Está en la página 1de 104

DCMCDd|0D1Z

LO0paOl

I''U5lHP55 y5!P5
.
TECHN|CAL DEBCH|PT|N
PAHT 1
This manual was prepared by B R Horsfield C. Eng. , F. I. E. E. Technical Consultant, with
assistance from technical staff associated with Monarch 120B Compact.
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is current,
subsequent changes may have taken place which are not recorded in this issue (8/82)
" 1982 British Telecommunications.
*Monarch is a Registered Trademark of British Telecommunications.
|
t
|
|
I
I
I
|
|
I
|
|
|
I
|

'
\
\
\
\
\
I
\
\
l
\
\
\
\
I
\
PREFACE
The Monarch 120B Compact Call Connect System embodies many of the design principles used
in the highly successful Monarch 120 System, large numbers of which are now installed and
giving excellent service. It is a fully electronic, stored program controlled, digital switching
system, specifically designed for use as a Private Automatic Branch Exchange at customers'
installations with 50 extensions or less, yet having the ability in most situations to expand and
cater economically for up to 120 extensions and a total of 32 exchange lines and Inter-PBX
circuits. The maximum number of exchange lines is 26 and at an installation with one operator's
console the maximum number ofInter-PBX circuits is 12. The system is provided in two table
top units: a basic unit, which is sufficient by itself to meet the normal requirements of
installations having up to 56 extensions, and an add-on unit which is required for l arger
installations. The add-on unit fits on top of the basic unit and may be provided at any time to
accommodate growth.
The system offers a wide range of user facilities and incorporates switching principles and
physical design features which ensure that installations will be capable, during their working
life, of responding to new requirements resulting from evolutionary changes in the public or
private networks to which they are connected. The system also takes full advantage of modern
technology, making extensive use oflarge scale integrated circuits, microprocessors and other
advanced design features, to ensure a high standard of reliability, virtually silent operation, a
small accommodation requirement, low cost, and low power consumption.
The technical description in this manual is divided into 2 parts.
Part 1
Which provides an outline system description for senior engineering managers and others
who wish to acquire a general appreciation of the system architecture, operating principles
and physical construction, but do not have time to study the more detailed design features.
Part Z
Which provides additional design detail for those who have a specialised interest in the
switching field. This part assumes from the beginning that the reader is fully conversant
with the content of Part 1.
Where appropriate, certain material has been removed into appendices to avoid disturbing the
continuity of the main description.
Page 1
Q6 Z
f
I
l
l
|
f
l
|
'
|
|
|
|
\
\
1Pt
.tJ
:t(
.4.

q
LDHLM 1 LLIDL LDLLL b`b
LMILDbLHIIIL ~ VDH 1
LLb
INTRODUCTION
2 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 General
2. 2 Physical Features
2. 3 System Capacity
2. 4 Electrical Characteristics
2. 5 Automatic Performance Checks
2.6 Maintenance Philosophy
2.7 Control of Facilities
2.8 Installation Principles
2. 9 Documentation
3 OUTLINE SYSTEM OPERATION
3. 1 System Organisation
3. 2 Line Units
3. 3 The Concentrating Shelf Interface
3. 4 The Shelf Multiplex
3. 5 The Speech Switch
3.6 The Signalling Circuit
3. 7 The Address Decoder
3. 8 Control Equipment
3. 9 The Services Card
3. 10 The Console
3. 11 The Power Supply
4 PHYSICAL ENGINEERING
5 IN-BUILT DIAGNOSTIC CHECKS
6 MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE CAPABILITIES
7 INTEGRATING THE SYSTEM INTO THE ORGANISATION OF THE
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATION
7. 1 General
7.2 Selling and Ordering
7.3 Assembly, Testing and Installation
7.4 Maintenance and Repair
7. 5 Consultative Assistance
APPENDICES
1 GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS
2 LEVELS OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR FACILITY CHANGES
J PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM) TRANSMISSION AND SWITCHING
+ THE HEXADECIMAL NUMBERING SYSTEM
Q6 o
|Q64
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|

\
1 INTRODUCTION
1 . 1 Part 1 describes the general characteristics of the Monarch 120B Compact system and gives
an outline description of the system operation, together with references to those technical
features which contribute to the attainment of a high standard of reliability, ease of maintenance
and minimum on-site installation costs. A quick appreciation of the system may be obtained by
reading Section 2 and sub-Section 3. 1 .
1 .2 The term "Central Equipment Unit" (CE U) used i n this description refers t o the basic unit
at installations which do not have an add-on unit, or to the combined units where both are
provided.
1. 3 Where reference is made in the description to storage capacity, normal
computer/microprocessor practice has been followed by using a capital "K" to represent 210, ie
1024. Thus 64K 65,536. A small "k" which is used extensively elsewhere in the manual,
represents 1000.
1. 4 A glossary of technical terms used in Parts 1 and 2 of the manual is given in Appendix 1 .
Q6 O
Q6
I
I
|
I
I
I
|
I
I
I
|
|
l
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
2 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 L6H6tM
2. 1 . 1 The basic unit of the system normally caters for up to 56 extensions, 14 exchange lines, 2
inter-PBX circuits and one operator's console. The add-on unit normally caters for up to 64
extensions, 12 exchange lines -and 10 inter-PBX circuits; if desired a second console may be
provided in place of two of the inter-PBX circuits. The maximum number ofinter-PBX circuits
may be reduced at early installations when certain types of signalling are used. Within certain
limits the relative numbers of extensions and exchange lines may be adjusted to suit the
requirements of diferent installations. In this manual it is assumed that the units are equipped to
cater for the numbers of extensions and exchange lines referred to earlier in this paragraph, in
which case the two units combined will cater for up to 120 extensions, 26 exchange lines, 12
inter-PBX circuits and a console. There is an over-riding requirement that the total number of
exchange lines and inter-PBX circuits shall not exceed 32.
Part l Figure l (a) The Basic Unit
Page
Page
2. 1 .2 The system design, which utilises PCM transmissions, solid state time division switching
with microprocessor control, printed circuit boards and plug-in units with two-part gold plated
connectors, offers the following advantages:
M
The use of an operator's console with touch sensitive keys and a visual display which
keeps the operator fully informed at all times and encourages maximum operating
efciency.
A wide range of user facilities for extensions and the console operator, and freedom to
change many of these facilities at will.
iii High reliability, supported by an extensive program of in-built automatic diagnostic
routines, resulting in long period of trouble free service.
I Virtually noise free connections within the system.
v Effectively silent operation which enables the switching unit to be installed in an ofice
environment.
1 Low initial cost.
vu Low power consumption.
NI Ease of maintenance, which together with (vii) results in low running costs.
2 Low installation costs.
x Full compatability with future evolution towards integrated digital transmission and
switching in the public network to which the system is connected.
xi Flexibility to enable the system to be readily adapted to meet unforeseen requirements in
the future.
Part l Figure l (b) The Basic and Add-On Units Combined
|
I
f
|
|
|
l
|
|
\
|
\
\
\
\
.
|
\
I
2.2 Physical Features
2. 2. 1 The Equipment units are designed for use on a desk or table. Figure 1 (a) shows the basic
unit only and Figure 1 (b) shows the basic and add-on units combined. Both units have the same
nominal dimensions which are:-
Height 297 mm
Width 807 mm
Depth 4 77 mm
(approx 1 1 .7 inches)
( approx 2ft 8inches)
( approx 1ft 6. 75 inches) ( front to back)
These dimensions facilitate easy transportation through normal door openings, lifts, etc. prior to
installation. The maximum weight of each unit when fully equipped is approximately 37 kg (80
lbs). In both cases the weight is supported by two plinths, each of which has a bearing surface 782
mm long and 12.5 mm wide. Front and rear access is provided, although in most circumstances
access is only required from the front. The dimensions and materials have been chosen to
combine lightness with rigidity. Fans are provided in both units to ensure adequate cooling.
2. 2. 2 The operator's console unit is attractively styled for use on an ofce desk or table, as may
be seen from the illustration in Figure 2. Its nominal dimensions are:-
Height 130 mm (approx 5. 1inches)
Width 4 70 mm (approx 18.5inches)
Depth 250 mm ( approx 9. 8inches) (front to back)
No moving parts are used in the normal operation of the console which also has its own in-built
microprocessor providing sophisticated facilities and self-checking capabilities.
Part lFigure 2 The Operator's Console
Q6U
Page 1
Operator-to-machine communication is by means of touch sensltlve keys, and
machine-to-operator communication is by way of a Visual Display Unit VDUjand a limited
number oflamp indicators. The VD U displays, in alpha-numeric form, such information as the
calling circuit identity, the extension number keyed, the class of service of the called extension,
the extension status, etc. The system may also be programmed to provide an accurate display of
the time and date on the VDU in response to a keyed request from the console operator. D
typical display of call information is shown in Figure 3.
The console can be used to effect changes in extension numbers, extension Class of Service , etc,
and to obtain displays of fault information, or to run diagnostic tests.
Part l Figure J Typical Display 0h VDU
|
|
t
t
|
C
C
C
C
C
|
|
|
C
t
\
\
\
\
|
|
|
2. 3 System Capacity
2. 3. 1 Line circuits are connected to "ports" at the periphery of the system; extensions are
connected to plug-in wiring boards, each of which caters for 8 line circuits; exchange lines are
connected to boards which cater for 4 line circuits; inter-PBX circuits are connected to boards
which cater for 2 circuits (or at some early installations possibly one circuit, depending on the
method of signalling used) . Each operator' s console requires a printed board for its exclusive use.
MF keyphone receivers, which appear at the periphery of the system, are mounted on a separate
"Services Card" which also contains other types of functional unit, as described later in the
manual.
2. 3. 2 The maximum capacity of the system and the incremental growth steps of the equipment
are shown in Table 1 .
Type of Circuit System Capacity
Extensions Minimum 8, Maximum 120
Exchange Lines Minimum 0, Maximum 26
(Note 1 )
Inter-PBX Circuits Minimum 0, Maximum 12
(Notes 1 and 2)
Consoles Minimum 0, Maximum 2
MF Keyphone Receivers Minimum 6, Maximum 6
Notes 1 The total number of exchange lines plus inter-PBX circuits must not exceed JZ.
Incremental
Step
8
4
1 or 2
1
-
Z The maximum number of inter-PBX circuits is reduced by Z i a second console is provided. At early
installations the total number of inter-PBX circuits may be reduced when certain types of signalling are used on
the circuits.
Table ! System Capacity and Incremental Growth
The data in Table 1 relate to normal usage of the system. In exceptional circumstances additional
extensions may be obtained by plugging 8 port cards into 4 port positions, but in these cases only
4 of the ports can be used.
Q6 1 1
Q6 12
Z.+ Electrical Characteristics
2. 4. 1 The principal electrical characteristics of the system are listed in Table 2.
1 Extension line voltage
2 Extension line current (off-hook)
(Constant current feed)
3 Extension loop resistance
(including instrument resistance)
4 Extension insulation limit
5 Extension ringing
6 Extension telephone
7 Maximum number of bells per
extension (in series)
8 Extension wiring
9 Exchange line loop resistance
limit (includes resistance of
exchange equipment)
10 Exchange line insulation limit
11 Exchange line signalling
12 Transmission bandwidth
13 Call Records
14 Total system traffic (at P 0. 01 )
(a) Basic Unit
(b) Combined Units
15 Average traffc per extension (at P 0. 01)
(a) Basic Unit
(b) Combined Units
16 Power Supply (a) Voltage
17 Power drain
(b) Frequency
(c) Maximum break in
main supply
18 Normal operating ambient
temperature range
19 Normal operating relative
humidity range
The actual number depends on the characteristics of the bells.
50V 0.5V
25mA to 35mA
1 ,200 Ohms, maximum
10k Ohms, minimum
75V, 25 Hz
Dial type or MF Keyphones
4 bells (Note 1 )
2 wires plus earth
1, 400 Ohms, maximum
10k Ohms, minimum
OIG earth seizure
( or loop seizure) ;
IIC AC 25 Hz
300-3400 Hz
32
10. 7 Erlangs ( 385ccs) ( Note 2)
21. 5 Erlangs (774ccs ) ( Note 3)
0. 22 Erlangs (7.9ccs) (Note 2)
0. 21 Erlangs (7.5ccs) (Note 3)
230V 10% -20%
45Hz-65Hz
10 ms
approx 380 watts per
cabinet (max)
5'C to 35'C ( Note 4)
30% to 70% ( Note 4)
Notes I
Z
J

Assumes J% internal trafic, 'extensions and P .'on exchange lines.


Assumes J% internal trafic, IZextensions and P .'on exchange lines.
For applications outside the Llplease consult the supplier.
Table Z Principal Electrical Characteristics ofthe System
Z.b Automatic Performance Checks
2. 5. 1 The system incorporates an extensive range of automatic diagnostic checks and, in
addition, continually confirms that the main Central Processing Unit (CPU) is functioning.
The comprehensive set of automatic tests, which includes checks of the speech and signalling
paths through the switchblock, is made one test at a time about every 15 seconds. The time taken
to test the complete exchange depends on the size of the particular installation and the trafic
loading. If a fault is encountered during one of these tests, the equipment automatically initiates a
fault analysis routine to check all the other items of equipment involved in the test, before
recording the identity of the faulty unit; if the fault has already been detected on a previous test
cycle the fault record is up-dated but no other action is taken. If the fault is detected for the frst
time, details are recorded in the fault record and, depending on the nature of the fault, an urgent
or non-urgent alarm indication is given at the operator' s console, and the details are displayed
within the switching unit. In response to touching a single key at the console, the identity of the
I
I
I
|
f
f
|
|
I
|
|
|
|
!
'

\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
faulty unit, and further details, are displayed on the VDU and the operator can pass this
information to the fault control point. Provision is also made for on-site maintenance staff to
initiate a test of any unit at any time. Continuous tests are made of the link circuit to the
operator's console and the console itself has in-built test routines to check the keypad, VDU
display and supervisory indicators.
2.6 Maintenance Philosophy
2.6. 1 The basic maintenance philosophy is one of on-site replacement of plug-in printed cards,
and this, in conjunction with the automatic identification of faulty cards described in Paragraph
2. 5. 1 results in the rapid rectification of faults. Faulty cards can be returned to centralised repair
depots to be dealt with by a small number of specialised staff
2.7 Control of Facilities
2. 7.1 The system provides a very extensive range offacilities for the extension user, the console
operator, senior management in the business served by the PABX, and the operating
administration or company responsible for the installation and maintenance of the equipment.
These facilities are fully described in the Customer Facilities Book PH3253. The use of processor
control enables many of the facilities to be changed solely by alterations to the information
contained in the customer Data Base and others to be changed by using different plug-in units of
physical equipment (hardware) in conjunction with software changes. The operator's console
or a Master Telephone or Teletype terminal may be used to effect Data Base modifications and
hence to implement those facility changes which depend only on such modifications. Provision is
made for 3 levels of responsibility for facility changes :
Level 1 Changes which the customer (eg console operator or master phone user) is permitted
to make.
Level 2 Changes which the normal maintenance staff are permitted to make.
Level 3 Changes which only specialised maintenance staff are permitted to make.
Lists of the changes which are appropriate to these different levels of responsibility are given in
Appendix 2. Access to the system to make changes is obtained by keying passwords known only
to those entitled to use them. Passwords which give access to the higher levels of responsibility
automatically confer the power to make changes appropriate to the lower levels of
responsibility. The passwords may be changed at any time.
2.8 Installation Principles
2.8. 1 In the system design, particular attention has been paid to the need to reduce on-site
installation time to a minimum. Line cabling is plug-ended and connected to the rear of the units.
All that is necessary, after delivery and siting of the cabinets, is to connect up the power supply
leads and plug-in the external cables. For British Telecom applications the units are supplied
with cables 3 metres long already connected. The operator's console is connected to the system
via a single cable and plug, and may be placed in any location subject to the requirement that the
total cable length should not exceed 1. 2 km. Longer distances are possible by using heavier gauge
cable (or bunched pairs) to supply the power, or by supplying power to the console locally.
Once the power is connected to the system installation testing can commence. Use is made of the
in-built diagnostic routines to identify any major faults, and facility checks are run to confirm the
correct operation. If desired, the complete provisioning procedure can be managed using
computer based records. With this technique a customer's ordering requirement in terms of
system size and facilities is entered into the computer where it is used to derive the necessary
operational data. This includes such information as stock lists, confguration, layout, installation
charges and rental, customer Data Base and user instructions. The customer Data Base, together
with the main program, is then transferred to the system memory boards prior to installation
using a specially programmed control unit known as the Automatic Memory Board Loading
Equipment ( AMBLE) . The whole process can thus be automated so that the time between
placing an order and delivery on site, is reduced to a minimum.
Q6 1 o
Q6 1A
Z.V Documentation
2. 9. 1 Complete documentation is supplied with each installation and includes:
For the user and British T elecom
Publicity Leaflet PH3235
System Description PH3244
Customer Facilities Book PH3253
Extension Users' Handbook PH3236
Operators' Handbook PH3237
Customers' MMI Instructions PH3238
Dial and Press Button Extension Facility Cards
For British Telecom only
Technical Description, Parts 1 and 2
Monarch Marketing Support Package
Completion of Sales Documentation for a Full Program Data Base (Booklet)
Engineering Completion and use of Customer Requirement Forms (Booklet)
Planning Handbook
Installation and Commissioning Handbook
System Maintenance Handbook
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
l
I
I
l
l
l
|
l
l
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
3 OUTLINE SYSTEM OPERTION
3. 1 System Organisation
3. 1. 1 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) transmission and switching techniques are employed
thoughout the system, and for those not familiar with these techniques, a brief description is
given in Appendix 3. A simplifed block schematic diagram of the system is given in Figure 4.
This figure shows the arrangements on the concentrating line shelf positions on which extensions
and exchange lines terminate; the alternative arrangements used on the non-concentrating line
shelf positions for inter-PBX circuits and the console(s) are described later. For ease of
presentation, the 2 extensions shown in Figure 4 appear at opposite sides of the exchange, but
there is no physical signifcance in this; indeed, when the 2 extensions in communication are
connected to line circuits in the same unit (basic or add-on) the same Concentrating Shelf
Interface is used by both extensions, although the call is, of course, routed in and out of the
Speech Switch and Signalling Circuit.
3. 1.2 Each extension and exchange line terminates on a line circuit which incorporates an
individual PCM coder/decoder (codec) and signalling elements to send and receive standard
line signals. The codec has access to two 32 channel PCM highways (one for each direction of
transmission) which are common to all the extension and exchange line circuits in the
concentrating shelf positions in the same unit (basic or add-on) . These highways each carry 8 bit
PCM encoded speech, and since the sampling rate is 8 KHz, the total bit rate is 2. 048 Mbit/s (32 X
8 X 8000) . The transmission characteristics of the encoded speech on the highways fully conform
to CCITT standards (Law encoding can be supplied if required) . In the case of extensions, 8
line circuits are mounted on a single plug-in Line Unit, and in the case of exchange lines, 4 line
circuits are mounted on a unit. In both cases each Line Unit also accommodates a
micro-computer which acts as a common control for all the line circuits on the unit, and is in
permanent communication, over an 8 wire bothway signalling bus, with the Concentrating
ShelfInterface (CSI) which is common to all the concentrating shelf positions in the same unit
(basic or add-on) . When an outgoing, or incoming, call is originated, the micro-computer in the
CSI informs the micro-computer in the Line Unit which channel has been allocated for the call,
and the latter micro-computer sends a control signal to the codec to cause it to make connection
to the highways during the time slot corresponding to that channel. Thus, the CSI, jointly with
all the Line Units in the concentrating shelf positions, forms a distributed time switch that
enables any of the line circuits (ports) in these shelf positions to be connected temporarily to any
channel ( timeslot) on the speech highways. At the CSI the speech highways are extended to the
Speech Switch.
3. 1. 3 All signals between the Line Units in the concentrating shelf positions and the CSI pass in
8 bit parallel form over the bothway signalling bus. The CSI is also connected over separate
single wire signalling-in and signalling-out highways to the Signalling Circuit. The bits used on
these highways are assembled into groups (bytes) of 8 bits, designated A to H, each having its
own timeslot. The highways each provide 32 such timeslots, corresponding to the 32 timeslots on
the speech highways, but running at one-eighth of the speed (256 kbit/s) . A simple coding
system is used to give different signalling meanings to different bit combinations within the
bytes. During call set up and release some signals are restricted to the signalling bus between the
Line Unit and the CSI, but once a call has been established subsequent signals, conforming to the
coding used on the signalling highways, are relayed by the CSI to and from the Line Unit. Since
the method of transmitting signals over the signalling bus (but not the signal codes) differs from
that on the signalling highways, it is necessary for the CSI to store and reformat the signals in
both directions between the Line Unit and the Signalling Circuit.
Q6 1 5
SIGNALLING 8US
SIGNALLING
256 kbit/s
SPEECH
HIGHWAYS
2 048 Mbit/s
ENCODED SPEECH SAMPLES
/
NOTES, 1.The address decoder is mounted on the same board as the signalling circuit and the Speech Switch.
2.ln Monarch 1208 Compact. up to 76 line circuits may have access to the speech highways.
SPEECH
2048 Mbit/s
ENCDDED SPEECH SAMPLES

SIGNALLING
256 kbit/s
SIGNALLING BUS
PART | FIGURE 4. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM (CONCENTRATI NG SHELF ARRANGEMENTS).
Page 1
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
I
I
I
{
TO AND FROM
OTHER LINE
CI RCUITS ON
THE SAME
SHELF

TO SIGNALLING
CIRCUli AND
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
TO OTHER SHELF
MULIPLEX CI RCUITS
10R EQUIVALENT)

TO SIGNALLING
CIRCUIT AND
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
PART 1. FI GURE o. NON-CONCENTRATING SHELF ARRANGEMENTS.
3. 1. 4 Inter-PBX circuits and console line circuits terminate on Line Units in
non-concentrating shelf positions which are served by a Shelf Multiplex in place of the CS!.
Depending on the type of Line Unit concerned, each inter-PBX line circuit has one or two
separate paths in each direction to and from the Shelf Multiplex provided for its exclusive use,
and each console line circuit always has two separate paths in each direction. Each plug-in unit
accommodates 2 inter-PBX line circuits (at some early installations, possibly one, depending on
the type of signalling) , or one console line circuit. The resultant modifcations to the block
schematic diagram in Figure 4 , necessary to show the Shelf Multiplex and inter-PBX/console
Line Unit arrangements are indicated in Figure 5. The transmission paths in each direction,
between each line circuit and the Shelf Multiplex, carry 8 bit PCM encoded speech plus a single
bit per sample for signalling purposes, ie a total of9 bits per sample. With a sampling rate of8
kHz, the total bit rate on these transmission paths is 72 kbit/s (9 X 8000) .
3. 1. 5 The Shelf Multiplex i s designed to serve up to 32 transmissions paths to and from the Line
Units, although in Monarch 120B Compact this number of transmission paths is not required
and the Shelf Multiplex i

