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ENGRANAJES

RUEDAS RECTAS
ENGRANAJE RECTO
Valores Caracteristicos:
Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m en mm
Paso= m
NOMENCLATURA
DIMENSIONES: Dimetro medio: D= m z
Dimetro de cabeza: D= m (z+2)
Dimetro de fondo: D= m (z-2,5)
RUEDAS RECTAS
ENGRANAJE RECTO
Geometra de las
ruedas rectas
RUEDAS RECTAS
FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:
Ft = Mt / R
Fuerza Radial:
Fr = Ft Tg
, ngulo de contacto.
Valor habitual, =20
Dimetro medio: D= ma z
Dimetro de cabeza: D= ma (z+2)
Dimetro de fondo: D= ma (z-2,5)
DIMENSIONES:
Valores Caracteristicos:
Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m en mm
Paso= m
a, ngulo de hlice.
Valores habituales de 15
20
RUEDAS HELICOIDALES
Mdulo aparente:
ma = m / cos a
RUEDAS HELICOIDALES
FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:
Ft = Mt / Ra
Fuerza Radial:
Fr = Ft Tg a
Tg a =Tg / Cos a
Fuerza axial:
Fr = Ft Tg a
RUEDAS CONICAS
Valores Caracteristicos:
Nmero de dientes, z
Mdulo, m medio en mm
Paso= m
1 - 2, ngulos de paso.
Ejes perpendiculares:
1 + 2 = 90
Dimetro medio: D= m z
Dimetro de cabeza: D= m (z+2)
Dimetro de fondo: D= m (z-2,5)
DIMENSIONES:
RUEDAS CONICAS
FUERZAS GENERADAS
Fuerza Tangencial:
Ft = Mt / Rmedio
Fuerza Radial:
Fr = Ft Tg Cos
Fuerza axial:
Fr = Ft Tg Sen
En la figura se
muestra una batidora
industrial, en la que
podemos ver los
diferentes tipos de
engranajes.
Aplicacin de los diferentes tipos de ruedas
Engranaje, tornillo sin fn
a.) de dientes cilndricos b.) doble envolvente.
Pasos diametrales preferidos
Pasos diametrales preferidos para cuatro clases de dientes
Clase Paso diametral,
p
d
, in.
-1

Basto 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
Medio basto 12, 14, 16, 18
Fino 20, 24, 32, 48, 64,
72, 80, 96, 120, 128
Ultrafino 150, 180, 200

