos are intrinsically intimate, even as the
ubi:uity of Bhotoshop promotes skepticism about the truthfulness of images. +ounts and ellheimer7
suggest that photo sharing serves to enhance the social presence of individuals to their close friends and
family, and helps establish a common social milieu among groups. Cowever, when presented in public
or semipublic fora such as a lickr album or acebook proIle, photos may signal the e"istence of
relationships, a desire for relationships, or even a desire for attention.
,oes Facebook Influence *ell-+ein! and Self- Esteem )mon! Early )dolescents-
As adolescents begin to use the internet as a way to reinforce their offline relationships and transform
into the most prominent users of the internet, it is no mystery why they would be avid users of social
networking sites, like acebook. Fenhart and %adden *.//31 define social networks as !spaces on the
internet where users can create a profile and connect that profile to others to create a personal
network.# As they evaluate their demographics Fenhart and %adden *.//31 note that age is an
important factor in understanding social networks. Their study in .//3 noted that >48 of teens between
the ages of twelve and thirteen are users of social networking sites where as teens of high school age
between fourteen and seventeen responded as 748 being users of social networking. our years later in
.//0, those numbers showed significant growth indicating that 228 of teens between twelve and
thirteen and D.8 of teens between fourteen and seventeen were now users of social networking sites
*Fenhart, ./441. 0 6ocial networking websites offer various ways for users to communicate with other
members, both within and outside their personal friend networks *Fenhart , %adden, .//31. ;ithin
social networking sites, particularly acebook, there are several functions that allow users to facilitate
communication including sending private messages to a single individual or group of users, posting
comments on the wall of another user, sending !pokes# or kudos, sharing links, posting photos or
giving personal status updates that can include a geographic location and names of others who might be
in the physical company of the user *Fenhart , %adden, .//31. Fenhart and %adden *.//31 presented
the viewpoint of several adolescents who participated in a focus group in which they indicated that they
associated positive feelings with friends posting on their profile wall, noting that D>8 of adolescents
surveyed for their study reported that they have engaged in comment posting on their social networking
site. Fenhart and %adden *.//31 also indicate that one of the major reasons adolescents are using
social networking sites is because these sites give them the opportunity to plunge themselves into a
group of their peers getting instant feedback and affirmation through the built in functions of the
website. !Teens get to feel like they are a part of a group of like-minded friends, and can visualize their
network of relationships, displaying their popularity for others# *Fenhart , %adden, .//31. Though the
research has discussed several of the possible benefits that are linked to the use of the internet and
social networking sites for adolescents, there is still a :uestion of why so many teens feel a draw to use
them. Ees, it is true many adolescents use social networks because their friends use them and after all,
peer approval and belonging to a friend group is essential to an adolescent&s well-being however, what
is it 4/ about online social networks that keep them engaged and going back for moreP =oh and =im
*.//G1 discuss how cyberspace can serve as a way for individuals to generate a virtual sense of
community drawing them in. They discuss community as being relational or social interactions that
bring people together and further, cyberspace can act as a forum for those relationships creating a
virtual sense of community among users *=oh , =im, .//G1. After completing their research of 43.
participants, =oh and =im *.//G1 concluded that a virtual sense of community has three dimensionsQ
membership, influence and immersion, and that each play a role in generating a sense of belonging in
cyberspace. The research indicated that membership is strongly influenced by an individual&s
leadership within an online community, the enjoyability of the interaction and whether the interaction
generated an opportunity for offline contact *=oh , =im, .//G1. ;hile =oh and =im *.//G1 indicated
that cyberspace can generate feelings of belonging and community, $eich *./4/1 e"panded on that idea
to investigate an adolescents& sense of community on social networking sites. After completing surveys
and focus groups with high school and college age adolescents, $eich *./4/1 e"amined five areas that
were present in previous research as well as their own findings? these areas wereQ membership,
influence, integration of needs, shared connection and immersion.
It Is )ll )bout +ein! "opular' .he Effects of (eed for "opularity on Social (etwork Site #se
<ndividuals use social network sites *6O6s1 such as ace- book to present themselves and to maintain
their rela- tionships. The present article e"amines how personality characteristics inJuence 6O6 use.
Brior research focusing on the e"planatory role of the )ig ive, self-esteem, and narcis- sism in 6O6
use has often shown only weak or inconsistent results. The present research proposes need for
popularity *OfB1 as an alternative predictor of a wide range of 6O6 be- haviors. <ndividuals use social
network sites *6O6s1 such as ace- book to present themselves and to maintain their rela- tionships.
The present article e"amines how personality characteristics inJuence 6O6 use. Brior research focusing
on the e"planatory role of the )ig ive, self-esteem, and narcis- sism in 6O6 use has often shown only
weak or inconsistent results. The present research proposes need for popularity *OfB1 as an alternative
predictor of a wide range of 6O6 behaviors. <ndividuals use social network sites *6O6s1 such as ace-
book to present themselves and to maintain their rela- tionships. The present article e"amines how
personality characteristics inJuence 6O6 use. Brior research focusing on the e"planatory role of the )ig
ive, self-esteem, and narcis- sism in 6O6 use has often shown only weak or inconsistent results. The
present research proposes need for popularity *OfB1 as an alternative predictor of a wide range of 6O6
behaviors.
/irror, /irror on my Facebook *all'
Effects of E0posure to Facebook on Self-Esteem
'ver a decade ago, <nternet use was thought to promote negative psychosocial well-being, including
depression and loneliness.4 Caving attracted attention in and out of the research community, these
Indings prompted re- searchers to take a more nuanced look at the relationship between <nternet use
and psychosocial health, at times Inding evidence that <nternet use could be beneIcial. The
presentstudye"tendsthisresearchbye"aminingtheeffectsof the social-networking site acebook
*httpQRRfacebook.com1, which represents a popular new form of <nternet communi- cation, on self-
esteem. Brevious work has addressed the role of acebook and the ability to socialize, and the role that
socializing online plays in supporting self-esteem and various forms of social capital. or e"ample, one
recent study found that acebook can en- hance MMsocial self-esteem,&& measured as perceptions of one&s
physical appearance, close relationships, and romantic ap- peal, especially when users received positive
feedback from acebook friends. Also, individuals with low self-esteem may see particularly positive
beneIts from the social oppor- tunities provided by acebook. The effect of acebook e"posure on
general self-esteem has not been e"plored. Eet acebook, and other social-network sites, have the
potential to affect temporary states of self- esteem. 6ocial-networksites are designed toshare
information about the self with others, including likesRdislikes, hobbies, and personal musings via
MMwall posts,&& and MMstatus updates.&& This information could make people aware of their own lim-
itations and shortcomings, which would lower self-esteem,
or it could be that this information represents selective and therefore positively biased aspects of the
self, which might raiseself-esteem. -oes acebookoperate onself-esteeminthe same way non-digital
information does, by decreasing self- esteemP 'r does the opportunity to present more positive
information about the self while Iltering negative informa- tion mean that reviewing one&s own
acebook site enhances self-esteemP The following piece e"amines these :uestions, by e"ploring the
theoretical predictions of 'bjective 6elf- Awareness *'6A1 theory and the Cyperpersonal %odel.
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