not used to its full capacity. At the Shelf Multiplex circuit, combined
speech and signalling bits from all the line circuits enter the equipment over the 72 kbit/s paths.
The signalling bits are separated from the speech bits and the latter are multiplexed to form a
standard 32 time slotPCM group which is extended over a 2.04 8Mbi t/s (8 X 8000 X 32) highway
to the Speech Switch. The signalling bits are extended over a separate 256 kbit/s ( 1 X 8000 X 32)
highway to the Signalling Circuit. The speech and signalling formats at this point are illustrated
in Figure 6. In the opposite direction of transmission, speech bits are received over a 2.04 8 Mbit/s
highway from the Speech Switch, and signalling bits are received over a 256 kbit/s highway
from the Signalling Circuit. These are then demultiplexed and combined to provide speech and
signalling at 72 kbit/s from the shelf multiplex to each line circuit. The formats on the speech and
signalling highways to and from the Shelf Multiplex are identical to those on the highways to and
from the Concentrating ShelfInterface used for the concentrating shelf positions and so far as the
Speech Switch and Signalling Circuit are concerned, the highways are inter-changeable.
TO AND FROM
OTHER LINE
CI RCUITS ON
THE SAME
SHELF
Page 1
SPEECH PLUS SI GNALLI NG BETWEEN PORT CI RCUIT AND SHELF MULI PLEX 72 sUII/s
SPEECH BETWEEN SHELF MULI PLEX AND SPEECH SWITCH 2048 kI/s
. _ .... .. _ .. .... ....'
~ ` `
PORT 0 PORT 1 PORT 2
SI GNALLI NG BETWEEN SHELF MULTI PLEX AND SI GNALlNG CI RCUI T obkI/s
pp ........ ..../^... ..'
~ `
Q6 1 8
PORT 0 PORT 1 PORT 2
PART !, FI GURE b.SPEECH AND SI GNALLI NG BI T FORMATS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHELF MU LTI PLEX.
3. 1. 6 The Speech Switch and Signalling Circuit are multi-purpose designs which each have a
capacity for up to 8 highways. In Monarch 120B Compact, 3 highways are used in the basic unit;
one for the concentrating shelf positions, one for the non-concentrating shelf positions and one
for the Services Card, and in the add-on unit 2 highways are used; one for the concentrating shelf
positions, and one for the non-concentrating shelf positions. Thus, when both units are
provided, use is made of5 of the 8 high ways and the remaining 3 are spare. The descriptions of the
operation of the Speech Switch and Signalling Circuit given in the following paragraphs assume
that all 8 highways are used and relate to the concentrating line shelf positions, where a channel is
allocated to a port for each call, as already described, and different channels are allocated to the
same port for different calls. Since in the Monarch 120B Compact application less than 8
highways are used, the surplus input and output highway terminals are left spare. In the case of
the non-concentrating shelf positions, each port is permanently allocated a channel for its
exclusive use. Thus, in this latter case, the storage locations in the Speech Switch and Signalling
Circuit each represent not only a channel but a particular port. The resultant slight modifications
to the operational description in the following paragraphs should be readily apparent.
3. 1 .7 The 8 highways connected to the Speech Switch are collectively capable of carrying
speech samples corresponding to 256 (8 X 32) channels. Within the Speech Switch each of these
channels is permanently allocated an 8 bit location in a 256 X 8 bit speech store which takes the
form of a Random Access Memory (RAM) . The bits representing the speech samples arrive in
serial form over the highways, and after conversion to parallel form are entered into the
appropriate parts of the speech store. After each frame period, the bits stored against a particular
channel are replaced by the next sample. When a call is in progress, the control equipment has
already received the keyed, or dialled, digits and recorded the identities of the calling and called
l
I
f
l
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
I
I
I
|
|
|
l
\
l
\
\
\
line circuits, and the channels which have been connected to these line circuits. The identities of
the 2 channels which need to be interconnected to maintain the connection are passed from the
CPU to another 256 X 8 bit RAM (the Connection Store) in the Speech Switch. In Figure 4 it is
assumed that line circuit A is connected to line circuit B. The information in the connection store
causes the speech sample held in the speech store of the channel to which line circuit A is
connected to be transferred to the output of the Speech Switch at a time which will cause it to be
sent out in the timeslot of the channel to which line circuit B is connected. Similarly, the
information held in the speech store of the channel to which line circuit B is connected, is
transferred to the output of the Speech Switch at a time which will cause it to be sent out in the
timeslot of the channel to which line circuit A is connected. Thus the Speech Switch, under the
control of the connection store provides a single stage 256 X 256 non-blocking, full availability
switch for inter-connecting channels in the 8 incoming and 8 outgoing highways connected to it.
3. 1.8 Every channel in the eight 256 kbit/s signalling-in highways connected to the Signalling
Circuit is permanently allocated an 8 bit store in one half of a 512 X 8 bit RAM in this circuit.
After conversion from serial to parallel form, each successive byte of signalling information from
the channel is placed in this half of the store. Thus, a change of signalling condition is registered in
the store within 1 ms (See paragraph 3. 1. 3) . The control equipment scans this signalling-in half of
the store and on detecting a change of condition, takes appropriate action. In the case of channels
which are not in use, the scanning interval is 128 ms, but while a channel is connected to a line
circuit in the dialling state the interval is reduced to 8 ms.
3. 1.9 The other half of the RAM in the Signalling Circuit has a permanently allocated 8 bit
location for each of the 256 channels provided by the 8 signalling-out highways. When the
control equipment requires to send a signalling instruction to a Concentrating ShelfInterface
(usually for onward transmission to a line circuit) it places an appropriately coded signalling byte
in the store location corresponding to the channel concerned. The Signalling Circuit, after
converting the information from parallel to serial form, sends the byte to the CSI during the
channel timeslot period.
3. 1 . 10 The system control equipment, which consists of a Central Processing Unit (CPU)
with appropriate program and data stores, communicates with different parts of the system via 2
multi-wire paths referred to as the "address bus" and the "data bus". The data bus uses 8 bits
throughout, whereas 20 bits are used on the address bus between the CPU and its associated
memories and the Address Decoder, and 8 bits between the Address Decoder and the Signalling
Circuit and the connection store in the Speech Switch. The capacity of the address bus between
the CPU and its associated stores and the Address Decoder is increased to 20 bits by a technique
known as "bank switching" described later in the manual. From Figure 4 it will be seen that the
Signalling Circuit and the Speech Switch, form the interfaces between the control equipment
and the rest of the system. When the CPU needs to send information it connects to the address
bus, in parallel binary coded form, the identity of the point to which the information should go,
and after receiving an acknowledgement signal sends the information, also in parallel binary
coded form, over the data bus. Similarly, if the CPU needs to obtain information it sends the
identity of the information source over the address bus and after receiving an acknowledgement
signal accepts the information in parallel binary coded form over the data bus. The use 0[20 bits
on the address bus provides a theoretical capacity for over a million destinations and the use of8
bits on the data bus enables up to 256 different bytes of information to be sent to or received from
each destination. A separate control bus is provided to indicate whether a read or write function
is to be performed and to enable the acknowledgement signalto be retured, but this has been
omitted from Figure 4 in the interests of clarity.
3. 1 . 1 1 The CPU itself consists of a micro-processor contained in a single integrated circuit.
The information which it requires to fulfil its control functions is contained in 3 different stores: -
A Main Program store which contains the information on which the basic operation of
the exchange depends. This is recorded on Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
(EPROM).
I1 A Customer's Data Base store which contains information relating to the particular
installation (extension numbers, class of service information, short code dialling data,
etc) . This is recorded on EPROM and copied into Random Access Memory ( RAM) to
enable the customer to make changes, as described in Paragraph 2. 7. 1
Q6 T U
Q6 Z
111 A Call Record Store which contains all the information relating to each call in progress at
any particular time. This is recorded on a RAM store.
In addition to the main bus connections, referred to in Paragraph 3. 1. 10, three data input/output
channels are provided for connection to external items of equipment:-
To a portable teletype, or similar machine for use in interrogating the exchange, either
directly or over a modem link.
11 To data logging equipment.
111 To provide specialist maintenance information.
A special circuit, known as the "Watchdog". is also included to monitor the operation of the
CPU. The watchdog should receive a pulse signal from the CPU every 100 ms, when the latter is
functioning correctly. If the signal is not received, the watchdog causes a "warm start" interrupt
procedure to be applied to the microprocessor, which results in the suspension of the software
process running at the time and activates the scheduling of the next process waiting to be run.
The watchdog is reset by the receipt of256 good pulses from the CPU. If12 warm starts occur
without the watchdog being reset a "cold start" interrupt procedure is applied, and this forces a
complete re-start of the program which, in turn, clears all calls and working data storage in the
exchange. before attempting further processing. If a further 3 signals to the watchdog are missed
without a reset occurring, then, after 2 more cold starts, the watchdog halts the processor and
forces the exchange to go into the dropback state. In this latter state, an urgent alarm is activated
and a number of designated extensions are connected directly to exchange lines to provide an
emergency service. The CPU printed board provides a 2 digit hexadecimal display on its front
edge. This is used to indicate any tests which are failing and also the current state of the system. A
brief description of the hexadecimal numbering system is given in Appendix 4. The system
maintenance handbook defines the 2 digit codes.
3. 1 . 12 The operator's fully electronic console is probably the most advanced unit of its kind in
the world for small private exchanges. It contains its own micro-processor and program
memory. has a touch sensitive keypad with depressions for fnger location in place of the usual
keys, and contains a Visual Display Unit ( VDU) , which gives an alpha-numeric display of 64
characters, each of which is formed from a 5 X 7 element matrix. It also contains a limited number
of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to give lamp type signals to the operator. A block schematic
diagram of the console is given in Figure 7. All the equipment, apart from that in the console line
unit and a supply current limiter, both of which are in the Central Equipment Unit (CEU) , is
contained within the console itself The console line unit occupies the whole of a 2 port line card
in the CEU. Two 4-wire analogue speech circuits are provided between this unit and the
console, to enable the operator to speak to both parties on a call, and to have separate access to
either party if, and when, required; another 4-wire circuit is also provided for signalling
purposes. Signalling over the links in each direction is effected by means of asynchronous digital
transmission at 2. 4 kbit/s, with automatic error detection. The same format is used on the
signalling link for all messages - one 8 bit information byte from the console to the CEU, and
three 8 bit information bytes from the CEU to the console, plus start/stop signals, sequence
checks and parity bits. When there is no activity on the link a continuous interchange of "idle"
signals takes place between the console and the CE U. If this ceases, calls are directed to
alternative answer points. Thus, any failure of the link is automatically detected and appropriate
action taken. A queueing capability isincluded in the console system to ensure that, under
normal conditions, calls are dealt with in the order in which they arrive. The basic control
program for the microprocessor is stored in an Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
(EPROM) with capacity for 20K eight bit bytes. Working data, such as messages received over
the signalling link. are stored in a Random Access Memory ( RAM) with capacity for 2K eight bit
bytes. The VDU is actuated by a drive circuit containing another RAM in which the
information to be displayed is stored. The microprocessor communicates with its own
memories, the VDU drive, the touch sensitive keypad, the operator's speech circuit and the
signalling link terminal, over the 16 bit address bus and 8 bit data bus in a similar way to that in
which the microprocessor in the CEU communicates with its associated memories and other
units.
|
|
|

|
|
\
\
\
\
\
64
CHARACTER
VDU
'
DATA BUS B BITS
CONSOLE
l
LINK

CENTRAL EQUIPMENT
UNIT
|. |
%
VDU
DRIVE SPEECH
N CIRCUIT
DISPLY CONTROL
STORE

^
TWO 4-WIRE ANALOGUE
SPEECH CIRCUITS
LAMP DISPLAYS
TONE CONTROL
|
TOUCH
SI GNALLING
DRIVERS KEY
PAD
CIRCUIT

|
POWER SUPPLY
DC-DC
CONVERTOR
PART 1. FI GURE 7. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE CONSOLE

CONSOLE
LINE
UNIT
`
72 k0|I/s
SPEECH PLUS
SIGNALLING
CIRCUIT
"YNCHRONOUS

Z
.
4k0|u
SIGNALLING LI NK
(4-WIRE)
-50V
CURRENT
l
LlMITER
jt
Q6Z1
Q6 ZZ
3. 1. 13 Two proprietary designs of power unit, made by different manufacturers, are available
to supply the CEU cabinets (and the -sOv power feed to the consoles in most situations ) . Each
cabinet has its own power unit and either design may be used in any cabinet. Both are designed
for AC mains supplies of230V having tolerances not exceeding + 10% and -20% at 45 Hz - 65 Hz.
In both designs the mains supply is passed through a full wave rectifier which produces a DC
output of approximately 330V. In one design (170A) this output drives a single DC - DC
convertor which provides 4 regulated outputs of +SV, +12V, -12V and -50V. In the other
design ( 171A) the 330V DC output drives 4 separate DC - DC convertors which deliver
regulated outputs of the same voltages. In addition to normal fuse protection of primary
voltages, protection against current overload and over-voltage, is provided, partly by a common
monitor board and partly within each DC -DC convertor. A small filter is provided in the
mains supply to eliminate mains borne radio interference. Ringing current at 75V, 25 Hz is
generated by a separate oscillator circuit mounted adjacent to the power unit. In addition to the
ringing voltage, this circuit generates a timing signal (T6) which is distributed round the
Extension Line Units to ensure that the ringing current is connected and disconnected from the
lines when the AC waveform is at approximately zero voltage. This is important to reduce the
voltage transients which would otherwise occur when the ringing is applied and removed by the
line current relay to provide the ringing cadence, and when the ringing is tripped. The T6 signal
is also used to monitor the power supply and the ringer. If the ringer fails, the T6 signal is no
longer generated, and in the event of an excessive voltage occurring on one, or more, of the DC
supplies the T6 signal is also disconnected. Failure of the T6 signal due to either cause results in
drop-back conditions being established (see paragraph 3. 1 . 1 1 ) . Provision canbe made to feed the
cabinets from a standby power supply to guard against mains failure if, and where, such
precautions are considered necessary. The standby power supply, which maintains a no-break
supply when the mains fail, need only be provided when continuity of normal service must be
maintained during mains breakdowns and the drop back feature, whereby exchange lines are
connected to nominated extensions is insuficient.
3. 1. 14 The console incorporates a DC -DC convertor which provides an output of +SV. An
additional -5V supply, required internally by the console processor board is obtained from a
small DC -DC convertor mounted on that board. Exceptionally, where the distance between
the CEU and the console exceeds the limit for a power lead, a local mains supply may be used at
the console site.
3. 1. 15 All the clock pulse supplies for the CEU are derived from an 18. 432 MHz crystal
oscillator, the output of which is passed through frequency dividers to obtain the different pulse
rates required. The pulses are then distributed to:-
The Central Processor Unit and Memory Cards
The Speech Switch
The Signalling Circuit
The Concentrating Shelf Interfaces
The Shelf Multiplexes
The Line Units
The Services Card
The additional pulse (T6) is obtained from the Ringer Unit and distributed to the Line Units.
J.Z Line Units
3. 2. 1 The following types of Line Unit are used in concentrating shelf positions with the line
circuits connected into the system as shown in Figure 4: -
Eight Port Extension Line Unit
Four Port Exchange Line Unit
and the following types ofline unit are used in non-concentrating shelf positions with the line
circuits connected into the system as shown in Figure 5: -
I
I
I
l
I
I
I
|
I
I
|
f
|
\
l
L
\
l
l
l
l
One/Two Port Inter-PBX Line Unit
Single Port Console Line Unit
3. 2. 2 Each of the diferent designs of Line Unit is considered separately below: -
Eight Port Extension Line Unit
A block schematic diagram of the Extension Line Unit is given in Figure 8. It will be seen that
each line circuit splits into 2 main areas; one associated with line current feeding and signalling,
and the other with speech transmission. The line feed is of the constant current type, varying
only within the limits 25 mA to 35 mA over the whole range ofline resistances. The use of a
constant current feed has the following advantages : -
It results in reduced power consumption with resulting operational economies.
ii It provides an improved side-tone performance.
1II It facilitates the removal of power from the transmission elements in the line circuit when
the extension is not in use.
P
m
l
t
POWER UP
EXTENSI ON |
2- WI RE LINE.
( ONE PORT)
|
SUBSCRI BERS
LI NE WI RE
INTERFACE CONVERSI ON
CI RCUI T

BANO Tl MESLOT
LI MI TING ASSIGNABLE
FIlTERS COOEC

l
EXTENSI ON LI NE CI RCUIT
TI ME SLOT
(SERVES ONE PORT)
ALLOCATI ON
.
CONTROL

-g a

RI NGI NG CONTROL

A LEG CONDI TI ON
B LEG CONDI TI ON
CALLED SUB ANSWER

|
|
|
U
z
|
m
TO OTHER LI NE UNITS
ON THE SAME SHElF

|
a

k
w

`
TO AND FROM OTHER LI NE CI RCUITS IN THE SAME LI NE UNIT
Z
|l||| ||||| 1| | |l||| l|lll lllll lllll
`
.
BOTHWAY
SI GNALLING
BUS
SPEECH
HI GHWAYS
2048 kbitls
8 WI RES
EXPANSI ON UNIT
|
MI CRO- COMPUTER
TO
TO AND SPEECH
FROM SWI TCH
THE CSI VIA CSI
PART !.FI GURE 8. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE EXTENSI ON LI NE UNI T.
FROM
SPEECH
SWITCH
VI A CSI
Q6Zo
|Q6 Z4
1N It prolongs the life of the carbon microphones in the extension telephones.
v It results in space saving on the printed card.
N It enables simplified matching to be achieved with the different telephone instruments of
foreign administrations.
The circuit arrangements are such, however, as to ensure than an unregulated low current is fed
to line to charge standby batteries, etc, when required.
An unbalanced 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit is used, with resultant design simplification,
and a miniature transformer is inserted between this conversion circuit and the line to maintain a
balanced termination. The constant current line feed circuit, which offers a very high impedance
to AC currents, is connected to the line side of the miniature transformer, and a capacitor in series
with the line winding provides the necessary blocking of the DC currents. On terminating calls,
ringing is connected by a miniature relay, the changeover contacts of which are inserted
between the line feed connections and the line. The line feed elements detect the presence, or
absence of a loop from the telephone and send appropriate DC signals to the micro-computer,
where they are converted to binary encoded form and sent over the 8 wire signalling bus to the
Concentrating ShelfInterface (CSI) . Similarly, incoming ringing instructions are received over
the signalling bus by the micro-computer, which sends a DC condition to the miniature relay to
cause application of 25 Hz ringing current to line. Bothway signalling is effected over the
signalling bus by allocating a 2 ms period for signalling in one direction and a 2 ms period for
signalling in the other direction every 8 ms.
The micro-computer incorporates a Read Only Memory ( ROM) on which its program is stored
and a Random Access Memory on which the status of each port in the unit is stored.
As soon as the line circuit is taken into use for an originating call, the micro-computer informs the
CSI over the signalling bus and the CSI sends back over the signalling bus, the identity of the
channel in the speech and signalling highways which has been allocated to the call. The
micro-computer then powers up the codec and sets it so that, until further instructions are
received, it makes connections to the speech highways at the appropriate slot time. Thus, in
addition to functioning as a coder/decoder, the codec also functions as part of a distributed time
switch. As soon as the codec is powered up it sends a signal to the band limiting filters to cause
these to be powered up. In the idle condition power is disconnected from the codec and band
limiting flters to reduce the power consumption of the system. In the case of an incoming call,
the Central Processing Unit (CPU) informs the CS! which channel has been allocated for the
call in the speech and signalling highways, and the CSI informs the micro-computer in the line
circuit. This micro-computer then sends a control signal to the codec as in the case of an
originating call.
The 2-wire/4-wire conversion in the speech transmission path is achieved by a simple impedance
bridge arrangement using active circuits, in which the balancing impedances are chosen to
obtain a good match to a varity of cables, line lengths and telephone instruments. Filters are
inserted in the "transmit" and "receive" paths to limit the analogue signals to frequencies below
3400 Hz. Removable straps are provided on each Extension Line Unit to give a gain adjustment
for long/short extension working.
A proprietary design of codec is used in the unit. The characteristics of the compandors used in
the codec conform to the "A-Law" specified by the Conference of European Postal and
Telegraph Administrations (CEPT) , but alternative codecs using "Il-Law" coding are
available when required. For protection against extraneous voltages, the line circuits
incorporate fusible series resistances to limit the current which can flow, and for extensions
which are considered to be subject to sufcient risk, Zener diodes are fitted on the cards. For
protection from lightning the line circuit relies on the use of gas discharge tubes on the
distribution frame. Only those extensions considered to be at risk need be provided with gas
discharge tube protectors.
An Extension Line Unit is shown in Figure 9.
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
I
\
|
\
Part lFigure 9 An Extension Line Unit
Four Port Exchange Line Unit
With minor modifcations in the signalling area, the block schematic diagram in Figure 8 is
applicable to the Exchange Line Unit. The subscriber' s line interface circuit is replaced by an
interface circuit which contains equipment for detecting AC ringing and DC signals from the
exchange, and for sending DC loop/earth signals to the exchange; these changes also lead to an
increase in the number of connections between the interface circuit and the micro-computer.
The standard British Telecom method of preventing a dialling-out extension or operator fro

seizing an exchange line which has not completed its release from a previous call, is to use the
existence of battery potential on one of the exchange line conductors, and a disconnection on the
other, as a "circuit free" indication. This necessitates the use of an earth calling condition from
the Exchange Line Circuit at the PABX. The earth is replaced by a holding loop as soon as the
seizure sequence has been completed. The Exchange Line Circuit can readily be converted to
loop calling, if required.
The terminating equipment in the Exchange Line Circuit uses the same design of miniature
2-wire transformer with series connected capacitor, as the Extension Line Circuit, to provide a
balanced termination; the signalling connections are made to the line side of this transformer.
The holding loop is applied by a 28-50 mA constant current sink circuit which offers a very high
impedance to AC signals and accordingly does not degrade the transmission performance.
Dialling is effected by switching the constant current circuit on and off under the control of a
mercury wetted relay contact. Circuit design precautions are included to ensure that the shunt
inductance of the miniature transformer does not distort the dial-pulses. The speech path is
extended to the extension, or operator, during each inter-digit pause, to enable the user to hear
any supervisory tones or verbal announcements returned by the network du
r
ing the setting up
of a call . If the local exchange applies a reversal to the exchange line polarity when the called
Page ZO
Q6 Z
party answers, this is detected and a signal sent to the micro-computer and thence to the CPU via
the CS!.
On incoming calls, when the constant current loop circuit is switched off, other line circuit
elements detect the ringing current (or the reversed polarity during the intervals between
ringing current) and send a signal to the CPU via the CSI causing the line to be busied against
outgoing calls and the call to be routed to the operator' s console. When the operator answers the
call a signal is received from the CPU to cause the micro-computer to switch in the constant
current loop and trip the ring.
British Telecom makes private meter recording equipment available to customers who wish to
check the charges being levied while an outgoing call is in progress. The equipment is operated
by a 50Hz earth return pulse applied to both line conductors, via low pass filters, each time a
driving pulse is sent to the exchange meter. The exchange Line Circuit in the Monarch 120B
Compact system is designed so that the necessary detection equipment can be provided when
required. The metering information is recorded in software and printed out during call logging
operations. It may also be displayed on the console VDU if required.
As in the Extension Line Circuit, provision is made to disconnect the power from the band
limiting filters and the codec when the exchange line is not in use.
The transmission area of the block schematic diagram in Figure 8 is equally applicable to that in
the exchange line unit, but there are some minor differences in the equipment contained in
certain of the boxes. In particular, the 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit contains different
terminating and balancing impedances to match the different transmission characteristics of
exchange lines, and different amplifier gains are provided to ensure that the transmission
requirements of the public network are met. To cater for the wide range of transmission
conditions resulting from different combinations of exchange line and extension line lengths in
different P ABX locations, provision is made on the line unit for the insertion and removal of
simple straps for each direction of transmission, the effect of which is to modify the gain in the
circuit.
Arrangements similar to those described for extension circuits are provided to protect the
Exchange Line Circuits from surge interference including lightning and direct mains- contacts.
Since exchange lines normally involve external line plant the Zener diodes are fitted as standard
on all uni ts.
Inter-PBX Line Circuits
The following types of Inter PBX Line Unit are, or will be, available for Monarch 120B
Compact (the terms "2-wire" and "4-wire" refer to the transmission conditions presented at the
PABX port; a 2-wire presented circuit may use 4-wire line transmission) : -
a. SSDC No. 5 (2-wire) . This provides signalling over "E" and "M" wires.
b. SSDC No. 5 (2-wire/4-wire) . As for (a) with the option of 4-wire connection.
c. Interim SSDC No. 10 (2-wire) . This provides Single Commutation DC signalling and
pulsing.
d. Interim Loop-Disconnect ( 2-wire) . This provides standard loop-disconnect pulsing and
the associated signalling.
e. Multiple DC Signalling (2-wire/4-wire) . This is a multi-purpose line unit capable of
providing any of the types of signalling referred to in (a) to (d) above, together with other less
frequently used types of DC signalling.
I Interim SSAC No. 13 (2-wire) . This provides pulse code in-band signalling.
g. Interim SSAC No. 15 (2-wire presented but using 4-wire connected signalling) . This
provides continuous tone in-band signalling using "tone on idle".
h. Multiple AC Signalling ( 2-wirel 4-wire) . This is currently under development and will be
capable of providing either of the types of signalling referred to in (f and (g) above.
I
I
I
|
|
I
I
|
|
|

The features of these line units are described separately below: -


2-WI RE
I NTER- PBX LI NE
SPEECH PATH
+ SSDC No. 5 (2-wire)
A block schematic diagram of the 2-wire SSDC No. 5 Inter-PBX Line Circuit is given in Figure
10. Two such circuits are mounted on a line unit. The line termination contains a minature
2-wire transformer to provide a conversion from the balanced circuit on the line side to the
unbalanced connection through the 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit and the band limiting
filters to the codec; a blocking capacitor and DC connections are provided to supply a loop
"wetting" current. The 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit and the band limiting filters are
electrically similar to those in the 8 port Extension Line Unit, but the codec is to a British
Telecom design which uses an intermediate digital code, referred to as "delta-sigma"
modulation. This intermediate stage is used for design convenience and does not alter the overall
function of the codec, which is to convert analogue speech currents to and from the standard 8
bit PCM code, as described in Appendix 3. The compandors have the same characteristics as
those in the Extension Line Unit, and "I Law" encoding can be provided if required. The Line
Unit Signalling Interface (LUSI) , under the control of the CPU, causes attenuation to be
inserted when an exchange line is extended via the Inter-PBX line, or the Inter-PBX line is used
to form part of a tandem inter-PBX connection.
Separate wires, designated "E" and "M" are provided for signalling in each direction. Signals are
sent over the M wire and received over the E wire. The signals connected to the M wire consists
of the presence or absence of an earth potential applied via a resistor and a noise eliminating
capacitor. The E wire is connected to a potential of 3UNvia a resistive detector circuit, and a
proportion of the voltage developed within the circuit is compared with a reference voltage to
indicate when earth connected signals are being received. These signalling conditions may be
used by direct interconnection of the M leads to the E leads when the resistances of the paths over
which they are connected do not exceed 25 ohms, but are primarily designed for use with some
form of signalling conversion equipment (eg in the channel equipments of Frequency Division
Multiplex ( FDM) or PCM transmission systems, or in separately mounted AC in band or DC
conversion units) .
BANO
LI MI TI NG
FI LTERS
POWER
SWITCHI NG

CODEC
7ZK0|!/ STREAMS
TO ANO FROM
SHELF MULTI PLEX
EQUI PMENT
SI GNALLlNG{
E WI RE
WI R ES
M WI RE
SI GNAL
DETECTOR
SI GNAL
SENDER