Pasos diametrales
Pasos diametrales estndares comparados con el tamao del diente.
Se supone un tamao real
Addendum, Dedendum and Clearance
Parameter Symbol Coarse Pitch
(p
d
<20in
-1
)
Fine pitch
(p
d
20in
-1
)
Metric module
system
Addendum a 1/ p
d
1/ p
d
1.00 m
Dedendum b 1.25/ p
d
1.200/ p
d
+0.002 1.25 m
Clearance c 0.25/ p
d
0.200/ p
d
+0.002 0.25 m
Table 14.2 Formulas for addendum, dedendum, and clearance
(pressure angle 20, full-depth involute.)
Text Reference: Table 14.2, page 623
Pitch and Base Circles
Figure 14.8 Pitch and base
circles for pinion and gear
as well as line of action and
pressure angle.
Text Reference: Figure 14.8, page 624
Involute Curve
Figure 14.9 Construction of involute curve.
Text Reference: Figure 14.9, page 625
Contact Ratio
Figure 14.10 Illustration of parameters important in
defining contact ratio.
Text Reference: Figure 14.10, page 629
Line of Action
Figure 14.11 Details of line of
action, showing angles of
approach and recess for both
pinion and gear.
Text Reference: Figure 14.11, page 629
Backlash
Figure 14.12 Illustration of backlash in gears.
Text Reference: Figure 14.12, page 632
Recommended Minimum Backlash
Diametral
pitch
p
d
, in.
-1
Center distance, c
d
, in.
2 4 8 16 32
Backlash, b
l
, in.
18
12
8
5
3
2
1.25
0.005
0.006
0.007
-
-
-
-
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.010
0.014
-
-
-
0.009
0.010
0.012
0.016
0.021
-
-
-
0.014
0.016
0.020
0.025
0.034
-
-
-
-
0.028
0.033
0.042
Table 14.3 Recommended minimum backlash for coarse-pitch gears.
Text Reference: Table 14.3, page 633
Externally Meshing Spur Gears
Text Reference: Figure 14.13, page 635
Figure 14.13 Externally meshing spur gears.
Internally Meshing Spur Gears
Figure 14.14 Internally
meshing spur gears.
Text Reference: Figure 14.14, page 635
Simple Gear Train
Figure 14.15 Simple gear train.
Text Reference: Figure 14.15, page 636
Compound Gear Train
Figure 14.16 Compound gear train.
Text Reference: Figure 14.16, page 636
Example 14.7
Figure 14.17 Gear train used in
Example 14.7.
Text Reference: Figure 14.17, page 637
Allowable Bending Stress vs. Brinell Hardness
Figure 14.18 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress for
two grades of through-hardened steel [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-
F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definition of Terms with Symbols, American
Gear Manufacturing Association, 1990.]
Text Reference: Figure 14.18, page 638
Contact Stress vs. Brinell Hardness
Figure 14.19 Effect of Brinell Hardness on allowable contact stress for two grades of
through-hardened steel. [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definition of Terms with Symbols, American Gear Manufacturing Association, 1990.]
Text Reference: Figure 14.19, page 639
Forces on Gear Tooth
Figure 14.20 Forces acting
on individual gear tooth.
Text Reference: Figure 14.20, page 640
Bending Stresses
Figure 14.21 Forces and length dimensions used in determining bending
tooth stresses. (a) Tooth; (b) cantilevered beam.
Text Reference: Figure 14.20, page 641
Lewis Form Factors
Number of
Teetch
Lewis form
Factor
Number of
Teeth
Lewis form
factor
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
0.176
0.192
0.210
0.223
0.236
0.245
0.256
0.264
0.270
0.277
0.283
0.292
0.302
0.308
0.314
0.318
0.322
34
36
38
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
90
100
150
200
300
0.325
0.329
0.332
0.336
0.340
0.346
0.352
0.355
0.358
0.360
0.361
0.363
0.366
0.368
0.375
0.378
0.382
Table 14.4 Lewis form factors for various numbers of teeth (pressure
angle 20, full depth involute).
Text Reference: Table 14.4, page 642
Spur Gear Geometry Factors
Figure 14.22 Spur gear geometry factors for pressure angle of 20 and full-
depth involute. [ANSI/AGMA Standard 1012-F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definition of Terms with Symbols, American Gear Manufacturing
Association, 1990.]
Text Reference: Figure 14.21, page 643
Application Factor
Driven Machines
Power Source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock
Application factor, K
a
Uniform
Light shock
Moderate shock
1.00
1.20
1.30
1.25
1.40
1.70
1.50
1.75
2.00
1.75
2.25
2.75
Table 14.5 Application factor as a function of driving power source and driven
machine.
Text Reference: Table 14.5, page 643
Size Factor
Diametral pitch p
d
,
in.
-1
Module, m,
mm
Size factor, K
s
5
4
3
3
1.25
5
6
8
12
20
1.00
1.05
1.15
1.25
1.40
Table 14.6 Size factor as a function of diametral pitch or module.
Text Reference: Table 14.6, page 644
Load Distribution Factor
Figure 14.23 Load distribution factor as function of face width
and ratio of face width to pitch diameters. Commercial quality
gears assumed. [From Mott (1992).]
Text Reference: Figure 14.23, page 645
Dynamic Factor
Text Reference: Figure 14.24, page 645
Figure 14.24 Dynamic factor as function of pitch-line velocity and
transmission accuracy level number.
Helical Gear
Figure 14.25 Helical gear. (a) Front view; (b) side view.
Text Reference: Figure 14.25, page 651
Pitches of Helical Gears
Figure 14.26 Pitches of helical gears. (a) Circular; (b) axial.
Text Reference: Figure 14.26, page 652
Motor Torque and Speed
Figure 14.28 Torque and speed of motor as function of current for
industrial mixer used in case study.
Text Reference: Figure 14.28, page 655