LI NE UNIT
SI GNALLI NG
I NTERFACE
PART 1. FI GURE 10. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE 2-WI RE SSDC NO. 5 I NTER- PBX LI N E CI RCUIT.
Q6 Z
The power is disconnected from the 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit, the band limiting flters
and the codec when the inter-PBX line is not in use.
The LUSI converts the DC signals received over the E wire into binary encoded form and passes
them to the codec for inclusion in the serial bit stream on the 72 kbit/s connection to the shelf
Multiplex. Similarly, signalling instructions from the CPU are received in the serial bit stream
from the shelf Multiplex, and passed to the LUSI which causes the appropriate DC conditions to
be extended over the M wire. The signalling bits A to H transmitted in each direction between
the LUSI in the line circuit and the CPU, via the Shelf Multiplex and the Signalling Circuit, are
assembled in groups ( bytes) of 8 bits coded as described in Part 2.
As the Inter-PBX Line Unit can be connected only to short lengths of internal wiring of up to 25
ohms resistance, it is designed to be secure against any of the 4 wires encountering direct earth or
-50V contacts. Zener diodes on the secondary winding of the transformer protect the
2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit and subsequent circuits against overload.
b. SSDC No. 5 (2-wire/4-wire)
The 2-wire/4-wire SSDC No. 5 Inter-PBX Line Circuit is identical to that shown in Figure 10
apart from the connections to the line and the 2-wire/4-wire conversion element. The
differences in this part of the circuit are shown in simplified form in Figure 1 1 . The detailed
strapping arrangements, which are more complicated, are described in Part 2.
(2-WI RE )
(4-WI RE )
? 7
NOTE 1 TO SWITCHED ATTENUATOR.
NOTE 1

BAND LI MI TI NG F I LTER bCODEC


OTE
FROM SWITCHED ATTENUATOR.
N 1 g
BAND LI MITI NG F I LTER bCODEC
7 7
(4-WI RE = )
Q6 ZU
NOTES: 1 For 4-wire operation provide straps X X and omi t straps - - - -
For 2 -wire operation provide straps - - - - and omit straps X X
PART 1. FI GURE 11. SI MPLI FI ED DI AGRAM OF THE 2-WI RE/4-WI RE CONNECTI ONS I N
SSDC NO. 5 I NTER- PBX LI NE CI RCUIT.
L+ SSDC No. 10 (2-wire) .
A block schematic diagram of the 2-wire SSDC No. 10 Inter-PBX Line Circuit is given in
Figure 12. This is an interim design for use pending the availability of the multiple DC signalling
unit (item e) , and occupies the whole of one line unit, using 2 ports (ports 0 and 1 ) . The unit
provides two unidirectional circuits (one outgoing plus one incoming) or one bothway circuit.
When used for unidirectional circuits the incoming circuit is connected to port 0 and the
outgoing circuit to port 1 . When used for a both way circuit the line is connected to port 1 and
port 0 is left spare.
I
I
I
I
|
l
l
l

\
\
\
\

I NCOMI NG
2/4
PORT 0 NOTE l
SCOC
WI RE BANO
CONVERSI ON LI MI TI NG COOEC
SI GNALLING
I NCOMI NG ONLY
ELEMENTS
FI LTERS
( 2-WI RE
ONLY)

NOTE 1

I C
'

OUTGOI NG
214
PORT l NOTEl
SCOC
WI RE BANO
CONVERSI ON LI MITI NG COOEC
SI GNALLI NG
OUTGOI NG OR
FI LTERS
ELEMENTS
BOTHWAY
(2-WI RE
ONLY)

I C

EXPANSI ON UNIT
l PROGRAM STORE
:
(PROM)
MI CRO- PROCESSOR
PI SO
CONVERSI ON ~
CI RCUI T
SI PO
.
CONVERSI ON ~

CI RCUI T
mmmmmm
NOTES: 1 Port 0 may be used for an IIC uni di recti onal ci rcui t and
Port 1 for an OIG uni di recti onal ci rcui t. or Port 1 may be
PI SO
.. CONVERSI ON ~~~~
CI RCUI T
used for a B/W circui t. i n whi ch case Port 0 cannot be used.
SI PO
..
CONVERSI ON ~~~~~
CI RCUI T
PART 1. FI GURE 12. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE 2-WI RE/4-WI RE SSDC NO. 10
I NTER- PBX LI NE CI RCUIT.
72 kbit/s
STREAMS
TO ANO
FROM
THE SHELF
MULTI PLEX
EQUI PMENT
72 kbitls
STREAMS
TO ANO
FROM
THE SHELF
MULTI PLEX
EQUI PMENT
Q6ZJ
Q6 30
Within the unit the Single Commutation DC ( SCDC) signalling elements required at the
incoming end of a circuit are connected to port 0 and the SC DC signalling elements required at
the outgoing end of a circuit are connected to port 1. On bothway circuits the signalling
connections made within the line unit depend on the direction of trafc usage and are controlled
by relay L. When relay IC is unoperated the connections are those required for an outgoing
call, and with it operated they are those required for an incoming call; the relay is permanently
operated when the circuit is in the idle condition.
The operation of the line circuit is controlled by a micro-processor, the program for which is
stored on a Read Only Memory (ROM) accommodated for convenience in the expansion unit.
The principal function of the expansion unit is to provide an interface in the path for the control
signals between the micro-processor on the one hand and the signalling elemen ts and the Lrelay
on the other, and to provide an interface in the path to the micro-processor from a group of
manually controlled switches (not shown in the figure) , one of which sets the direction of trafic
usage (incoming, outgoing or bothwa
y
) and others the duration of any pre-sending pause
required on the circuit. Received line signals are detected by current sensing circuits in the
signalling elements, the outputs of which are directly connected to the micro-processor. The
micro-processor converts these signals to 8 bit binary encoded form and sends the resultant
bytes, via the PISO converter to the codec serving the 2-wire path in which the signalling
elements receiving the signals are located. The bits are then forwarded from the codec to the
Shelf Multiplex as bits A to H in the 72 kbit/s stream. Similarly, instructions from the CPU are
received via the Shelf Multiplex in the 72 kbit/s stream, extracted at the SIPO converter and
forwarded to the micro-processor.
The 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuits, the band limiting filters and the codec, all of which are
continuously powered up, are similar to those used in the SSDC No. 5 circuit.
d. Loop-Disconnect (2-wire)
This is an interim design for use pending the availability of the multiple DC signalling unit (item
e) . The block schematic diagram in Figure 12 is equally applicable to the 2-wire
Loop-Disconnect Inter-PBX Line Circuit provided the incoming and outgoing SCDC
signalling elements are replaced by the corresponding loop-disconnect signalling elements. The
functions of the remaining circuit elements are similar to those in the SSDC No. 10 Inter-PBX
circuit.
e. Multiple DC Signalling (2-wire/4-wire)
This Inter-PBX Line Circuit is designed to provide any of the following methods of signalling on
a 2-wire or 4-wire presented circuit: -
SSDC No. 5
SSDC No. lO
Loop-Disconnect
Balanced Battery
Balanced Battery Signalling is a manual signalling system, used on certain overseas circuits, and is
a DC equivalent of the old generator signalling system. Only a seizing signal is provided by the
system and this takes the form of a single timed pulse of battery potential connected to both
signalling wires. No supervisory or release signals are provided.
A block schematic diagram of the 2-wire/4-wire multiple DC Signalling Inter-PBX Line Unit is
given in Figure 13. Each unit accommodates two line circuits (which may be 2-wire or 4-wire
presented) and a micro-processor to control both circuits. Each of the line circuits may be used
independently to provide an outgoing circuit, an incoming circuit or a both way circuit. The
junction interface circuit contains sensing resistors to measure the current flowing in each line
conductor, switching transistors which, under the control of the micro-processor, cause any
required combinations of signalling conditions to be applied to the line conductors, and variable
line feed resistors which, under the control of the micro-processor, alter the value of the current
being fed to line. The values of the line currents in the A and B leg sensing resistors are sent to the
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
I
I
|
l
(
l
l
l
l
<
(
NOTE !

,

.
I NTER- PBX 214
`
BANO
LI NE
JUNCTI ON I NTERFACE
CON

I ON
LI MI TI NG
2-WI RE OR
CI RCUI T
FI LTERS
4-WI RE
3

II I I I I II I I II II I I I I I III III I I I I I I I I II

I I I I

Il I
L

TO AND
FROM
THE
SECOND
LI NE
CI RCUIT
J J
d BI TS d BITS 8 BITS BITS BITS
J BI TS
'
SI G NALLI NG
J BI TS
SWITCHED
ATTENUATOR
CONTROLS
COOEC
72 kbit/s
STREAMS
TO AND
FROM
THE
SHELF
MULTI PLEX
EQUI PMENT

MODE
A LEG CONTROLS
VALUES ~ ~j_
CURRENT

-- - ~
. -
~
SI GNALLI NG _ _
SI GNALLI NG
B LEG
RESI STOR
CURRENT
CONTROLS
VALUES
PROGRAM
SERI AL- I N
PARALLEL- OUT
CO
I
ON
STORE - MI CRO- PROCESSOR
PARALlEl- I N
( ROM)
-. SERI AL-OUT
CONVERSI ON
CI RCUI T
NOTES: ! On 4-wi re presented circuits the dotted connections are made and the 214 wi re conversion ci rcui t i s di sconnected.
PART 1. FI GURE !d. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DI AGRAM OF THE MULTI PLE DC SI GNALLI NG
I NTER- PBX LI NE UNI T.
micro-processor in 8 bit linear PCM encoded form; instructions to set the switching transistors
which determine the signalling mode are sent by the micro-processor over each of the signalling
mode control leads, individually, as required; instructions to set the current feed resistances in
each of the A and B line feeds are sent in 3 bit binary encoded form by the micro-processor over
the 3 leads to each line resistor. Signals from the micro-processor also switch the attenuators in or
out of the transmission path, in the circumstances described for SSDC No. 5, but the 8 different
instructions possible over the 3 leads, using binary encoding, allow a finer control of the losses
introduced on different types of connection.
Signals received by the micro-processor are sent via the PISO conversion circuit to the codec
and thence to the Shelf Multiplex, as described in the case of the SSDC No. 10 Inter-PBX Line
Unit. Instructions from the CPU to apply signalling conditions are received via the Shelf
Multiplex in the 72 kbit/s stream, and after passing through the SIPO conversion circuit are
received by the micro-processor.
The 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit, band limiting flters and codec are of the same design as in
the SSDC No. 5 Inter-PBX Line Unit; all are powered up continuously.
The line unit is made suitable for 2-wire or 4-wire applications by the insertion and/or omission
of straps, similar in principle to those shown in Figure 1 1 . Different programs, recorded on
ROMs, are provided for the micro-processor for each different type of signalling.
Q6 31
Page 2
A multiple DC signalling Inter-PBX Line Unit is shown in Figure 14.
f. SSAC 13 (2-wire)
As an interim measure, a proprietary design ofSSAC No. 13 Inter-PBX Line Unit is being used,
pending the availability of the Multiple AC Signalling Line Unit (Item h) , referred to below.
SSAC No. 13 is a purse code, in-band, signalling system using a single frequency of2280 Hz at a
send level of -6dBmO. The unit design is such as to enable the line unit to be used only on 2-wire
presented circuits.
In this interim design a common printed wiring board, which fts into a line circuit position, is
required for every 4 line units, or less, and connection is made between the common board and
the line units by means of short lengths of plug-in ribbon cable which are provided across the
fronts of the units. A more detailed description of this unit is given in Part 2.
g. SSAC No. 15 (2-wire)
As an interim measure, a temporary design of line unit is being used to cater for inter-PBX
circuits employing SSAC No. 15 pending the availability of the Multiple AC Signalling Unit
(Item h) . Signalling System AC No. 15 is an in-band system which uses a single frequency of
2280 Hz in a continuous ("tone-on idle") signalling code. The temporary design of line unit
combines the circuit elements of the SSDC No. 5 line circuit described in ( a) above with an
existing design of SSAC No. 15 conversion unit. The system can only be used over circuits
having 4-wire transmission and the AC signalling elements are connected in the 4-wire
transmission paths. A block schematic diagram of the complete unit is given in Figure 15.
Considering received signals first, i n the idle condition 2280 Hz tone at a sent level of -20 dBmO
I received continuously over the incoming transmission path and the
Part l Figure l1A Multiple O.C. Signalling Inter-PBX Line Unit
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
c
l
l
l
2280 Hz

NOTE l

FI LTER

PERSI STENCE
SWITCH
CHECK
A

'
2280 Hz
RECEI VER
2/4
WI RE
CONVERTOR
SPEECH PATH
(2-WI RE)
4-WI RE
LI NE
PERSI STENCE
CHECK
E
'
'
`'
2280 Hz
OSCI LLATOR
I
HI GH/LOW
LEVEL
CONTROL
LI NE
SPLI T
B


OUTGOI NG
DI AL
PULSE
CORRECTOR

I NCOMI NG
DIAL
PULSE
CORRECTOR
l
| -50V
E
PERSI STENCE
CHECK
C
'
M-WI RE
NOTES: 1 Thi s relay contact i s symbolic. No rel ay contacts are used at this point.
CI RCUI T
ELEMENTS
OF SSoC NO. 5
LI NE CI RCUIT
(FI GURE 1 0)

72 kbitls
STREAM TO AND
FROM THE SHELF
MULTI PLEX
EQUI PMENT
PART 1. FI GURE 1 5. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE I NTERI M SSAC NO. 15 I NTER- PBX LI NE CI RCUIT.
Q6 oo
Q6 34
2280 Hz receiver holds relay E operated, thus disconnecting the earth signal from the E wire to
the SSDC No. 5 circuit elements. When a seizing/holding or answer signal is applied at the
distant end the tone is removed, the receiver responds, and after a nominal delay of 40 ms
(persistance check B) , the holding circuit for relay E via the incoming dial pulse corrector is
removed. Relay E releases and applies an earth to the E wire into the SSDC No. 5 circuit
elements. On incoming calls, the incoming dial pulse corrector ensures that dial pulses are
repeated to the E relay with an acceptable make/break ratio. When the signal at the distant end is
removed, the 2280 Hz tone is reconnected, the receiver operates and after a nominal delay of30
ms (persistence check B) , relay E re-operates and removes the earth from the E wire. After the
2280 Hz receiver has been operated for a nominal period of 12. 5 ms (persistence check A) , the
2280 Hz filter is also re-inserted in the incoming transmission path. On outgoing calls, the
presence of this flter prevents the signalling tone returned during the unanswered condition
being heard while supervisory tones are being received from the distant equipment. The 12. 5 ms
persistence check minimises the risk of impairment of the transmission path by transient
insertions of the filter due to voice operation of the receiver during conversion.
Considering transmitted signals, in the idle condition no earth is connected to the M wire from
the SSDC No. 5 circuit elements. In the absence of this earth the transmission path is
disconnected by the line split element, and 2280 Hz tone is sent continuously at a level of -20
dBmO from the oscillator to line. When a seizing/holding signal, or an answer signal requires to
be sent ( "tone off ) , an earth is connected to the M wire, and after a persistence check of 10 ms
(persistence check C) , this causes the tone to be disconnected and the outgoing transmission path
to be extended by the split element to the 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit. When the signalling
condition is terminated, the earth condition is removed from the M wire and after a persistence
check of10 ms has been satisfied, the transmission path is split and the 2280 Hz signalling tone is
re-applied. The high/low level control causes the first 425 ms (nominal) of the tone to be applied
at a level of -10 dBmO, after which the level drops to -20 dBmO. Dial pulses, and certain
auxiliary pulse signals which may be used, all have durations less than 300 ms and accordingly are
transmitted at the higher level. The use of the higher level for these signals, and for the initial
periods of continuous tone, ensures that the receiver will respond in the presence ofline noise.
h. Multiple AC Signalling (2-wire/4-wire)
The Multiple AC Signalling Inter-PBX Line Unit, which is still under development, will
provide SSAC No. 13 and SSAC No. 15 signalling capabilities. Each unit will accommodate two
line circuits (which may be 2-wire or 4-wire presented) and a micro-processor to control both
circuits. Each of the line circuits may be used independently to provide an outgoing circuit, an
incoming circuit or a both way circuit. The design of the unit will closely follow that shown in
the block schematic diagram in Figure 16. The 2280 Hz sending and receiving elements in the
circuit will be controlled by the micro-processor and depending on the program provided, will
send and receive the pulse signals used in SSAC No. 13 or the continuous signals used in SSAC
No. 15. The persistence timers will measure the durations of received 2280 Hz signals, and each
will deliver an output after the prescribed time has elapsed. Except in the case of the short
persistence timer, which causes the insertion of the 2280 Hz band stop filter, the outputs go to the
micro-processor. After decoding, the received signals are sent by the micro-processor as
standard signalling bytes (bits A to H) via the PISO conversion circuit to the Shelf Multiplex and
thence to the Signalling Circuit and the CPU. Instructions to apply signalling conditions are
received via the Shelf Multiplex from the CPU as standard signalling bytes (bits A to H) , and
after passing through the SIPO conversion circuit are received by the micro-processor. The
micro-processor converts the instructions to the equivalent line signalling code and controls the
sending of the 2280 Hz line signals by applying appropriate conditions to the 3 leads to the "level
select and transmit split" circuit elements.
As in the case of the Multiple DC Inter-PBX unit, the micro-processor will switch the
attenuators in or out of the transmission path using the 3 leads to each attenuator to provide 8
different settings. The 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit, band limiting filters and codec are of
the same design as in the SSDC No. 5 Inter-PBX Line Unit; all are powered up continuously.
I
|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
.
.
.
.
l
t
t
t
t
t
t
bU hJ
bNU o1|
||LLh

|Uh10 hLLL|VL


l })
l
l

oW|1Lh
|Lho|o1LNLL
|| L1Lh

ohUh1
l
NU1L 1
1| MLh
bUhJ
\UNb
|h1 0 oLNU
Z
4 `
hLLL|VLh
|Lho|o1LNLL
W| hL W| hL
1|MLho
~~ ~ ,LUNVLho|UN ,
NU1L

Z
N X
3

bUhI
UoL| L1Uh
w
M
bNU
L| M| 1| Nb
||Lho
P
l

LLVLL

|h10 oLNU oLLLL1NU

~~ 1hNoM1 ~~
o|L|1

-
oW|1LhLU

11LNd1Uh
~~~~ ~
LUN1hULo
VLh


|o1

LUULL
1UNU
hN
1hLh
L| NL L| hLU| 1
| |h11 )
|o1 _
oLUW
\
_

o| bNLL| Nb
|hUbhM
o1UhL
}|hUM|
h| bh LLVLL
oLNU _
UN/U||
o|L|1 ,

U| L
|dLoL
bLNh| Nb
M LhU|hULLooUh
NU1Lo: .10| 8000!0!| 88y000||0.N0|0|y000!0!8| 0U800| 0!0| 80||0d|!.

|hLLLL |N
oLh|L UU1
LUNVLho| N
L| hLd 1
U0 | | 00|6800!000||0J|!8!0000!!00000000!|008|0m0000!00|0!0|0l800000|000|v00||0U|!8!0|0|08!0
00!00 W||0/4W||0000v0|8|000||0U|!.
PART 1, FI GURE 16, BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE MULTI PLE AC SI GNALLI NG
I NTER- PBX LI NE UNIT.
'
1 k0|!/8
o1hLMo
1UNU
|hUM1hL
ohLL|
Md| |LL
Ld||MLN1
|Q6 O
4-WI RE
ANALOGUE
SPEECH
CI RCUI T
TO THE
CONSOLE
4-WI RE
ANALOGUE
SPEECH
CI RCUI T
TO THE
CONSOLE
Console Line Unit
A block schematic diagram of the console line unit, which caters for one console, is shown in
Figure 17. The connections to the cable interconnecting the line unit and the console correspond
to the link in Figure 7.
The line interfaces on which the two 4-wire speech circuits terminate contain miniature 2-wire
transformers to provide conversion from the balanced circuits on the line side to the unbalanced
connections through the band limiting filters to the codec. Resistors are connected to the line
sides of the transformers to provide DC "wetting" currents for any contacts in the lines .
The band limiting filters and the code cs are similar to those in the Inter-PBX Line Circuits
already described. A gain adjustment capability is included to allow compensation for variations
in loss due to the tolerances permitted in the codec and filter areas. Only one setting is required
for all lengths of console cable, and this is made during manufacture.

LI NE

I NTERFACE
w

w
BAND
72 kbit/s STREAM
TO AND FROM
LI MI TI NG
CODEC
SHELF MULTI PLEX
FI LTERS
EQUI PMENT
LI NE


m
I NTERFACE
m

LI NE

*
I NTERFACE

BAND
72 kbit/s STREAM
LI MI TI NG
CODEC
TO AND FROM
SHELF MULTI PLEX
FILTERS
EQUI PMENT

LI NE
m
I NTERFACE

ASYNCHRONOUS
2' 4 kbit/ s
SI GNAL
TRANSMI SSI ON
SI GNALLI NG
FROM CONSOLE
SI GNALLI NG
TO CONSOLE
Q6 36
m
LI NE
W
L
SI GNALLI NG
m
SI GNALLI NG
SENDER
m
CONVERSI ON
AND
1
~

RECEIVER m m
PART 1 , FI GURE 1 7. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE CONSOLE LI NE CI RCUI T
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
I
l
I
I
I
I
I

|
|
.
The signalling link consists of two 2-wire circuits, one for each direction of signal
transmission. Information is sent in balanced asynchronous digital form in both directions at 2. 4
kbitl s. Each message consists of a start signal, followed by an 8 bit information byte, followed by
a stop signal. A parity bit is also added for error detection purposes. When the circuit is not being
used a single ("idle") byte is transmitted from the CEU to the console every 8 ms and a single byte
is sent in the opposite direction every 137 ms as long as the console is active. Failure to receive this
signal automatically indicates the existence of a fault and appropriate action is taken.
A Console Line Unit is Illustrated in Figure 18.
3. 3 The Concentrating ShelfInterface
3. 3. 1 The Concentrating ShelfInterface ( CSI) allocates a free channel ( time slot) in each of
the 2 speech highways, for use by a Line Unit, immediately it becomes involved in an outgoing
call, and causes connection to be made to a designated time slot when the Line Unit is involved in
an incoming call. The time slot allocated to a call is the same for both directions of speech
transmission, and the same time sl(t is used in the signalling highways between the CSI and the
Signalling Circuit. The CSI is transparent to the 2048 kbit/s speech samples on the speech
highways, although bufers and retiming elements are inserted in the highways within the unit.
The principal signalling functions of the CSI are to exchange control messages with the Line
Units over the shelf signalling bus while connection is being made to a time slot at the beginning
of a call and while the time slot is being released at the end of a call, and to act as an interface
between the signalling bus and the signalling highways to and from the Signalling Circuit during
the remainder of the call.
Part 1 Figure 18 A Console Line Unit
Q6 37
FROM LI NE
U NITS

TO LI NE
UNITS
M
Nd1Lb1b
dl hLL1ldNA|
bWl1Lh
2048 kbit/s
W W W W
SPEECH HI GHWAYS
2048 kbit/s
W W W W
8 BITS I N PARALLEL
RANDOM
ACCESS
MEMORY
'
DATA TO
SI GNALLING CCT
(SIGNALLI NG- I N)
W W W W
|
TO
SPEECH SWITCH

FROM
SPEECH SWITCH

TO SI GNALLI NG
PARALlEl- I N
CI RCUI T
SERI AL-OUT
CONVERSI ON
256 kbit/s
CI RCUI T
!
l
hLAd/Wh|1L
LdN1hdL
SHELF
DATA FROM
Nd1L
SI GNALLING CCT
SI GNALLI NG BUS (SI GNALLI NG- OUT)
l
TO AND FROM LI NE
6 BITS I N
U NITS. 8 BITS
"
PARALLEL
l
I N PARALLEL
Nd1|b b
l

bWl1Lh
8 BITS I N
PARALLEL

6 BITS I N
PARALLEL
MI CRO
COMPUTER
h
NOTE 1

SELECTOR
COUNTER
J
NOTES 1 & 2
SERI AL- I N
P
A
PARALLEL- OUT
8 BITS I N PARALLEL
CONVERSI ON
SWITCH CI RCUIT
FROM
SI GNALLI NG
CI RCUIT
256 kb/s
NOTES: 1 . These contacts are symbol i c. No relay contacts are used in thi s unit.
2. This item i s switched by the mi cro-computer as requi red.
Q6 38
PART 1. FI GURE 19. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DI AGRAM OF THE CONCENTRATI NG SHELF I NTERFACE.
3. 3. 2 A block schematic diagram of the CSI is given in Figure 19. Control of the unit is vested
in a micro-computer which incorporates an internal Random Access Memory (RAM) having a
status store for every port on the shelf. The micro-computer also incorporates a Read Only
Memory ( ROM) on which its program is stored. The micro-computer communicates over an
internal 8 bit data bus with: -
1 the shelf signalling bus to and from the Line Units,
and
11 the CSI RAM which stores data to and from the Signalling Circuit.
Information received over the signalling-out highway is transferred via the
Serial-In-Parallel-Out conversion circuit, at an appropriate time, over the internal data bus to
the signalling-out store in the CS! RAM, from which it is read out asynchronously by the
micro-computer. Information in the CS! RAM that requires to be sent to the Signalling Circuit

I
I
|
|
I
f
|
|
I
'
\
\
\
\
is read out via the PISO conversion circuit at the correct slot times for transmission over the
signalling-in highway. Switches controlled by the micro-computer are included in the internal
data bus to ensure that data which is being exchanged between particular locations on the bus
cannot obtain irregular access to other locations. As already described in sub-Section 3. 2, the
bothway shelf signalling bus to and from the Line U nits consists of8 conductors, each operating
at 64 kbit/s, and functions for periods of2 ms in each direction once every 8 ms.
3. 3. 3 When a call originates from a port, the Line Unit causes a calling condition to be sent
over the shelf signalling bus to the CSI during the first 2 ms signalling period in the required
direction. Within the CSI it is detected by the micro-computer which allocates the first free time
slot (starting from slot 0) and sends the identity of the port concerned over that time slot in the
signalling-in highway to the Signalling Circuit and thence to the CPU. The CPU notes the port
number and time slot number, and returns an acknowledgement signal to the CS!. The CSI then
sends the identity of the time slot, together with a power up signal, back to the Line Unit during
the next 2 ms period allocated for signalling in that direction over the signalling bus. This causes
the codec to power up and make connection to the allocated time slot on the speech highways,
and to power up the band limiting filters. From this stage onwards, signalling information from
the Line Unit passes directly from the shelf signalling bus over the internal data bus to the
signalling-in store in the CSI RAM, from which it is read out by the PISO conversion circuit to
the signalling-in highway. Similarly, information received over the signalling-out highway is
transferred to the signalling-out store in the CSI RAM, from which it is read and sent by the
micro-computer over the signalling bus to the Line Unit. Speech and signalling are now
working in the same time slot to the Speech Switch and the Signalling Circuit. Speech bits pass
directly over the transparent speech highways and call set up proceeds by means of signals
relayed by the CSI between the Line Unit and the Signalling Circuit. At the end of the call, the
CPU recognises the clear condition (from the first party to clear in the case of an extension to
extension call) and initiates clear down by sending a continuous "idle" message to the CS!. The
CSI clears the time slot and relays the idle signal to the Line Unit which, if the port has cleared,
returns the idle signal to the CSI, causing the "busy" indication to be removed from the port
status store in the micro-computer RAM. If the port has not cleared, the CSI does not receive an
idle signal and the port is parked pending the receipt of such a signal.
3. 3. 4 Signals relating to incoming calls are handled in a similar way to those relating to
outgoing calls. The sequences involved are briefly as follows. On receiving a request to set up a
call to a port, the CPU selects the frst free time slot (starting from Slot 31) in the highways to the
shelf concerned, and sends the number of the required port, in that time slot, over the signalling
out highway to the CS!. The micro-processor in the CSI notes the port number and sends out
over the shelf signalling bus, a request to the Line Unit concerned to power up the codec
associated with the required port and connect it to the allocated time slot; this is acknowledged
by the Line Unit. The speech channels are now connected through the Speech Switch and the
signalling paths are established via the CSI RAM to the Signalling Circuit. Progressing of the call
now proceeds by direct communication between the Signalling Circuit and the Line Unit. Clear
down takes place in the same way as in the case of an originating call.
3. 4 The Shelf Multiplex
3. 4. 1 A block schematic diagram of the Shelf Multiplex, which is used instead of the CSI for
the non-concentrating shelf positions, is given in Figure 20. The Shelf Multiplex receives
combined speech and signalling bits in a 72 kbit/s stream from each line circuit, separates the
speech bits from the signalling bits and assembles the speech bits in multiplexed form on the 2048
kbit/s highway to the Speech Switch and the signalling bits on the 256 kbit/s highway to the
Signalling Circuit. In the opposite direction it receives 2048 kbit/s multiplexed speech over the
highway from the Speech Switch and 256 kbit/s multiplexed signalling over the highway from
the Signalling Circuit, separates out the speech and signalling bits destined for each line circuit,
and combines them in 72 kbit/s streams to these line circuits.
3. 4.2 Every 125 micro-seconds, the 72 kbit/s stream from each line circuit produces a nine bit
byte comprised of a signalling bit (bit O) and 8 speech bits (bits one to 8) . All the 32 line circuits on
a shelf operate simultaneously and the first task of the Shelf Multiplex is to combine the bit
streams from these circuits in sequence on one highway operating at 2304 kbit/s. This is done by a
shift register forming a 32 bit Parallel-In-Serial-Out (PISO) conversion circuit. The 32 stages of
Page 39
FROM
LI NE
CI RCUI TS
1 K0| l/8
TO
LI NE
CI RCUITS
1 K0| !/8
Q6 40
dd+ K0|ll8
PORT O

TO SPEECH
PARALLELIN
SWITCH 2048 kbit
SERIALOUT

Is
CONVERSI ON
CIRCUIT
SPEECH
FROM SPEECH
REFORMATTER
SWITCH 2048 kbit
~
PORT dJ
Is
W
TO SIG NAlll NG
I NPUT 256 kbit/s
SIGNALLING
FROM SI GNAlll N G
REFORMATTER
OUTPUT 256 kbitl
T

4
SERIALIN
LATCH
PARALLELQUT
t v
PORT O
( STATICISER)
CONVERSION
CIRCUI T
DATA
SELECTOR
CLOCK

|
PORT dJ
Y
dd+ K0|!/8
PART 1. FI GURE 20. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE SHELF MULTI PLEX.
the PISO conversion circuit are loaded in parallel at 72 kbit/s from the 32 line circuits and the
stored data is then clocked out serially at 2304 kbit/s. The 2304 kbit/s serial output from the
PISO conversion circuit contains the speech and signalling bits from all the line circuits in bit
organised form, ie bits 0 from all the 32 ports are sent first, then bits one and so on. The signalling
bits are then separated from the speech bits at the inputs of the speech reformatter and the
signalling reformatter by normal gating techniques.
3.4.3 The function of the speech reformatter is to receive the speech bits at 2304 kbit/s in bit
organised form from the PISO conversion circuit, and to transmit them to the Speech Switch in
byte organised form at 2048 kbit/s. To achieve these changes in the speed and order of bits, a
complete frame of speech bits is written into a memory at 2304 kbit/s and the data is read out of
the memory during the next frame in the desired order at 2048 kbit/s. Two memories are
required so that the data can be written into one while the other is being read. At the end of each
frame ( 125 micro seconds) the roles of the memories are interchanged.
3. 4. 4 The signalling reformatter performs a similar function with the signalling bits. These
arrive from the PISO conversion circuit in bit organised form and a complete frame (signalling
bits A to H) is written into the store in one millisecond (8 speech frames ) . The data is read out of
the memory during the next signalling frame at 256 kbit/s and sent over the signalling highway
to the Signalling Circuit. As in the case of the speech reformatter, 2 memories are used alternately
for the reading-out and writing-in functions.
3. 4. 5 In the receive direction, the inverse process is required for both the speech and signalling
bits. Speech samples arrive from the Speech Switch destined for a particular port. This data must
be changed from byte organised form at 2048 kbitl s to bit organised form at 2304 kbitl s with gaps
for the signalling bits to be inserted. Similarly, the signalling bits from the Signalling Circuit are
received at 256 kbit/s in byte organised form and must be changed to bit organised form and
inserted in the gaps between the speech bits. The process by which this is achieved are the inverse
of those used in the send direction and, in fact, it has proved possible to use the same pairs of
memories for both directions of transmission, with resultant economies. The memories used in
the Shelf Multiplex shift registers and reformatter are all of the Random Access type.
|
|
|
t
t
I
\

w
I NCOMI NG SPEECH
SAMPLES

OUTGOI NG SPEECH
SAMPLES
SPEECH BI TS REPRESENTI NG
STORE
SPEECH SAMPLES
/
9
7
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
\
CHANNEL 1


CHANNEL 2

CHANNEL CHANNEL 33 1 1

I NPUT
TI ME '
SLOTS
CHANNEL 64 _ _
CHANNEL 256 . . . L
CONNECTI ON I DENTITY OF SAMPLES TO BE
CHANNEL
OUTPUT
TI ME
SLOTS
STORE READ OUT DURI NG PORT
OUTPUT TI ME SLOTS
7
/
9 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
\
CHANNEL 1
i
CHANNEL 2
r F
CHANNEL 33 1
`
CHANNEl 64
m
CHANNEL 256

DATA FROM CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNI T


FOR I NSERTI ON I N CONNECTI ON STORE

l
I N

ENCODED
S PEECH SAMPLES
STRUCTI ONS WHEN
TO READ OUT
SPEECH SAMPLES
BI NARY CODE
FOR 64
BI NARY CODE
FOR 33
NOTE: The i nformati on i n the connection store i s for a cal l between Channel 33 and Channel 64.
PART 1. FI GURE 21. OPERATI NG PRI NCI PLE OF THE SPEECH SWITCH.
Q6 41
3. 5. 3 A block schematic diagram of the Speech Switch is given in Figure 22. The 2.048 Mbit/s
highways from the line unit shelves, the 2. 048Mbit/s highway from the Services Card and the
remaining spare highway inputs are connected to a Serial-In-Parallel-Out ( SIPO) conversion
circuit, the output of which appears on an 8 wire parallel highway to the Speech Store. The
SIPO conversion circuit accepts the standard 2.048 Mbit/s serial, byte organised, bit streams
from the 8 incoming highways and delivers them at the output in such a manner that all the first
bits appear on wire 1 , all the second bits on wire 2, and so on. Thus, although the 8 bits for each
speech sample are received at the input in serial form, and hence at different times, they are
reformatted so that they appear on the highway to the Speech Store at the same time. The bits
relating to channels on the different shelves are interleaved so that those relating to channel 0 are
followed by those relating to Channel 32, then those relating to channel 64, and so on. On
arrival at the Speech Store all the 8 bits relating to a particular channel are written into the store
for that channel during a single bit period. On each of the wires on the parallel highway between
the SIPO conversion circuit and the Speech Store, 256 bits (one per channel) appear 8000 times a
second and the rate of information flow over each wire is 2.048 Mbit/s.
3. 5. 4 The output counter, via the connection store selector, addresses the locations in the
Connection Store sequentially at 2.048 MHz during the frst halves of the clock cycles and causes
the contents to be read out, at the appropriate times, via the speech store selector to the address
input of the Speech Store. During the second half cycles the connection store selector connects
the Connection Store to the CPU address bus, and whenever a connection requires to be set up
or released, the CPU puts out the outgoing channel number ( or deletion instructions if the call is
to be released) over the address bus during one of these half cycles and the incoming channel
number over the data bus. Thus during one half cycle the Connection Store indicates to the
Speech Store which location should be read out, and during the other half cycle the Connection
Store is available to the CPU for new instructions to be written in as, and when, required.
3. 5. 5 The 2. 048 MHz pulses from the input counter are connected via the speech store selector
to the Speech Store during the frst half of each cycle and cause the incoming speech samples to be
inserted into their correct locations in the store. During the second half cycles the Speech Store
selector connects the output from the Connection Store to the Speech Store to cause the
appropriate speech sample to be read out and sent to the switch output via the PISO converter. It
is to be noted that the data which is read out of the Speech Store during the second half of the
clock pulse relates to a different connection from that for which data was written in during the
frst half. Thus the Speech and Connection Stores, loaded and controlled as just described
perform the functions referred to in paragraph 3. 5. 1 and illustrated in Figure 21.
3. 6 The Signalling Circuit
3.6. 1 A block schematic diagram of the Signalling Circuit is given in Figure 23. This circuit
stores the serial information received over the 256 kHz signalling-in highways and makes it
available to the CPU, in parallel form, when required. The circuit also stores signalling
information received from the CPU in parallel form and extends it over the signalling-out
highways at the appropriate channel times. A 512 x 8 bit RAM provides the storage capability.
Half the RAM provides a separate 8 bit location for every channel in the signalling-in highways
and the other half provides a similar location for every channel in the signalling-out highways.
3. 6. 2 The signals on each of the eight signalling-in highways are received in byte organised
form (bits A to H) . These bits are fed into the SIPO conversion circuit and appear at the output
in shelfinterleaved parallel form, by a process similar to that in the SIPO conversion circuit in the
Speech Switch. At an appropriate time, as described later, the bits are transferred to the
signalling-in portion of the RAM, from which they are read out over the data bus to the CPU.
3.6.3 Signals which require to be sent over the signalling-out highways are received over the
data bus from the CPU, and at an appropriate time are extended from the switched buffers to the
signalling-out portion of the RAM from which they are later read out, in shelf interleaved
parallel form, via the PISO conversion circuit to the signalling-out highways, where they
appear in serial byte organised form.
3. 6. 4 The transfers of information are controlled by a 256 kHz waveform. During one half
cycle, the selector connects the CPU address bus to the RAM and information may be
transferred from the signalling-in portion of the RAM to the CPU, or from the CPU to the
Page 4o
SPEECH
HI GHWAYS
F ROM
SHELVES
AND
SERVI CES
CARD
SPEECH
HI GHWAYS
TO
SHELVES
AND
SERVI CES
CARD
Q6 4Z

c
3.5 The Speech Switch
3. 5. 1 The principle of operation of the Speech Switch is shown in Figure 21.
Each of the 256 channels in the system is allocated its own time slot, which occurs at the same time
in the Concentrating ShelfInterface or Shelf Multiplex for both directions of transmission. The
CPU, acting upon the call connection instructions received (eg dialled digits) inserts into the
Connection Store the identities of the outgoing channel time slots to which the speech samples
received from each incoming channel by the Speech Store should be repeated. In the example
shown it is assumed that Channel 33 is connected to Channel 64, thus the binary equivalent of33
is written into the Connection Store of Channel 64. In the Speech Store 8 bits capacity is
permanently allocated to each channel and if a channel is involved in a call, incoming speech
samples from the 2.048 Mbit/s highway, after processing, are inserted into the channel store
during its time slot periods. During each output time slot the content of the Connection Store
location corresponding to that time slot indicates to the Speech Store which speech sample
should be read out. Thus, during output time slot 64 the speech sample corresponding to input
time slot 33 in the Speech Store is read out and vice versa.
3. 5. 2 Speech can be transferred separately in both directions between any 2 channels
regardless of the number of other channels in use, and accordingly the switch behaves as a full
availability non-blocking 4-wire switch. As mentioned in Section 2. 3 and elsewhere, one
highway is used to obtain access to the Services Card which contains the MF Keyphone
Receivers, Tone supplies and the Conference Unit. Each of these items has its own channel (time
slot) and the principle of connecting them is identical with that described above, except that in
the case of tone supplies a connection in only one direction is required, and in the case of MF
Keyphone Receivers, connections in the 2 directions are made to different channels, one of
which sends dial tone to the extension and the other receives MF signals from the extension.
Since the reading out of speech and tone samples is non-destructive it is possible to send the same
sample to many destinations. For example dial tone may be sent to several ports simultaneously
simply by writing the channel number corresponding to dial tone into the connection store
locations for all the channels serving the ports that are to receive it.

CPU [ATA BUS

CONNECTI ON
STORE
OUTPUT

( 256 X 8 BIT COUNTER


CLOCK
8 BI TS I N
PARALLEL
RANDOM
PULSE
SHELF
ACCESS
l
SERI AL I N
I NTERLEAVED
MEMORY)
PARALLEL OUT
_CONNECTI ON
CONVERSI ON
STORE
CI RCUIT

SELECTOR
1
(NOTE 1)
SPEECH
SPEECH
`
lCLOCK
STORE
( 256 X 8 BI T
STORE
RANDOM
SELECTOR
PULSE
ACCESS
(NOTE 1)
8 BITS IN
MEMORY)
|CLOCK
CPU ADDRESS BUS
PARALLEL
PULSE
PARALLEL I N
SHELF
SERI ALOUT
INTERLEAVED
I NPUT
CONVERSI ON
COUNTER
CI RCUIT
jCLOCK
PULSE
NOTES: 1 . Thi s contact i s symbolic. No relay contacts are used i n this circuit.
PART 1. FI GURE 22. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE SPEECH SWITCH.
l
I
I
I
f
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
l
l
(
l
l
l
l
l
(
CPU ADDRESS BUS
SI GNALLI NG- I N
SERIAL- I N
51 2 X 8 BIT
HI GHWAYS
FROM
SHELVES
AND
SERVICES
CARD
SI GNALLI NG- OUT
HI G HWAYS
TO
SHELVES
AND SERVI CES
CARD
Q6 44
PARALLEL- OUT
CONVERSI ON
RANDOM
SELECTOR
AND
ACCESS
NOTE 1
I NTERLEAVI NG
MEMORY
CI RCUI T
STORE
CLOCK
PULSE
I NPUT
COUNTER
STORE ENABLE
SELECT
| |
CLOCK
8 BITS I N PARALLEL
PULSE
OUTPUT
COUNTER
CLOCK
PULSE
PARALLEL- I N
SERIAL-OUT
CONVERSI ON SWITCHED
AND BUFFERS
DE-I NTERLEAVI NG

CI RCUI T
~ CPU DATA BUS
LATCH
NOTES: 1 . Thi s contact is symbol i c. No relay contacts are used i n thi s ci rcui t.
PART 1, FI GURE 23. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE SI GNALLI NG CI RCUI T.
signalling-out portion of the RAM. During the other half cycle the selector connects the
counters to the RAM and during the early part of the half cycle information is transferred from a
time slot on one of the signalling-in highways to the signalling-in portion of the RAM under the
control of the input counter and during the later part of the half cycle, information is transferred
from the signalling-out part of the RAM to a time slot on one of the signalling-out highways
under the control of the output counter.
3.7 The Address Decoder
3. 7. 1 A block schematic diagram of the Address Decoder is given in Figure 24. The 20 bit
address bus is connected to the Address Decoder, and only those leads which carry the 8 least
significant bits are extended to the Speech Switch and the Signalling Circuit. This 8 bit extension
is capable of identifying any of the 256 locations in the Speech Switch or in the outgoing portion
or the incoming portion of the Signalling Circuit RAM. It is necessary to supplement the address
on the 8 bit extension with an additional indication over a separate lead to show to which of these
locations the address applies. Although 2 bits would be sufficient to provide this indication to the
CLOCK
PULSE
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
l
l
l
20 BI T
ADDRESS
BUS FROM
CPU
MOST
SI GNI FI CANT
1 2 BI TS

DECODI NG
EQUI PMENT
ENABLE
SPEECH
SWITCH
LEAST SI GNI FI CANT 8 BITS
"

ENABLE
SI GNALLI NG- I N
ELEMENTS
I
ENABLE
SI GNALLI NG- OUT
ELEMENTS
`
` ` `
TO
SPEECH SWITCH
TO
SI GNALLI NG- I N
ELEMENTS OF
SI GNALLI NG CI RCUI T
TO
SI GNALLI NG- OUT
ELEMENTS OF
SI GNALLI NG CI RCUI T
PART 1. FI GURE 24. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE ADDRESS DECODER.
Address Decoder, it is convenient to derive the information from the remaining 12 bits in a
structured manner which is consistent with the bank swiching arrangements described in
paragraph 3. 8. 4, thus leaving flexibility to permit re-allocation of storage addresses within the
system if required in the future. Strapping felds are provided within the decoding equipment to
enable the address to be changed at any time.
3. 7. 2 The Signalling Circuit, Speech Switch, Address Decoder and the main clock circuit are
all mounted on the same printed wiring board, which is illustrated in Figure 25.
3.8 Control Equipment
3. 8. 1 All the functions carried out by the exchange are controlled by the Central Processing
Unit (CPU) acting on data contained in the system programs and working information stores (ie
stores containing information relating to calls in progress at any particular time, and other
activities of a non-permanent character) . The way in which the CPU extends its control
throughout the system, by means of address and data busses, is illustrated in Figure 4, where it
will be seen that the interfaces between the control equipment and the rest of the system are the
Signalling Circuit and the Input Time Switch. A block schematic diagram of the CPU, and its
associated memories is given in Figure 26. The microprocessor communicates with the
memories containing its various program stores and working stores over the same address, data
and control busses as are extended to the rest of the system. The section of the address bus
Q6 45
Page 4
Part 1 Figure 25 The Signalling Circuit, Speech Switch, Clock Board
between the CPU and its associated stores as far as the Address Decoder, uses 20 bits to enable the
capacities of the stores to be increased by "Bank Switching" -a technique which is described
later in this sub-section. The Read Only Memories ( ROMs) are of the erasable programmable
type (EPROMs) and the Random Access Memories (RAMs) are of the Complementary Metal
Oxide Silicon ( CMOS) type for the low power requirements, or "N" channel Metal Oxide
Semiconductor ( NMOS) type for normal read/write storage.
3. 8. 2 The 6K ROM and lK RAM containing the off-line maintenance and diagnostic program
and working data are contained within the CPU printed board. The remaining memories are
mounted on a separate board. The main program, on which the basic operation of the system
depends, is written into the 106K ROM store at the time of manufacture. The 16K RAM
provides the working store in which all the processor data relating to each call in progress at any
particular time is recorded. The customer Data Base (see Paragraph 3. 8. 3) and fault record
information are stored in a separate 8K RAM and to safeguard against the loss of this information
if a power failure should occur, a back-up power supply consisting of nickel cadmium cells is
provided on the board which accordingly becomes a non-volatile (NV) RAM.
3. 8. 3 The customer's Data Base, which contains all the information relating to the particular
location at which the system is installed is prepared initially by the Administration and
permanently stored in a separate 4K ROM on a small printed board ("Daughter Board") which is
I
I
I
|
|
I
|
l
\
I
\
\
_CENTRAL PROCES UNIT bbL|1

L
NOTES, 1 The Control Bus has been omitted from figure

for simplicity of presentation.


PART 1, FI GURE 26. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DIAGRAM OF CENTRAL PROCESSI NG UNIT AND ASSOCIATED STORES.
supplied as a plug-in item on the NVRAM (the "Mother Board") . When the system is frst made
operational, the information in the daughter board is automatically transferred to the mother
b
oard, where it is accessed by the CPU as, and when, required. Facility changes made by the
customer, using the Man-Machine Interface described later, effect alterations to the Data Base
information in the NVRAM so that after a time this information will differ from that in the
daughter board. However, the information permanently stored in the daughter board ensures
that if, in spite of the battery back-up, the NVRAM loses its information, an adequate Customer
Data Base is available to enable the installation to function satisfactorily as soon as it is restored to
service. The battery back-up in the NVRAM ensures that the customer modifed information is
retained for at least 4 days. The administration can, at any time, replace the daughter board in an
installation by an unprogrammed one and cause the current Data Base information in the
NVRAM to be transferred automatically to the new daughter board which will then provide a
permanent updated customer Data Base. The NVRAM store with its daughter board is
illustrated in Figure 27.
3. 8. 4 The use of a 16 bit address bus throughout would restrict the total number of addresses to
64K. However, within the CPU and its associated stores there are well over lOOK bytes of
information to be accessed and, in addition, there are further bytes stored in the Signalling
Circuit and the Speech Switch. To increase the capacity of the address bus, an additional 4 bits
are used between the processor and its associated memories and the Address Decoder. The bits
-ae47
-aeA
concerned are in the 4 most significant positions in the binary encoded numbers comprising the
address and each 4 bit combination, known as the "Bank Number", identifes the group of stores
(or "Bank") to which access is required. In principle, this increases the capacity of the address bus
from 64K to 1024K, but in practice it is convenient, for design reasons, to make some areas of
memory common (memories in these areas are addressed independently of the bank number)
and this reduces the capacity of the address bus below 1024 K. By choosing the correct balance
between common memory and "bank switched" memory a useful gain in addressing capacity is
still obtained.
3. 8. 5 The hexadecimal display and sense switches, to which reference is made in Figure 26 are
mounted on the front edge of the CPU printed board. The hexadecimal digits, which identify
faults recorded by the CPU are presented as a 2 digit illuminated display; the use made of this
display is referred to later in the manual. There are 7 sense switches, also mounted on the front of
the CPU panel, which are used by maintenance personnel to control the application of certain
types of teSt. The "power-up and reset" element functions when the power is first connected, or
restored after a mains failure. The "power-up" element checks that the principal SV DC
supply is within its tolerances' before giving a signal to the Watchdog to cause the CPU to be
brought into operation. The function of the Watchdog has already been described in Paragraph
3. 1 . 1 1 . The Central Processing Unit is illustrated in Figure 28.
3. 8. 6 The CEU software consists of a number of processes, each of which has a specifc
function. The processes are loosely coupled so that changes to one process have a minimal efect
on the other. Communication between processes is efected by messages passed through the
Operating System, which decides which process should be run at any particular time; i t also
Part l Figure 27 The Random Access Memory/Non-Volatile Memory and Daughter Board
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
I
I
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
|
{
provides common services, such as maintenance of the time of day clock. There is no
communication between the different processes by the use of shared memory.
3. 8.7 There is a further division of each process into parts -initialisation, which runs when
the system is restarted to put the process data into a known state; foreground parts (fast and slow)
which are run on periodic interrupts generated from the system clock; and a background part
which is run on demand. Thus the background part is only active when work requires to be
done. The application processes can be divided into 2 types: the telephonic type, which is
concerned directly with controlling calls through the exchange, and the non-telephonic type,
which is concerned with functions auxiliary to the main business of controlling calls. The CEU
software structure is illustrated in Figure 29. The initialisation part, which is only run when the
system is restarted, has been omitted for ease of presentation.
3. 8. 8 The telephonic processes consist of
Exchange Scan (XSCAN)
The foreground parts of this process scan the exchange, looking for new events, and the
background part controls the exchange hardware on command from other processes. The
slow scan looks at the entire exchange every 128 milliseconds, to detect signifcant changes
such as a user lifting his handset. The fast scan looks at calls already in progress which have
reached the stage where the fast recognition of changed conditions is essential - for
example, the recognition of pulses during dialling. The exchange equipment does not
interrupt the processor; only the real-time clock does this. The XSCAN process acts as an
interface between the exchange hardware and the Call Processing functions. It translates
Part 1 Figure 28 The Centra/Processing Unit
-ae49
BACKGROUND
PROCESSES
SOFTWARE PROCESSES
OPERATING SYSTEM
INPUT
QUEUE
INPUT
QUEUE
ASSOCIATED
HAROWARE
SIGNALLING
OUT
._ . . .... . . .
Q6 bU
l

1 2BmS
INTERRUPT '
L. _.
MISCELLNEOUS :
MTCE &DIAGNOSTICS
LIST PROCESS
TRAFFIC RECORDING
C ALL LOGGING
MAN MACHINE
INTERFACE
NOTES: 1 limited use is also made of a lOOmS interrupt but this has been
omied for clarity.
CALL
PROCESSING
ICPRO)
2 The Slow Scan and Fast Scan parts of processes constitute the Foreground Parts.
EXCHANGE
SCAN
IXSCAN)
PART 1. FI GURE 29. THE CEU SOFTWARE STRUCTURE.
hardware signals into telephonic messages within the CPU. For example, a certain bit set
in a signalling byte from an Extension Line Unit may be translated to a "new call" message.
Call Processing (CPRO)
This has no foreground part; it runs on demand in response to messages from other
processes, to control requirements for both basic telephone service and special facilities.
The CPRO process contains the main intelligence of the system.
3. 8. 9 The non-telephonic processes consist of:
The Man-Machine Interface (MM!
The function of the MMI is described in Section 6. The MMI software process has no
foreground part. It runs on demand, in response to messages from other processes, to
provide a means of examining the state of exchange resources, altering the Customer's
Data Base, and invoking diagnostic tests.
The Maintenance and Diagnostic Process (MAD)
The foreground parts monitor the output of the ringing generator and act as a Watchdog
to ensure that the background part runs, and that the background part is scheduled
SIGNALLING
IN
I
I

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

t
|

\
\
\
periodically to test the exchange hardware. MAD can also be invoked, when required, by
maintenance personnel through MMI .
Call Loging (CLOG)
This process has no foreground part. It runs on demand, in response to messages from
CPRO, to log details of outgoing calls as they are completed.
List Process (LISP)
The foreground parts of this process handle character output to the MMI, call logging and
system monitor printers, and accept input from the MMI keyboard. The background part
reformats data from other processes for output to the appropriate printer.
Trafic Recording (TREC)
The process has no foreground part. It receives messages from CPRO and XSCAN which
enable it to record the use of common resources, both software and hardware, within the
exchange, and the occasions when calls fail due to a shortage of resources.
All the above processes except MMI have been included in the miscellaneous area of Figure 29.
3. 8. 10 The Operating System schedules foreground routines on interrupt from the system
real-time clock. Every 128 ms, on completion of the slow foreground routines, the background
scheduler is run and the highest priority executable background process is entered. A
background process is executable if it has been interrupted or if it has a task waiting mits queue.
The priority order of processes is fixed; XSCAN has the highest priority and LISP the lowest.
3. 8. 1 1 It is to be noted from the foregoing that the 2 processes CPRO and XSCAN together
perform all the telephonic functions of the system. CPRO is the master and XSCAN is the slave.
CPRO receives from XSCAN notice of the telephonic events it has detected, and in return issues
commands to be executed by XSCAN. Typical events are the detection of CLEAR, DIGIT,
NEWCALL, and RECALL signals. Typical commands are to MARK an extension, SET
STATE of termination, CONNECT a path, RING a bell etc. XSCAN has no memory of the
progress of a call or of the relationship between the various ports it is monitoring. Thus, when
XSCAN detects an event and sends it to CPRO it takes no further action other than the
minimum necessary to maintain its own functions. Hence no conflict in control between CPRO
and XSCAN can arise.
3. 8. 12 Since the system must support many calls in progress at any one time, a record of the
progress of each call must be kept. This information is kept in the Call Records. Each Call Record
is identifed by a Call Record Number ( CRN) which is used to access the correct data and to
direct external events, such as those detected by XSCAN, to the appropriate call. Typical of the
data stored are the Equipment Numbers (ENs), ie the Port Numbers, of the parties involved in
the call, the identities of any hardware or software resources employed, dialled digits , and
information describing the type of call being made and its progress so far.
3. 8. 13 The progress of a simple own-exchange call through the system starts as follows : The
arrival of the port number of the calling extension in a time slot from the CSI is detected by
XSCAN which sends an acknowledgement to the CSI, causing it to become transparent to
signalling in both directions via that time slot. XSCAN then detects the loop condition in the
time slot and a NEWCALL message together with the EN of the extension concerned is sent to
CPRO. The message is recognised by CPRO as a NEW CALL type and a CRN is allocated to it.
An entry is made in the EN-CRN translation table so that any subsequent messages referenced
by the same EN will be directed to the same CR. The CR is activated and the class of service of the
originating extension examined to determine the type of signalling required. XSCAN is
instructed to provide the appropriate digit receiver( s) and CPRO enters a wait state to await
reception of digit messages from XSCAN. When a digit message is received and CPRO
re-started, the EN is referred to the EN-CRN translation table and the CRN is obtained. The
digit is then placed in the CR stores. CPRO instructs XSCAN what action should be taken in the
hardware at each stage as the call proceeds. This type of procedure is repeated until the call finally
terminates.
aeOT
SPEECH HI GHWAY
FROM SPEECH SWITCH
(32 CHANNELS) SPEECH
2048 kbit/s
I GNALLl NG- OUT S
H I GHWAY FROM
SI GNALLI NG
CI RCUI T
(32 CHANNELS)
256 kbitls
SPEECH (NOTE 1)
SPEECH ( NOTE 1)
DROPBACK
I NPUT
(
SPEECH (NOTE I
SI GNALLI NG
SI GNALLI NG

CONFERENCE
SPEECH
UNI T
TONE
SPEECH (NOTE I _
GENERATOR
SPEECH HI GHWAY
TO SPEECH SWITCH
(32 CHANNELS)
2048 kbit/s
DI AL TONE
SI GNALLI NG
RECEI VER
MF
SI GNALLI NG
BI NDER
RECEIVERS
(SSMF4)
SI GNALLI NG (NOTE 2)
SPEECH (NOTE I
SI GNALLI NG- I N
TEST UNI T
HI GHWAY TO
SI GNALLI NG

SI GNALLI NG
CI RCUI T
SI GNALLI NG
(32 CHANNELS)
(NOTE 2)
9
256 kbit/s
TO REMOTELY
PATTERN
SI TED ALRM
GENERATOR
BOX (OPTI ONAL)
SSMF4
SPEECH (NOTE 1)

SENDER
NOTES: 1 . I n thi s fi gure the term "speech" i ncl udes digital l y encoded tones/A.C. si gnal s i n the
speech frequency band. and speech-l i ke test patterns.
Q6O2
2. The si gnal l i ng outputs from the Keyphone Receiver and the Pattern Generator uti l i se
ci rcui t el ements i n the Test Unit I C to achieve maxi mum desi gn economy.
PART !, FI GURE 30. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DI AGRAM OF THE SERVI CES CARD.
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
|
l
\
\
\
\
\
\
I
PORT
NUMBER

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
1 8
1 9
20
2 1
2 2
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
3. 8. 14 The system program is large and complex, and during the lifetime of the system i t may
need to be modified from time to time to provide enhanced capabilities, or as a consequence of
maintenance requirements. Further, in view of the forecast life of the system, it has to be
expected that modifications will need . to be carried out by people other than the original
programmers. For these reasons a high level language CORALhas been used for most of the
program, but in time critical areas, where it is important to achieve maximum processor
efciency, assembly language has been used. The general rule is that all background procedures
are programmed in CORAL, and the remainder, which account for about 15% of the program,
are written in assembly language.
3.9 The Services Card
3. 9. 1 The Services Card, which interfaces with the speech switch and signalling units in a
similar way to the Concentrating ShelfInterface, provides the following functional items: -
The Conference Unit
The Tone Generator
The Dial Tone Receiver
- The MF Signalling Receivers
SPEECH HI GHWAYS SI GNALLI NG HI GHWAYS
I NCOMI NG FROM
SPEECH SWITCH
OUTGOI NG TO
SPEECH SWITCH
I NCOMI NG FROM
SI GNALLI NG CI RCUIT
OUTGOI NG TO
SI GNALLI NG CI RCUIT
PART 1. FI GURE 31. ALLOCATI ON OF PORTS I N THE SERVI CES CARD.
-aeo
aeO4
The Test Unit
The Pattern Generator
The SSMF No. 4 Sender (not used with the present processor program)
3. 9. 2 A block sch<matic diagram of the Services Card is given in Figure 30. All incoming
information to the card arrives over a 2048 kbit/s highway from the Speech Switch or a 256
kbit/s highway from the Signalling Circuit. Similarly, all information leaving the card is sent
over a 2048 kbit/s highway to the Speech Switch or a 256 kbit/s highway to the Signalling
Circuit. These highways provide 32 time slots (ports) which are allocated to the various items on
the card, as shown in Figure 31. It will be noticed that most items do not require ports in all 4
highways, indeed, only the Test Unit makes use of all the different highways. Thus it is possible
to use the same port on difrent highways for different items. For example, the MF Signalling
Receivers use ports 0 to 7 only on the incoming speech and outgoing signalling highways, and
these ports on the outgoing speech highway are used for outputs from the Tone Generator.
Other similar examples can be found in Figure 31.
3. 9. 3 Each functional item on the card which requires t o receive information from an
incoming highway incorporates timing features at its own input which enable it to capture the
required bit (or bits) in the time slot allocated to that item. Each item is responsible for collecting
its own input data.
3. 9. 4 Depending on the function performed by an item, its output may be in the form of
A-Law encoded speech (or equivalent, eg audible tones) at 2048 kbit/s, or in the form of
Part l Figure 32 The Services Card
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
f
|
|
I
l

|
I

I
|

I
I
I
I
|

I
I
|
|
.
signalling bytes (bits A to H) at 256 kbit/s, or both, as in the case of the Test Unit. The outputs,
which are in serially encoded form in all cases, are fed into a "Binder" circuit, the function of
which is to ensure that output information is connected to the outgoing highways at exactly the
correct port slot time. Depending on the design of the item concerned, its output may appear at
the input to the Binder continuously at every port slot time, or only at a time corresponding to
the port slot time allocated for use by the item. The Binder is not involved in the receipt of
information by the Services Card (see Paragraph 3. 9. 3) and it does not insert any information of
its own into the outgoing bit streams; it performs only the output data selecting function.
3. 9. 5 It will be seen that the signalling outputs from the MF Signalling Receivers and the
Pattern Generator pass to the Binder via the Test Unit. This is not due to any functional
relationship between the three items, but arises from the fact that economies have been achieved
by making use of spare circuit elements in the Test Unit IC to perform the Pattern Generator
function and to provide certain circuit elements required in the MF Receiver outputs.
3. 9. 6 An illustration of a Services Card is given in Figure 32.
The Conference Unit
3. 9. 7 A block schematic diagram of the Conference Unit is given in Figure 33. The 16 ports
allocated to the unit are divided into 4 groups, each comprising a conference "bridge" capable of
interconnecting 4 ports. Thus the unit can handle 4 conference calls simultaneously, each
involving up to 4 ports. The conference unit performs its internal functions continuously
regardless of whether the CPU is making use of them, and it is una ware of the occasions on which
it is taken into use. The service that each bridge provides is to deliver an output to each of its 4
SPEECH HI GHWAY
FROM SPEECH
SWITCH
SERI AL I N
8 BITS I N
I NPUT
8 BITS I N
A LAW
1 3 BI T S I N
LLEL
(PORTS 1 631)
PARALLEl PARALLEL PARA

PARALLEl OUT RANDOM

TO
CONVERSI ON ACCESS LI NEAR
2 048 Mbit/s
CI RCUIT MEMORY CONVERTOR
SERI AL STREAM
ACCUMULTOR W
TO
SPEECH HI GHWAY
TO SPEECH
SWITCH
VI A BI NDER
PARALLEL I N LI NEAR
(PORTS 1 631) 12 BITS I N

SERI AL- OUT TO


PARALLEL
CONVERSI ON
%
A- LAW
2 048 Mbit/s
CI RCU IT
8 BITS I N
CONVERTOR
SERI AL STREAM PARALLEL
PART 1. FI GURE 33. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DI AGRAM OF THE CONFERENCE UNIT.
Q6 55
aeO
ports which is the sum of the inputs received from the other 3 ports. The summing operation is
linear and introduces no gain or loss.
3. 9. 8 When the CPU receives a request for a conference call it connects the parties concerned
to the time slots corresponding to one conference bridge on the 2048 kbit/s incoming and
outgoing highways between the Speech Switch and the Services Card. The incoming highway
from the Speech Switch appears at the input to the Serial-In-Parallel-Out Conversion Circuit
which extracts each of the 8 bit speech bytes corresponding to the ports to be interconnected, and
sends them in sequence to the Input RAM, where each of the 16 conference ports has its own
store. The Accumulator receives the bytes from the Input RAM via an A-Law to Linear
Convertor, which transforms the 8 A-Law encoded speech bits into 13 bits linear encoded
PCM. The thirteenth bit is required to identify the centre point of a quantum level and thus
ensure that the quantising distortion during this process does not exceed half a quantum level.
3. 9. 9 The speech bits from each combination otports in a bridge are successively summed in
the Accumulator, and the results are sent in 12 bit parallel form to a linear to A Law converter:
the thirteenth bit is discarded (rounded up) . The sum values, now in 8 bit parallel A-Law coded
form, are converted to serial form and each sent via the Binder, to the remaining port of the
bridge on the outgoing highway to the Speech Switch. Thus, the bits from Ports 1 , 2 and 3 in the
bridge are added together and sent to Port 0, the bits from Ports 0, 2 and 3 in the bridge are added
together and sent to Port 1 and so on. The intermediate conversion to linear encoding is
necessary to permit simple addition of the sample values in the Accumulator.
3. 9. 10 If only three parties are connected together on a conference call, the unused port in the
bridge must be connected to silence, and the CPU effects this automatically by connecting the
port via the Speech Switch to Port 10 on the Services Card (see Paragraph 3. 9. 13, Table 3) .
Similarly, if any party clears down from a four party conference call, the CPU must connect the
port which it was using to silence. However, if a party clears down from a 3 party conference
then the two remaining parties are connected directly to each other, and the conference bridge is
returned to the idle pool.
The Tone Generator
3.9. 11 All the supervisory tones used by the system originate from the Tone Generator, where
they are stored as digital patterns on an Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory ( EPROM) .
The cadences for the different tones are hard wired. The outputs are fed via the Binder onto the
2048 kbit/s highway to the Speech Switch. The Tone Generator has 12 ports, each of which can
supply a different type of tone. The bit patterns corresponding to the tone supplied by each port
are continuously sent over the speech highway to that port in the Speech Switch. To connect a
tone to a line it is only necessary for the CPU to cause the speech switch to make a connection
between the port supplying the required tone and the time slot serving the line concerned. If
more than one line requires the same tone, one Speech Switch connection is made to each time
slot from the tone port. No problems of tone supply loading arise because of the nature of the
Speech Switch. A block schematic diagram of the Tone Generator is given in Figure 34.
3. 9. 12 The digitally encoded tones are read out from the EPROM on which they are stored,
under the control of clock pulses, and passed in 8 bit parallel form to a Parallel-In-Serial-Out
conversion circuit which extends the bits in serial form via the Binder to the highway to the
Speech Switch. The EPROM contains a table of silence samples, so that in effect silence becomes
another tone. The cadences for the different supervisory tones are provided by the cadence logic
which causes silence samples to be read out during the "of' periods of the tones.
3. 9. 13 Table 3 shows the various tones currently assigned to the different ports allocated to the
Tone Generator, and the levels of tones as measured at the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) .
Lower levels have been adopted for the 1000 Hz and 1400 Hz tones t o take account of
psophometric weighting considerations. The 1000 Hz tone is not used at present. The
interrupted dial tone reminds the user that calls to his extension are being diverted. Different
tones required in other networks, can be provided as an alternative by suitably programming the
EPROMs and, where cadence changes are required, by replacing one of the ICs.
I
I
f
I
|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
CLOCK
PULSES
TO
SPEECH HI GHWAY
DI GI TALLY TO SPEECH
ENCODED
PARALLEL- I N
SWI TCH
TONE
d BI TS I N PARALLEL
SERI AL-OUT
VI A BI NDER (PORTS 0- 10)
SAMPLES
CONVERSI ON
(READ 04d kbitls
ONLY
CI RCUIT
MEMORY)
TONE
SELECT
COUNTER
CADENCE
3 BITS I N
PARALLEL
CADENCE
GENERATE
SELECT
LOGI C

CONNECTS
COUNTER COUNTER
SI LENCE
DURI NG "OFF'
PERI ODS OF
l
CADENCE
PART 1 . FI GURE 34. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE TONE GENERATOR.
Q6 O`
ae58
Port Tone Basic Tone Cadence Level at
No. Store MDF
0 Continuous ringing 400+450 Hz Continuous On
1 Ringing 400+450 Hz
On .4s; Off .2s;
On .4s; Off 2.0s -10 dBmO
2 Inverted ringing 400+450 Hz
Off .4s; On .2s
Off .4s; On 2.0s
3 Confrmation tone 1400 Hz Continuous On
-20 dBmO
4 Spare 1000 Hz Continuous On
5 Number
Unobtainable 400 Hz Continuous On
6 Switching 400 Hz
Off .4s; On .2s
Off .4s; On 2.0s
-10 dBmO
7 Engaged 400 Hz On . 375s; Off . 375s
8 Dial 350+400 Hz Continuous On
9 Interrupted dial 350+400 Hz On .75s; Off .75s
10 Silence
. &
11 Unused
& &
Table 3 Allocation ofTone Generator Ports
The Dial Tone Receiver
3. 9. 14 In some of the older designs of public exchange, a signifcant delay may occur between
seizure of an exchange line and the establishment of dialling conditions at the exchange. To cater
for these cases, pulsing out from the P ABX must be inhibited until dial tone has been received,
and accordingly, a Dial Tone Detector is required at the PABX. The characteristics of dial tone
in respect of amplitude, fundamental frequency and harmonic content vary so widely
throughout the network as a whole that the following criteria have been found the most
satisfactory for recognising the tone: -
a. it must reach a level of -21 dBm within every 8 ms sampling period over a
nominal period of 600 ms.
b. the sign of the AC signal comprising the tone must have alternated at least 8
times.
When the CPU recognises that a call requires to be routed via the public exchange, it selects an
outgoing exchange line and sets up a connection between the "receive" path of the line and Port
13 on the Speech Highway to the Services Card. As soon as conditions ( a) and (b) , above, are
satisfed in the Dial Tone Receiver, it sends a signal to the CPU indicating that it may be released
and pulsing out may start.
3. 9. 15 A block schematic diagram of the Dial Tone Receiver is given in Figure 35. The
amplitude detector examines the PCM encoded bits in the time slot corresponding to Port 13 in
the incoming speech highway, to determine whether the signal level is above or below -21 dBm,
and the alternator detector similarly examines the bits to determine the sign changes in the
received AC signal. As long as the requirements of the amplitude detector continue to be
satisfied, the persistence timer continues to count for approximately 600 ms, after which a signal
is extended to the check circuit. Meanwhile, providing the required number of alternations has
been detected by the alternation detector, this also sends a signal to the check circuit, and
provided both signals are being received, the check circuit extends a signal to Port 13 of the
Signalling-In highway, via the Binder, and thence to the Signalling Circuit and CPU. If, at any
time during the 600 ms recognition period, the received tone fails to satisfy the requirements of
the amplitude detector, this detector connects a signal to the drop-out lead, which causes both
the persistence timer and the alternation detector to be reset; it is then necessary for acceptable
conditions to be received for a further 600ms before an output signal can be extended to the
Binder.
f
I
I
f
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
I
SPEECH HI GHWAY
FROM
SPEECH SWITCH
(PORT 13)
2048 kbit/s
AMPLITUDE
DETECTOR
DROPOUT
ALTERNATI ON
DETECTOR
PERSI STENCE
TI MER
CHECK
CI RCUI T
TO SI GNALLI NG- I N
HI GHWAY
VI A BI NDER (PORT 13)
256 kbit/s
PART 1. FI GURE 35. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE DI AL TONE RECEI VER.
FROM OTHER
KEYPHONE RECEI VERS
I

PART OF |

OTHER
SI GNAL
KEYPHONE
ENCOOI NG
RECEIVER

CI RCUIT
|
(EXPLANATORY

ONLY)

.. . L
I
I
l
SPEECH HI GHWAY
FROM
SPEECH SWITCH
( PORTS 0-7)
BI NARY
ENCODED
DI GITS
- TO SI GNALLI NG- I N
PCM
TO
MF SI GNALS
SI GNAL
HI GHWAY VI A TEST UNI T
AND BI NDER (pORTS O 7)
ANALOGUE
SSMF4
SI GNAL
RECEI VER
ENCODI NG ~~~~~~
2048 kbit/s
DECODER
ANALOGUE DC
CI RCUI T
PART 1 . FI GURE 36. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE MF SI GNALLI NG RECEI VER.
The MP Signalling Receivers
256 kbit/s
3. 9. 16 The MF Signalling Receivers are designed to accept signals conforming to the
internationally agreed system (referred to in British Telecom as Signalling System
Multi-Frequency No. 4 - SSMF4) in which each signal is represented by a combination of2
frequencies - one in the Band 697 Hz to 941 Hz, and the other in the Band 1209 Hz to 1633 Hz.
On receipt of an "off hook" signal from an extension provided with an MF keyphone Class of
Q6 OJ
Service, the CPU immediately sets up a connection in the "send" direction to an MF Receiver
port on the Services Card, and in the "receive" direction to dial tone (Port 8 on the Services
Card) , thus connecting dial tone to the extension user. The MF digits are accepted by the
receiver and forwarded to the CPU, via the Binder and Signalling-In highway, in appropriately
coded form using the 8 signalling bits A to H, as described in Part 2. When the CPU concludes
that all the digits have been received, it releases the connection to the MF Receiver and sets up a
call from the originating extension to the required extensions, or other destination, in the usual
way.
3. 9. 17 The Services Card can accommodate up to 6 MF Receivers and 2 spare ports are l eft to
accommodate a further 2 receivers for possible later applications. A block schematic diagram of a
Services Card MF Receiver is given in Figure 36 from which it will be seen that the outputs of the
receivers are connected in series and are passed in succession over a single path to the Binder and
thence to the Signalling-In highway. The output from the receiver shown in full lines is sent to
Port 0, the output from the receiver shown in dotted lines is sent to Port 1, and so on. The
required time delays are inserted automatically as the receiver outputs pass down the chain.
3. 9. 18 Considering now the operation of one receiver, the incoming MF signals, in binary
encoded form are captured from the incoming speech highway at the appropriate port time, and
after conversion to analogue are applied to the input of a standard MF signal receiver. Provided
that one signal, and only one signal is present in each of the signalling bands, and provided the
levels of the 2 signals are both within the prescribed limits, and their presence exceeds a
predetermined duration (the "Recognition Time") , DC signals are passed to the Signal
Encoding Circuit, where they are converted to binary and sent in serial form via the Binder to
the appropriate port on the 256 kbit/s Signalling-In highway.
The Test Unit and Pattern Generator
3. 9. 19 The functions of the Test Unit and the Pattern Generator are described i n Section 5.
The SSMF4 Sender
3. 9.20 An SSMF4 Sender is provided on the Services Card to enable outgoing calls to be set up
over exchange lines that terminate on public exchanges equipped with SSMF4 keyphone
receivers but the main processor program does not enable this to be used at present. When the
CPU recognises that an outgoing call requires to be routed over a circuit which employs MF
signalling, it immediately sets up a connection between Port 13 on the outgoing Speech
Highway from the Services Card and the "send" path of the cir.cuit concerned. A connection is
set up at the same time between the Dial Tone Receiver (Port 13 on the incoming Speech
Highway of the Services Card) and the "receive" path of the circuit concerned. When enabled
by the Dial Tone Receiver the CPU then forwards each digit as it is received over the
Signalling-In highway to Port 13 on the Services Card, and the SSMF4 Sender converts the digit
from the binary form in which it is received over the signalling highway to the appropriate MF
tone combination for transmission over the outgoing circuit. As soon as the CPU concludes that
dialling has been completed it releases the connection to the SSMF4 Generator and sets up a
connection between the calling extension and the outgoing circuit.
SI GNALLl NG OUT
TO SPEECH HI GHWAY
HI GHWAY FROM
TO SPEECH SWITCH
SI GNALLI NG CI RCUI T
BI NARY
VIA
(pORT 13)
TO
8 BITS LOW
BI NDER (PORT 13)
KEYPAD
TONE
PASS CDDEC
256 kbit/s
SI GNAL
DC
GENERATOR
ANALOGUE
FI LTER
ANALOGUE 2048 kbit/s
CONVERTOR
ENCODED MF MF
KEYPAD SI GNALS SI GNALS
D TA A
PART 1. FI GURE 37. BLOCK SCHEMATIC DI AGRAM OF THE SSMF4 SENDER.
Q6
I
l

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
l
l
\
\
|
\
\
\
\
t
\
\
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
I
|
I
3. 9. 21 A block schematic diagram of the SSMF4 Sender is given in Figure 37. The binary to
keypad signal converter captures the required binary encoded signalling bits from the
signalling-out highway during the appropriate port slot time, and converts them into a DC
encoded form identical to that produced by the key pad in an MF keyphone. The signals then
enter a standard tone generator, as used in MF keyphones, and the resultant MF signals are fed
via a low pass filter, (to eliminate any unwanted frequency components) into a standard
analogu to PCM coder, the output of which is connected via the Binder to the outgoing speech
highway at the appropriate port time.
3. 10 The Console
3. 10. 1 Block schematic diagrams of the operator' s console and the Console Line Unit are given
in Figures 7 and 17. Excluding the signalling system used between the console and the CE U, and
CONTROL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED HARDWARE

LI NK HANDLER
!
J
SPEECH CI RCUI T

Data Interrupt
SCHEDULER
BLEEP
LEDs
ROUTINE
AND
AUDIBLE
FLASH
TONE
ROUTINE
CIRCUIT

VDU
VDU
HANDLER
MEMORY
TESTING RAM
ROUTINE
KEYBOARD
KEYBOARD
HANDLER
DATA TO
CENTRAL

QUEUE
J
W
OUTGOING
EQUIPMENT
LINK
DATA FROM
CENTRAL
r `
I NCOMI NG
EQUIPMENT
^
QUEUE
.
LINK
W
PART 1. FI GURE 38. BLOCK DI AGRAM OF THE CONSOLE CONTROL STRUCTURE.
Q6 1
Q6 Z
described in sub-section 3. 2. 2 ( the Console Line Unit) , the console has 4 main areas offunctional
interest: the Central Processor Unit (CPU) and associated memories; the keyboard; the Visual
Display Unit and the Operator's Speech Circuit.
3. 10. 2 A block diagram of the console CPU control structure is given in Figure 38. The blocks
at the lefthand side represent software packages stored in the Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory (EPROM) which accordingly it is not appropriate to show as a separate item in the
figure; the blocks on the righthand side represent hardware items, controlled by the software
packages, plus the Random Access Memory ( RAM) to which the CPU applies for temporary
data relating to calls etc, being handled at any particular time. The software packages consist of a
number of routines known as the Link Handler; the VDU Handler; the keyboard Handler; a
Bleep Routine and a Flash Routine. In every case but one the routines are run periodically under
the control of the Scheduler; the exception is the Link Handler which runs on an interrupt basis.
MMI messages are passed to a subsidiary routine, which prepares them for display on the VDU.
3. 10. 3 When the Central Equipment Unit ( CEU) receives a call which has to be directed to
the Console, a 3 byte message is received over the signalling link and the Link Handler forwards
the data to the other routines to cause appropriate action to be taken. In the case of an incoming
exchange line call, the Bleep and Flash routines cause a cadenced audible tone to be given and a
Light Emitting Diode (LED) , adjacent to the appropriate key, to fash. When the key is
operated, the data output from the keyboard is recognised by the Keyboard Handler, which
causes a 1 byte message to be sent over the signalling link to the Console Line Unit, and thence to
the processor in the CEU. Receipt of this message causes the processor in the CEU to connect the
exchange line port to one of the Console Line Unit ports via the Speech Switch. The processor in
the CE U also instructs the Console Line Unit to send a 3 byte message to the console, where the
Link Handler operates as before and causes the correct connections to be made within the
Operator's Speech Circuit; the VDU handler causes the data relating to the call to be displayed
on the Visual Display Unit. At this stage the operator can speak to the caller and the identity of
the line used, and the status of the call, are displayed. The operator proceeds to deal with the call
and subsequent keyboard operation causes further interchange of messages over the signalling
link. Other types of call are handled in a similar way.
3. 10. 4 The control program for the Console does not vary with different sizes of P ABX.
Information regarding system configuration is transmitted to the console by the CEU and stored
in the RAM. This occurs each time the console is brought into use ( eg when the console is frst
connected up). Thus a console recovered from one Monarch 120B Compact installation can be
immediately re-used at another similar site.
3. 10. 5 As in the case of the processor in the CEU, new and enhanced facilities can be
introduced during the life of the equipment by making appropriate changes to the control
program. The Read Only Memory (ROM) is mounted on a detachable daughter board, similar
in principle to that used for the Customer' s Data Base ( see Paragraph 3. 8. 3) and can be readily
removed, re-programmed and re-inserted into the mother board.
3. 10. 6 The keyboard has 46 keys arranged in 3 groups:
a. The central group contains a 12 digit keypad (including the symbols and j) and 4
commonly used function keys - the HOLD, RETRIEVE, CANCEL and WITHDRA W
keys.
b. The lefthand group includes 4 keys for OUTGOING GROUPS and INCOMING
GRO UPS; 4 other keys -the ASSIST, CALL-IN, W AITIN G RETURN and SERIES
RETURN keys -are used for special categories of incoming call. Each of the 8 keys
concerned with the incoming calls has an associated LED on the keyboard. The left hand
group of keys also includes the 3 other function keys -TRUNK SELECT, SERIES
CALL and VOLUME keys.
c. The righthand group contains 3 keys concerned with speech circuit control: these are
the SPEAK 1, SPEAK 2/KEY INTERN AL and JOIN keys. Nine keys are also associated
with special operator facilities - the EXTENSION STATUS, LAST NUMBER
REPEAT, METER, CALL BACK, LAST CALL RECOVER, RING, STEP-ON,
INTRUDE and TIME keys. The 3 remaining keys i n the righthand group are the
RECEIVING ATTENTION key (used under alarm conditions) , the CONSOLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
P 4 4 4 B 4 4 B
|/////||0
TEST KY ( which implements a shelf testing routine) and ' a key marked MMI
(Man-Machine Interface) which enables the system to be used to effect facility changes
and to initiate diagnostic testing routines. A close-up illustration of the keyboard is given
in Figure 39.
3. 10. 7 The keys have no moving parts and operate on the capacitive touch principle. When a
key is operated, the operator's finger forms the second plate of a capacitor, the first being the
conductive pad on the printed wiring board. The keyplate acts as the dielectric. The additional
capacitance to earth thus connected to the base of a transistor is sufcient to cause a shift in DC
output level which is recognised by the scanning circuit. Because there are no moving parts to
the key it is necessary to provide a substitute for the mechanical feedback given by conventional
keys. This is done by
/
sounding an audible tone to confirm each key operation; operator reaction
to this method has proved very favourable.
3. 10. 8 The VDU circuit contains a propr
i
etary design of Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD) ,
which incorporates its own oscillator and scanning elements. The viewing panel of the LCD
module consists of 2 parallel glass plates, between which a fluid containing liquid crystals is
introduced. The orientation of the molecules in the crystals is such that ambient light is normally
reflected and the plates present a silvery effect. Horizontal rows of transparent conductors are
printed on one glass plate and vertical columns on the other. When an electric potential of
suitable value is applied between a horizontal and a vertical conductor, the orientation of the
crystals at the cross point is changed and the ambient light is no longer reflected, thus making the
affected area appear black. Each character is formed by darkening the appropriate position on a 5
X 7 crosspoint matrix, there being 64 such matrices in 2 rows of32. The VDU has its own RM
(external to the LCD module) in which the identity of the characters to be displayed in every
position at anyone time are stored, and a character generator (also external to the LCD module)
which, having been supplied by the RM with the identity of the character to be displayed,
indicates to the LCD module which crosspoints should be activated as each row of the display is
scanned. The LCD module runs continuously, extracting the display information from the
* $ $
" * * * *
/ frr r r rr r r r r r# ) t t t t g q y
Part 1 Figure 39 Close Up Illustration ofthe Console Ke
y
board
-aeo
-ae4
character generator, and refreshing the display at intervals which are short in relation to the
decay time of the LCD. When it is required to change a display, the circulating path via the RAM
and character generator is temporarily blocked and the console writes the new information into
the RAM. As soon as the information has been inserted, the circulating path is reconnected and
the new information is set up on the display and continuously refreshed as before.
3. 10.9 The two 4-wire analogue speech circuits from the CEU interface with the operator's
speech circuit through transformers which perform the same functions as those in the Console
Line Unit. The operator's speech circuit consists of resistors, Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor (CMOS) bilateral switches and operational amplifiers. The CMOS switches are
controlled by the Console CPU and are used to connect either, or both, of the 4-wire circuits to
the transmitter and receiver in the handset under the control of the SPEAK 1 , SPEAK 2 and
JOIN keys, thus providing the normal operator facility of call splitting and joining. Another
CMOS switch is used to select different gain settings in an amplifier associated with the handset
receiver. This enables the operator to increase the loudn

ss of calls by 6 dB if required. Measures


are incorporated to provide the correct level of sidetone in the handset.
3. 11 The Power Supply
3. 11. 1 The information in this sub-section supplements that already given in paragraph 3. 1 . 13.
The output ratings of the two proprietary designs of power unit available for use in the main and
add-on units are given in Table 4.
Normal Output Maximum Output Maximum Power
Voltage (Volts) Current (Amps) Output (Watts)
+5. 175 18
-12.00 3 Note 1
302
+12. 00 4 Note 1
-50.00 2. 5
Note 1. In the 1 70Adesign these outputs rise to a maximum of7 Amps when the +5Vatld -50v rails are notfully loaded.
Table -Output Ratings ofthe Power Units
3. 11. 2 Six plated copper busbars, mechanically "polarized" to ensure correct fitting, are '
provided to distribute the four power supplies and two earth connections (analogue and digital)
around each of the two units. Two earth connections are provided -one for the 50v line feed
return, which is intrinsically nois,( the "analogue" earth) and one for the printed wiring boards
(the "digital" earth) . The two earths are joined together in the power supply unit and only one
external earth connection is required.
I
I
I
f
|
f
|
l
\
\
\
I
L

297 mm
NOTE 1
|
\
4. PHYSICAL ENGINEERING
4.1 The basic and add-on units have the same external dimensions, and each consists of a single
shelf of equipment within a mild steel case, the general layout being as shown in Figure 40. With
the exception of the power unit, the equipment is mounted on Printed Wiring Boards (PWB)
which are 200.66 mm (7.9 inches) high and 323.2 ( 12.72 inches) deep from back to front. The
PWBs are connected by high density, 2 part, gold plated connectors to Printed Wiring
Backplanes, two of which are provided at the rear of each shelf Each of the units has its own
power supply unit, but the Speech Switch, Signalling Circuit, Control Equipment and the
Services Card in the basic unit also serve the add-on unit, when provided. Both units have
sections of their shelves allocated to concentrating and non-concentrating line equipments.
.-477mm-
807mm
W


ADD-ON
.--
UNI T

SPARE

RINGER
POWER
SUPPLY
POWER
SUPPLY
CONCENTRATING
UNE SHELF
l00|MlN1
CONCENTRATING
LINE SHELF
EQUIPMENT
NON-CONCENTRATING
NON
CONCENTRATING
LINE
SHELF
EQUIPMENT
UNE SHElF
EOUIPMENT
SPEECH SWITCH.
SIGNAlliNG CIRCUIT.
CONTROL
EOUIPMENT,
ANO
SERVICESCARO


_ BASI C
UNI T
NOTES: 1 . The hei ght of 297mm i ncl udes the thi ckness of the pl i nths whi ch run lengthwi se
underneath each unit. and cannot be seen i n the figure.
PART 1 . FI GURE 40. GENERAL LAYOUT OF CENTRAL EQUI PMENT UNITS.
Q6 65
&
e
*
d
e
I

L
0
0

C
L
.
C e
e
L
z t
0
::
C.
0
"

*
0
L
t

Q6 66
L
C r I M ~ O f U
C
M
M

q I
"
r r 0 C
*

I N
o o o
O

U r
o
N t e
< C N M q q I t | 0 0
L N
f
e e e e e e e e e e e e
f
e e e e
z f f l f f l f f f f f f f I l f
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e
L
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0

o d d d d o o o d d o d L d o o d
d
D
o
e
t
e
z
e r
M

=
C M |
u
<
M L r C
L M C

N

L I L

o
C
*

0 C
o

o < o
e
o < o
0 < o
c
f
n r 0 O o~ = = =
z

cg
L

C

00


L O L L L L 0_ L L L L L
0
L L L L
C
sA- ON UNIT
L
r I M r u
C
M
~
O
-
O
*
M q L t r 0 O O
r
N
< o o o o
0 M C
o
L
o
0
N M q q L t r 0 0
I =
F

e e C e e C e e e e e

e e X
C
I l f f f f f f f f I l f L 0

e 0 e e e e e e e e e e O 0 e .
e
D
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
.
0 0
d
*
C

L
d o d d d d n d O o O O
D
O O
C L
o o
e
e
d u e
t
:: C

e z

>
t
>

<
M L
e
.
e
C r M r L

r O L
M
~
L@ L
-
u

N
M q *

L t t r e
o
D
e
.
r
< o c o < o o
f
e *
0
o
z

O c M q O~
q
I t t r
t
cg
L
C


e
0


& L L L u u 0_ u u L u L
0
L L
C
(a) BASIC UNIT
PART 1. FI GURE 41 SHELF LAYOUTS OF CENTRAL EQUI PMENT UNITS_
4_2 The detailed layout of equipment in the basic unit is shown in Figure 41 (a) _ It will be noted
that in the concentrating section of the shelf on the immediate right of the power supply unit,
ports 0 -95 appear in 12 PWB positions, the fi rst six of which are allocated to 8 port line units,
the next to a drop-back unit when required, a further two to 8 port line units and the remaining
three to 4 port line units_ When the unit is catering for the number of extensions and exchange
lines referred to in paragraph 2_ 1 . 1 , the last of the 8 port positions is equipped with a 4 port
exchange line unit in which only 2 of the 4 line circuits are used_ Thus, in these circumstances,
this section of the shelf serves up to 56 extensions and 14 exchange lines_ To the right of the
Concentrating Shelf Interface, the non-concentrating section of the shelf contains two 2 port
PWB positions, the first of which is allocated to inter-PBX circuits and the second to the console
line circuit. To the right of the Shelf Multiplex serving these two positions are the Services Card,
the combined Signalling Circuit/Speech Switch/Clock Card, and then the CPU and its
associated memories_ The 128K PROM board includes some spare capacity at the present time_
4_ 3 The detailed layout of the equipment in the add-on unit is shown in Figure 41 ( b) _ In the
concentrating section of the Shelf, on the immediate right of the power supply unit, ports 0 -95
appear in 12 PWB positions, the frst six of which are allocated to 8 port units, the next to a
drop-back unit if required, the next two to 8 port units and, the remaining three to 4 port units_
T
hu
s, this section of the shelf serves up to 64 extensions and 12 exchange lines_ To the right of the
Concentrating ShelfInterface, the non-concentrating section of the shelf contains fve 2 port
line positions which at most locations will be used for up to 10 inter-PBX circuits (depending on
local requirements and the type of signalling used) but at some locations may be used to serve up
to 8 inter-PBX circuits and a second console_
C
o
e
f
e
0
o
=

L
t

::

0
e
e L
C
o
C
e
0
O
.
@
e
f
z
L
c
X
L
.
d

::
O
.
L
D
e
::
@
e
>
z

::
*
e
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
\
\
l
l
'
'
'
l
|
\
\
\
4.4 At the rear of the units, cables to the distribution frame are terminated on insulation
displacement type connectors. For British Telecom applications the units will be supplied with 3
metres of cabling already connected, thus further facilitating rapid and easy installation. Within
the units and between the unit when an add-on unit is provided) ribbon cables are used to carry
the digital speech and signalling highways and timing waveforms. Two connectors are provided
on the CPU to give access to the peripheral equipments referred to in paragraph 3. 1. 11. One
connector, mounted on the front of the PWB provides facilities for the connection of the
portable teletype, or similar, machine; and the other, mounted at the rear of the PWB functions
as a combined connector, providing access for both the data logging equipment and the
extraction of specialist maintenance information.
4. 5 A view of the front of the two cabinets with the covers removed is given in Figure 42.
4.6 The operator's console consists of 6 main items ofhardware:-
1 The Power Unit
2 The Processor and Miscellaneous Circuits Board
3 The Slide Switch Assembly
4 The Keyboard
5 The VDU Assembly
6 The Handset
Part 1 Figure 42 Front View ofthe Central Equipment Units with the Covers Removed
-ae67
-ae
The console is constructed of2 parts -a lower part, or base, and a detachable upper part which is
connected to the base by a ribbon cable. Items 1 , 2and3 are mounted on the base, andItems 4 and
5 on the upper part. The console remains operational when the 2 halves are separated provided
the ribbon cable is not disconnected, and accordingly it can continue to be used while certain
types of maintenance work are in progress. An illustration of the console in the opened position is
given in Figure 43.
4. 7 The 2 parts of the console shell are moulded in a polycarbonate material and are held
together by 4 screws.
4. 8 A handset rest is provided to the left of the keyboard and there are 2 jacks on the front of the
console for the handset plug. The lefthand jack position is for normal use; the righthand jack
position allows a second handset to be connected during periods of operator training. Both the
case and the handset are in stone colour. Optionally, a headset may be used instead of a handset.
The keyboard and VDU surround plate have an anti-refective black fnish, with white lettering
to identify keys and the associated LEDs.
4.9 The 4-wire cable connecting the console to the Central Equipment Unit enters the console
through the rear of the bottom half of the case. Adjacent to the cable entry point is a switch which
enables the operator to initiate drop-back service for the whole PABX if, in exceptional
#

m~
' l
I J
.: .

Part l Figure 43 The Console in the Opened Position


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
\
|
l
\
I
I
|
|
I
\
|
|
|
I
\
\
f
\
l
|
circumstances, telephone service should be severely interrupted by an equipment or power
failure. The switch is located where there is little chance of accidental operation.
4. 10 The keyboard has a polycarbonate plate in which there are depressions for finger location
above the sensitive area of each key. This keyplate protects the circuits from the ingress of dirt or
harmful fluids and also carries the legends identifying each key. A printed wiring board carrying
the key detection electronics is bonded directly to the underside of the keyplate. A second
printed wiring board carrying a 110kHz oscillator, together with key encoding circuit connects
with this assembly. The complete keyboard is 26 mm thick and includes the header connection to
the console wiring form.
aebJ
Q6 7U

I
I
l
I
I
|
|
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
5 BUILT-IN DIAGNOSTIC CHECKS
5. 1 The Central Processor Unit ( CPU) is programmed to apply an extensive repertoire of
"on-line" tests (carried out while the system is operational and carrying live trafic) and
"off-line" tests ( carried out while the system, although connected to the power supply with the
CPU operational, is not in service) . Since the on-line tests must not interfere with the normal
operation of the exchange, they are more limited in scope than the off-line tests. Nevertheless
they are designed to apply continuously a searching range of tests to the working equipment.
Their object is to identify a faulty printed board as soon as possible after the fault develops, and to
bring the existence of the fault to the notice of the maintenance staff so that the board may be
quickly replaced. Off-line tests are used when commissioning an installation before it is brought
into service, or if, exceptionally, an installation is in the drop-back state due to a fault condition.
The off-line tests are more disruptive, and therefore more exacting than their on-line
counterparts.
5. 2 Each test exercises, as far as possible the facilities of a single board. The more important tests
exercise the following units of hardware:
Central Processing Unit
Clock
Memories
Signalling Circuit
Speech Switch
Tone Generator
Line Units
Some items cannot be tested in isolation and their failure can only be detected by implication. An
example of such a unit is the Concentrating ShelfInterface ( CSI) and, in this case, if a specified
number of the tests applied sequentially to the line units on a particular shelf fail, the CSI is
considered to be faulty and appropriate action taken. The overall functioning of the CPU is
continuously monitored by the watchdog referred to in Paragraph 3. 1 . 1 1 . Its detailed
functioning is continuously monitored by the comprehensive sets of automatic tests, which
depend on the CPU for their execution and are carried out one at a time every 15 seconds. Any
faults within the processor should come to light during these tests. In addition the on-line tests
include automatic memory checks. PROMs are tested by counting the number of bits in each
store and comparing the total with a "check sum" stored at the time the memory was first
programmed. RAMs are tested by writing known patterns into store locations, reading back the
contents and comparing the results with the original patterns.
5. 3 Certain tests require access to the Line Unit shelves, and for this purpose a special Test
Unit, mounted on the Services Card, is used. A block schematic diagram of the Test Unit is given
in Figure 44. The Test Unit carries out the following types of test under the control of the CPU:
1 Speech Path Loop Back (Tone Test)
This checks the transmission performance of the Line Unit by using a 400 Hz supervisory tone,
and is applied by the CPU successively to each Line Unit in the exchange (extension, exchange
line and inter-PABX line) . The conditions which exist when the test is being applied are shown
in Figure 45 as one example of the type of test carried out by the unit. A speech path connection is
set up from the 400 Hz tone supply ( Port 5 on the outgoing Speech Highway from the Services
Card) to the "Receive" path of the Line U nit under test, and another connection is set up from
the "Transmit" path of the Line Unit to Port 14 on the incoming Speech Highway to the Services
Card, thus connecting the path to the Tone Test element in the Test Unit. Due to mis-match in
the 2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit of the Line Unit, while the receiver is "on-hook", the 400
Hz tone is reflected and received by the Tone Test element which detects the signal and sends a
"pass" indication to the CPU via Port 14 of the outgoing Signalling Highway from the Services
Card. If the tone is not received, a "pass" indication is not sent and a fault is recorded. During the
Q6 1
PATTERN
GENERATOR
SI GNALLI NG HI GHWAY
FROM SI GNALLI NG
PORT 1 9
PORT 1 8
PORT 17
MULTI PLEXER
PORT 1 6
FROM MF
RECEIVERS
(
PORTS 0-7
"
SI GNALLI NG
PORTS 1 6- 1 9
SI GNALLI NG
SI GNALLI NG
SELECTOR

CI
_
RC
_
U

IT
..
_
P
_
0
_
RT
_
1
_
5
1
SI GNALLI NG
___
P
_
OR
_
T
_
1 5
___
TEST
SI GNALLI NG 256 kbit/s SI GNALLI NG
RESULT
SI GNALLI NG
PORT 1 4
RESULT
,SI GNALLI NG
SI G LOOP BACK
..
__

__
..
_
PO
_
R
_
T
_
14
SI GNALLI NG
SI GNALLI NG
DECODER
TO
SI GNALLI NG- I N
HI GHWAY VIA
BI NDER
SPEECH HI GHWAY
FROM SPEECH
SWITCH PORT 14
2048 kbit/s SPEECH TONE
PORT 1 5
SPEECH
SPEECH
TEST
WORD
SPEECH
TEST
TONE
TEST
mm
SPEECH TEST WORD

256 kbit/s
URGENT
ALARM
NON- URGENT
SITED ALRM
}TO REMOTELY
ALARM
BOX
PORT 14
SPEECH
(OPTI ONAL)
TO SPEECH HI GHWAY
TO SPEECH SWITCH
VI A BI NDER
PART 1. FI GURE 44. BLOCK SCHEMATI C DI AGRAM OF THE TEST UNI T AND PATTERN GENERATOR.
Q67Z
I
I
I
l
l
I
I
f
I
|
|
|
|
\
(
t
t
(
(
t
t
(
t
t
t
t

l
CPU
course of this test, the following hardware in the Line Unit is checked; coder, decoder, filters,
2-wire/4-wire conversion circuit.
2 Time Switch Check (Speech Test)
A digital speech path is set up from Port 14 on the outgoing Speech Highway from the Services
Card to Port 15 on the incoming Speech Highway to that card. Alternative speech patterns are
sent by the Speech Test element via Port 14 and detected via Port 15. The hardware tested by the
test includes: the speech store (partly by this test and partly by the tone test described in ( 1 )
above) ; the serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion circuits ; the connection store; the
counters. A separate test of the Speech Switch connection store is made by writing test patterns
into spare locations and reading out the patterns as a check. The locations are then set back to
their NULL value on completion of the test.
3 Signalling Check
The unit has the facility oflooping back, via the Signalling Test element, any 8 bit pattern of
signalling bits sent to it by the CPU. The test consists of sending 2 complete signalling bytes, one
being the inverse of the other so that all the paths are checked. This test checks the
serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion circuits in the Signalling Circuit. The RM in
the Signalling Circuit is checked separately by the method already described.
~ SI GNALLI NG- OUT ~~
SI GNALLI NG- I N
I NDI CATES I F --
TONE DETECTED
SI GNALLI NG
PATHS
--
,

POWER
-
UP
SPEECH SWITCH
DI GITAL
SPEECH
PATH

TEST
UNI T
TONE
GENERATOR
DI GITAL
--
SPEECH -

PATHS
TONE
DETECTI ON
TRANSMI T
2-WI RE LI NE
LI NE UNI T
UNDER TEST RECEI VE
PART 1. FI GURE 45. EXAMPLE OF TEST.
Q6 o
Q6 74
5. 4 In addition to performing the test functions just described, the Test Unit acts as an
Interface between the system and an optional Alarm Box which may be sited remotely from the
CE U, and replicates the alarm indications given at the operator's console. This box, which has its
own mains supply, gives urgent and non-urgent alarm indications, under the control of the
CPU, which are independent of the visual display on the operator's console so that a warning is
given when the console is unattended, or when, exceptionally, it has been disabled by a fault.
Physical pairs are provided between the control backplane and the Alarm Box for signalling
purposes. Relays in the Test Unit control the application of DC conditions over the pairs and a
"fail safe" technique is used for the urgent alarm. Two LEDs are provided on the Test Unit; one
lights when the unit is in use and the other is spare.
5.5 The signalling codes used between the Test Unit and the CPU are described in Part 2.
When the CPU is notified that a failure has occurred, it causes all the items of common
equipment involved in the test to be checked. If the common equipment is functioning
correctly, the fault is recorded against the board under test; if the failure is caused by a common
equipment fault, it is progressively investigated until, eventually, the faulty board is identified
and details of the fault are then recorded.
5.6 The Test Unit also provides a convenient location for a Pattern Generator, which supplies
complementary combinations of signalling bits (A to H) , used for testing the Signalling-in
portion of the Signalling Circuit during automatic fault localisation tests by the CPU. During
these tests, the CPU connects the Signalling-in portion in sequence to Ports 16 to 19 of the
Services Card and checks the correct receipt of the bit patterns connected to each of these ports.
5.7 Automatic checks of the console are also embodied in the system. The Random Access
memory in the console is tested using the technique already described in this Section, and the
performance of the signalling link between the Central Equipment Unit and the console is
continuously checked using idle messages every 8 ms as described in Sub-Section 3. 2 (Console
Line Unit) .
l
l
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
l
\
\
\
I
\
\
\
l
\
|
\
|
6 MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE CAPABILITIES
6. 1 Reference has already been made in Section 2.7 and Appendix 2 to the ease with which
many of the service facilities provided by the PABX may be changed, and the 3 levels of
responsibility for making such changes. Three input devices may be used for making the
changes:
a Master Telephone (MF Keyphone type) ;
the Operator's Console;
a Teletype Terminal, either connected directly or via a modem. While this device provides
easier communication with the CPU, it is not necessary to provide a teletype at each installation.
All Man-Machine Interface (MMI) commands are locked out until a special command has been
inserted to unlock the appropriate access level. To use the MMI capability, the user must first
insert a command called "Open System Lock" which is a 3 digit code having different values for
each level of access. The "Open System Lock" code is followed by a 3 digit "Key" if access is being
made by the customer, or a 4 digit "Key" if access if being made by the Administration or
Operating Company responsible for maintaining the system. As soon as the validity of this
combination has been checked by the CPU, a 1. 4kHz tone is returned to notify the user of a
master telephone, or an "MMI READY" display is given on the VDU if the call is from a console;
an equivalent indication is given if the call is from a teletype terminal. The system is now ready to
receive commands. Under normal operating conditions it is expected that several changes will
be made at a time, and accordingly the MMI mode will remain in operation until it is terminated.
To avoid contention between more than one user trying to change the facilities at the same time,
MMI operation is made available to only one level at a time and to only one terminal at a time.
Attempts by other users to invoke the MMI facility encounter Busy Tone instead of the l . 4kHz
tone (or equivalent in the case of consoles and teletype terminals) .
6.2 Once MMI access has been obtained the required commands are inserted. These take the
form of a Facility Code, which identifies the type of change required, followed by information
necessary to enable the change to be effected. A customer level Man-Machine Interface
Instruction Booklet is supplied with each installation to inform the customer of the various
facility codes available and the way in which they should be used. Similar information,
appropriate to the level of responsibility for changes, is made available to the maintenance staff.
The detailed procedures vary slightly, depending on the type of input terminal used to make the
changes and these are briefly described below.
6.3 From a Master Telephone, the system is unlocked by keying:
Open System Lock
(3 digit code)
Key +
( 3 or 4 digit code)
On receipt of "confirmation" tone an instruction is inserted. For example to enter a new Short
Dialling Code the following is inserted:
101 ENTRY DIGITS +
The Digits 101 are the Facility Code for "Insert Short Dialling Code". The ENTRY number is
the Short Code (2 digits ) . The DIGITS are the number to be sent by the equipment when the
short code is keyed. The command will over-write any existing short code having the same entry
number.
6. 4 When using the console as an MMI terminal to effect customer level changes, the
following procedure may be used:
1 Operate the "MMI" key
The VDU will then display "MM I ENTER PASS KEY"
Q6O
Q6
2 Key in the Customer Level Keyword preceded by

and followed by |
The VDU will then display "MMI READY".
The command may now be entered by keying in a string of information, similar to that used from
the master telephone, as described in Paragraph 6. 3. Alteratively, a "prompt" technique may be
used in which the user is prompted at each stage. An example of the use of this technique to enter
a new Short Dialling Code is given below:
.
1 Key in the Facility Code (in this case 101) preceded by and followed by t
The VDU will then display "ENTRY"
2 Key in the Short Code (2 digits) followed by |
The VDU will then display "DIGITS"
3 Key in the number to be sent by the equipment followed by $
The VDU will then display "READY", indicating the successful entry of the command
and the equipment's readiness for another command.
The MMI key cannot be used for obtaining access from the console at the service and specialist
levels. Maintenance personnel may obtain such access by keying the code for "Open System
Lock" (at the service or specialist level) , whereupon the console will respond in the same manner
as if the "MMI" key had been operated, except that the command sub-set available will be at the
appropriate level.
6. 5 A teletype terminal will not normally be present at the PABX location, but may be
temporarily brought on-site for use by maintenance personnel when required. The terminal is
connected by means of a D type, V24, multi-way socket on the CPU card. The machine is set to
full duplex, 300 baud operation. The terminal operates in a very similar way to the console
except that the procedures for invoking and closing down MMI access differ and some of the
characters used for keying instructions differ. As soon as the CPU detects that the teletype
terminal has been connected, it sends a message requesting the "Open System Lock" command.
The user sends this information followed by the appropriate Keyword for the level of access
required. As soon as this has been validated, the MMI commands may be putin, using procedures
similar to those already described. The teletype terminal can be used to obtain complete listings
of data stores within the system, when required.
6.6 The MMI access may be terminated at any time -in the case of a master telephone by
clearing the connection, in the case of the console by operating the "WITHDRA W" key and in
the case of the teletype terminal by unplugging it from the CPU card.
6.7 The MMI facility can be used by authorised maintenance personnel to make both on-line
and off-line diagnostic tests; to initiate "warm starts" and to perform other maintenance
functions (see Appendix 2, Sections 3 and 4) . When an MMI initiated on-line test is being made,
the automatic diagnostic checking (background testing) carried out by the CPU under normal
conditions continues to operate, but if the maintenance personnel wish to stop these tests this can
be done by operating a switch on the CPU card. In the event of a fault being found, details are
given on the illuminated hexadecimal display on the CPU card, etc.
6.8 Off-line tests require only a working CPU for their operation. They can be run in 2modes:
Basic -without a teletype terminal
ii Interactive -using a teletype terminal
For the basic test, the system runs a full test, starting with the control shelf and moving on to the
line shelves. The progress of the tests is indicated on the hexadecimal display on the CPU card.
The system stops at the first fault found and gives details on the display. In the interactive mode,
I
|
|
I
|
I
|
I
|
I
\
\
\
\
\
I
1 r
F
t !
ly
1
' `
.1.
r

W
d
the maintenance oficer can run a variety of tests in response to commands from the teletype
terminal.
6. 9 On-line faults which the system detects within itself, either as a result of the in-built
diagnostic test sequences, or as a result of the monitoring functions of the Watchdog and the
CEU-console signalling link checks, are brought to notice by the operation of Urgent or
non-Urgent visible and audible alarms on the console and on the independent Alarm Box when
provided ( see paragraph 5. 4) .
6. 10 On the console an LED i s provided adjacent to the VDU, to signal the 2 types of alarm
and an audible tone is also given. The urgent alarm indication is given by flashing the LED at a
fast rate, and the non-urgent alarm by flashing at a slow rate. The audible tone is suppressed
while the console operator is dealing with a call. Operation of the RECEIVE ATTENTION
key on the console cancels the alarm indication and causes details of the fault to be displayed on
the VDU. The operator can relay this information to the service personnel when the fault is
reported. In most cases the information will be suficient to identify hardware faults down to the
printed circuit board level so that the correct replacement item can be brought to site.
6. 11 The optional Alarm Box, which can be either wall mounted or free standing on a suitable
surface, is either sited in the vicinity of the console or remotely in, for example, a night
attendant' s room. It is powered by a separately fused mains supply and the alarms are given by 2
different coloured lamps together with a distinctive sounding buzzer. When the RECEIVING
ATTENTION button is pressed the buzzer is silenced and a different lamp is lit. Two test push
buttons are provided to enable all the lamps and buzzers to be periodically tested. If a standby
battery is provided for the CEU (see Paragraph 3. 1 . 13) a secure power feed from this battery to
the Alarm Box is provided to ensure that the Alarm Box will continue to function under mains
failure conditions.
ae77
Q6 d

I
l
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
|
|
I
|
|

\
\
|
\
\
L

7 INTEGRATING THE SYSTEM INTO THE ORGANISATION OF THE


TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADMINISTRATION
7. 1 General
7. 1. 1 A new product introduced by a Telecommunications Administration (or Operating
Company) must be fully integrated into the organisation of the Administration to ensure that it
realises its full potential. How this is done will depend on the particular product and
Administration.
7. 1. 2 Most of the functions required to support a modern PABX system will already be
provided by an Administration. These comprise:
selling and ordering;
assembly, testing and installation;
maintenance and repair.
All 3 must interact with the customer, as the left hand side of Figure 46 shows in a simplifed form.
Within the Administration these functions need to be inter-linked to ensure that the information
required to do a job is available when and where it is needed. As shown in the righthand side of
Figure 46, these information flows for the Monarch 120B Compact Call Connect system can be
provided by MDC - the Monarch Database Compiler - which maintains computerised
records of all the information required by the Administration, both initially, and throughout the
life of each installation. This ensures that the different functions are fully co-ordinated, working
towards the goal of providing the customer with the requirements he specified, as quickly and
eficiently as possible, with the minimum of disruption to his normal activities.
The optimum size and distribution of organisation units depends on the existing organisation
and demand for the Monarch family of systems in a territory. The structure and interactions
described here illustrate the principles being adopted by British Telecom.
7.2 Selling and Ordering
7. 2. 1 Local sales organisations are responsible for promoting the Monarch 120B Compact
system by explaining its wide ranging capabilities and advantages to potential customers. The
sales organisation must establish and record the precise requirements of each customer, for new
systems and modifications to existing installations. The procedure is speeded up and simplifed
by using a specially developed set of documentation which enables the sales staff to record,
concisely and unambiguously, a customer' s requirements for the system as a whole, for each
individual terminal, and for each external circuit. This documentation forms the basis of the
interactive input of customer requirements to MDC.
7.3 Assembly, Testing and Installation
7. 3. 1 Having established the customer's requirements, the Telecommunications
Administration needs to convert them into a valid working system at the customer's premises as
quickly as possible. The first stage in this process is the transfer of the customer' s requirements
from the ordering documentation to MDC by means of a plain language interaction at a
computer terminal. Engineering factors need to be considered at this point and MDC will check
that it has complete and consistent information. Having established this record, MDC plays the
central role of co-ordinating and providing information for all stages of assembly, testing and
installation.
-
7.3.2 Assembly and testing of the Monarch 120B Compact Central Equipment Unit in British
Telecom is being concentrated in a small number of centralised workshops. These are collocated
with important equipment stores, thus ensuring that equipment is readily available. MDC
schedules the work of each workshop according to target dates requested by the local sales staff,
and priorities set at a regional or national level.
Q6 `J
I
MONARCH DATABASE
CUSTOMER ADMI NISTRATI ON l

COMPI LER

Selling and
Customer
.
Sales and l Customer specifi cation
Ordering
requi rements engineering staff
i
record
I
ammmmammammmm aaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaa ammag
On-site
cabl.i ng
W
Assembly
Testi ng and
Installation
Install
central unit
and console
l
I
m
Installation
I

Stores [m

pl anni ng and I
control
l
l
l
Centra I stores

Central workshop

l

|
I
I

l l

Plan system

L
Wiring i nstructions
!

Equipment list
L
Assembly |08!|00!|00
p|0p8|008!8080
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm_mmmmm
l

mmmm
Mai ntenance
and Repai r
-aeb
Fault
report
k
Restore
service
`

' Fault
l

recording

Maintenance
I
centre
|
I
I

Equipment

I
repair
I
I
Hardware and
software records
m a aaa
PART 1. FI GURE 46. I NTER-ACTIVE FUNCTI ONS CO-ORDI NATED BY THE DATABASE COMPI LER.
7. 3. 3 When required, MDC will print lists of parts and assembly instructions for a particular
installation. When the central equipment has been assembled, the customer database is
transmitted over a data link to the workshop, where it is loaded into the daughter board memory
(see Paragraph 3. 8. 3) using the Automatic Memory Board Loading Equipment ( AMBLE)
developed by British Telecom. The completed Monarch 120B Compact equipment can be tested
by supplying it with power; the diagnostic procedures built into the system will then identify any
faults in the equipment. More comprehensive interactive tests are then carried out, using test
programs which make use of the system off-line maintenance and diagnostic capabilities.
7. 3. 4 In parallel with the centralised assembly and testing operation, local installers can
prepare the wiring at the customer' s premises, and install telephones. Internal and external
wiring is connected to connection boxes equipped with standard sockets for the later connection
of the central equipment and console. MDC prints out instructions on the required connections
to these boxes.
7. 3. 5 When both these operations have been completed, the central equipment and console
are delivered direct to the customer' s premises and connected to the internal and external circuits
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
|
\
\

by purpose designed plug ended cables. As the equipment is fully assembled and tested, service to
the customer is provided very speedily.
7.4 Maintenance and Repair
7. 4. 1 The maintenance of the Monarch 120B Compact Call Connect System involves 3
functions:
fault recording;
service restoration;
equipment repair.
Fault recording is handled in a centre serving the entire telecommunications service for a
geographical area. Faults involving the central equipment and console will be identifed by the
system's diagnostic facilities. In these cases the customer should pass on to the fault recording
centre the fault details displayed on the Monarch 120B Compact console. In most cases this will
enable a faulty slide-in unit to be identified before the maintenance staf visit the customer.
7. 4. 2 Maintenance field staff are controlled and co-ordinated from the fault reporting centre.
They carry a small stock of slide-in units thus enabling most faults to be repaired without a special
trip to collect replacement equipment. The combination of fault diagnosis before visiting the
customer and carrying a nucleus of replacement equipment, enables service to be restored to
normal very rapidly.
7. 4. 3 Faults on units containing memory can be dealt with in the same way, since the
replacement units carried by the maintenance staff are programmed with the standard software
required. The only software unique to an installation -the customer' s database -is held in a
permanent form on the daughter board. If the mother board needs to be changed, the daughter
board can be removed from the old board and plugged into the new board in the majority of
cases.
7. 4. 4 Faulty equipment is repaired at local centres which deal with a variety of electronic
equipment. These will be equipped with programmable test equipment to speed up the
identification of faults. Repaired units are returned to the stores for re-use.
7.5 Consultative Assistance
7. 5. 1 The main features of a possible organisation to support the Monarch 120B Compact Call
Connect System within a telecommunications administration have been outlined. The
flexibility of the system and its modern technology are reflected in the variety of possible
approaches to providing this organisational support. In particular, the various functions can be
easily combined or separated depending on demand and the geographical characteristics of the
territory to be served. All the information flows can be transmitted over the telephone network
and co-ordinated by MDC which in turn can be centralised or locally provided as appropriate.
7. 5. 2 British Telecom is fully committed to the supply of the Monarch family of systems to its
business customers. It has developed its organisation and evolved new approaches to enable it
fully to support the systems in the British Telecommunications Network. British Telecom has a
wealth of experience to draw on and through its consultative service (British Teleconsult) will
be pleased to study the features and requirements of a telecommunications administration and
advise on the most appropriate organisational configuration, in full co-operation with the
administration concerned.
Page d1
Q6 dZ
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
|

l
|
\
\
\
APPENDIX 1
Glossary of Technical Terms
1 General
1 . 1 This appendix defines certain terms used in Parts 1 and 2 of the manual. The definitions
relate only to the meanings of the terms in the context of this manual.
2 Defnitions
Accumulator
Address
Alpha-Numeric
Analogue
AND Gate
Assembly Language
Asynchronous
Background Mode
Background Program
Binary
Bipolar PROM
Bit
Byte
Buffer
Bus
Central Processing Unit ( CPU)
or Central Processor
Checksum
A general purpose register which receives and stores the result
ofan arithmetic or logical operation.
A number identifying a memory location or an item of
equipment.
A combination ofletters and fi gures.
A variable characteristic (eg electrical voltage) which closely
mId continuously represents the value ofa diff erent variable
characteristic (eg a sound wave).
A logic circuit with two or more inputs whose output is binary
1 i and only if, all inputs are binary 1 .
The language in which programs speciically intended for a
particular design ofprocessor (or family ofprocessesors) are
written, and in which labels replace addresses and mnemonics
replace machine code instructions. There is normally a one to
one correspondence between an assembly language instruction
and the machine instruction generated by it.
Not synchronised by a clock. In this mode ofoperation, the
completion ofone event initiates the start ofthe next.
A mode ofoperation in which processing can be carried out
during computer time not required for real time processing.
A program that is handled in the background mode.
A numbering system having a Radix or base of2.
A high speed Programmable Read Only Memory usually
programmed by internalfuses. Often used in Monarch 120B
Compact as an address decode component (see "Programmable
Read Only Memory").
A binary digit. It has one oftwo possible states, 0 or 1 .
A group of bits processed and addressed collectively.
(1) A storage device used to compensate for a diference in the
rate offlow ofinformation.
(2) An electronic device which links two circuits by providing
electrical matching.
A common path along which information travels from one of
several sources to one or more ofseveral destinations. The
common path trmally consists ofa number ofconductors.
That part ofa computing system which includes the arithmetic
unit and circuits controlling the interpretation and execution of
instructions.
A value which is the arithmetic sum ofall the bits in a program
or program segment computed when the program is known to
be valid.
Q6 do
Q6 U4
Chip
Clock
Code
Cold Start
Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor ( CMOS)
Compandor
Comparator
Counter
Customer' s Data Base
Data Base
Delta-Sigma Modulation
Diagnostics
Digital
Equipment Number ( EN)
Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory (EPROM)
Firmware
Hexadecimal
High Level Language
(1) An integrated circuit.
(2) A single crystalline wafer ofsemi-conductor material
(3) A small slice ofpotato heated to a very high temperature in
an oily substance derived from the corpses ofanimals.
A time keeping, synchronising device within a system or pulse
stream.
A system ofsymbols or bits representing data or instructions.
A complete re-start of the system in which all calls and
working data stored in the system are cleared before attempting
further processing.
A semiconductor device characterised by low power
dissipation, moderate speed and a high packing density
capability.
A device, or process, which compresses the level range at the
sending end ofa transmission system and expands it at the
receiving end. The device improves the signal to noise ratio
when noise is injected between the compressor and the
expander.
A device which compares the data in a received byte of
information with that contained in a particular byte stored
within itself and takes action only when the two are identical.
A device, or register, which can be set to an initial value and
incremented or decremented by a predetermined value.
The information deining all the system requirements which
are unique to a particular customer's installation.
See Customer's Data Base.
A modulation technique in which the amplitude of all
analogue signal is represented by the density of pulses in a
synchronous stream ofpulse positions.
Procedures to pinpoint a maluntion in hardware or software.
In the form of coded pulses as distinct from continuous
(analogue) signals. In addition, those circuits which deal with
binary signals alone are called digital circuits.
The number ofthe equipment terminal (port) to which a line
circuit is connected. This normally di ers fom the directory
number.
A Read Only Memory that can be erased (for example by
ultra-violet light) and re-programmed. Also referred to as an
Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory.
Computer system programs (software) which normally
remain unchanged during the working life of a computer. In
Monarch 120B Compact they are usually stored on memories
incorporated in the same integrated circuits as the
microprocessors which they control.
A numbering system based on the Radix 16
(see Appendix -)
A computer programming language which is close to the user's
language and suitable for general use, but requires compiling
into Assembly Code and/or Machine Code before it can be
written into the program stores of a particular design of
computer.
I
I
|
I
|
|
|
|
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
\
|
|
|
\
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
|
|
Highway
Hybrid Package
Integrated Circuit
Interrupt
Large Scale Integration
Latch
Man-Machine Interface
Memory
MF Keyphone
Micro-computer
Micro-processor
Multiplexer
N-Channel Metal Oxide
Semiconductor Device (NMOS)
Nibble
Non-Volatile Memory
Opto-Isolator
A major route along which signals travel from one ofseveral
sources to one ofseveral destinations. See "Bus".
A flat substrate of insulating material (usually ceramic)
containing an electrical circuit. The circuit is comprised of
discrete components (which may be integrated circuits) and
resIstIve elements. The resistive elements and
inter-connections are deposited directly on the substrate.
A wafer ofsemiconducter material on which have been built
and internally connected together, by successive
manufacturing processes, a number ofdiodes, transistors, etc,
to form one or more multi-element circuits (see "Large Scale
Integration ).
A break in the execution ofa program which requires that
control should pass temporarily to another routine.
High Density integrated circuits for complex logic functions.
Several thousand transistors may be packed into a one tenth
inch square silicon chip (see "Integrated Circuit").
A device which staticises information and retains it as long as
may be necessary to enable associated functions to be
performed.
The totality ofmethods by which the users ofa system convey
instructions to, and obtain inormation from, the system.
An electrical store of information, usually in binary coded
form.
A telephone instrument on which the dial has been replaced by
a set ofkeys (push-buttons) from which numerical digits and
other symbols are transmitted in the form of diferent
combinations offrequencies. Referred to in some networks as a
"Touchtone" telephone.
A micro-processor and its program stores all contained in a
single integrated circuit.
A central processor unit fabricated in Large Scale Integrated
technology and capable ofperorming sequences ofarithmetic
and logic operations under the automatic control ofa stored
program. To turn this device into a complete functional
computer, it is usually necessary to add other devices such as
memories and input/output ports.
A device which receives information from a number of
independent sources and transmits the information over a
single communication channel.
A semiconductor device characterised by relatively high power
dissipation, high speed and very high packing density.
Hal a byte -bits.
A storage element which will retain its contents when the
external power supply is removed.
A device which contains an electrically controlled light source
and a photo sensitive device assembled in such a way that
switching the current in the circuit containing the light source
causes the photo sensitive device to perform corresponding
switching functions in a di erent circuit.
Q6 dO
aed
OR Gate
Parallel
Parallel-Serial Conversion
Parallel Transmission
PCM Switching
Peripheral Equipment
Port
Program
Programmable Peripheral
Interface ( PPI)
Programmable Read Only
Memory ( PROM)
Pulse Code Modulation ( PCM)
Random Access Memory ( RAM)
Read Only Memory
Reformatter
Serial
Serial Parallel Conversion
Shift Register
A logic circuit with two or more inputs whose output is binary
1 i any, or all, ofthe inputs are binary 1.
Simultaneous handling ofall the bits in a word.
Accepance and storage ofparallel information from a number
ofconductors, ald re-transmission in the serial mode over a
single conductor.
The transmission ofmore than one bit simultaneously.
A technique which uses electronic gates and stores to switch
multiplexed PCM communication channels without decoding
the PCM information. (See Appendix 3. )
Equipmelzt for putting information into, or gathering
information out ofa system, and which is not part of the
computer (processor).
A point at which a line circuit or item ofequipment has access
to the periphery ofa system.
A group ofinstructions plus data which define the algorithm to
be executed by a computer (processor).
An integrated circuit which converts parallel information
received over a data bus into signals to control hardware.
Similarly, signals from the hardware are converted for
transmission over the data bus. The device is programmed by
the processor so that groups ofpins operate as input, output or
control leads.
A Read Only Memory that can be programmed by the user (in
this case the Telecommunications Administration or
Operating Company).
A method oftransmitting analogue information (eg speech
waveforms) by means ofcoded binary pulses (see Appendix
3).
A memory where access to the next location is independent of
the address currently being accessed. The Random Access
Memories can be written into and read out ofat any time as
dictated by the functional requirements ofthe system. Except
where a back-up battery is provided the Random Access
Memories provide volatile storage.
A memory from which inormation can be read out but cannot
be written in during the normal operation ofthe system (see
"Programmable Read Only Memory" and "Erasable
Programmable Read Only Memory").
A device which receives a serial train ofbits in bit organised
form (eg the first bits for all channels followed by the second
bits for all channels, and so on) and transmits the bits in byte
organised form (eg bits 1 to for Channel 1 , followed by bits 1
to for Channel 2 and so on) or vice versa.
A method ofdata transmission in which data is transferred bit
by bit over a single circuit.
Acceptance and storage ofserial information over a single
conductor, and re-transmission in the parallel mode over a
number ofparallel cOllductors.
A storage device which accepts a serial train ofbits and puts the
bits sequentially into a succession ofstores.
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
\
L
Software
Store
Teletype Terminal
Time Division Multiplex
Uncommitted Logic Array ( ULA)
Universal Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (UART)
Volatile Memory
Warm Start
Watchdog
Word
Zener Diode
The programs used in a computer system.
Any device, or part ofa device, which can retain information.
A Memory.
Low Speed peripheral equipment consisting ofa transmitting
keyboard and printer. It may have a paper tape punch reader.
A method of combining a number of independent
communication channels on a single channel in which each
channel occupies a particular time slot in a continually
repeating succession oftime slots referred to as a (frame". (see
Appendix 3. )
A chip containing a number ofuncommitted logic elements.
The interconnection ofthese elements is specified by the user in
order that the final integrated circuit performs the functions
required.
An integrated circuit which converts parallel binary
information received over a data bus into serial asynchronous
form and vice versa. The device may insert or remove
start-stop signals and parity bits, and carry out error detecting
functions when required.
A storage element the contents ofwhich are destroyed when
the power supply is removed.
Termination ofthe software program which is running at the
time the start is made and activation ofthe next program to be
run.
A device which monitors the operation of the CPU by
checking the receipt ofa pulse signal every 100 ms when the
CPU is functioning. Failure to receive this signal initiates a
((warm" or "cold" start depending on circumstances.
A set ofbits that occupies one storage location and is treated by
the computer (processor) as a unit.
A diode which has a high resistance up to a certain voltage and
a low resistance beyond that voltage.
Q6d
Q6 Ud
I
|
|
I
\
\
\
l

I
|

|
'
APPENDIX Z
Levels of Responsibility for Facility Changes
1 General
1 . 1 This appendix lists the changes which are permitted to be made to the facilities provided by
the Monarch 120B Compact Call Connect System. Three levels of access to MMI are allowed.
The first level allows the customer access to a considerable number of commands which enable
changes to be made to the user facilities. The second level allows maintenance personnel access to
all the first level commands, plus additional maintenance and diagnostic commands. The third
level allows specialist staff access to the lower level commands, plus specialised "debugging"
commands not normally needed by maintenance personnel. Unless otherwise stated, the
commands are available from the master extension, the console and a teletype.
2 Changes which the Customer is empowered to make (Level 1)
Activate Extension
This returns to service an extension that has been made manually busy by the "Deactivate
Extension" command.
Activate Trunk
This returns a trunk exchange line or inter-PBX line,to service for outgoing trafic ifit has been
made manually busy by the "Deactivate Trunk" command.
Add Directory Number
This adds a second directory number to an extension. An extension may not have more than two
directory numbers.
Cancel Alarms
This resets all alarms activated by the Test Unit.
Cancel Barring of Extension
This removes either specific route restrictions for a particular extension if any category codes are
provided, or all route restrictions for a particular extension if no category code is provided. The
significance attached to each of the category codes is installation dependent.
Cancel Dial 9 Block
This allows extensions access to the public network. The command is available from the master
extension and console only.
Cancel Log of Dialled Digits
This suppresses any subsequent printing of the final dialled digits on the call logging printer so
that a printed list would only give the exchange codes.
Cancel Special Facility
This cancels specifc special facilities set up for a specified extension by the "Set Special Facility"
command.
Clear Hex Display
This clears the hexadecimal display on the Central Processor Unit board.
Deactive Extension
This removes a specified extension from service by setting it manually busy.
Deactivate Trunk
This busies a specified trunk for outgoing trafic; the incoming direction remaim unaffected.
Interchange Directory Numbers
This interchanges the directory numbers of two specified extensions. No other extension
attributes are affected so that the telephones will retain such properties as group membership or
diversion facilities. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
Q6dJ
Q6 J
Interchange Extensions
This will interchange two extension numbers, each referred to by a specified input directory
number, together with their associated class of service attributes. This command is available
from the console and teletype only.
Invoke Dial 9 Block
This prohibits access to the public network for all extensions which do not have the "Dial 9 Block
Override" Class of Service. This command is available from the master extension and console
only.
List Extension Attributes
This provides a list of extension related information in one of six options eg "all categories",
"Diversions", "Barring", etc. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
List Group Membership
This lists all members of a specified group eg "Extension Hunt", "Extension Pick-up", "Trunk"
ete. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
List Meter Count
This causes the contents of the call logging meters to be printed for a specified extension.
However, if no directory number is provided then the contents of all meters will be listed. The
meter readings requested may refer to either the running total or the last call for the extensions.
This command is available from the console and teletype only.
List Route Restrictions
This causes all the routes in the route restriction table to be listed, in priority order, with either
"OK" or "BARRED" printed to indicate the access for the category requested. The significance
attached to each category code is installation dependent. This command is available from the
console and teletype only.
List Spare Directory Numbers
This provides a complete list of spare directory numbers in the system. If the optional parameter
is specified then all spare directory numbers in logical directory number order after the
parameter are listed. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
List System Keys
This lists the "System Keys" at, and below, the user' s access level. They are listed in the key order;
"Specialist", "Maintenance" and "Customer". This command is available from the console and
teletype only.
List System Short Codes
This will list out the digits for each short code entry that is in use. If a parameter corresponding to
a short code entry is input then the digits for that short code only will be listed. If the parameter is
omitted then all the short codes will be listed. This command is available from the console and
teletype only.
List Trafc Control Data
This will list the various control information which has been entered for use by the Trafic
Recording Data facility. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
List Trafc Records
This lists traffic recording data, either for all resources or for a particular resource. This
command is available from the console and teletype only.
List Trunk Attributes
This provides a comprehensive list of trunk related information for either a specified trunk, or all
trunks. Typical attributes are: trunk number, trunk type, direction, the digits used to obtain
access to the trunk, whether the trunk has direct dialling access to extensions, etc. This command
is available from the console and teletype only.
Remove Directory Number
This will remove a reference to the second directory number for a specified extension so that this
directory number will become spare. The second directory number would have been previously
established by the "Add Directory Number" command.
I
I
I
l
|
l
|
l
l
|
\

|
|
|
|
'
Reset Meter Count
This resets the call logging meters, either for a particular extension if a directory number is input,
or for all extensions. This command is available from the console and teletype only.
Revise Call Diversion
This invokes a specified form of call diversion from the first specified directory number to the
second specified directory number. Typical forms of diversion are: divert all incoming calls,
divert calls on no reply, divert calls on busy. This command can be used to cancel a diversion by
setting the second specifed directory number to the same value as the first.
Revise Directory Numbers
This changes the directory number for an extension from the first specifed value to the second
specifed value. This results in the first value becoming a spare directory number.
Revise Extension Attributes
At the customer level, this is effective only on the master extension and can be used to give that
extension access to MMI or to debar such access. This command is available from the console and
teletype only.
Revise Group Membership
This amends the directory number allocated for a specifc member within either a specified hunt
or pick-up extension group. The original group number will be removed and if a new directory
number is specifed then that number is inserted as a substitute.
Revise System Key
This is used to revise the particular system key which is appropriate to the user's level of access
(customer, maintenance or specialist) . This command is available from the console and teletype
only.
Set Barring of Extension
This sets up route restrictions for specific categories of call from a specifed extension as indicated
by entering a maximum of eight category codes. If no category codes are entered with the
command then all categories of restriction will be set up. The significance attached to each of the
eight possible category codes is installation dependent.
Set Date
This sets the system calendar to the specified date.
Set Hunt Group
This is used to set up a hunt group. A hunt group is a set of up to 16 extensions which may be
referred to by a collective directory number in addition to the extensions' individual directory
numbers. There are two hunt modes which are set as specified by the input: sequential and
cyclic. In the sequential mode the directory number list is searched sequentially for a free
extension; in the cyclic mode the free extension search is continued from where it left off in the
directory number list.
Set Log Categories
This is used to set up specifc categories of calls for the purpose of call information logging. Up to
eight categories can be specified; these categories are identical to those used by the "Set Barring
of Extension" command, the significance attached to each category code being installation
dependent.
Set Log of Dialled Digts
This causes all the dialled digits to be logged.
Set Pick-up Group
This allows extensions to be installed in a group to allow the Group Pick-up facility.
Set Special Facility
This sets up a specific special facility for a particular extension. Typical special facilities are: dial 9
bar override, divert to operator, intrude inhibit, ete.
Q6 91
Q6 2
Set System Short Code
This enables system short dialling codes to be set. The short code (from 0 to 19) and the
corresponding directory number to be transmitted are required as input parameters. Any
previously allocated directory number for the input short code will be over written with the new
input value.
Set Time
This sets the system clock to the specified time. Note that a 24 hour clock is used.
3 Changes which normal maintenance staff are empowered to make (Level 2)
Activate Port
This returns to service a port which has been made manually busy by the "Deactivate Port"
command.
Activate Trafc Days of Week
This is used to revise the active days of the week for trafic recording. From one to seven days can
be indicated by inputting an appropriate code combination.
Add Dial Tone Detector
This enables operation of the dial tone detector for the specified port.
Cancel Barring of Trunk
This removes route restrictions for specific categories of call from a particular trunk which
would have been established by the "Set Barring of Trunk" command. The significance attached
to each category code is installation dependent.
Cancel Log
This disables the call information logging system.
Clear Facility Statistics
This clears all MMI and Special Facility statistical counters. These counters are used to record the
level of usage of individual commands.
Clear Fault Record
This clears the contents of the fault record.
Clear Software Audit Record
This clears the software audit record.
Clear Test Data
This clears data used for statistical tests on such items as MF4 receivers.
Clear Trafic Records
This clears the trafic record for either all resources, or a particular resource depending on the
instruction keyed in.
Deactive Port
This manually busies a specific port.
Delete Port
This effects the deletion of an item of equipment from the system database. The command allows
for the membership of the port concerned in any group definition.
Execute Diagnostic Test
This causes the on-line maintenance and diagnostic routine to run the test specified by the input
parameter, which must be inserted as required for the specified test.
Execute Warm Start
This forces the system to restart. No call diversions, etc, are lost due to a warm start.
List Fault Record
This requests a list offault records, either in their entirety or of a particular type. This command
is available from the console and teletype only.
|
|
I
|
f
|
|
|
f
l
\
\
\
|
List Port Status
This requests a list of port status information for a specified port number. This command is
available from the console and teletype only.
List Software Audit Record
This provides a list of the last eight software faults logged. This command is available from the
teletype only.
New Extension
This brings into service a new extension. The system allocates the lowest spare logical number.
The equipment type will be set to dial. All Class of Service options will be enabled.
New MF4 Receiver
This brings into service a new MF4 receiver. In Monarch 120B Compact this command will not
normally be required, since six MF4 receivers are provided as standard.
New Trunk
This will bring into service a new trunk, set its trunk type to ordinary, and place it in the first
mcommg group.
Revise Equipment Group
This changes the members of an equipment group. It allows old equipment to be reallocated into
groups and new equipment to be installed in groups. The group number and index number of
the member to be changed are required as input parameters. If the port number is omitted, the
specified group member will be set to "spare".
Revise Group Answer Point
This sets up a group fail answer point.
Revise Timeout
This allows the values of two of the system timeouts to be changed. The timeouts are the
maximum duration for un-answered ringing, and the time after which an un-answered operator
controlled call will be returned to the console.
Revise Extension Attributes
At the maintenance level this is used to change the type of extension signalling. Three types are
available: MF only (keyphone) ; loop-disconnect ( dial phone) ; both. This command is available
from the console and teletype only.
Revise Trunk Attributes
This changes the attributes of a trunk, eg the type (2-wire, 4-wire, signalling method, etc) ;
whether DDI is provided; the direction of usage (outgoing, incoming or bothway) ; etc.
Set Barring of Trunk
This sets up route restrictions for specific categories of call from a particular trunk. The
significance attached to each category code is installation dependent.
Set Equipment Group
This sets up groups of equipment. Values for group number, equipment type, hunt mode and
port numbers are required as input parameters.
Set Fast Testing
This reduces the period between maintenance and diagnostic tests to lOOms to enable a long test
to be completed quickly. The effect of this command is automatically cancelled after about 30
minutes.
Set Log
This enables the call information logging system.
Set Trafc Begin Date
This enters the Trafic Begin Date control parameter for use by the Trafic Recording data
facility.
Set Trafc Begin Time
This enters the Traffic Begin Time control parameter for use by the Trafic Recording data
facility.
Q6 Jo
Q6 J
Set Trafc End Date
This enters the Trafc End Date control parameter for use by the Trafic Recording Data
facility.
Set Trafc End Time
This enters the Trafc End Time control parameter for use by the Trafic Recording data
facility.
Transfer Data Base
This causes the data base held in RAM to be transferred to a PROM. Tests are performed to
confrm that the PROM is blank before the transfer takes place.
4 Changes which can only be made at the Specialist Level
List Memory
This allows the listing of consecutive memory locations in any chosen bank. The input
parameters required are: the bank number, the start address and the number oflocations. This
command is available only from the teletype.
Put in Junk for Garbage Collection
This command is designed as a test aid. It sets up erroneous data in various tables used in the
system in order to exercise the Garbage Collection routines. This command is available only
from the console and teletype.
Put in Message Queue
This generates an interprocess message. Input values are required for between five and eight
message bytes. This command is available only from the console and teletype.

|
I
I
I
I
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
l
\
\
\
\
\
I
I

I
t
APPENDIX 3
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Transmission and Switching
Contents
1 General
2 PCM Transmission Principles
3 Characteristics of the PCM System used in the Monarch 120B Compact System
4 PCM switching principles
1 General
1. 1 This appendix describes the basic principles of PCM Transmission, defines the main
characteristics of the PCM System employed in Monarch 120B Compact and indicates how
PCM transmission channels may be interconnected via a digital exchange.
2 PCM Transmission Principles
2. 1 The impact of speech sound waves on the diaphram of a telephone transmitter results in the
generation of a varying electrical current having a complex waveform which corresponds very
closely to the waveform of the sound waves, and is, therefore, an electrical analogue of those
sound waves. The use of this varying current to convey the speech information is accordingly
referred to as "analogue transmission". In recent years it has been increasingly realised that the
conversion of analogue speech currents to coded pulses offers transmission advantages in many
situations. The most commonly used application of this technique is PCM, in which the
instantaneous amplitude of the analogue waveform is sampled many times a second, and on each
occasion a sequence of pulses ( bits) representing a binary number is transmitted to indicate the
value of this amplitude. At the receiving end, the pulses are converted to analogue signals by
decoding equipment which, on receipt of each binary number, causes a voltage, having a
magnitude corresponding to that number, to be connected to the analogue line circuit. The
principle is illustrated in Figure 1 .
2.2 The amplitude of the analogue waveform has an infinite number of possible values, both
positive and negative, and to limit the binary numbers required to transmit the instantaneous
values of the waveform, the sample voltages are compared with a "quantizing" scale having a
discrete number of steps arranged symmetrically about zero volts. See Figure 2. All samples
falling within a particular interval between steps ( "quantum level") are allocated the same
binary number. Thus, the re-constituted waveform at the analogue output of the transmission
system will not in general be an exact replica of the waveform at the input to the system. The
effect of this difference is equivalent to the injection of noise, and is referred to as "quantizing
distortion". The greater the number of steps on the quantizing scale, the less the amplitude of the
quantizing distortion, but the greater the number of bits required to indicate the mstantaneous
level of each sample. Thus, the choice of the number of levels in the quantizing scale is a
compromise between the number of bits required to transmit the information and the amount of
quantizing distortion which can be tolerated.
2.3 The analogue waveform at the input to a PCM system must be sampled at least once during
each half cycle of the highest frequency it is required to transmit. During the intervals between
the transmission of the bits corresponding to successive samples on one speech circuit ( channel ) ,
bits corresponding to the samples on other channels may be interleaved, so that information
relating to a number of channels may be carried over the same line conductors. This is one
example of a process referred to as "Time Division Multiplexing". The principle is illustrated in
Figure 3.
Q6 JO
TI ME
ANALOGUE
WAVEFORM
TO BE
TRANSMI TTED
ASSUME: - A 8 units I Bi nary Number 1 000)
A2 6 units I Bi nary Number 0 1 1 0)
A3 * 3 units I Bi nary Number 001 1 )
NOTE: I n thi s exampl e onl y 4 digi t bi nary numbers
are used. In Monarch 1 20B Compact 8 di git bi nary
numbers are used, and hence 8 pul se posi tions
are used to transmit each sampl e on the l i ne.
[
SAMPLI NG
_
0
I
0

1
I
1
1 1
0
I
1
I
1
I
0
1 1
1
!
0
I
0
!
0
1
QUANTUM
LEVELS
6
m
5

3

2

I NSTANTS

2 ~

TO
SAMPLE A3 SAMPLE A
2
SAMPLE A
l
LI NE
I NTERVAL I NTERVAL
BETWEEN BETWEEN
SAMPLES SAMPLES
...... .......

LI NE SI GNALS
" 1 " represents a pul se; "0" represents absence of pulse.
PART 1, APPENDI X 3, FI GURE 1. PRI NCI PLE OF PCM ENCODI NG
/
ANALOGUE
WAVEFORM
TO BE
TRANSMI TTED
NOTES: 1 The sampl es at and g
and al l fal l i n quantum
band 0 and wi l l be transmitted
by the bi nary N o 0
2 The sampl es at and g
and g al l fal l i n quantum
band 4 and wi l l be
transmitted by the binary
No 4.
U
.
3 The effects referred to i n
Notes 1 and 2 i ndicate the
ori gi n of quanti zi ng distortion.
When a l arge number of
quantum level s i s used in
conjuncti on wi th a non- l i near
~

I
- 1

- 2

- 3

- 4

- 5

- 6
Q6 U
g

~
g a

!
~
g
_- TI ME
.
scal e, as i n Monarch 120B Compact.
the quantizi ng di stortion becomes
negl i gi bl e.
PART 1 , APPENDI X 3, FI GURE 2. QUANTIZI NG AN ANALOGUE WAVEFORM
f
f
f
f
f
l
f
f
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
|
\
\
\
\
I
\
|

'
|
Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel Channel
::ii:i::ii,:ii.i|a.:.|. ii:i i,:i|::::iiii:i,a:..,:|:i| | |ii,i
TI ME

ONE TI ME

SLOT j
j 8 BI T,

POSI TI ONS

i n this

exam
p
l e
and I n
I

Monarch 1 20B Compact


.-------
ONE FRAME
-----
ON THI S EXAMPLE 8 CHANNELS
I N MONARCH 1 20B COMPACT 32 CHANNELS)
PART 1, APPENDI X 3. FI GURE 3. MULl PLEXI NG PCM CHANNELS.
The greater the number of bits required for each sample, the smaller the number of channels
which can be accommodated at any given bit rate, and hence the compromise referred to at the
end of Paragraph 2. 2 becomes a compromise between quantizing distortion and system capacity.
The total number of bits corresponding to all channels in one sampling period, together with any
other bits which may be transmitted during the period for signalling and lor internal control
purposes, are referred to as a "frame", and the period within a frame allocated to a particular
channel is referred to as a "time slot".
2.4 The linear quantizing scale used for explanatory purposes in Figure 3 is not suitable for use
in a practical network, where the level of the analogue signals at the input to the PCM system
may vary over a wide range, since a level of quantizing which would give an acceptable
signal-to-noise ratio with high amplitude speech signals could be unacceptable with very low
amplitude speech signals. To overcome this problem, a non-linear quantizing scale is used, the
effect of which is to reduce the quantizing noise produced at low input speech levels at the
expense of an increase in the quantizing noise produced at high input speech levels, thus ensuring
an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio over the complete input level range. The non-linear scale is so
arranged that the quantum levels for low amplitude input speech are small, but progressively
increase until for high amplitude input speech they are relatively large. At the receiving end,
where the digital signals are converted to analogue, the decoding equipment must, of course,
incorporate an equal and opposite non-linear capability to ensure an accurate reconstitution of
the analogue wave form. The equipment which introduces and subsequently removes this
non-linearity is referred to as a "compandor".
2.5 Signalling information for call control and supervisory purposes may be transmitted by
providing an additional bit in each channel time slot, the presence or absence of the bit
corresponding to the presence or absence of a DC signalling condition on an analogue circuit
using physical conductors. Alternatively, one channel in the PCM SysteI may be used
exclusively for signalling purposes and carry the signals relating to all the speech channels in the
system. In either case, the number of signalling conditions available may be increased by
assembling successive signalling bits relating to the same speech channel into groups, and
allocating different meanings to different combinations of bits within the groups.
Q6
Q6 JU
3 Characteristics of the PCM System used in the Monarch 120B Compact System
3.1 The speech transmission characteristics of the Monarch 120B Compact system conform to
agreed international standards. As in the systems recommended by CCITT, each channel is
sampled 8000 times a second, and 8 bits are used to convey the value of each sample. This
sampling rate ensures satisfactory speech transmission for a speech bandwidth in excess of
300-3400 Hz and the use of8 bits to indicate the value of each sample gives 28 (ie 256) different
quantum levels, suficient to reduce the quantizing distortion to a very low level indeed. The
encoding technique used employs one bit to indicate whether the sampled voltage was positive
or negative and the remaining 7 bits to indicate its amplitude. As in the systems recommended by
CCITT, 32 channels are multiplexed to form a frame, and this results in the system architecture
being based on modules of 32 channels (timeslots) .
3. 2 The characteristics of the compandors used by British Telecom in the line coding and
decoding equipment conform to those of the "A LAW" compandors specified by the
Conference of European Postal and Telegraph Administrations (CEPT). Alternative codecs
using
u
LAW" coding are available when required.
3.3 On the non-concentrating shelf positions, signalling between the line encoding equipment
and the multiplexing equipment is effected by using an additional (ninth) bit within the channel
time slot on the speech paths, giving a channel bit rate of72 kbit/s (9 X 8000) in this part of the
system; at the multiplexing equipment the signalling bits are extracted and passed over separate
highways to the signalling equipment. On the concentrating shelf positions signalling is effected
over a separate signalling bus, and the bitratein each time slot on the speech highways is 64 kbit/s
(the standard CCITT rate) . Within the more central part of the system bit rates of2.048 Mbit/s
(64,000 X 32) are used on the speech highways (the standard CCITT rate) and 256 kbit/sec
(8,000 X 32) on the signalling highways.
4 PCM Switching Principles
4. 1 A digital exchange used to interconnect channels in PCM systems must be capable of
establishing a connection between any channel time slot in one system and any channel time slot
in another system, or any other channel time slot in the same system. In large exchanges it is usual
to provide a combination of space switching and time division switching. Typically a
Space-Time-Space configuration may be used in which the space switching function, using high
speed electronic gates to interconnect PCM highways, enables a connection to be made between
any PCM system and a selected time switch, for a short period during each frame ( the channel
time slot period) , and the time switch provides for the mutual transfer of information between
any two time slots in the systems so connected to it. Alternatively, a Time-Space-Time
configuration may be used, depending on the economics of the system concerned.
4. 2 In the Monarch 120B Compact exchange, which is relatively small, it has been found
economically advantageous to dispense with the space switching stages and use only time
division switching. A description of the ways in which the time switches function is given in the
main text of Part 1 .
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
.<
+
. J
APPENDIX 4
The Hexadecimal Numbering System
General
1 . 1 The binary numbering system is extensively used in electronic circuit design because each
column in a binary number can only have the values Uor 1 , and these two conditions are highly
compatible with the states of electronic devices (toggles, gates, memory cells, etc) .However, for
certain purposes, the relatively large number of digits in a binary number can be a disadvantage
typically when it is required to give a simple indication of a number which may have any one of a
large number of possible values. To overcome this disadvantage, the hexadecimal system is
sometimes used since it is more compatible with binary techniques than the decimal system, and
for any given number of columns can indicate a greater number of different values than that
system. In the Monarch 120B Compact PABX it is used for a variety of purposes such as the
indication of fault conditions and the identification of the units on which faults have occurred.
The Hexadecimal System
2. 1 The base of the hexadecimal numbering scheme is 16 and the significances of the col umns in
a hexadecimal number are accordingly as follows:
COLUMN 4 COLUMN 3 COLUMN 2 COLUMN 1
(Four thousand (Two hundred
and ninety and fifty (sixteens) (units)
sixes) sixes)
ie x 163 ie x 162 ie x 161 ie x 16
It will be seen that each of the columns in a hexadecimal number must be capable of
accommodating any o16 possible values and these must be represented by single symbols. The
symbols used are:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F.
Q6 JJ
Q6 1 UU
Table 1 shows the relationship between the first 32 decimal numbers and their binary and
hexidecimal equivalents.
DECIMAL BINARY HEXADECIMAL
0-9 0-1 O-F
0 0 0
1 1 1
2 10 2
3 1 1 3
4 100 4
5 101 5
6 1 10 6
7 1 1 1 7
8 1000 8
9 1001 9
10 1010 A
11 1011 B
12 1100 C
13 1 101 D
14 1 1 10 E
15 1 1 1 1 F
16 10000 10
17 10001 1 1
18 10010 12
19 10011 13
20 10100 14
21 10101 15
22 10110 16
23 101 1 1 1 7
24 11000 18
25 11001 19
26 1 1010 lA
27 11011 IB
28 1 1 100 lC
29 11 101 ID
30 1 1 1 10 lE
31 1 1 1 1 1 I F
and s o on
!dr/ I, .QQcudtx1, 1d0/c I. Hc/d/touhtQ 0c/uccu /hc]r/JZdcctmd/uum0cr dud
/hctr0tudrydudhcxddcctmd/cqutvd/cu/.
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
2.2 The compatibility between the binary system and the hexadecimal system may be seen
from the example below, which shows how a four digit hexadecimal number may be readily
represented by four 4 digit binary numbers:
Hexadecimal Number 4 C 7 E
(=4X4096) (=12X256) (=7X16) (=14X1)

(=4) (=12) (=7) (=14)
Binary Groups
Thus 4C7E (hex) = 19582 (decimal) = 0100110001111110 (binary).
2.3 The relationships between certain commonly used numbers in computer/microprocessor
technology are shown below:
DECIMAL BINARY HEXA-
DECIMAL
4096 (4K) 0001 '0000'0000'0000 1000
8192 (8K) 0010' 0000' 0000'0000 2000
16384 (16K) 0100'0000'0000'0000 4000
49152 (48K) 1100'0000'0000'0000 COOO
65536 (64K) 1 '0000'0000'0000'0000 10000
2.4 A two digit hexadecimal number is capable of identifying any of 256 (ie 16 X 16) different
values, whereas a two digit decimal number can only indicate any of 100 (ie 10 X 10) different
values and a two digit binary number any of 4 (ie 2 X 2) diferent values.
Page 101
-aeT
l
l
I

t
t

|
|
t
|
\
|
|
I
I
\
\